Chapter 5: Language—Worksheet--------2010 Key Issue 1 Where are English Language Speakers distributed? Briefly explain the following: - Language - literary tradition - official language - dialect - standard language - BRP British Received Pronunciation - isogloss 1. What were the three Germanic tribes that invaded England? 2. How did English become the most important language in North America? 3. The first speakers of the language that evolved into English were tribes that lived in present- day____________. 4. Primarily, why did dialects developed within England? 5. In what three ways does the English used in the U. S. differ from the English used in the United Kingdom? 6. Immigrants to which American colonies had the most diverse backgrounds? 7. What Geographic factor accounts for the fact that both Americans and British speak English? 8. What geographic factor accounts for the fact that both Americans and British use different dialects from English? Key Issue 2 Why is English Related to Other Languages? Briefly explain the following: - language family - language branch - language group - vulgar Latin - creolized language 9. Name the most important language branch in each region of Europe a. northwestern b. southwestern c. eastern 10. According to the Anatolian hearth theory, in what way did Indo-European languages diffused across Europe? 11. What is the second-largest language family? 12. When languages are depicted as leaves on trees, the roots of the trees below the surface represent what? 13. When languages are depicted as leaves on trees, what do the trunks of the trees represent? 14. English is part of which language family? 15. English is part of which language branch? 16. English is part of which language group? 17. When people who speak a given language migrate to a different location and become isolated from other members of their tribe 18. Know all the Romance languages. ( specially the five largest, in order, below) 19. What was the language spoken by soldiers stationed throughout the Roman Empire? 20. What is the most important language FAMILY in South America? 21. What are the two most important INDIVIDUAL languages in South America? 22. What is the most important language BRANCH of the family in South American? 23. What is the most widely spoken language in Brazil? 24. What does is it mean when a language is creolized? 25. What is the most widely spoken Indo-European language? 26. What are the four most frequently spoken branches of Indo-European? 29. What ancient group or tribe, does recent evidence point to as the first speakers of an Indo-European language? 27. What is the significance of the Kurgans for the study of the geography of languages? 28. According to the Anatolian hearth theory, in what way did Indo-European languages diffused across Europe? 29. Along what mountain chain is Basque spoken? Key Issue 3 Where are other language families - ideograms 30. What are the two largest language families in the world? 31. The language family encompassing the languages of the People's Republic of China is…….. 32. The language spoken by the greatest number of people in the world is 33. How did Hebrew come back as a modern language? 34. The languages of Finland, Hungary and Estonia are unique in Europe because they belong to a different language family. Which language family do they belong to? 35. What is the most important language family in the Middle East? 36. What is the most important individual language in the Middle East? 37. What is the second most widely spoken language family in Europe? 38. Where is Urdu spoken? 39. Why are there so many individual languages documented in Africa? 40. What is the most important language family in Sub-Saharan Africa? Key Issue 4 Why do people preserve local languages? - Extinct languages - Pidgin language - ebonics - lingua franca - Franglais 41. The Flemings and Walloons live in what country?? 42. What is the official language in the northern half of the country? 43. What is the official language in the southern half of the country? 44. What language branches do the language spoken by the Flemings and Walloons belong to? 45. What are the official languages of Switzerland? 46. Russian is part of what language branch? 47. With the invasion of English, what happen to the Celtic languages? What is happening to them today? Where are they spoken? 48. Why has the Icelandic language changed less than any other Germanic language? 49. The more languages existing in a limited area means __________speakers of specific language. Answer true or false 50. The Angles, Jutes, and Saxons were Celtic tribes who invaded England 1500 years ago. 51. English was spread around the world through the establishment of British colonies. 52. Icelandic has probably changed less over time than any other Germanic language. 53. Nearly half the people in the world speak an Indo-European language. 54. Switzerland has four official languages. 55. Germanic, Romance, and Latin are all branches of Indo-European. 56. The first speakers of Indo-European were the Kurgans 57. Indo-European divided into different branches because of isolation of different speakers. 58. Basque is the only non Indo-European language currently spoken in Europe. 59. The most popular language in China is Cantonese. 60. Hebrew is an example of an extinct language. 61. The most frequently spoken Afro-Asiatic language. 62. Regional dialects in England can be traced back to the settlements patterns of the Angles, Saxons, and Jutes. 63. Americans pronounce words differently than British primarily because people changed their accents after moving to the American colonies. 64. New Englanders use a different dialect of English than other Americans because they came from different regions of England.