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					     Tartu International School




Alfred Nobel - the biography

          English Project




                            Maren Borgan
                            Aleksandra Zarkowska
                            Caroline T. Dragsdahl
                            Henriette Keuffel




            Tartu 2005
Content

Introduction..........................................................................3
Birth and family background ................................................4
Teenager to dead man.........................................................4
Death and the Nobel Prize...................................................6
Picture Page.........................................................................7
Introduction

This is a project about the man who “invented” the Nobel Prize, better
he made it possible that all his money he did earn is spend to people
who did something really well, who was really brave or who invented
something to make our life better and to help somebody with this
invention.

He invented the dynamite and worked with other inventions like artificial
silk, and leather. He saved us a lot of work because dynamite helps in
construction work like building bridges, tunnels and more. Alfred also
without wanting it made a invention that is sadly used a lot in war. But he
didn't want it so he made the Nobel Peace Prize. And HOW we are
going to tell you on the following pages...
Birth and family background

Alfred Nobel was born in Stockholm on 21st October in 1833, he had
three brothers Robert (1829-1896), Ludwig (1831-1888) and Emil (1843-
1864). Alfred´s parents were the architect and building genie Immanuel
Nobel (1801-1872) and Andriette Nobel (1805-1889). Alfred had a bad
healthy, all the time he had problems with his head and his stomach,
when he became older he also got problems with his heart.



From teenager to dead man

In 1842 Immanuel Nobel´s business went especially well and he moved
with his family to St. Petersburg. A year after they moved (in 1843) he
got a little brother, Emil.

The now four brothers were given a very good education by private
tutors, they learnt languages,science and literature. When Alfred was 17
he could already speak 5 different languages! Alfred was mostly
interested in chemistry,literature and physics. He also loved poetry, but
his father wasn't pleased with that he wanted his sons to follow his
footsteps, so he sent Alfred to Paris,to become a chemical engineer.

In Paris Alfred studied in Professor T.J.Pelouzes laboratory. There he
met a young Italian chemist called Ascanio Sobrero. Three years before
they met Sobrero had invented nitroglycerine. Alfred became very
interested in nitroglycerine, and when he came back to Russia he
worked with his father to develop a explosive that could be used.

The Crimean War ended and Imanuel's business went bad so he
decided to move back to Sweden. But Robert and Ludvig, Alfred's elder
brothers, stayed to try to save the business. They became successful
and started developing oil business in Russia.

After moving to Sweden,in 1863, Alfred concentrated on developing
nitroglycerine as a explosive. He made many experiments which killed
several people, including his brother Emil. But the government saw that
the experiments were dangerous and banned them inside the city
Stockholm.
Alfred didn't give up for so little, he moved his experiments to Lake
Målaren, in 1864 he started mass production of nitroglycerine but didn't
stop the experiments to make the production safer.

But finally his experiments brought success, in 1866 Alfred invented
dynamite! The invention of dynamite made construction and mining
much easier. The hard work was replaced by an explosion.

Dynamite was very important for construction work so Alfred sold lots of
dynamite. Actually he had 90 factories in more than 20 countries!
He worked hard in many capitals earning a lot of money, once he was
described as "Europe's richest vagabond". Nobel also experimented with
other things such as artificial silk, and leather. Through his whole life he
got 355 patents.

One day Alfred Nobel announced in the newspaper for a secretary.
Bertha Kinsky von Chinic und Tettau got the job. She was Austrian, and
after only a short working time she moved back to Austria to marry Arthur
von Suttner. But that wasn't the end of their friendship they still wrote
letters to each others in many years. Bertha von Suttner became very
active in the peace movement and wrote a book "Lay Down Your Arms".
She had great influence on him until his death.
Death and the Nobel Prize

Alfred Nobel died of cerebral haemorrhage in his home in San Demo,
Italy on December 10, 1896. All the money that he got from selling
dynamite he assigned to create a special fund that gives the money to
people who changed the World with their discovery in physics, chemistry,
physiology or medicine, literature and peace. All the prizes are given in
Stockholm, except the peace prize, that is given in Oslo.

There are several reasons why Alfred Nobel decided to make a Nobel
Prize. One of them is, that he was very sorry for the World, and he felt
responsible for the wars and battles, because they became much more
bloody and painful after he invented dynamite. Next important reason,
was that he didn’t have any children, or any close family to whom he
could leave the money after his death. His mother died when he was
young and his brother died in one of the dynamite experiments. In 1968,
Sveriges Riksbank (Bank of Sweden) instituted the Prize in Economic
Sciences in memory of Alfred Nobel. Each prize consists a medal,
personal diploma, and prize amount. This year the prize has gone so far
to10,000,000 SEK (15,000,000 EEK).
Picture Page




    Nobel's Monument
                          The Peace Prize




      His last home




Where the story started      Nobel's Laboratory

				
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