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ANCIENT AND CLASSICAL PERIOD IN

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ANCIENT AND CLASSICAL PERIOD IN Powered By Docstoc
					ANCIENT AND CLASSICAL PERIOD
     IN WORLD HISTORY:
   FROM THE DAWN OF TIME
         TO 600 C.E.
CONTENT
    HISTORICAL GEOGRAPHY TO KNOW
• Historic Regions
   • All AP Regions
   • Mesopotamia, Mesoamerica
   • Sudanic Africa (West African Sahel)
• Historic States to Know
   • River Valley Civilizations
   • Amer-Indian geographic hearths
   • Classical Empires
• Locations of world religions
• Internal vs. External migration
   • Migration, Urbanization
   • Immigration
• Movement in History
   •   Original spread of humans
   •   Indo-European
   •   Bantu
   •   Germanic and Viking
   •   Spread of world religions
   •   Polynesian
A.P. GEOGRAPHIC REGIONS
MODERN NATIONS TO KNOW
                           THEMES
• THEMES (P.E.R.S.I.A.N., S.C.R.I.P.T.E.D.)
  •   Social, Gender Structures including Labor Systems
  •   Cultural and Intellectual Structures
  •   Religious Structures
  •   Interactions: War, Diplomacy, Trade
  •   Political Culture, Political Organization, State Structures,
  •   Technology
  •   Economics
  •   Demography (geography) and Environment
• OTHER
  • Change and Continuity over Time
  • Geography: Local and regional focus
  THE ANCIENT AND CLASSICAL PERIOD
• PERIODIZATION
  •   What themes set a period apart?
  •   When did it begin, when did it end?
  •   Nature and causes of change
  •   Breaks and continuity within a time period
• 1,000,000 BCE TO 600 CE
  • Prehistoric: 1 million to 4500 BCE or Stone age
  • Ancient: 4500 to 1000 BCE or Bronze Age
  • Classical: 1000 BCE to 600 CE or Iron Age
• Breaks and Continuity within Period
  • Prehistoric: Rise of Humans, Hunter Gatherers
  • Ancient: Sedentary culture, domestications
  • Classical: Use of Iron
                   THE FIVE THEMES
• Relative Location
   • Know relative locations
   • Know locations of major states, cultures
• Place
   • Physical
       • Know the major features of physical geography
   • Human
       • Know the cultural characteristics of states

• Human Environment Interaction
• Movement
   • History is the result of movement
• Region
   • All history is regional until 1450 CE
       HUMAN ENVIRONMENT INTERACTION
• PRE-SEDENTARY TIMES: ADAPT OR DIE
   •   Climates diverse, man’s adaptations diverse
   •   Man arose in Africa, spread out to other continents
   •   Harshest climates around deserts, desert like conditions
   •   Environment often forced man to change
   •   As civilization advances, man begins to change surroundings
   •   Hunter-gather nature
   •   Slash and burn was the transition to sedentary agriculture
• AGRICULTURAL SOCIETIES
   • Domestications
        • Farming
        • Herding
   • Sedentary civilization
• PASTORAL SOCIETIES
   • Nomads and their flocks
   • Relationship to agricultural societies
• DEMOGRAPHIC CHANGES WITH RISE OF CIVILIZATIONS
• DEMOGRAPHIC STRESS
   • Overfarming and overhunting, deforestation, agriculture replaces plants
LOCATION: EARLY GEOGRAPHIC SETTING
• PRE-HISTORIC
  • The whole world in all settings
  • The first towns, cities arose in marginal zones
     • Some building materials
     • Some foods, resources, marginal water, and protection
• ANCIENT RIVER VALLEY CIVILIZATIONS (HEARTHS)
  • Mesopotamia
     • Sumer
     • Assyria and Babylon
  • Nile River
     • Egyptian Kingdoms
     • Kush-Meroe
  • Indus River
     • Harrappan, Mohenjo Daro
     • Aryans
  • Yellow River
     • Xia
     • Shang
LOCATION: LATER GEOGRAPHIC SETTING CLASSICAL
  • MEDITERRANEAN
    • Phoenicians, Jews, Persians
    • Greeks: Hellenes, Hellenistic Age
    • Romans: Republic and Empire
  • SOUTH ASIA
    • Persians and Greeks
    • Mauryans
    • Guptans
  • EAST ASIA
    • Zhou,
    • Qin, Han
  • CENTRAL ASIANS
  • OTHERS
    • Ghana, Axum-Ethiopia
    • Mayans, Toltecs, Aztecs
    • Incas and predecessors
        EARLY POLITICAL STRUCTURES
• Paleolithic Structure
   • Small bands, generalized social equality
   • Led by best hunters, male or female
• Neolithic
   • Sedentary villages
   • Village Councils, Elders, some hereditary chiefs
   • Much more patriarchal
• Early Cities
   •   Often city states
   •   Ceremonial Centers: Plazas, Temples
   •   Centralized rule of priests, kings, elite class
   •   Class structure usually based on land ownership
   •   Hereditary positions become common
CHANGE OVER TIME STATE STRUCTURES
• Small city states
     • Sumer, Indus, Xia
     • Phoenicians, Greeks
     • Olmecs, Mixtec, Zapotecs, Mayans
• Small Regional State
     • Shang
     • Babylonia, Israel
     • Ghana, Kush, Axum
• Early Theocratic Empires
     • Egyptian Old Kingdom, Middle Kingdom
     • Toltecs
     • Akkad
     • Shang, Zhou
     • Funan (SE Asia)
                          EARLY CULTURE
• PALEOLITHIC CULTURE
   •   Language, Religion
   •   Traditions and Institutions
   •   Occupations and Past-times
   •   Simple artifacts, art (cave paints, totems, jewelry)
• TOOL MAKING CULTURE
   • Hunter Gathers had tools, only primitive
   • Neolithic technology become complex, varies
• NEOLITHIC CULTURE
   • Social Revolution: hierarchy, gender relations
   • Technological Revolution: pottery, advanced tools, irrigation
• NATURE OF CIVILIZATION
   •   Writing is at the center of a cultural change
   •   Complex culture based on living in a city
   •   People packed more closely together
   •   Social mores reflect this change
   •   Artisans, toolmakers have great influence
• SOPHISTICATION: Increased over time
              SOCIAL HIERARCHY
• Patriarchal
  • Increasingly so over time
• Social Class Differentiation
  • Superior vs. Inferior
  • Increasingly classes defined over time
• Caste Systems
  • If classes become rigid, it is a caste system
• Slavery
  • Common since dawn of history in all cultures
  • Rigidity depended on culture
• Serfdom
     CHANGE OVER TIME EARLY SOCIAL
•   PALEOLITHIC: HUNTER GATHERER
     •   Gender equality, work equality
     •   Short life, Limited survival, foods
     •   Small groups, bands led by elders
     •   Religion: animist, afterlife
     •   Extended family
•   NEOLITHIC: SETTLED AGRICULTURE, DOMESTICATIONS
     •   Domestication of plants and animals
     •   Shifting Agriculture and Migratory Farmers
     •   Nomadic Pastoralism
     •   Patriarchal society, patrilineal descent ; gender differences in work, farming
•   ANCIENT: VILLAGE TO CIVILIZATION
     •   Sedentary life led to rise of social classes
     •   Social differences, gender differences, Specialized occupations
     •   Rise of inequalities; rise of aristocrats, kings, priests; unfree labor inc. slavery, serfs
     •   Villages and a few cities
     •   Nuclear Family
•   CLASSICAL
     •   Continuation of Ancient although trends heightened
     •   Classes often become rigid, rise of warriors, war leaders; castes
     •   Aristocracy, artisan, intellectual classes
     •   Gender differences pronounced and often codified in law
            CHANGE OVER TIME RELIGIONS
• UNIVERSALIZING vs. ETHNIC RELIGIONS
   •   MAJOR FEATURES OF EACH, WHERE ARE RELIGIONS LOCATED
• OVERTIME:
   •   RISE OF PERMANENT RELIGIOUS CASTE, MORAL CODES INCLUDING SOME CASTING
   •   ANIMISM/SHAMANISM TO GENERALIZED ANTRHOPOMORPHISM T0 POLYHEISM
   •   PHILOSOPHIES AND MONOTHEISMS DEVELOP AT END OF PERIOD
• EARLY RELIGIONS
   •   ANIMISM, SHAMANISM
   •   ANTHROPOMORPHIC POLYTHEISM
   •   ELABORATED POLYTHEISM WITH PRIESTS, RITUAL, DOGMA
   •   HINDUISM
   •   SHINTO
• ETHICAL PHILOSOPHIES AND RELIGIONS BLEND
   •   CHINESE RELIGIOUS COMPLEX: TAOISM, CONFUCIANISM, LEGALISM
   •   JAINISM, BUDDHISM
   •   HELLENIC PHILOSOPHY
• MONOTHEISM: EXCLUSIVITY
   •   JUDAISM
   •   CHRISTIANITY
   •   ISLAM
                 TECHNOLOGY OVER TIME
• The ability to make and use tools
   • Man has always been a toolmaker
   • Tools increasingly designed to meet specific needs
   • Simple to complex
• Materials
   •   Bone, Stone, Wood; Mixture of Media
   •   Metallurgy, Metalworking: Copper, Bronze, Iron
   •   Include domestications as technology if necessary
   •   In many ways writing is a technology
• Technology is specialization
   • Expands if group supports artisans who do not hunt, gather, farm
   • Irrigation systems requires team work leading to political structure
• Know how inventions improved life
   CHANGE OVER TIME INTERACTIONS
• War
  •   Not a new invention but rare in Pre-history
  •   History introduces scarcity, contest for it
  •   War becomes increasingly complex; warrior classes
  •   Technology effected war; empires are core of classical
• Diplomacy
  • Similar to War
  • Contact between states led to diplomacy
  • First treaty was between Hittites, Egyptians
• Trade
  •   The simplest way for cities to overcome failings
  •   Trade for what you do not have
  •   Most international trade was for luxury
  •   Commodities traded locally, internally
• Exchanges: ideas, diseases
• Migration of nomads, Bantus, Indo-Europeans
• Interactions between nomads, sedentary
                  MOVEMENT
• Themes
  • Indigenous or Independent Development
  • Cultural Diffusion
• Spread of Agriculture
• Spread of Technology
• Popular Movements
  •   Early Humans spread across globe
  •   Indo-European Migrations or “Chariot Peoples”
  •   Bantu Migrations
  •   Polynesian Migrations
  •   Xiong Nu or steppe peoples
  •   Germanic Peoples
                    CLASSICAL ENDS
• Reasons for Decline
   • External and Internal
      • Internal Decay vs. External popular forces
   • Aspects
      • Geographic, Demographic, Environment
      • Military, Political
      • Economic, Social

• Decline in Given Areas
   • Mediterranean, South Asia, East Asia
   • Mesoamerica
• That which remains
   • Classical cultures
   • Classical religions
   • Classical traditions
• Interregional Networks: Trade, Spread of Religions
• Movements of Bantu, Huns, Germans, Polynesian
ESSAYS
         COMPARISONS AND SNAPSHOTS
• Compare and contrast the development of institutions
  and traditions (political, social, economic, or
  intellectual) in any two of these classical civilizations:
   •   China
   •   India
   •   Greece
   •   Rome
   •   Mesoamerica
   •   Andes
• Compare and contrast any two of these cultures:
   •   The Neolithic Revolutions
   •   Early civilization
   •   Pastoral nomadism
   •   Shifting agriculture
     COMPARISONS AND SNAPSHOTS

• Compare major religions and philosophical
  systems including similarities in cementing a
  social hierarchy, e.g. Hinduism contrasted
  with Confucianism.
• Compare the role of women in different
  belief - Buddhism, Christianity, Hinduism
  and Confucianism
• Compare       and    contrast      the    rise,
  development and spread of Buddhism and
  early Christianity.
    COMPARISONS AND SNAPSHOTS

• Understand how and why the collapse of
  empire was more severe in Western Europe
  than it was in the Eastern Mediterranean,
  China, or South India
• Compare the caste system to other systems
  of social inequality devised by ancient and
  Classical civilizations, including slavery
     COMPARISONS AND SNAPSHOTS
• Compare societies and cultures that include
  cities with pastoral and nomadic societies.
• Compare the development of traditions and
  institutions in major civilizations, e.g. Indian,
  Chinese, Greek
• Describe interregional trading systems e.g.
  the Indian Ocean trade system and the Silk
  Road
• Compare and contrast the intellectual
  accomplishments of the classical Chinese
  and Mediterranean civilizations (Hellenic,
  Hellenistic, and Roman).
        COMPARISONS AND SNAPSHOTS
• Compare any two of the interregional trading
  systems:
  •    Mesoamerica
  •   Mediterranean
  •   Southwest Asia
  •   South Asia
  •   East Asia
• Compare and contrast the popular movements
  and settlement patterns of any two of these
  peoples: Indo-Europeans/Chariot Peoples,
  Germans, Polynesian, or Bantu.
      COMPARISONS AND SNAPSHOTS

• Compare the political and social
  structures of two early civilizations using
  any two of the following:
  • Mesopotamia (Sumer through Persia)
  • Egypt (Old Kingdom through New Empire)
  • Indus Valley (Harappan to Aryan)
  • Shang Dynasty
  • Mesoamerica (Olmecs, Mayans, Toltecs)
  • Andean South America (Moche, Chan Chan)

				
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