Topic Water Sanitation by pptfiles




         APRIL CHOI

Dear Delegates,

Welcome to the 11th annual Academy Model United Nations (AMUN) at Bergen County
Academies. For many, this may be your first year participating in MUN, while for others this
may be their fourth or fifth year.

My name is Kavisha Khanuja and I will be chairing the committee, along with April Choi. I am
currently a senior in the Academy for Medical Science Technology. I have been involved with
Model UN since I was in ninth grade and have participated in every AMUN conference since my
freshman year. My first collegiate conference was WAMUNC 2007 and I have attended
additional conferences at GWU and Yale. I served as a delegates my freshman and sophomore
year and in my junior year as a staff member for the WHO committee.

Although I am interested in international affairs, I am interested in pursuing a career in medicine.
In addition to the Model UN club, I am an active member of Health Occupation Students of
America (HOSA) and the school literary magazine. I hav also been involved with Girl Scouts for
the past 9 years and am currently is interning at the Bergen County Medical Examiner’s Office.

April and I have been working hard to prepare the topics in hope of having stimulating debates
during committee session. We hope this background guide serves as wealth of information.
Make sure you do research based on your own country. If you need any help, feel free to email
April at or me at We look forward to seeing you all in


April Choi                                           Kavisha Khanuja                          

                          TOPIC 1: WATER SANITATION
Background                                                        The plans helped strengthen and create
                                                                  institutions to oversee national water
There are approximately 3.26 million trillion                     supplies and sanitation, equalize the
gallons of usable fresh water on Earth.                           attention to water sanitation and supply
Water is scarce, however, for approximately                       among rural/urban and local/regional
half of the world’s population. 2.4 billion of                    settings, and allocate more money towards
these people today also live with little or no                    water sanitation. Developing countries
water sanitation. That is, water sanitation                       received help to manage their Decade plans
with the power to prevent about 10% of the                        from external funds given by developed
global disease burden annually including 1.4                      countries, the UN, the World Bank, and
million pediatric deaths from diarrhea,                           regional development banks as well as help
860,000 pediatric deaths from malnutrition,                       from resident representatives of the United
and 500,000 deaths from malaria. Evidently,                       Nations Development Programme (UNDP).
water sanitation is                                                                        These efforts failed to
vital in preserving                                                                        reach the Decade’s
and improving the                                                                          goal; however, over 1.2
well-being of global                                                                       billion people received
health.                                                                                    water and nearly 770
                                                                                           million people gained
During the 1980s,                                                                          sanitation by the end of
80% of the world’s                                                                         the Decade. Also at the
population did not                                                                         end of the decade, the
have access to clean                                                                       World             Health
water,      including                                                                      Organization (WHO)
41% of all children                                                                        and United Nations
under the age of                                                                           Children’s         Fund
fifteen. In order to (UNICEF) formed the
address         these                                                                      Joint        Monitoring
problems, the 1977                                                                         Programme for Water
United Nations Water Conference at Mar del                        Supply and Sanitation (JMP). The JMP
Plata set up the 1981-1990 International                          keeps track of the global water supply and
Drinking Water Supply and Sanitation                              sanitation sector and assists countries with
Decade. Its aim was to give everybody                             their own water supply and sanitation
access to sanitary water by 1990. The                             statuses.
Decade involved 100 governments of
developing countries, governments of                              Following up on the International Drinking
developed       countries,        twelve          UN              Water Supply and Sanitation Decade, about
organizations, and other non- government                          192 world leaders came together at the
organizations. Most of the progress was                           United Nations Headquarters of New York
made through the combination of actions by                        in September of 2000 to establish new goals.
individual countries. At least ninety                             At the end, they agreed on eight goals called
countries developed plans approved by the                         the Millennium Development Goals (MDG)
UN to accommodate the goal of the Decade.

that are to be reached by the year 2015. The            Creating guidelines for water and health
seventh goal of the eight is to,                         based on data
         “Halve, by 2015, the proportion of             Finding ways to better control the
         the population without sustainable              quality of drinking water
         access to safe drinking water and
         basic sanitation.”                          WSH also has catalogues that contains
Since then, joint efforts have been made to          information on the publications of the WHO
reach this goal and progress has been                concerning water and water sanitation that
officially monitored by the JMP. From 1990           include the general information that WSH
to 2006, 1.1 billion people gained access to         promotes to raise awareness about water
better sanitation; 62% of the world                  sanitation. WSH has collaborating offices in
population used improved sanitation                  countries such as Canada, Denmark,
facilities as compared to 52% of the world           Australia, Germany, Japan, Thailand, and
population in 1990. Although significant             the United Kingdom.
progress has been made, it is estimated that
efforts will still have to increase twofold in        HWTS attempts to improve water sanitation
order to meet the target set by the MDG.             through interventions in household water
                                                     usage by way of a network of organizations.
Curre nt Situation                                   The network works to incorporate HWTS in
                                                     global, national, and regional policies and
Presently, the WHO has three programs                practices, provide information about HWTS
focusing on water sanitation: Water,                 especially to developing countries, promote
Sanitation and Hygiene (WSH); Household              individual research on HWTS intervention
Water Treatment and Safe Storage (HWTS);             technology, and give people access to and
and Small Community Water Supply.                    the ability to have clean water.

WSH strives to decrease water and waste-             A program for small community water
related diseases and promote the sustenance          supply was formed because community
of clean water and proper waste                      water supplies in both developing and
management. Specific works of WSH                    developed countries have more outbreaks of
include:                                             water-borne diseases than urban water
                                                     supplies.    The      International   Small
   Promoting the inclusion of policies              Community Water Supply Network seeks to
    about health and water sanitation in             provide     international    guidance    on
    development                                      community water maintenance, provide
   Maintaining systems for information on           tools for the guidance, and gather data as
    water, sanitation, and health                    evidence in order to gain political support.
   Managing                                         So far, the network has been able to: create
    environmental/microbiological diseases           an outline for the Management of Small
    concerning water and sanitation through          Community Water Supplies; establish a
    research, interventions, observation, and        database about the policies, tools, and
    preparedness                                     programs of small community water
   Monitoring waste management                      supplies; establish a database of terms;
   Studying the health impacts of different         create an outline for the guidelines on
    water resources                                  conducting economic analysis of water,
                                                     sanitation and hygiene; and prioritize the

necessary areas of research. In the future,              countries live with sanitation facilities that
the network hopes to empirically confirm                 do not prevent human contact with human
the outline for the Management of Small                  excrements.
Community Water Supplies, create a
network of training facilities, promote                   The main concern in water sanitation is
further research on the management of small               water-related diseases. The WHO and the
community water supplies and establish a                  United States Environmental Protection
database of literature concerning the health              Agency (USEPA) as well as other agencies
impacts of small community water supply                   collaborate to address water-related diseases
management.                                               through Emerging Issues in Water and
                                                                              Infection Diseases. This
Most actions of the                                                           develops and publishes
WHO are directed                                                              reviews on diseases based
towards reaching the                                                          on              international
MDG, but despite the                                                          consultation. Some of the
efforts,      progress                                                        emerging topics that are
needed to achieve the                                                         currently being reviewed
MDG has not been                                                              are:       the      potential
made. In order to                                                             transmission of the avian
meet the MDG, 1.6                                                             influenza (H5N1) through
billion more people                                                           water and its risks to
must be given access                                                          humans, an infectious
to           improved                                                         disease                called
sanitation by 2015.                                                           legionellosis,            the
Sub-Saharan Africa                                                            identification and control
and Southern Asia                                                             of waterborne zoonoses
especially        lack                                                        (infectios diseases that
progress. Currently,                                                          can be transmitted from
about 2.5 billion                                                             animals to humans and
people live without                                                           vice       versa),      toxic
improved sanitation                                                           cyanobacteria in water,
with over one billion   and               pathogenic
people from Asia and                                                          mycobacteria in water.
the rest from sub-Sahara Africa. Roughly                  Issues that are being addressed are the health
half of the world’s population lives in rural             effects of diseases that are transmitted by
areas and these people represent over 70%                 bathing or recreational water use and the
of the population living without improved                 safety of waters that shell- fish inhabit.
sanitation. Urban places have been
unsuccessful in keeping up with growing                   In order to improve water sanitation, the UN
populations to provide improved sanitations               must work with three factors: the availability
for everybody. In 21 of the 42 countries that             of human and institutional resources, the
make up Sub-Saharan Africa, 79% of the                    ability of a country to improve water
rich versus 16% of the poor have access to                sanitation, and the ability to convert physical
improved sanitation. One in four people in                information into effective actions. Two
developing countries live with no sanitation              major obstacles stand in the way of
at all. 15% of the people in developing                   improving water sanitation: finance and

data. Many countries cannot maintain their               national, and local levels. However, a
water supplies due to rapid urbanization and             system that compiles the global, national,
population growth, and water sanitation                  and local records does not exist. Therefore,
ranks low in public awareness and the                    it is difficult to view the global situation in a
priorities of local governments. A reason                truly holistic way. The JMP does record
that water sanitation is not highly prioritized          global progress for water sanitation but it
by local governments is that it is difficult to          only records global action and does not
obtain clear evidence to make policy                     bring together national and local activities.
decisions regarding it. Most funding for                 To address this problem, one approach that
water sanitation is combined with funding                the WHO took was writing the first Global
for water supply, health care, education, or             Annual Assessment of Sanitation and
water resources management. Therefore,                   Drinking Water (GLAAS) in 2008, which
although money is spent for water sanitation             “[explores] a new way of presenting a global
and a positive effect is seen, donors and                and all-around picture of the sanitation and
governments                                                                                 drinking-water
cannot                                                                                     sectors    that
determine how                                                                                         will
much        money                                                                              complement
specifically                                                                                           the
went      towards                                                                              information
improvement in                                                                             provided by
water sanitation.                                                                          the WHO and
Consequently,                                                                              UNICEF JMP
there is not                                                                               reports and by
much                                                                                       the      World
information on                                                                                      Water
which to base                                                                                Development
investment                                                                                 Reports.”
decisions      for
water sanitation                                                                           The GLAAS
and              local                                                                     report was a
governments opt to        UN       Water
avoid these decisions altogether. This leads             project coordinated by the WHO. UN-Water
to inadequate funding for water sanitation.              is a system that helps enhance
Subsequently, public awareness projects                  communication and unity among all UN
about water sanitation such as the 2008                  organizations that deal with water issues.
International Year of Sanitation have little             The GLAAS report gathers and organizes
promise for sufficient funding. The General              data from JMP, the OECD (Organization for
Assembly declared the 2008 International                 Economic Cooperation and Development)
Year of Sanitation in the hopes of making                Development            Assistance      Committee
further progress towards and raising                     Creditor Reporting System (OECD-DAC
awareness about the MDG.                                 CRS), other UN statistics, the Africa
                                                         Working Group with the European Union
In addition to the lack of funding, there is a           Water Initiative, 25 external support
lack of coherent data. Actions and records               agencies, and information concerning water
concerning water sanitation exist on global,             sanitation and drinking water that was

collected by GLAAS staff from seven pilot            diarrhoeal diseases that include hepatitis A
countries. It also analyzes the feasibility of       and typhoid fever. Microbial contamination
“integrated data collection” as a means to           is considered to be the primary health
look at global water sanitation and drinking         concern of the European region.
                                                     Africa: In the September 1994 meeting of
Regional Actions       Taken     on    Water         the WHO Regional Committee for Africa,
Sanitation                                           the Ministries of Health of 46 countries
                                                     launched the AFRICA 2000 Initiative. The
Europe: In the 1999 Third Ministerial                primary purpose of the Initiative is to spread
Conference on Environment and Health, a              access to water and water sanitation
document called the Protocol on Water and            throughout Africa.
Health was adopted as the first international
legal approach in managing water-related
diseases. The Protocol was put into effect in        Bloc Positions
2005 and currently has 36 countries that
have signed it and 23 countries that have            India
ratified it. Upon ratification, the countries        India’s main problems with regards to water
are legally bound to the Protocol. The               lie in the general hazards related to poverty
Protocol is maintained by WHO/Europe,                and underdevelopment such as lack of safe
who takes care of the health aspects, and the        drinking water and inadequate disposal of
United Nations Economic Commission for               waste and sanitation. Efforts are being made
Europe (UNECE), who takes care of the                to meet the MDG through legislation such as
legal and technical aspects. By ratifying the        the Eleventh Five-Year Plan (2008-2012)
Protocol, countries agree to take action to          and other large, government- launched
achieve:                                             programs. However, improvements have
                                                     been slow due to difficulty in delivering
   Sufficient supplies of safe drinking             services and in promoting development at
    water                                            district and local levels to enforce and
   Sufficient water sanitation that will            monitor the large programs. Water systems
    ensure the welfare of human health and           are not properly monitored and are hindered
    the environment                                  by poor finances and community
   Effective prevention of pollution and            involvement. Water contamination continues
    other hazards from contaminating water           to cause water-related diseases even in large
    resources such as those for drinking             cities such as Delhi because most
    water as well as their related ecosystems        municipalities do not have systems for
   Sufficient protection of humans against          monitoring water quality. Additionally, most
    water-related diseases                           people living in rural areas are not aware of
   Effective system for monitoring and              the health benefits from practicing good
    acting upon outbreaks of water-related           sanitation.
Presently, approximately 120 million people          The major problematic area for Nepal is
do not have access to safe drinking water or         proper waste disposal systems. As of 2004,
sanitation. The lack of sanitation has led to        39% of households have proper toilet
incidents of waterborne diseases such as             facilities, 12% have coverage by sewage

systems, and 8% of households have proper                Region and assessing recreational water
solid waste collectors. 25% of the                       usage in the European Region. It also
population has general access to proper                  revised its bathing water directive of the
bathrooms. Reasons for the low percentage                European Commission, developed the
of households with toilets are: supposed lack            Annapolis Protocol that monitors
of need (66%), lack of resources (31%), and              bathing waters based on WHO/EPA
“smell and privacy” (3%). As for sanitary                (Environmental Protection Agency)
water, piped water is considered a safe                  guidelines, and published texts about
source. As of 2004, 14% of households have               infectious    diseases    acquired      by
piped water sources inside their homes and               recreational water use.
30% have piped water sources outside their              The center created a sector for the
homes. For the rest of the population, 37%               monitoring      and     assessment      of
use covered wells, 5% use open wells, and                groundwater with attention to the
14% use other natural sources such as rivers,            acquirement and transport of pathogens.
ponds, streams, etc. There is also a disparity
of water and sanitation access between               Bulgaria
urban and rural areas. 39% of rural areas            The primary concern for Bulgaria is its
versus 68% of urban areas have safe                  sewage systems and waste water treatment.
drinking water and 21% of the rural                  Many of its available wastewater treatment
population versus 53% of the urban                   centers are inadequately managed due to
population has access to toilets. The local          exceeding their capacity or unfulfilling their
government is working to improve                     capacity. In the year 2006, only 69.4% of
conditions by integrating sanitation with            the population was covered by sewage
water supply as well as promote and use              networks and only 41.1% was connected to
local knowledge, skills, and resources and           wastewater treatment facilities despite the
low-cost technology. There are also non-             addition of seven more facilities during the
governmental organizations and local                 years 2000-2005. The goals set by Bulgaria
projects that work to improve sanitation             to improve conditions are to establish
conditions. However, low supplies of                 sewage networks and wastewater treatment
resources,     lack    of    money,      rapid       plants for settlements with over 10,000
urbanization, water pollution, shrinking of          residents by 2010 and to establish sewage
water resources, and high water leakage              networks and wastewater treatment plants
rates hinder progress and improvement.               for settlements with over 2,000 residents by
                                                     2014. The majority of Bulgaria’s population
United Kingdom                                       (75%) lives in settlements with over 2,000
The major area of concern for the United             residents. Another area that needs work is
Kingdom is recreational/bathing water use            the disparities in water supply and sanitation
and the diseases acquired from it. The               services between rural and urban areas.
collaborating center for the protection of           Although Bulgaria has a water supply
water quality and human health has                   system that delivers water to 98.9% of its
addressed several concentrations with the            population, many of the water is lost in
WHO:                                                 internal distribution and poor storage
                                                     facilities, and many local regions still have
   It has worked on promoting the WHO               water rationing. Also, only 2.1% of villages
    guidelines for recreational water use by         versus the 70.5% of towns and cities have
    testing the waters of the Caspian Sea            sewage network coverage.

Unsafe water and lack of sanitation are both
major problems for China. Industrial and            ic/Products/Progress2008/MDG_Report_20
municipal water pollution as well as the            08_En.pdf#page=42
overuse of pesticides and chemical                  - present global status and progress on
fertilizers lead to diseases that claim over        achieving the 7th MDG
400,000 lives annually. Its water resources
are also receiving pressure due to economic         -WHO water page with information about
growth. It is estimated that 70% of China’s         their water/sanitation-related programs and
rivers and lakes are polluted. However,             actions of WHO regions
China has increased the percentage of its 
population that has access to safe drinking         glaas_2008_pilot_finalreport.pdf
water from 8% in 1993 to 75% in 2007.               - the 2008 GLAAS report
Questions to Consider                               monitoring/jmp2008/en/
                                                    - the 2008 JMP report with special focus on
1. Should populations be controlled to              water and sanitation
   improve access to water sanitation? To 
   better enable countries to maintain their        monitoring/en/index.html
   water supplies, should the number of             - the most recent JMP reports on water and
   member per households be limited?                sanitation released by the WHO
   Would this be effective?               
2. Should more severe laws be executed to           15/first-decade.html
   control water sanitation? Should people          - information about the 1981-1990
   be restricted from freely using rivers,          international decade
   streams, pond, etc. for excretory disposal
   to constrain the spread of diarrhoeal            shtml
   diseases?                                        - official Millennium Development Goals
3. How would your country react if a major          page for Goal 7
   outbreak of a waterborne disease should
   occur      due    to     water     supply        m
   contamination? Is there a way to relay           - health situations of countries in the South-
   this information effectively throughout          East Asia Region
   your country and ensure that the people
   of your country uniformly practice               yinfo
   alternative techniques in using water to         - information about water/sanitation in
   help contain the disease? What would             countries in the European Region
   some of these alternative techniques   
   have to be? Would there be a means for           erview.htm
   your whole country to live off a water           - information about the environment and
   system/source other than the ones that           health in China today
   were contaminated?                     
                                                    - MDG monitor, has information about the
                                                    progress of certain countries in achieving the

- MDG 2008 report for Bulgaria, has
information about Bulgaria’s progress in
achieving the MDG


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