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					Comparative real gross domestic product per capita and per employed person

16 countries 1960-2007

Prepared by: U.S. Department of Labor Bureau of Labor Statistics Office of Productivity and Technology http://www.bls.gov/fls/home.htm July 7, 2008

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CONTENTS

I. Description

Page

Introduction .................................................................................................................2 Prosperity and productivity .........................................................................................2 Purchasing power parities (PPPs) ...............................................................................3 Currency exchange rates .............................................................................................3 Relative prices.............................................................................................................4 Data revisions..............................................................................................................4 Use and interpretation of purchasing power parities...................................................5 Data sources and methods...........................................................................................6 II. Charts.....................................................................................................................9-10 Chart 1. Chart 2. Chart 3. Chart 4. GDP per capita, 2007 GNI per capita, 2007 GDP per employed person, 2007 GDP per hour worked, 2007

III. Tables ................................................................................................................ 11-17 Table 1. Table 2. Table 3. Table 4. Table 5. Table 6. Table 7. Real GDP per capita (2005 U.S. Dollars) Real GDP per capita (United States = 100) Real GDP per employed person (2005 U.S. Dollars) Real GDP per employed person (United States = 100) Employment–population ratios Real GDP per capita and per employed person (average annual percent changes) Purchasing power parities, exchange rates, and relative prices, 2005

-2Introduction The accompanying tables present comparative levels and trends in real gross domestic product (GDP) per capita and per employed person for sixteen countries. A seventeenth country, Ireland, has been partially included for illustrative purposes, described below. 1 This report represents an update of earlier comparative GDP per capita and per employed person data produced annually by the Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS). In addition, this report also examines two alternative measures: Gross national income per capita and GDP per hour worked. Prosperity and productivity Gross domestic product is the value of all market and some non-market goods and services produced within a country. As such, it is the most comprehensive measure of a country's economic output that is generally estimated by statistical agencies. GDP per capita may therefore be viewed as a rough indicator of a nation's prosperity, while GDP per employed person can provide a general picture of a country's productivity. These indicators are only approximations. National prosperity consists of many things that are not included in its GDP and some items included may not contribute to a country's well-being. In addition, some countries experience significant in- and out-flows of income because of foreign investment, which may affect a country’s prosperity. For productivity comparisons, using the number of persons employed as a measure of labor input ignores differences in the number of hours worked and the skill levels of different people. Nevertheless, GDP, GDP per capita, and GDP per employed person, as presented here, are commonly used to compare the economic performance of different countries. Charts 1 and 2 (page 9) show that comparisons of well-being may be affected by taking into account a country's net income receipts from abroad. Instead of GDP per capita, chart 2 shows gross national income (GNI) per capita. 2 GNI is obtained by adjusting GDP for net income flows from abroad. For some countries, this adjustment has a significant impact on the data. For example, for Ireland GNI per capita is 14.2 percent smaller than GDP per capita. As a result, Ireland’s ranking changes from third place using GDP per capita to eighth place using GNI per capita. Charts 3 and 4 (page 10) show comparisons on both a GDP per employed person and a GDP per hour worked basis for all countries except Ireland. The resulting ranking is different. The United States moves from second place on the per employed person basis to fourth place on the per hour worked basis. This is because U.S. workers worked longer hours in 2007 (surpassed only by the average hours in Korea and Japan). Average hours worked in the United States were higher than in any of the European countries. However, it must be noted that methods of computing hours worked at the aggregate national level can differ significantly among countries, and thus such level comparisons must be viewed with caution. Small differences in rankings should not be considered economically
1 2

BLS is investigating the feasibility of full inclusion of data for Ireland in subsequent reports. Many countries now publish estimates of GNI as part of their national accounts. However, GNI expressed in real terms are not consistently available as long time series.

-3significant. More information about the data and their limitations appears in the section on sources and methods beginning on page 6. Purchasing power parities (PPPs) In each country's national statistics, GDP and GNI are valued in terms of its national currency units. Therefore, these results have to be converted to a common unit of value before they can be compared. In this report, all GDP series are converted to U.S. dollars through the use of PPPs. PPPs are currency conversion rates that allow output in different currency units to be expressed in a common unit of value. A PPP for a given country is a ratio, in which the numerator is the number of national currency units needed to purchase a basket of goods and services in that country and the denominator is the number of currency units needed to purchase a similar basket of goods and services in the base country. The base country for this report is the United States. Thus PPPs are interspatial indexes constructed for the purpose of comparing relative prices across countries. They are similar to an intertemporal price index, such as a consumer price index used within a country to compare changes in prices over time. Just as a consumer price index measures the cost of a basket of goods and services over time, PPPs can be used to measure the cost of a particular basket of goods and services across countries at a point in time. The procedures are similar: first calculate the ratios of prices for each of a detailed set of goods and services in different countries. Then, at higher levels of aggregation, and for the GDP, PPPs are the weighted averages of these ratios. PPPs have been or currently are being used by a number of international organizations to compare performance levels among countries and regions. These include the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD), the Statistical Office of the European Communities (Eurostat), the United Nations, the International Monetary Fund, and the World Bank. (See box on page 5 for information about the use and interpretation of PPPs.) Currency exchange rates Inter-country comparisons of output levels are sometimes based on market exchange rates rather than PPPs. However, market exchange rates seldom reflect the relative purchasing powers of different currencies. At best, market exchange rates represent only the relative prices of goods and services that are traded internationally, not the relative value of total domestic output, which also consists of goods, and particularly services, that are not traded internationally, or which are isolated from the effects of foreign trade. In addition, market exchange rates also are affected by influences entirely unrelated to the relative values of any goods or services. These influences include currency traders’ views of the stability of governments in various countries, relative interest rates among countries, and other incentives for holding financial assets in one currency rather than another.

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Relative prices The relationship between PPPs and exchange rates can be used to estimate comparative prices in different countries. This report calculates relative price by dividing a country's PPP for a given year by its currency's exchange rate. (See table 7.) A price indicator of less than 1.00 indicates that less than one U.S. dollar (exchanged for the local currency at the market exchange rate) can purchase an amount of goods and services in that country that it would take one dollar to purchase in the United States; therefore, prices in that country are relatively low compared to the United States. A price indicator greater than 1.00 indicates that it would take more than one U.S. dollar to purchase in that country an amount of goods and services that could be purchased for one dollar in the United States; therefore, prices in that country are relatively high compared to the United States. These relative price indicators refer to all the goods and services that go into GDP. Data revisions National accounts data are subject to two basic types of revisions. Generally, for the first three years, statistical agencies consider GDP and GNI data preliminary and revise them with each successive release. In addition, statistical agencies revise data periodically to improve the methodology or include new accounts.

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Use and interpretation of purchasing power parities PPPs are an effective tool for international economic comparisons. However they should be used and interpreted with caution, given certain aspects of the collection and estimation procedures used. While comparative estimates like GDP per capita are useful for grouping countries, a strict ranking order interpretation should be avoided. The per capita GDPs of most OECD countries fall within a relatively narrow range, and changes in rankings can occur as a result of relatively minor adjustments to PPP estimates. Small differences in per capita GDP between countries are not, in general, economically significant. Some aspects of PPP estimation that may influence the accuracy of the results: Representativeness of goods and services to be priced It is difficult to find goods and services for pricing that are representative of the goods and services actually purchased in all countries. Price comparability There may be a lack of comparability between national prices. This can arise from differences in the characteristics of the products that countries price, or because of the sampling procedures that countries use to collect prices. Aggregation method The results are influenced by the aggregation method used to combine different commodity groups into a single PPP for total GDP in each country. A different aggregation method can produce different PPP estimates. PPP quality varies by sector Certain expenditure categories are resistant to comparison because they cover products or services which are difficult to specify for pricing across countries (e.g., services and information technology products) or because they cover consumption for which no market prices exist (e.g., government services, fixed capital formation, and imputed rents of owner occupiers). Country capabilities Participating countries differ in their financial and technical support of the PPP program, and therefore in the extent to which they are able to satisfy all of the program's methodological requirements.

-6Data sources and methods The comparative measures in this report were calculated from GDP, population, and employment data series that were obtained from national statistical sources. While these data are generally comparable, some differences remain in the countries' statistical methodologies, which may affect comparability. The estimates shown in this report are based on data available as of May 2008, except that estimates for the United States are based on data available as of June 2008. Gross domestic product. The GDP measures used for all countries come from their national accounts sources. For all countries in this comparison, the most recent series use the 1993 United Nations System of National Accounts (SNA 93). However, some earlier series have been prepared using 1968 United Nations System of National Accounts (SNA 68). The U.S. GDP series is based on the system of national income and product accounts (NIPA's) estimated by the Bureau of Economic Analysis (BEA). Spanish GDP data are available from 1964. A major difference among countries pertains to the weighting scheme used to derive real GDP. The SNA 93 recommends annual-weighted real output measures. The U.S. GDP series is a chain-type annual-weighted measure of real GDP. Most of the other countries are already using, or switching to, this same deflation method, at least for the most recent years. Belgium and the Republic of Korea, however, still produce their real GDP series by means of fixed base-year deflators, updating their base year every 5 years. For many countries it has been necessary to link several time series, each of which has its own set of base-year price weights, to construct one continuous real GDP series for use over a longer time period. Gross national income. GNI equals GDP plus net income flows from abroad. Net income flows from abroad are the sum of all income received by one country from investment in other countries, minus the income paid to other countries from investments made by other countries. The GNI measures in this report come predominantly from national accounts sources. For some countries they are based on data published by Eurostat and the International Monetary Fund. The U.S. GNI series is based on the system of national income and product accounts (NIPA's) estimated by the Bureau of Economic Analysis (BEA). Population. The population figures are derived from national and international statistical sources, and represent the total resident population. For recent years alternative sources may be used, until data from normal sources become available. Employment. For most countries, the employment data used in this report are obtained from the countries' national accounts, where the data series have been developed from various surveys and other sources, including labor force (household) and establishment surveys. Korean and Spanish employment data are available from 1963 and 1971 respectively. The employment series used in this report for the United States, the Netherlands, and the United Kingdom are based on the employment data set used for the BLS report

-7Comparative Civilian Labor Force Statistics, Ten Countries. 3 While these series have been adjusted for greater comparability with U.S. concepts, they have not been adjusted for breaks in series. For the current report, the data have been further adjusted to include people serving in the armed forces. Hours worked. For most countries, the hours data used in this report are obtained from the countries' national accounts, where the data series have been developed from various surveys and other sources. To calculate total hours worked by all people employed in an economy, national statistical offices use different data sources and estimation techniques. The employment series may refer to the number of persons or the number of jobs, and hours worked may have to be estimated from hours paid. Different establishment and household surveys are used to cover all employees, self-employed, and armed forces. These differences may affect the comparability of these data among different countries. The OECD also publishes average hours worked, which for some countries differ slightly from the average hours used in this report. The small differences may be due to differences in the timing of the data releases or adjustments made to some of the data. 4 Purchasing power parities. The purchasing power parities (PPPs) used for this report are taken from the OECD-Eurostat PPP Program, as published by the OECD in its publications and posted on its web-site. Data for benchmark PPP estimates are collected every three years. The latest published benchmark data are for 2005, 5 and were used to convert the GDP series in tables 1 and 3 to 2005 U.S. dollars. The PPPs for the years after 2005 are OECD and Eurostat estimates. The 2007 PPPs were used to convert the 2007 GDP and GNI data used in charts 1–4 to U.S. dollars. Comparative real GDP series. For this report, the real GDP series, expressed in 2005 U.S. dollars, were calculated based on the PPPs for 2005, the latest published benchmark year. The real GDP values for other years were derived by using the trends in the respective real GDP series that were published by each country in their national currency units. Thus, the changes over time in the comparative real GDP for each country, expressed in 2005 U.S. dollars, are based on changes in the country's own GDP deflator. The method of deriving the comparative series can be summarized as follows. First, all the real GDP series from the different countries were expressed in constant 2005 prices of their national currencies. Next, each country's GDP series was divided by its PPP for 2005, thereby converting the series into constant 2005 U.S. dollars. Finally, the series of GDP per capita and per employed person, in constant 2005 dollars, were estimated by dividing each country's GDP in 2005 dollars by its population and its employment respectively. Data for Germany. Data for the former West Germany end with 1998. The 1998-2005 change in the GDP deflator for Germany was used to adjust the constant-value GDP of
This report is available on the Internet at http://www.bls.gov/fls/home.htm. OECD, Employment Outlook, and productivity database, http://www.oecd.org/statistics/productivity/compendium. BLS can provide upon request the average annual hours worked data that underlie the estimates in this report. 5 OECD and Eurostat, Purchasing Power Parities and Real Expenditures. 2005 Benchmark Year, 2007 Edition. Also http://www.oecd.org/LongAbstract/0,3425,en_2649_34357_1876126_119656_1_1_1,00.html
4 3

-8former West Germany to 2005 prices. Data for Germany after unification start in 1991. To calculate the pre-1991 growth rates in table 6, BLS has linked the data for former West Germany and Germany in 1991. Data for Ireland. Data for Ireland are from the Central Statistics Office Ireland. Output and income data are prepared according to the 1993 System of National Accounts. Population data represent total resident population. BLS is investigating the feasibility of full inclusion of data for Ireland in future issues of this report. Comparisons with OECD published data. The OECD also publishes comparative levels of GDP per capita. 6 These may differ from the level comparisons in the attached tables. First, the per capita GDP figures presented in the OECD reports may differ from BLS figures because of the timing of the receipt of revised GDP and population data from national accounts offices. In addition, for the United States and Canada, the GDP numbers used in the OECD estimates are based on data that have been specially adjusted to conform to the SNA93 system of national accounts. These special adjustments result in lower levels for U.S. and Canadian GDP data than the GDP data used for this report, but do not have an appreciable affect on the growth rate of real GDP.

OECD, national accounts databases, http://stats.oecd.org/WBOS/Index.aspx. Select National Accounts, Annual National Accounts, Main Aggregates, Gross Domestic Product.

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Chart 1: GDP per capita, 2007
Converted to U.S. dollars using 2007 PPPs
(U.S. dollars in thousands)
60 55.2

50 45.8 42.7 40 38.6 38.2 37.8 36.5 36.3

36.1

35.2

34.8

33.7

33.5

32.7 30.3 29.8 24.8

30

20

10

No rw ay te d St at es Ire la Ne nd th er la nd s Ca na da Au st r De ia nm ar Sw k ed en A us tra li Be a U ni lg te iu d m Ki ng do m G er m an y Ja pa n Fr an ce

Chart 2: GNI per capita, 2007
Converted to U.S. dollars using 2007 PPPs
(U.S. dollars in thousands)
60 55.5

50

46.1 39.2 37.8 37.3 37.1 37.1 36.6 35.6 34.8 34.6 34.6 34.0 32.9 29.6 28.1 24.9

40

30

20

10

ay St at N es et he rla nd s C an ad a Au st ri Sw a ed en D en m ar k Ire la n Be d U ni lg te iu d m Ki ng do m Au st ra lia Ja pa n G er m an y Fr an ce

It a ly

ni te

U

Note: Data for Spain refer to 2006.

R

Sp ep . o ain fK or ea

N

or w

d

Re Ita p. ly of Ko re a

U ni

S

pa in

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Chart 3: GDP per employed person, 2007
Converted to U.S. dollars using 2007 PPPs
(U.S. dollars in thousands)
110 100 90 80 70 60
51 .3 1 03.0 93.8 84.9 81 .0 75.0 74.4 73.8 72.7 72.2 72.0 70.6 70.3 69.7 66.3 64.0

50 40 30
Fr an ce et he rl a nd s C an ad a Sw ed en Au st ria Au st U ra ni li a te d Ki ng do m D en m ar k Be lg iu m St at es Ita ly Ja pa n an y Sp ai ep n .o fK or ea R
38.9 38.2 36.6 35.5 21.0 20 10

or w

ay

N

ni te d

U

Chart 4: GDP per hour worked, 2007
Converted to U.S. dollars using 2007 PPPs
(U.S. dollars)
80 70 60 50 40 30 54.0 53.2 52.8 73.0

N

52.6

48.6

45.7

44.3

43.4

42.6

42.4

G

It a ly

ay

nc e

er m

Ja pa n

st ri a Au R ep .

m an y Sw ed en D en U ni m te ar d k Ki ng do m Au st ra lia C an ad a

Be lg i

St at es

Fr a

Sp ai n

or w

la nd

et he r

N

Note: Data for Austria, Italy, and Spain refer to 2006.

U

ni te

G er

d

of K

N

or ea

um

s

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Table 1. Real GDP per capita Converted to U.S. dollars using 2005 PPPs
(2005 U.S. dollars)
Year United States 15,640 15,744 16,443 16,917 17,655 18,554 19,537 19,812 20,561 20,988 20,783 21,211 22,097 23,148 22,820 22,556 23,529 24,368 25,455 25,970 25,613 25,998 25,252 26,155 27,790 28,682 29,408 30,130 31,091 31,889 32,125 31,648 32,268 32,703 33,608 34,045 34,895 36,031 37,101 38,312 39,277 39,165 39,398 40,006 41,083 Canada 13,002 13,144 13,804 14,268 14,908 15,573 16,301 16,477 17,017 17,620 17,901 18,097 18,863 19,931 20,380 20,451 21,233 21,712 22,347 22,968 23,164 23,682 22,733 23,121 24,235 25,162 25,517 26,252 27,202 27,416 27,056 26,176 26,092 26,409 27,375 27,853 28,008 28,903 29,838 31,233 32,562 32,788 33,368 33,671 34,359 Australia 13,245 12,832 13,322 13,843 14,470 14,875 15,043 15,792 16,387 17,144 17,906 17,787 17,884 18,414 18,413 18,596 19,079 19,194 19,390 19,981 20,309 20,826 20,474 20,104 21,108 22,027 22,173 22,789 23,338 24,001 23,995 23,428 23,614 24,300 25,256 25,872 26,589 27,394 28,445 29,385 30,022 30,232 31,115 31,643 32,490 Japan 5,698 6,375 6,858 7,385 8,124 8,409 9,287 10,197 11,284 12,484 13,488 13,889 14,849 15,820 15,418 15,701 16,158 16,710 17,434 18,237 18,606 19,015 19,405 19,584 20,066 20,956 21,468 22,177 23,580 24,735 25,936 26,699 26,858 26,844 27,070 27,534 28,225 28,600 27,944 27,862 28,600 28,565 28,602 28,959 29,732 Rep. of Korea 1,750 1,798 1,785 1,895 2,024 2,087 2,283 2,362 2,569 2,859 3,043 3,229 3,311 3,644 3,840 4,000 4,353 4,714 5,074 5,337 5,176 5,410 5,717 6,241 6,664 7,047 7,718 8,491 9,303 9,833 10,628 11,512 12,062 12,673 13,617 14,717 15,597 16,171 14,954 16,256 17,489 18,026 19,175 19,671 20,525 Austria 10,205 10,688 10,877 11,249 11,849 12,108 12,702 12,987 13,497 14,295 15,260 15,969 16,862 17,588 18,250 18,233 19,101 20,012 20,000 21,131 21,508 21,421 21,823 22,528 22,525 23,090 23,584 23,932 24,727 25,485 26,456 27,135 27,472 27,337 27,957 28,447 29,153 29,656 30,678 31,635 32,618 32,761 32,875 33,135 33,664 Belgium 8,958 9,373 9,822 10,173 10,779 11,061 11,334 11,708 12,152 12,923 13,738 14,210 14,904 15,736 16,331 16,044 16,911 16,972 17,422 17,781 18,529 18,466 18,571 18,630 19,090 19,399 19,745 20,184 21,029 21,721 22,336 22,661 22,915 22,606 23,263 26,810 27,078 27,961 28,370 29,272 30,296 30,431 30,753 30,929 31,709 32,063 32,759 33,607 Denmark 11,921 12,537 13,129 13,085 14,145 14,709 14,930 15,638 16,406 17,383 17,434 17,865 18,504 19,084 18,840 18,557 19,638 19,962 20,353 21,104 20,999 20,824 21,611 22,202 23,140 24,064 25,222 25,257 25,209 25,343 25,708 25,973 26,399 26,283 27,648 28,361 28,987 29,787 30,325 31,001 31,987 32,099 32,139 32,179 32,835 33,546 34,739 35,213 France 9,540 9,907 10,398 10,865 11,449 11,895 12,417 12,927 13,398 14,244 14,980 15,615 16,196 17,120 17,770 17,516 18,216 18,779 19,437 20,037 20,270 20,343 20,714 20,850 21,057 21,311 21,724 22,145 23,031 23,849 24,348 24,475 24,688 24,359 24,808 25,245 25,437 25,916 26,728 27,472 28,357 28,679 28,770 28,883 29,405 29,785 30,250 30,724 Germany NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA 26,084 26,463 26,062 26,674 27,099 27,290 27,729 28,300 28,849 29,738 30,052 30,000 29,921 30,245 30,496 31,407 32,228 Former W.Germany 12,553 12,961 13,408 13,652 14,415 15,019 15,300 15,218 15,990 17,021 17,706 18,059 18,708 19,503 19,517 19,343 20,471 21,098 21,757 22,664 22,809 22,789 22,591 23,069 23,814 24,358 24,912 25,275 26,058 26,735 27,728 28,754 28,905 28,023 28,466 28,592 28,776 29,334 30,151 NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA Italy 8,291 8,912 9,401 9,856 10,049 10,291 10,822 11,515 12,192 12,862 13,474 13,655 14,078 14,980 15,701 15,281 16,288 16,634 17,112 18,080 18,661 18,796 18,860 19,074 19,685 20,230 20,807 21,469 22,359 23,099 23,553 23,891 24,066 23,838 24,346 25,034 25,301 25,761 26,115 26,492 27,458 27,940 27,979 27,757 27,906 27,854 28,205 28,434 Netherlands 12,086 12,272 12,621 12,860 13,781 14,313 14,522 15,119 15,969 16,860 17,684 18,223 18,490 19,402 20,071 19,923 20,706 20,977 21,338 21,623 21,920 21,673 21,313 21,655 22,319 22,722 23,349 23,670 24,325 25,253 26,132 26,554 26,805 26,950 27,584 28,298 29,138 30,226 31,220 32,464 33,503 33,891 33,699 33,653 34,294 34,724 35,715 36,783 Norway 12,568 13,233 13,480 13,886 14,472 15,119 15,564 16,396 16,622 17,226 17,450 18,309 19,126 19,844 20,474 21,384 22,517 23,351 24,158 25,125 26,173 26,486 26,422 27,353 28,884 30,339 31,452 31,862 31,636 31,820 32,322 33,167 34,138 34,881 36,435 37,764 39,489 41,394 42,252 42,814 43,921 44,569 44,995 45,185 46,654 47,607 48,420 49,606 Spain NA NA NA NA 8,843 9,296 9,863 10,169 10,731 11,551 11,896 12,285 13,128 13,994 14,649 14,595 14,903 15,114 15,135 15,030 15,145 15,039 15,145 15,340 15,551 15,853 16,319 17,182 18,018 18,851 19,535 19,986 20,105 19,836 20,254 20,764 21,217 21,980 22,881 23,775 24,696 25,184 25,375 25,747 26,165 26,650 27,342 28,079 Sweden 12,023 12,632 13,102 13,716 14,523 14,928 15,103 15,513 16,000 16,648 17,557 17,648 18,021 18,701 19,223 19,637 19,778 19,390 19,688 20,399 20,708 20,654 20,889 21,259 22,135 22,578 23,159 23,867 24,373 24,851 24,916 24,484 24,056 23,418 24,145 25,045 25,390 26,006 26,977 28,194 29,364 29,587 30,193 30,651 31,789 32,706 33,798 34,457 United Kingdom 12,191 12,370 12,386 12,836 13,447 13,657 13,845 14,105 14,628 14,866 15,152 15,377 15,878 16,971 16,737 16,635 17,077 17,494 18,065 18,530 18,115 17,843 18,205 18,838 19,288 19,919 20,663 21,565 22,598 23,028 23,141 22,744 22,735 23,198 24,138 24,778 25,408 26,129 26,930 27,651 28,604 29,170 29,663 30,365 31,203 31,570 32,306 33,191

1960 1961 1962 1963 1964 1965 1966 1967 1968 1969 1970 1971 1972 1973 1974 1975 1976 1977 1978 1979 1980 1981 1982 1983 1984 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004

2005 41,954 35,065 32,953 30,312 21,342 34,107 2006 42,751 35,660 33,391 31,046 22,364 35,027 2007 43,267 36,243 34,154 31,696 23,399 36,065 NA = Not available Note: For an explanation of terms and estimation procedures, see introductory material.

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Table 2. Real GDP per capita Converted to U.S. dollars using 2005 PPPs
(United States = 100)
Year United States 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 Canada 83.1 83.5 83.9 84.3 84.4 83.9 83.4 83.2 82.8 84.0 86.1 85.3 85.4 86.1 89.3 90.7 90.2 89.1 87.8 88.4 90.4 91.1 90.0 88.4 87.2 87.7 86.8 87.1 87.5 86.0 84.2 82.7 80.9 80.8 81.5 81.8 80.3 80.2 80.4 81.5 82.9 83.7 84.7 84.2 83.6 Australia 84.7 81.5 81.0 81.8 82.0 80.2 77.0 79.7 79.7 81.7 86.2 83.9 80.9 79.6 80.7 82.4 81.1 78.8 76.2 76.9 79.3 80.1 81.1 76.9 76.0 76.8 75.4 75.6 75.1 75.3 74.7 74.0 73.2 74.3 75.1 76.0 76.2 76.0 76.7 76.7 76.4 77.2 79.0 79.1 79.1 Japan 36.4 40.5 41.7 43.7 46.0 45.3 47.5 51.5 54.9 59.5 64.9 65.5 67.2 68.3 67.6 69.6 68.7 68.6 68.5 70.2 72.6 73.1 76.8 74.9 72.2 73.1 73.0 73.6 75.8 77.6 80.7 84.4 83.2 82.1 80.5 80.9 80.9 79.4 75.3 72.7 72.8 72.9 72.6 72.4 72.4 Rep. of Korea 11.2 11.4 10.9 11.2 11.5 11.2 11.7 11.9 12.5 13.6 14.6 15.2 15.0 15.7 16.8 17.7 18.5 19.3 19.9 20.6 20.2 20.8 22.6 23.9 24.0 24.6 26.2 28.2 29.9 30.8 33.1 36.4 37.4 38.8 40.5 43.2 44.7 44.9 40.3 42.4 44.5 46.0 48.7 49.2 50.0 Austria 65.2 67.9 66.2 66.5 67.1 65.3 65.0 65.6 65.6 68.1 73.4 75.3 76.3 76.0 80.0 80.8 81.2 82.1 78.6 81.4 84.0 82.4 86.4 86.1 81.1 80.5 80.2 79.4 79.5 79.9 82.4 85.7 85.1 83.6 83.2 83.6 83.5 82.3 82.7 82.6 83.0 83.6 83.4 82.8 81.9 Belgium 57.3 59.5 59.7 60.1 61.1 59.6 58.0 59.1 59.1 61.6 66.1 67.0 67.4 68.0 71.6 71.1 71.9 69.6 68.4 68.5 72.3 71.0 73.5 71.2 68.7 67.6 67.1 67.0 67.6 68.1 69.5 71.6 71.0 69.1 69.2 78.7 77.6 77.6 76.5 76.4 77.1 77.7 78.1 77.3 77.2 Denmark 76.2 79.6 79.8 77.3 80.1 79.3 76.4 78.9 79.8 82.8 83.9 84.2 83.7 82.4 82.6 82.3 83.5 81.9 80.0 81.3 82.0 80.1 85.6 84.9 83.3 83.9 85.8 83.8 81.1 79.5 80.0 82.1 81.8 80.4 82.3 83.3 83.1 82.7 81.7 80.9 81.4 82.0 81.6 80.4 79.9 80.0 81.3 81.4 France 61.0 62.9 63.2 64.2 64.9 64.1 63.6 65.2 65.2 67.9 72.1 73.6 73.3 74.0 77.9 77.7 77.4 77.1 76.4 77.2 79.1 78.2 82.0 79.7 75.8 74.3 73.9 73.5 74.1 74.8 75.8 77.3 76.5 74.5 73.8 74.2 72.9 71.9 72.0 71.7 72.2 73.2 73.0 72.2 71.6 71.0 70.8 71.0 Germany NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA 82.4 82.0 79.7 79.4 79.6 78.2 77.0 76.3 75.3 75.7 76.7 76.1 74.8 73.6 72.7 73.5 74.5 Former W.Germany 80.3 82.3 81.5 80.7 81.7 80.9 78.3 76.8 77.8 81.1 85.2 85.1 84.7 84.3 85.5 85.8 87.0 86.6 85.5 87.3 89.1 87.7 89.5 88.2 85.7 84.9 84.7 83.9 83.8 83.8 86.3 90.9 89.6 85.7 84.7 84.0 82.5 81.4 81.3 NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA Italy 53.0 56.6 57.2 58.3 56.9 55.5 55.4 58.1 59.3 61.3 64.8 64.4 63.7 64.7 68.8 67.7 69.2 68.3 67.2 69.6 72.9 72.3 74.7 72.9 70.8 70.5 70.8 71.3 71.9 72.4 73.3 75.5 74.6 72.9 72.4 73.5 72.5 71.5 70.4 69.1 69.9 71.3 71.0 69.4 67.9 66.4 66.0 65.7 Netherlands 77.3 77.9 76.8 76.0 78.1 77.1 74.3 76.3 77.7 80.3 85.1 85.9 83.7 83.8 88.0 88.3 88.0 86.1 83.8 83.3 85.6 83.4 84.4 82.8 80.3 79.2 79.4 78.6 78.2 79.2 81.3 83.9 83.1 82.4 82.1 83.1 83.5 83.9 84.1 84.7 85.3 86.5 85.5 84.1 83.5 82.8 83.5 85.0 Norway 80.4 84.1 82.0 82.1 82.0 81.5 79.7 82.8 80.8 82.1 84.0 86.3 86.6 85.7 89.7 94.8 95.7 95.8 94.9 96.7 102.2 101.9 104.6 104.6 103.9 105.8 107.0 105.7 101.8 99.8 100.6 104.8 105.8 106.7 108.4 110.9 113.2 114.9 113.9 111.8 111.8 113.8 114.2 112.9 113.6 113.5 113.3 114.6 Spain NA NA NA NA 50.1 50.1 50.5 51.3 52.2 55.0 57.2 57.9 59.4 60.5 64.2 64.7 63.3 62.0 59.5 57.9 59.1 57.8 60.0 58.7 56.0 55.3 55.5 57.0 58.0 59.1 60.8 63.2 62.3 60.7 60.3 61.0 60.8 61.0 61.7 62.1 62.9 64.3 64.4 64.4 63.7 63.5 64.0 64.9 Sweden 76.9 80.2 79.7 81.1 82.3 80.5 77.3 78.3 77.8 79.3 84.5 83.2 81.6 80.8 84.2 87.1 84.1 79.6 77.3 78.5 80.9 79.4 82.7 81.3 79.7 78.7 78.8 79.2 78.4 77.9 77.6 77.4 74.6 71.6 71.8 73.6 72.8 72.2 72.7 73.6 74.8 75.5 76.6 76.6 77.4 78.0 79.1 79.6 United Kingdom 77.9 78.6 75.3 75.9 76.2 73.6 70.9 71.2 71.1 70.8 72.9 72.5 71.9 73.3 73.3 73.7 72.6 71.8 71.0 71.4 70.7 68.6 72.1 72.0 69.4 69.5 70.3 71.6 72.7 72.2 72.0 71.9 70.5 70.9 71.8 72.8 72.8 72.5 72.6 72.2 72.8 74.5 75.3 75.9 76.0 75.2 75.6 76.7

1960 1961 1962 1963 1964 1965 1966 1967 1968 1969 1970 1971 1972 1973 1974 1975 1976 1977 1978 1979 1980 1981 1982 1983 1984 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004

2005 100.0 83.6 78.5 72.3 50.9 81.3 76.4 2006 100.0 83.4 78.1 72.6 52.3 81.9 76.6 2007 100.0 83.8 78.9 73.3 54.1 83.4 77.7 NA = Not available Note: For an explanation of terms and estimation procedures, see introductory material.

- 13 -

Table 3. Real GDP per employed person Converted to U.S. dollars using 2005 PPPs
(2005 U.S. dollars)
Year United States 41,396 42,343 44,128 45,425 47,033 48,855 50,528 50,600 51,949 52,267 52,064 53,605 54,829 56,138 54,830 55,344 56,452 57,016 57,729 57,931 57,519 58,316 57,656 59,485 61,268 62,539 63,285 63,793 65,015 65,989 66,445 66,955 68,824 69,727 70,960 71,735 73,378 75,036 77,063 79,302 80,198 80,753 82,260 83,495 85,598 Canada 37,337 37,934 39,469 40,622 41,771 42,861 43,918 43,827 45,049 45,873 46,704 47,459 48,578 49,444 49,172 49,161 50,703 51,565 52,020 51,751 51,366 51,661 51,825 52,854 54,556 55,564 55,214 55,947 57,004 57,211 56,929 56,729 57,799 58,871 60,459 61,070 61,505 62,793 63,794 65,645 67,417 67,782 68,101 67,785 68,669 Australia 32,747 32,474 33,531 34,529 35,592 36,149 35,661 37,184 38,300 39,916 40,869 41,506 41,801 42,466 42,667 43,715 44,870 44,914 45,832 46,928 46,953 47,906 47,932 48,573 50,099 51,395 50,359 51,408 51,569 51,717 51,541 52,141 53,465 55,308 56,355 56,243 57,812 59,666 61,361 63,085 63,612 64,241 65,650 66,066 67,297 Japan 11,429 12,616 13,544 14,610 16,006 16,656 17,975 19,564 21,485 23,821 25,974 26,924 29,038 30,677 30,429 31,448 32,432 33,455 34,878 36,417 37,188 37,989 38,723 38,760 39,834 41,633 42,646 44,090 46,532 48,283 49,961 50,606 50,527 50,461 50,962 51,890 53,094 53,554 53,082 53,747 55,630 56,157 57,200 58,199 59,667 Rep. of Korea NA NA NA 6,830 7,359 7,384 8,071 8,251 8,743 9,714 10,200 10,676 10,688 11,358 11,663 12,071 12,572 13,397 13,987 14,727 14,422 14,940 15,637 17,171 18,661 19,210 20,516 21,611 23,181 23,771 25,194 26,727 27,761 29,119 30,627 32,508 34,051 35,029 34,716 37,348 38,860 39,573 41,192 42,525 43,711 Austria 19,315 20,230 20,812 21,810 23,166 23,989 25,555 26,760 28,328 30,162 32,245 33,526 35,346 36,563 37,517 37,659 39,250 40,644 40,386 42,415 42,781 42,887 44,328 45,992 46,024 47,063 47,959 48,727 49,981 51,126 52,473 53,688 54,644 55,081 56,530 57,715 59,015 59,567 60,920 61,927 63,394 63,547 64,167 64,971 66,370 Belgium 23,294 24,272 25,149 26,060 27,481 28,350 29,142 30,405 31,717 33,256 35,343 36,384 38,387 40,298 41,329 41,311 43,848 44,234 45,408 45,956 48,002 48,766 49,705 50,374 51,717 52,279 52,880 53,818 55,553 56,594 57,528 58,520 59,687 59,559 61,715 70,791 71,414 73,257 73,078 74,596 75,877 77,177 78,072 78,846 79,832 79,324 81,036 81,092 Denmark 25,604 26,719 27,766 27,555 29,413 30,271 30,464 32,182 33,749 35,254 35,311 36,425 37,199 38,121 38,120 38,157 39,806 40,696 41,324 42,549 42,718 43,044 44,501 45,676 46,883 47,643 48,832 48,755 49,073 49,574 50,653 51,615 53,265 54,061 57,256 58,109 59,031 59,906 60,276 61,231 62,953 62,704 62,916 63,912 65,765 66,776 68,258 68,231 France 22,267 23,379 24,990 26,364 27,775 29,048 30,361 31,790 33,306 35,179 36,852 38,621 40,193 42,257 43,772 43,731 45,318 46,553 48,161 49,608 50,314 50,973 52,149 52,936 54,059 55,188 56,331 57,295 59,387 60,836 61,951 62,513 63,737 63,979 65,301 66,097 66,580 67,773 69,096 69,963 70,800 70,853 71,138 71,821 73,517 74,497 75,392 76,012 Germany NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA 54,020 56,038 56,335 57,892 58,853 59,601 60,733 61,234 61,632 62,440 62,938 63,292 63,758 64,178 64,737 66,181 66,718 Former W.Germany 26,700 27,552 28,737 29,476 31,412 32,907 33,929 34,964 36,839 38,981 40,432 41,500 43,093 44,659 45,295 45,962 48,667 49,981 51,063 52,339 52,049 52,157 52,289 53,977 55,407 56,114 56,645 57,070 58,736 59,992 61,583 63,120 63,648 63,323 65,421 66,454 67,907 70,114 72,021 NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA Italy 19,891 21,388 22,781 24,465 25,237 26,713 28,782 30,469 32,479 34,709 36,383 37,033 38,499 40,667 42,247 41,332 43,834 44,819 46,118 48,329 49,274 49,730 49,834 50,255 51,879 52,830 53,970 55,566 57,282 58,821 59,087 58,891 59,780 60,884 63,236 65,154 65,493 66,511 66,783 67,034 68,187 68,053 67,213 66,209 66,928 66,914 66,815 67,026 Netherlands 30,113 30,540 31,228 31,825 33,965 35,464 36,175 38,211 40,396 42,436 44,532 46,185 47,757 50,498 52,142 52,610 54,832 54,739 55,471 55,618 55,113 54,573 54,189 56,315 57,544 57,233 58,211 59,363 59,691 61,080 61,617 61,510 61,306 62,152 63,560 63,681 64,535 65,221 65,859 67,131 67,954 67,509 66,756 67,369 69,003 70,019 70,828 71,532 Norway 29,427 30,809 31,465 32,524 34,058 35,540 36,737 38,805 39,644 41,068 41,222 43,177 44,933 46,613 47,762 49,340 50,508 51,180 52,249 53,775 54,868 55,012 55,064 57,310 60,235 61,747 62,202 62,047 62,284 64,748 66,588 69,342 71,936 73,421 76,090 77,661 80,006 81,918 81,931 82,826 85,037 86,426 87,388 89,194 92,209 93,592 92,761 92,494 Spain NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA 29,336 31,341 32,939 34,663 35,556 37,137 38,440 39,992 40,934 42,468 43,453 44,376 45,319 47,183 48,778 49,225 49,580 50,342 50,927 50,919 51,595 52,810 53,791 55,334 55,798 56,338 56,858 57,169 57,788 58,661 58,925 59,216 59,190 59,075 58,840 58,790 59,279 Sweden 24,664 25,856 26,811 28,100 29,591 30,511 31,106 32,499 33,329 34,351 35,873 36,282 36,992 38,316 38,772 38,993 39,270 38,565 39,094 40,013 40,246 40,100 40,655 41,296 42,705 43,195 44,158 45,323 45,901 46,498 46,539 46,717 48,304 49,921 52,392 53,606 54,828 56,908 58,098 59,519 60,649 60,027 61,445 62,985 66,045 68,043 69,639 69,973 United Kingdom 26,448 26,777 26,928 28,019 29,166 29,522 30,026 31,126 32,584 33,262 34,101 34,818 35,954 37,933 37,334 37,249 38,460 39,352 40,424 41,096 40,404 40,868 42,486 44,306 44,490 45,492 47,013 48,217 49,026 48,843 49,002 49,639 50,965 52,622 53,828 55,444 56,468 57,210 58,530 59,506 61,061 61,996 62,786 63,907 65,316 65,862 67,215 68,783

1960 1961 1962 1963 1964 1965 1966 1967 1968 1969 1970 1971 1972 1973 1974 1975 1976 1977 1978 1979 1980 1981 1982 1983 1984 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004

2005 86,724 69,800 67,052 60,591 44,950 67,177 2006 87,601 70,356 67,521 61,789 46,655 68,604 2007 88,540 70,589 68,228 62,788 48,386 69,419 NA = Not available Note: For an explanation of terms and estimation procedures, see introductory material.

- 14 -

Table 4. Real GDP per employed person Converted to U.S. dollars using 2005 PPPs
(United States = 100)
Year United States 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 Canada 90.2 89.6 89.4 89.4 88.8 87.7 86.9 86.6 86.7 87.8 89.7 88.5 88.6 88.1 89.7 88.8 89.8 90.4 90.1 89.3 89.3 88.6 89.9 88.9 89.0 88.8 87.2 87.7 87.7 86.7 85.7 84.7 84.0 84.4 85.2 85.1 83.8 83.7 82.8 82.8 84.1 83.9 82.8 81.2 80.2 Australia 79.1 76.7 76.0 76.0 75.7 74.0 70.6 73.5 73.7 76.4 78.5 77.4 76.2 75.6 77.8 79.0 79.5 78.8 79.4 81.0 81.6 82.1 83.1 81.7 81.8 82.2 79.6 80.6 79.3 78.4 77.6 77.9 77.7 79.3 79.4 78.4 78.8 79.5 79.6 79.5 79.3 79.6 79.8 79.1 78.6 Japan 27.6 29.8 30.7 32.2 34.0 34.1 35.6 38.7 41.4 45.6 49.9 50.2 53.0 54.6 55.5 56.8 57.5 58.7 60.4 62.9 64.7 65.1 67.2 65.2 65.0 66.6 67.4 69.1 71.6 73.2 75.2 75.6 73.4 72.4 71.8 72.3 72.4 71.4 68.9 67.8 69.4 69.5 69.5 69.7 69.7 Rep. of Korea NA NA NA 15.0 15.6 15.1 16.0 16.3 16.8 18.6 19.6 19.9 19.5 20.2 21.3 21.8 22.3 23.5 24.2 25.4 25.1 25.6 27.1 28.9 30.5 30.7 32.4 33.9 35.7 36.0 37.9 39.9 40.3 41.8 43.2 45.3 46.4 46.7 45.0 47.1 48.5 49.0 50.1 50.9 51.1 Austria 46.7 47.8 47.2 48.0 49.3 49.1 50.6 52.9 54.5 57.7 61.9 62.5 64.5 65.1 68.4 68.0 69.5 71.3 70.0 73.2 74.4 73.5 76.9 77.3 75.1 75.3 75.8 76.4 76.9 77.5 79.0 80.2 79.4 79.0 79.7 80.5 80.4 79.4 79.1 78.1 79.0 78.7 78.0 77.8 77.5 Belgium 56.3 57.3 57.0 57.4 58.4 58.0 57.7 60.1 61.1 63.6 67.9 67.9 70.0 71.8 75.4 74.6 77.7 77.6 78.7 79.3 83.5 83.6 86.2 84.7 84.4 83.6 83.6 84.4 85.4 85.8 86.6 87.4 86.7 85.4 87.0 98.7 97.3 97.6 94.8 94.1 94.6 95.6 94.9 94.4 93.3 Denmark 61.9 63.1 62.9 60.7 62.5 62.0 60.3 63.6 65.0 67.5 67.8 67.9 67.8 67.9 69.5 68.9 70.5 71.4 71.6 73.4 74.3 73.8 77.2 76.8 76.5 76.2 77.2 76.4 75.5 75.1 76.2 77.1 77.4 77.5 80.7 81.0 80.4 79.8 78.2 77.2 78.5 77.6 76.5 76.5 76.8 77.0 77.9 77.1 France 53.8 55.2 56.6 58.0 59.1 59.5 60.1 62.8 64.1 67.3 70.8 72.0 73.3 75.3 79.8 79.0 80.3 81.6 83.4 85.6 87.5 87.4 90.4 89.0 88.2 88.2 89.0 89.8 91.3 92.2 93.2 93.4 92.6 91.8 92.0 92.1 90.7 90.3 89.7 88.2 88.3 87.7 86.5 86.0 85.9 85.9 86.1 85.9 Germany NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA 80.7 81.4 80.8 81.6 82.0 81.2 80.9 79.5 77.7 77.9 77.9 76.9 76.4 75.0 74.6 75.5 75.4 Former W.Germany 64.5 65.1 65.1 64.9 66.8 67.4 67.1 69.1 70.9 74.6 77.7 77.4 78.6 79.6 82.6 83.0 86.2 87.7 88.5 90.3 90.5 89.4 90.7 90.7 90.4 89.7 89.5 89.5 90.3 90.9 92.7 94.3 92.5 90.8 92.2 92.6 92.5 93.4 93.5 NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA Italy 48.1 50.5 51.6 53.9 53.7 54.7 57.0 60.2 62.5 66.4 69.9 69.1 70.2 72.4 77.1 74.7 77.6 78.6 79.9 83.4 85.7 85.3 86.4 84.5 84.7 84.5 85.3 87.1 88.1 89.1 88.9 88.0 86.9 87.3 89.1 90.8 89.3 88.6 86.7 84.5 85.0 84.3 81.7 79.3 78.2 77.2 76.3 75.7 Netherlands 72.7 72.1 70.8 70.1 72.2 72.6 71.6 75.5 77.8 81.2 85.5 86.2 87.1 90.0 95.1 95.1 97.1 96.0 96.1 96.0 95.8 93.6 94.0 94.7 93.9 91.5 92.0 93.1 91.8 92.6 92.7 91.9 89.1 89.1 89.6 88.8 87.9 86.9 85.5 84.7 84.7 83.6 81.2 80.7 80.6 80.7 80.9 80.8 Norway 71.1 72.8 71.3 71.6 72.4 72.7 72.7 76.7 76.3 78.6 79.2 80.5 82.0 83.0 87.1 89.2 89.5 89.8 90.5 92.8 95.4 94.3 95.5 96.3 98.3 98.7 98.3 97.3 95.8 98.1 100.2 103.6 104.5 105.3 107.2 108.3 109.0 109.2 106.3 104.4 106.0 107.0 106.2 106.8 107.7 107.9 105.9 104.5 Spain NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA 54.7 57.2 58.7 63.2 64.2 65.8 67.4 69.3 70.7 73.8 74.5 77.0 76.2 77.0 78.0 77.8 77.7 77.4 77.2 76.6 77.1 76.7 77.1 78.0 77.8 76.8 75.8 74.2 72.9 73.1 73.0 72.0 70.9 69.0 67.8 67.1 67.0 Sweden 59.6 61.1 60.8 61.9 62.9 62.5 61.6 64.2 64.2 65.7 68.9 67.7 67.5 68.3 70.7 70.5 69.6 67.6 67.7 69.1 70.0 68.8 70.5 69.4 69.7 69.1 69.8 71.0 70.6 70.5 70.0 69.8 70.2 71.6 73.8 74.7 74.7 75.8 75.4 75.1 75.6 74.3 74.7 75.4 77.2 78.5 79.5 79.0 United Kingdom 63.9 63.2 61.0 61.7 62.0 60.4 59.4 61.5 62.7 63.6 65.5 65.0 65.6 67.6 68.1 67.3 68.1 69.0 70.0 70.9 70.2 70.1 73.7 74.5 72.6 72.7 74.3 75.6 75.4 74.0 73.7 74.1 74.1 75.5 75.9 77.3 77.0 76.2 76.0 75.0 76.1 76.8 76.3 76.5 76.3 75.9 76.7 77.7

1960 1961 1962 1963 1964 1965 1966 1967 1968 1969 1970 1971 1972 1973 1974 1975 1976 1977 1978 1979 1980 1981 1982 1983 1984 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004

2005 100.0 80.5 77.3 69.9 51.8 77.5 91.5 2006 100.0 80.3 77.1 70.5 53.3 78.3 92.5 2007 100.0 79.7 77.1 70.9 54.6 78.4 91.6 NA = Not available Note: For an explanation of terms and estimation procedures, see introductory material.

- 15 -

Table 5. Employment-population ratios
(Percent)
Year United States 37.8 37.2 37.3 37.2 37.5 38.0 38.7 39.2 39.6 40.2 39.9 39.6 40.3 41.2 41.6 40.8 41.7 42.7 44.1 44.8 44.5 44.6 43.8 44.0 45.4 45.9 46.5 47.2 47.8 48.3 48.3 47.3 46.9 46.9 47.4 47.5 47.6 48.0 48.1 48.3 49.0 48.5 47.9 47.9 48.0 Rep. of Korea NA NA NA 27.7 27.5 28.3 28.3 28.6 29.4 29.4 29.8 30.2 31.0 32.1 32.9 33.1 34.6 35.2 36.3 36.2 35.9 36.2 36.6 36.3 35.7 36.7 37.6 39.3 40.1 41.4 42.2 43.1 43.5 43.5 44.5 45.3 45.8 46.2 43.1 43.5 45.0 45.6 46.6 46.3 47.0 47.5 47.9 48.4 Former W.Germany 47.0 47.0 46.7 46.3 45.9 45.6 45.1 43.5 43.4 43.7 43.8 43.5 43.4 43.7 43.1 42.1 42.1 42.2 42.6 43.3 43.8 43.7 43.2 42.7 43.0 43.4 44.0 44.3 44.4 44.6 45.0 45.6 45.4 44.3 43.5 43.0 42.4 41.8 41.9 NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA Netherlands 40.1 40.2 40.4 40.4 40.6 40.4 40.1 39.6 39.5 39.7 39.7 39.5 38.7 38.4 38.5 37.9 37.8 38.3 38.5 38.9 39.8 39.7 39.3 38.5 38.8 39.7 40.1 39.9 40.8 41.3 42.4 43.2 43.7 43.4 43.4 44.4 45.2 46.3 47.4 48.4 49.3 50.2 50.5 50.0 49.7 49.6 50.4 51.4 United Kingdom 46.1 46.2 46.0 45.8 46.1 46.3 46.1 45.3 44.9 44.7 44.4 44.2 44.2 44.7 44.8 44.7 44.4 44.5 44.7 45.1 44.8 43.7 42.8 42.5 43.4 43.8 44.0 44.7 46.1 47.1 47.2 45.8 44.6 44.1 44.8 44.7 45.0 45.7 46.0 46.5 46.8 47.1 47.2 47.5 47.8 47.9 48.1 48.3

Canada 34.8 34.6 35.0 35.1 35.7 36.3 37.1 37.6 37.8 38.4 38.3 38.1 38.8 40.3 41.4 41.6 41.9 42.1 43.0 44.4 45.1 45.8 43.9 43.7 44.4 45.3 46.2 46.9 47.7 47.9 47.5 46.1 45.1 44.9 45.3 45.6 45.5 46.0 46.8 47.6 48.3 48.4 49.0 49.7 50.0 50.2 50.7 51.3

Australia 40.4 39.5 39.7 40.1 40.7 41.1 42.2 42.5 42.8 43.0 43.8 42.9 42.8 43.4 43.2 42.5 42.5 42.7 42.3 42.6 43.3 43.5 42.7 41.4 42.1 42.9 44.0 44.3 45.3 46.4 46.6 44.9 44.2 43.9 44.8 46.0 46.0 45.9 46.4 46.6 47.2 47.1 47.4 47.9 48.3 49.1 49.5 50.1

Japan 49.9 50.5 50.6 50.5 50.8 50.5 51.7 52.1 52.5 52.4 51.9 51.6 51.1 51.6 50.7 49.9 49.8 49.9 50.0 50.1 50.0 50.1 50.1 50.5 50.4 50.3 50.3 50.3 50.7 51.2 51.9 52.8 53.2 53.2 53.1 53.1 53.2 53.4 52.6 51.8 51.4 50.9 50.0 49.8 49.8 50.0 50.2 50.5

Austria 52.8 52.8 52.3 51.6 51.1 50.5 49.7 48.5 47.6 47.4 47.3 47.6 47.7 48.1 48.6 48.4 48.7 49.2 49.5 49.8 50.3 49.9 49.2 49.0 48.9 49.1 49.2 49.1 49.5 49.8 50.4 50.5 50.3 49.6 49.5 49.3 49.4 49.8 50.4 51.1 51.5 51.6 51.2 51.0 50.7 50.8 51.1 52.0

Belgium 38.5 38.6 39.1 39.0 39.2 39.0 38.9 38.5 38.3 38.9 38.9 39.1 38.8 39.0 39.5 38.8 38.6 38.4 38.4 38.7 38.6 37.9 37.4 37.0 36.9 37.1 37.3 37.5 37.9 38.4 38.8 38.7 38.4 38.0 37.7 37.9 37.9 38.2 38.8 39.2 39.9 39.4 39.4 39.2 39.7 40.4 40.4 41.4

Denmark 46.6 46.9 47.3 47.5 48.1 48.6 49.0 48.6 48.6 49.3 49.4 49.0 49.7 50.1 49.4 48.6 49.3 49.1 49.3 49.6 49.2 48.4 48.6 48.6 49.4 50.5 51.7 51.8 51.4 51.1 50.8 50.3 49.6 48.6 48.3 48.8 49.1 49.7 50.3 50.6 50.8 51.2 51.1 50.3 49.9 50.2 50.9 51.6

France 42.8 42.4 41.6 41.2 41.2 41.0 40.9 40.7 40.2 40.5 40.6 40.4 40.3 40.5 40.6 40.1 40.2 40.3 40.4 40.4 40.3 39.9 39.7 39.4 39.0 38.6 38.6 38.7 38.8 39.2 39.3 39.2 38.7 38.1 38.0 38.2 38.2 38.2 38.7 39.3 40.1 40.5 40.4 40.2 40.0 40.0 40.1 40.4

Germany NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA 48.3 47.2 46.3 46.1 46.0 45.8 45.7 46.2 46.8 47.6 47.7 47.4 46.9 47.1 47.1 47.5 48.3

Italy 41.7 41.7 41.3 40.3 39.8 38.5 37.6 37.8 37.5 37.1 37.0 36.9 36.6 36.8 37.2 37.0 37.2 37.1 37.1 37.4 37.9 37.8 37.8 38.0 37.9 38.3 38.6 38.6 39.0 39.3 39.9 40.6 40.3 39.2 38.5 38.4 38.6 38.7 39.1 39.5 40.3 41.1 41.6 41.9 41.7 41.6 42.2 42.4

Norway 42.7 43.0 42.8 42.7 42.5 42.5 42.4 42.3 41.9 41.9 42.3 42.4 42.6 42.6 42.9 43.3 44.6 45.6 46.2 46.7 47.7 48.1 48.0 47.7 48.0 49.1 50.6 51.4 50.8 49.1 48.5 47.8 47.5 47.5 47.9 48.6 49.4 50.5 51.6 51.7 51.6 51.6 51.5 50.7 50.6 50.9 52.2 53.6

Spain NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA 41.9 41.9 42.5 42.3 41.0 40.1 39.3 37.8 36.7 35.7 34.6 34.1 33.9 33.0 32.5 33.2 34.7 35.8 37.0 38.4 38.7 38.1 36.9 36.6 37.2 37.7 38.7 40.0 41.1 42.1 42.7 42.9 43.5 44.3 45.3 46.5 47.4

Sweden 48.7 48.9 48.9 48.8 49.1 48.9 48.6 47.7 48.0 48.5 48.9 48.6 48.7 48.8 49.6 50.4 50.4 50.3 50.4 51.0 51.5 51.5 51.4 51.5 51.8 52.3 52.4 52.7 53.1 53.4 53.5 52.4 49.8 46.9 46.1 46.7 46.3 45.7 46.4 47.4 48.4 49.3 49.1 48.7 48.1 48.1 48.5 49.2

1960 1961 1962 1963 1964 1965 1966 1967 1968 1969 1970 1971 1972 1973 1974 1975 1976 1977 1978 1979 1980 1981 1982 1983 1984 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004

2005 48.4 2006 48.8 2007 48.9 NA = Not available

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Table 6. Real GDP per capita and per employed person
(Average annual percent changes)

Country

1979-2007

1979-1990

1990-1995

1995-2000

2000-2007

2001-2002

2002-2003

2003-2004

2004-2005

2005-2006

2006-2007

Real Gross Domestic Product per capita
United States Canada Australia Japan Republic of Korea Austria Belgium Denmark France Germany Italy Netherlands Norway Spain Sweden United Kingdom 1.8 1.6 1.9 2.0 5.4 1.9 2.3 1.8 1.5 1.6 1.6 1.9 2.5 2.3 1.9 2.1 2.0 1.5 1.7 3.3 6.5 2.1 2.1 1.8 1.8 1.9 2.4 1.7 2.3 2.4 1.8 2.0 1.2 0.6 1.5 1.2 6.7 1.5 3.7 2.0 0.7 1.5 1.2 1.6 3.2 1.2 0.1 1.4 2.9 3.2 3.0 0.8 3.5 2.8 2.5 2.4 2.4 1.9 1.9 3.4 3.1 3.5 3.2 2.9 1.4 1.5 1.9 1.5 4.2 1.4 1.5 1.4 1.2 1.2 0.5 1.3 1.8 1.9 2.3 2.1 0.6 1.8 2.9 0.1 6.4 0.3 1.1 0.1 0.3 -0.2 0.1 -0.6 1.0 0.8 2.0 1.7 1.5 0.9 1.7 1.2 2.6 0.8 0.6 0.1 0.4 -0.3 -0.8 -0.1 0.4 1.5 1.5 2.4 2.7 2.0 2.7 2.7 4.3 1.6 2.5 2.0 1.8 1.1 0.5 1.9 3.3 1.6 3.7 2.8 2.1 2.1 1.4 1.9 4.0 1.3 1.1 2.2 1.3 0.8 -0.2 1.3 2.0 1.9 2.9 1.2 1.9 1.7 1.3 2.4 4.8 2.7 2.2 3.6 1.6 3.0 1.3 2.9 1.7 2.6 3.3 2.3 1.2 1.6 2.3 2.1 4.6 3.0 2.6 1.4 1.6 2.6 0.8 3.0 2.5 2.7 1.9 2.7

Real Gross Domestic Product per employed person
United States Canada Australia Japan Republic of Korea 1.5 1.1 1.3 2.0 4.3 1.3 0.9 0.9 2.9 5.0 1.5 1.4 1.8 0.8 5.2 2.3 2.0 2.5 1.4 3.6 1.4 0.7 1.0 1.7 3.2 1.9 0.5 2.2 1.9 4.1 1.0 1.2 0.3 0.4 0.6 -1.2 -1.1 1.1 0.5 2.4 1.3 1.5 -0.5 0.6 1.7 3.2 1.3 1.0 1.6 1.0 0.7 -1.5 0.9 2.1 -0.0 2.5 1.8 2.5 1.3 1.9 2.5 2.8 2.2 1.3 2.9 2.4 0.7 1.1 2.4 3.4 -0.2 4.9 2.2 1.3 1.6 -0.4 1.5 2.8 1.2 -0.6 1.5 1.3 0.9 -0.0 1.5 1.5 -0.4 3.0 0.8 1.0 0.8 0.7 2.0 3.8 2.1 2.2 2.2 1.2 2.2 -0.1 1.2 -0.9 -0.1 2.3 2.1 1.1 0.3 1.0 1.6 3.7 1.2 0.1 -0.0 0.8 0.8 0.3 1.0 -0.3 0.8 0.5 2.3

Austria 1.8 2.0 1.9 1.9 1.3 Belgium 2.0 2.1 4.2 1.4 1.0 Denmark 1.7 1.6 2.8 1.6 1.2 France 1.5 2.0 1.3 1.4 1.0 Germany 1.4 1.5 2.2 1.2 1.0 Italy 1.2 1.8 2.0 0.9 -0.2 Netherlands 0.9 0.9 0.7 1.3 0.7 Norway 2.0 2.0 3.1 1.8 1.2 Spain 1.3 2.0 1.8 1.0 0.2 Sweden 2.0 1.4 2.9 2.5 2.1 United Kingdom 1.9 1.6 2.5 1.9 1.7 Note: Percent changes were calculated from Tables 1 and 3 using the compound rate method. For an explanation of terms and estimation procedures, see introductory material.

- 17 -

Table 7. Purchasing power parities (PPPs), exchange rates, and relative prices, 2005
PPPs for GDP (U.S.=1.000)
United States Canada Australia Japan Republic of Korea Austria Belgium Denmark France Germany Italy Netherlands Norway Spain Sweden United Kingdom
1

Exchange rates
1.000 1.212 1.311 110.1 1024 0.803 0.803 5.995 0.803 0.803 0.803 0.803 6.441 0.803 7.471 0.549

Relative prices1
1.00 1.00 1.06 1.18 0.77 1.09 1.12 1.42 1.15 1.11 1.09 1.12 1.37 0.96 1.24 1.18

1.000 1.214 1.388 129.6 788.9 0.874 0.899 8.517 0.923 0.893 0.875 0.898 8.840 0.768 9.243 0.649

A number below one indicates that prices in this country are lower than in the United States and a number higher than one that prices are higher than in the United States. Note: For an explanation of terms and estimation procedures, see introductory material.