UNIT 4 Classical Greece Civilization by malj


                     UNIT 3: Classical Greece Civilization
•   Geography of Greece:
       – Greece occupies a small area in the ____________________ and _________ Seas
       – Made up of the mainland and numerous islands
       – Two geographic features played a significant role in developing Greece:
             • Mountains
                     – _____________ Greeks from one another – different communities
             • The Sea
                     – Became seafarers who established ____________ that
                         __________Greek civilizations

       –   Peninsula =

       –   Archipelago =

•   The Minoan civilization (3000 – 1450 BC)
       – Established on the island of _________
       – Named after King Minos, legendary king of Crete
       – Used __________ to make weapons
       – Large palace at Knossos – had basic plumbing
             • was destroyed several times and rebuilt
       – Sudden and catastrophic collapse around 1450 BC
             • Volcanic eruption, tidal wave, mostly invaded
       – Historians can’t read the writings of the Minoans

•   The Mycenaean State
       – First Greek state, flourished between 1600-1100 BC
             • Mycenaeans are considered to be the first Greeks because they spoke a
                 form of the Greek language
       – The Mycenaeans were Indo-Europeans who entered Greece, gained control of the
          Greek mainland, and developed a civilization
       – Mycenaean society was dominated by ___________ and powerful kings
             • Small kingdoms often fought each other, prided themselves on being a
                 warrior people
                     – Conquered Crete, supposedly destroyed Troy
             • Had tombs built into hillsides where members of the royal families were
       – Collapsed due to famines, _____________ by outsiders, war between the
          Mycenaean cities, and the end of trade

•   Dark Age
       – Decline in _____________ and ________ production
              • People fled cities, farmers struggled to grow enough food to eat
       – Large numbers of Greeks left the mainland for various islands
              • Many went to Ionia – the western shores of Turkey
       – Lost the use of ___________ for several centuries, Greek civilization almost
       – 8th century BC the Greeks adopt the alphabet from the ________________
              • Reduced to 24 letters which made reading and writing easier

•   Homer
      – One of the greatest poets of all times, wrote epic poems based on the
          ________________ that became the basis for Greek education system
             • Epic poem = a long poem that tells the deeds of a great hero

       –   Iliad – tale of the Greek hero __________
       –   Odyssey – long journey home of Greek hero Odysseus

•   Greek City-States
       – The central focus of Greek life and society was the polis
              • Polis =

              •   Acropolis = ____________ gathering place at the ______________ which
                  was sometimes the site of temples and public buildings

              •   Agora = an open area that served as a gathering place and as a _________

       –   Polis = community of people with a common ___________ and common ______
               • Each polis developed independently of its neighbors, own form of gov’t ,
                   laws, and customs
               • Greeks were fiercely loyal to their polis and regarded themselves not as
                   Greeks, but as members of a particular city-state

       –   Make-up of a polis:
             • Citizens who had political rights =
             • Citizens who had no political rights =
             • Non-citizens =

       –   Some cities develop democracy =

       –   Other city-states develop an oligarchy =

       –   New military system develops
             • Based on hoplites = heavily _________ _______ soldiers
             • Carried a round shield, short sword, and a thrusting spear
             • Formed a __________ for protection
                     – Phalanx = a wall of shields created by foot soldiers marching close
                         together in rectangular formation

       –   Greek colonies established, one of the most famous being _______________
              • Spread of cultural and political ideas

       –   Two prominent city-states emerge = Athens and Sparta

•   Athens
       – Found on the peninsula of _________
       – First ruled by kings, then aristocrats
             • However poor people are getting poorer and they demand reform

       –   _____________ creates the foundation of Athenian democracy (world’s first

       –   Standards for voting = must be a ____________ over the age of ____ who has
           completed ___________ training and owns ______
              • Accounts for ____% of the population

•   Duties of people allowed to vote:
       – _______ in all elections and serve in office if elected
       – Serve on ________ and in the ___________ during war

       –   Athenian democracy consisted of three main bodies
              • 1) Council of Five Hundred who _________________ that would be
                  voted on by the Assembly and supervised both foreign affairs and the

              •   2) Athenian Assembly – composed of all male citizens who were eligible
                  to take part in the gov’t
                      – This assembly voted on and passed the laws
                      – Direct democracy = people participate __________ in gov’t
                          decision making and vote directly on an issue

              •   3) Complex series of courts

       –   The archon served as the chief of state and was head of both the Assembly and
       –   Economy was largely based on farming and trade
       –   Family – primary function was to produce new citizens

•   Women could not ___________________ and always had a male guardian
      – Chief obligation was to have children
      – Were expected to stay at home and out of sight, unless attending religious
         festivals or funerals

•   Demographics of Athens around 430 BC
      – 150,000 citizens, 43,000 of whom were males with political power
      – 35,000 foreigners – had protection of laws and some responsibilities
      – 100,000 slaves

•   Sparta
       – Located on the __________________, the large peninsula of southern Greece
       – Like most city-states, Sparta needed more land, so they conquered neighboring
           peoples instead of starting new colonies
              • The Spartans turned these conquered peoples into ________ = state slaves
                  • The helots were given to Spartan citizens to work on farms
                  • Spartans were now free to spend all their time training for war
          –   Spartans decide to create a ____________________ to keep control over the
                  • Helots outnumbered Spartan citizens by 7 to 1

          –   Life in Sparta was rigidly organized
                  • Babies were examined at birth and if they were found to be weak, they
                      were put to death

                 •   Men
                       •    Taught physical _____________ by parents until age seven
                       •    They then entered a school system designed to teach them _______
                               • At the end of their training, boys were sent into the
                                   ______________ and expected to ___________

                 •   At age 20 the boys became hoplites in the Spartan army

                 •   Allowed to vote in the assembly at age 30 retired from the army at age 60

          –   Women
                • Expected to exercise and raise healthy children
                • Had __________ freedom and power in the household due to separation
                   from their husbands
                • Could own __________

   •   Government structure
          – Was an ____________ headed by two kings who led the army on its campaigns

          –   _________ – a group of five men elected each year
                 • Responsible for the conduct of all citizens and education

          –   Council of Elders – composed of the ____ kings and 28 ___________ over the
              age of 60
                 • Decided the issues that would be presented to the assembly

          –   Assembly of male citizens – voted on the issues

The Persian Wars, 490-479 BC
   • Greeks in Ionia rebel against __________ rule, ask for help from other Greeks
           – Persian emperor _________ decides to get revenge on the Greeks

   •   First Persian Invasion – 490 BC
           – Battle at ____________ – Athenians attack the Persians while they are unloading
               and the Persians retreat
           – An Athenian messenger runs ____________ from Marathon to Athens to
               announce the victory
                   • He dies after delivering the message

   •   Darius is furious over the humiliating defeat and starts to plan another invasion
          – However he dies and his son __________ vows to get revenge for his father

   •   Second Persian Invasion – 480 BC
          – Battle at Thermopylae [movie: 300]
                 • Greeks are afraid they won’t have enough time to prepare
                 • A group of 300 __________ decide to hold off the entire Persian army at
                     the mountain pass of Thermopylae
                 • Are successful for several days until a local shows the Persians an
                     alternate path through the mountain and they kill all the Spartans

          –   The Persians advance and burn _________
                 • Need the Persian navy to bring additional supplies

          –   Battle of _________
                 • An Athenian navy commander lures the Persian navy into the narrow
                      Strait of Salamis
                 • Persian ships were very large and could not maneuver well
                 • Xerxes watches from a throne on the shore as his _______ is destroyed

          –   The Persian army is now ____________ in Greece with few supplies
          –   In 479 BC a large Greek army led by the might of Sparta crushes the Persians,
              ending the war

The Golden Age of Athens
   • Athens and Sparta became the two most powerful city-states as leaders in the Persian
          – Sparta not popular, Athens becomes the leading city-state

   •   Dozens of Greek city-states banded together for defense
          – This alliance was to be a ______________________
          – Athens, as the largest and richest, ended up controlling the entire alliance
          – Became known as the __________ League

   •   As the League’s leader, Athens controlled its ships and money
          – Would not allow unhappy members to quit
          – Would attack ____________ members with the League fleet
          – The League more or less turned into an Athenian _________

   •   Used League funds to rebuild Athens
          – Built the Parthenon = a grand ___________ dedicated to the goddess _________

   •   Pericles
          – Great champion of _______________ and most influential politician in Athens
          – ___________________ the Parthenon
          – Introduced payment for those who served in public offices and juries
          – Believed in the superiority of Athens

   •   _________ brought much wealth to Athens
          – Athens at the time was the heart of Greek culture

   •   Greatest rival was ________
          – Had its own allied city-states = __________________________
          – Athens fears the military might of Sparta and allies
          – Sparta fears that the Athenian navy would stop Sparta from trading
          – This mutual _______ led to Sparta and Athens ____________ war in 431 BC

The Peloponnesian War
   • War between _________ and _________
          – Sparta and allies dominate the ______
          – Athens and allies dominate the _____

   •   Spartans surround Athens hoping for an open battle
          – Athens avoids any battles on land
          – Knowing they can’t compete in open battle, they hide behind their
              ____________, relying on supplies from their navy and colonies
                  • In 430 BC a terrible plague breaks out in Athens, killing a third of the
                      people, including Pericles

   •   421 ______, then war breaks out six years later when Athens attacks one of Sparta’s

   •   This time Sparta destroys the Athenian navy and Athens ___________
          – The walls of Athens are torn down and the Empire destroyed

          –   Costs of the war
                 • ______________ major Greek city-states
                         – Athens nearly destroyed, Sparta exhausted as well

                  •   Sparta tries to act as Greece’s dominant power
                         – Lost too many resources, defeated by Thebes who also can’t
                              maintain control

                  •   Struggle for power in Greece led to a long cycle of warfare that left all of
                      Greece ___________

                  •   Ignored the growing power of ______________ to the north
                  •   Loss of freedom

   •   Greek Culture
          – Philosophy = the search for wisdom and knowledge
                 • Greek word meaning “the love of wisdom”

          –   Socrates
                 • First of the great Athenian philosophers
                 • Everything known about Socrates comes from the writings of his _______
                 • Interested in broad concepts of _____________
                 • Best way to learn is to ask questions
                      –   Use question-and-answer format to acquire knowledge
                      –   Known as the _____________________
                      –   Socrates was charged with disrespect for religion and corrupting
                          the city’s children
                      –   Sentenced to ________ by drinking a cup of hemlock, a poison

•   Plato
       – Student of Socrates
       – His most famous work was the Republic
              • Gov’t should be led by the people most _____________ to make good
                  decisions – philosophers
       – Plato founded the ___________, a school where respected philosophers could
          teach their students and hold debates
       – Questioned reality and believed in _______ Forms
              • Every material object in the world was only the reflection of a perfect

•   Aristotle
       – Student of Plato
       – Emphasis on __________ and _________ to study the natural world
              • Reason = clear and ordered thinking
              • Logic = the process of making inferences

       –   Aristotle believed in analyzing through ______________ and ______________
              • People should use reason to learn about the world by making careful
              • Influenced the development of __________ in Europe

•   Study of History
       – A systematic analysis of past events, created by the Greeks
       – The Greeks were one of the first people to write about and analyze the past

       –   Herodotus – ________________, wrote about the Persian Wars
       –   Thucydides – considered to be the greatest historian of the ancient world
              • Included many primary speeches and looked at his sources critically

•   Greek Drama
       – Used for entertainment, two distinct forms of drama
             • Tragedies – usually focused on _____________ faced by Greek heroes
             • Comedies – ___________, written to expose the flaws of society

       –   Several well-known Greek playwrights:
       –   Sophocles – concentrated on the __________ people brought upon ___________
              • Famous play = Oedipus Rex, the story of a king who accidentally kills his
                  father and marries his mother

       –   Aeschylus – wrote plays based on ancient Greek _______
              • Famous play = Oresteia, the tragedies faced by the leader of the Greek
                 army on his way home from the Trojan War
           –   Euripides – wrote about characters whose tragedy was brought about by
               irrational behavior

Alexander the Great
   •   _______________ was a powerful kingdom to the north of the Greek city-states
   •   Philip II reorganized the Macedonian army and adopted the ___________ system
           – Conquered all of the major Greek city-states except ________ and became the
               new _________ of Greece in 338 BC, he was assassinated in 336 BC
           – After his death, his son ______________ came to the throne (356-323 BC)

   •   Alexander was a great military leader and strategist
          – __________________ control in Greece due to a revolt
                  • __________ resisted and Alexander burned down the city and sold all the people
                      into __________

   •   Decided to fulfill his father’s dream of conquering the ___________ Empire
          – Destroyed the Persian army and emperor Darius III fled – he was later murdered by one
              of his own officers

   •   After this victory, Alexander led his army deeper into _______
           – Went and conquered parts of _______
           – When his army refused to go any further, Alexander agreed to go home

   •   On his way back home, Alexander fell ill in the city of __________ and died a few days later
          – He left no heir, so his generals began to fight for control
          – In the end the empire was divided among the three most powerful generals
                  • _________________________, __________ Empire, and ________

   •   Legacy of Alexander
          – Created new ______, most of them named Alexandria
                  • Built ____________ as the Greek capital of _______ – important city which had
                      a famous library
          – Alexander envisioned a world in which many _________ would live __________
          – Made a conscious effort to bring people and ideas from different places together

   •   Created the Hellenistic Era
          – Hellenistic means “to __________ the __________”
          – ______________ of Greek language and ideas to other parts of the world
          – Massive spread of Greek colonists to Asia

   •   Hellenistic Achievements - philosophers
           – Interest in Greek philosophy
           – Cynicism school of philosophy = cynics rejected ideas of pleasure and wealth
                   • Instead people should live according to _________

           –   Epicureans = people should seek out pleasure and avoid pain

           –   Stoicism – great emphasis on _________, self-discipline, and __________ control
                   • Stoics believed people should identify their proper role in society and strive to
                       fulfill that role

   •     Hellenistic Achievements – Science and Math
             – Euclid = formulated many of the ideas about ___________ that are still used and learned

             –   Eratosthenes = determined the world was _______ and calculated its

             –   Archimedes of Syracuse = one of the greatest inventors of the ancient world
                    • Established the value of ____, developed a compound pulley that could lift heavy
                       loads, and used levers and pulleys to lift a ship out of the water

   •     Alexander’s empire fell apart soon after his death, and the different Hellenistic kingdoms were
         shortly conquered by the ___________

                                 THE GREEK GODS/GODDESSES
Greek God/Goddess                 God/ddes of                                       Roman Name

Zeus                                                                                Jupiter

Hera                                                                                Juno

                                  Sea, Earthquakes, Horses                          Neptune

Hades                                                                               Pluto

Athena                                                                              Minerva

                                  Sun, Medicine, music, poetry, prophecy            Helios

Artemis                                                                             Diana

                                  Love, Beauty, Childbirth                          Venus

Ares                                                                                Mars

Hepheasteus                                                                         Vulcan

Hermes                                                                              Mercury

                                  Agriculture and Harvest                           Ceres

Dionysus                                                                            Bacchus

To top