International Perspectives Pacific Rim Asia Pacific Medical Informatics Association (APAMI), 1993- Help launch national healthcare informatics association in Malaysia, Indonesia, and the Philippines. Generated awareness about the field in India, Pakistan, Sri Lanka and Fiji. Other member nations are Australia, Hong Kong, Japan, Korea, New Zealand, the People’s Republic of China, Singapore, Taiwan, and Thailand. I. New Zealand A. Health and Nursing Informatics Changes are continuous in the informatics arena and there are many sources and pressures for these. Technology trends hardware, infrastructure, internet software, portability Healthcare delivery Health informatics groups Education, Undergraduate, Postgraduate Informatics Influences Government ministry of health NZ health information service national health information Research Evidence-based practice Funding Standards development Political arena leadership alliances Legislation private act health information privacy code health and disability act Overview diagram – major influences in informatics in New Zealand. The hub labeled “Informatics Influences” represents information collection, since this is seen as central to nursing, informatics, and healthcare. The other entities identified are significant players in New Zealand’s healthcare system, which influences NI and its development. B. Healthcare Funding Framework The government through the Ministry of Health chiefly funds healthcare in New Zealand. The funding of healthcare in New Zealand is driven by business requirements, where information is used as a basis for cost-effective quality care, given limited resources. Healthcare is available for all resident New Zealanders via a National system. C. Information Governance The New Zealand Ministry of Health is interested in information collection, and much of this occurs through the auspices of the New Zealand Health Information Service (NZHIS). This body controls the national database, which holds registration for 95 % of New Zealanders. The national minimum dataset (NMDS) is a single integrated collection of health data, developed in consultation with health sector representatives and required at the national level for policy formulation, performance monitoring, evaluation, and research. All information collection, storage, access, and retrieval in New Zealand is governed by the Privacy act (1993) and the health information code (1994) and subsequent amendments. II. Australia A. Health and Nursing informatics Australia has more than 50 such specialty national nursing organizations, Where the Health Informatics Society Australia’s nursing informatics special interest group (HISA NI Sig) is one of these. Consequently the HISA NI Sig has been funded to develop a strategic plan for NI capacity building, and a plan for nursing profession’s engagement with the Australian government and its informatics agenda. B. Healthcare Funding Framework Work began in collaboration with Professor Fetter from Yale University during the 1980s to develop patient classification systems to describe the casemix serviced by healthcare organizations. The Australian government manages a Pharmaceutical Benefits Scheme (PBS) which is jointly funded by them and non-government sources. C. Information Governance The Australian Institute for Health and Welfare (AIH&W) provides research and statistical support to the Australian state and territory governments. D. Historical Developments NI in Australia began with the Royal Australian Nursing Federation (now ANF) in 1984. Year later, Nursing Computer Group Victoria (NCGV) continued to flourish and hosted the Fourth International Symposium on Nursing Use of Computers and Information in Melbourne in 1991. The profits of this conference enabled the formation of the HISA (official group to represent Australia at IMIA). III. Hong Kong A. Nursing Informatics Hong Kong nurses established NURSINFO (HK) Ltd., 1991. They organize educational activities, use a communication network, produce a regular newsletter, and are actively involved with the Honk Kong Medical Informatics and the Hong Kong Computer Society. The Hong Kong Hospital Authority is responsible for over 40 hospitals and over 50 specialist clinics that are part of a large multisite, multiprotocol intelligent data network to provide seamless data communications throughout. Telemedicine and videoconferencing are in use and multimedia enhancement in the clinical setting with voice recording and imaging now helps to speed up the health process and strengthens services in clinical areas. IV. South Korea A. Nursing Informatics Korean Society of Medical informatics(1989), the premier organization dedicated to the development and application of medical and health informatics in the support of patient care, education, research, and administration of healthcare arena in general. V. Summary It is clearly evident that the professional health, medical, and nursing organizations play a major role in the awareness raising, education, and dissemination of knowledge about the field of health informatics. This is becoming increasingly complex with the proliferation of government initiatives spanning multiple government departments. This is a reflection of the multidisciplinary nature of health informatics. Nurses, as the largest group of health professionals, have a major role to play. This requires a sound knowledge about the many stakeholders so that nurses can play a role in coordination their efforts to ultimately benefit the healthcare consumer, patients, communities and society as a whole.
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