Mme. Ponsaly Lao NHDR 2001_Cambodia Workshop May 2004

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Mme. Ponsaly Lao NHDR 2001_Cambodia Workshop May 2004 Powered By Docstoc
					Committee for Planning and Cooperation
National Statistical Center

Regional Workshop on National Human

                    Lao NHDR

                    Cambodia, May
                        2004             1
 Rural Development as a concept of 2nd
 NHDR of Laos
The   concept of rural development is
 essentially being used to make a
 distinction between rural and urban areas
 as a structuring feature in the analysis of
 development trends and subsequently in
 the formulation of development policies.
      Two key concepts

•Human Development and
• Livelihood Systems

                Human Development
   Human Development is a concept that has been developed to
    enable worldwide comparison between countries on criteria
    that would measure development to a wider extent than single
    item indicators as GDP.
   The criteria for Human Development include longevity,
    knowledge, security and income. Based on these criteria it is
    possible to both make international comparisons and to
    analyze the present state of development in Lao PDR as well
    as the trends observed in recent years.

              Livelihood Systems
   Livelihood systems can be seen as the way in which
    people have organized themselves to shape the
    productive, societal and spiritual aspects of their
    lives. In a sense, livelihood systems can be seen as a
    local reflection of the human development concept.
    Although at this stage there is a start in gaining
    knowledge concerning the complexity of the
    livelihood systems in Lao PDR, it is not yet sufficient
    to propose a comprehensive 'model' of livelihood
       Macroeconomic dimensions
   Stabilize the economy in the late nineties, despite the
    deeply disrupting impact of the Asian Financial
    Crisis. Also a significant reduction of overall poverty
    incidence has been realized.
   Economic growth does benefit the poor people, but
    economic growth benefits the rich more than the
   Hence, economic growth is necessary but not
    sufficient to realize significant reductions of poverty
    and to combat an increasing inequity. Specific
    measures are needed to provide for a real 'pro-poor'6
 The analysis of human development in the different regions of
  Lao PDR shows that development is not equally spread
  throughout the country.

 Significant differences in longevity, education and standard of
  living can be observed, which may serve to direct resources
  and development efforts from both the Lao Government and
  international agencies to the most deprived areas.

 The gender analysis has been included in this report to
  highlight its importance. Although improvements have been
  made, virtually all indicators show that women are still in a
  disadvantaged development situation.                       7
      Methodologies to analyze
 The Human Poverty Index;
 The poverty lines;
 The vulnerability assessment and the participatory
  poverty assessment.
All point to the significant rates of poverty in the rural
areas and the analysis highlights the differences
between the four regions as well as between individual
A main element in this analysis is feeding the discussion
on what exactly it means to analyze poverty.           8
Table 3.4 : Percentage of poor by regions and provinces
                         1992/9 1997/9       Poverty growth
Regions/provinces             3      8                  rate
Vientiane Municipality      24.4    12.2                  -13.9
North                       58.4    52.5                   -2.1
Phongsaly                   68.7    64.2                   -1.3
Luangnamtha                 60.3    57.5                   -1.0
Oudomxay                    51.1    73.2                    7.2
Bokeo                       63.5    37.4                  -10.6
Luangprabang                62.7    49.4                   -4.8
Huaphanh                    78.4    74.6                   -1.0
Xayabury                    30.1    21.2                   -7.0 9
Table 3.4 (con’t) : Percentage of poor by regions and provinces
                             1992/9 1997/9
Regions/provinces                 3      8 Poverty growth rate
Central                        39.5     34.9                      -2.5
Xiengkhuang                    57.3     34.9                      -9.9
Vientiane                      28.1     24.3                      -2.9
Borikhamxay                    10.6     25.8                  17.8
Khammuane                      43.7     41.6                      -1.0
Savannakhet                    45.7     37.1                      -4.2
Xaysomboun SR                           55.0
South                          45.9     38.4                      -3.6
Saravane                       36.7     39.6                      1.5
Sekong                         65.9     45.7                      -7.3
Champasack                     43.6     35.6                      -4.1
Attapeu                        72.2     45.3                      -9.3
Lao PDR                        45.0     38.6                      -3.1   10
   The report also presents both the main indicators
    for human development in a rural - urban
    dichotomy and the main government policies
    towards rural development.
   Specific importance in the context of Lao PDR are
    the challenges related to the UXO problems and the
    production and consumption of Opium.

   Still large areas of potential agricultural land are
    infected by UXO posing serious health hazards and
    hampering agricultural development.
   Lao PDR is one of the largest producers of Opium in
    the world and overall this has a very negative impact
    on development in the producing areas.

   Contrary to popular belief, opium production (and
    consumption) enhances poverty. Significant efforts
    are under way to address both the UXO and Opium
    issues, but more support would be needed.

   Although key government policies are focusing on
    rural development and several of these policies do
    contribute to improve the development situation, not
    all are equally successful in their implementation.
                The issue of ethnicity
   Lao PDR has a tremendously diverse population and probably nowhere
    else in the world such a level of ethnic diversity exists. This wealth has been
    recognized early on by Lao policy makers and the right for each ethic
    group to develop according its own culture has been enshrined in the

   The state-of-the-art classification of ethnic groups according to ethnic-
    linguistic criteria is an outstanding achievement in the region. But, this
    diversity also poses unique development challenges. Each ethnic group
    speaks its own language, has its own cultural value system, its own belief
    system and concepts of what development is about.

   The part highlights the government policies and a number of areas where
    inequalities seem to correlate with ethnicity. In a context where knowledge
    about the differences between the various ethnic groups and how this
    impacts on development action is still limited, both the government and
    international agencies find it difficult to adapt their development policies
    and strategies to specific, sometimes very local, but unique situations. 14
Table 5.5 : Age 15+ literacy rate by gender and ethnicity
                                           Literacy rate
Ethnolinguistic Family   Ethnic group   Male Female Total
                         khmou          60.8   22.7   40.9
                         Katang         49.3   12.8   30.3
                         Makong         39.1   12.3   25.0
                         Souay          55.7   20.5   36.8
                         Ta-oy          54.8   20.3   36.6
                         Talieng        58.4   25.0   40.4
                         Lave           52.2   18.7   34.4
                         Katu           43.0   10.6   26.2
                         Lamet          49.0   10.2   28.0
                         Phay(pray)     40.6   20.0   29.6
                         Alak           54.6   21.3   37.1
                         Oy             69.4   34.2   50.2
                         Nge            52.3   15.6   33.5
                         Cheng          56.9   19.9   36.8
                         Ye             45.9   17.9   30.8

Table 5.5 : Age 15+ literacy rate by gender and ethnicity

                                                 Literacy rate
 Ethnolinguistic Family Ethnic group
                                          Male Female Total
                                          45.7     8.1       26.5
                                          22.3     12.0      17.0
 Tibeto-Burman                                     36.2
                                          58.8               46.8
                        Seng saly                  0.4       1.6
                        Lahu                       0.7       3.8
 Tai-Kadai                                84.4     62.3      72.9
                                                   65.1      75.2
                                                   50.1      63.0
                                                   46.6      59.7
                        Lao/Neua-Phouan   73.9
                                                   48.7      59.4
                        Tai               71.2
                        Leu                                  46.8
 Others                 Nyouan            60.8
 Total                                    73.5     47.9
      Table 5.7 Health indicators by ethnicity
                                                           Ethnolinguistic family
Indicators                                            Tai-    Mon-  Hmong- Tibeto-
                                                      Kadai   Khmer Mien   Burman

Percent of villages in the sample                     48      35     10      7
Percent of households in the sample                   48      35     10      7
Percent of villages with clean water supply           54      36     47      35
Percent of villages with at least one modern          84      60     47      39
medical practitioner
Percent of villages with a traditional healer         45      30     31      22
Percent of Villages with a villages health            63      54     22      30
Percent of villages with a traditional birth          53      32     31      13
Percent of villages within four hours of a hospital
in dry season                                         90      68     53      52
Percent of villages with one hour of a health
                                                      66      33     28      18     17
center in dry season
Table 5.7 (con’t) Health indicators by ethnicity

                                                        Ethnolinguistic family
                                                   Tai-    Mon-  Hmong- Tibeto-
                                                   Kadai   Khmer Mien   Burman
Percent of villages within one hour of a private   82      48     34      26
pharmacy in dry season
Percent of villages with basic drugs available     57      30     25      21
Percent of villages with minimum 4EPI visits       31      24     15      4
during last year
 Percent of villages with minimum 1 bed net        27      32     7       30
impregnation session during the last year
Percent of households which impregnated at least
one bed net during the last year                   17      19     4       16
Percent of households which know the usefulness
of iodized salt                                    39      18     11      7
Percent of households with iodized salt            33      38     42      43

     Major features of the livelihood
         systems in Lao PDR

   the farming systems;
   the dependency on forest products; and
   the specific role of the Non-Timber Forests

   Following up on the analysis of poverty in which
    the main expressions of poverty (food insecurity,
    low income and insufficient savings and investment)
    were identified

   three major complexes in the livelihood systems
    have been described which give rise to these
    problems: the declining productivity in swidden-
    based farming systems, the declining productivity
    of non-timber forest resources and the failure of
    alternative income sources to transform the rural

   Changing elements of the livelihood systems is a
    delicate affair and has an influence on other
    elements of the system. The close links between
    farming and religion need to be included in policy
    making and more support is needed when
    communities change from shifting cultivation to
    more sedentary forms of agricultural production.

Statistical Indicators

   The various annexes provide more detailed
    information for the interested reader, the statistical
    annex from a variety of sources,
   As is often the case in developing countries, and
    Lao PDR is not an exception, the statistical
    information needs to be interpreted rather
   Not all sources are equally reliable and sometimes
    special surveys are insufficiently representative to
    allow for strong statements.
   The information presented is the best available for
    analysis of development in Lao PDR.
         Main Data Sources
   Population Census 1995
   Lao Expenditure and Consumption
    Survey 1887/98
   Agriculture Census 1998/99
   Opium Survey
   Reporting system, Ministries
   Other agencies and organization
    data, such as UXO…
           Limitation of Data
   Time series data
   Aggregated data only
   Inconsistence data
   Quality
   Concept and definition
   Comparability

 Thank you 