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					            Creating Study
Purpose of study guides.
      Study guides provide a way to visually organize lecture notes and text book
material so that you can increase your comprehension and memory of large amounts of
information. Preparing study guides allows you to see and make meaningful
connections with the material, thus acquiring the higher levels of learning expected by
many of your professors.

Study guides and learning levels.
       Preparing for tests often involves more than memorizing facts, figures, formulas,
and definitions. Many professors expect you to demonstrate critical thinking, which
involves more than rote memorization. In many classes, with multiple choice and essay
exams, you are required to compare/contrast, analyze, evaluate, or synthesize
information you have learned. To be able to learn at these higher levels, you must
develop strategies to organize lecture notes and text book material so that you can
increase your comprehension and ability to think critically.

Examples of learning levels.
       Review the following examples of test questions from a sociology class. The first
question only requires that you recall a definition, which you can do well through rote
memorization techniques such as flash cards. The remaining questions require you to
make connections or conclusions that may not have been directly presented by your
professor or in your text book.

Question 1. A group of relatives by marriage constitute
            a. a conjugal family
            b. an extended family
            c. a nuclear family
            d. none of the above

Question 2. Sammy's parents had a party for him on his fifth birthday. They invited
                   both sets of grandparents and Sammy's father's brother and his
                   children. This is called a gathering of:
            a. a consanguine family
            b. a conjugal family
            c. an egalitarian family
            d. a patriarchal family

Question 3. Discuss the term conjugal families, by making reference to the different
                  types of societies to which they could belong.




                 Academic Resource Center, Taggart Student
                                   Center
                          Room 305, (435)797-1128
                Question 4. Describe the economic consequence of a neolocal
                                    society.

To correctly answer test questions like those in the example, you must create the types
of study guides that will help you:
1.            visualize and understand relationships among concepts and ideas.
2.            condense course material into smaller amounts of information that are
       easier to remember.
3.            create examples and apply information to "real world" situations.

Six basic study guides.
        Within this Idea Sheet are examples of six basic types of study guides. These
study guides can be adapted based on your personal learning style and the information
you are needing to organize. Experiment with these, as well as using other study guide
formats that you have found to be effective. Remember, the purpose for study guides
is to organize information so that you can understand it, remember it, and demonstrate
your knowledge at the level your professor expects.
                                    Concept map
        Many students benefit from information that is presented visually. The concept
map provides a study tool that allows you to organize information that may not be
sequential. Unlike an outline, which is linear, the concept map presents information
spatially. However, you still organize information from the general to the specific. You
can then add details, examples, and information regarding “real life” application of the
information.

Concept maps are useful for classes in any subject area.

Read the following edited excerpt from Personal Adjustment: The psychology of
everyday life by Derlega and Janda and then refer to the concept map developed from
the information:
      We will examine three of the major psychological approaches to personality:
      the dynamic, humanistic, and social learning approaches. The dynamic
      approach is also called the psychoanalytic view, based on the work of Sigmund
      Freud. One aspect of Freudian theory is that a person is continually in a state of
      conflict. Humans are caught between opposing forces, which results in their
      being in conflict between those forces. the source of the opposing forces lies in
      the psychic apparatus, which can be divided into three parts: the id, the ego,
      and the superego. The id consists of the instinctual drives a person possesses
      at birth, such as hunger, thirst, sex, aggression. The ego provides the capacity
      for delayed gratification. The superego is thought of as the "conscience".
                                    Comparison Chart
         A comparison chart provides a study tool that allows you to organize information visually
into categories. This format helps you to see relationships among categories or characteristics.
It is a very effective format to use when you need to be able to see the differences or similarities
among facts, theories, theorists, processes, etc. You can create comparison charts that are
blank, requiring you to fill in all of the information; completed with all of the information; or
partially complete, depending on your learning needs and how you are expected to demonstrate
your knowledge on tests.

                            AUTHORITY TYPES (for a sociology class)

 Type                    Primary Characteristics         Origin of the authority     Examples




                 INFORMATION PROCESSING (for a cognitive psychology class)
 Type of memory       Information stored       Capacity          Duration of info.      Format

 sensory              temporary; senses        high              <1 sec. (vision)       literal
                                                                 few seconds
                                                                 (hearing)

 short-term           brief; info. currently   limited           <20 seconds            auditory &
                      being used                                                        verbal

 long-term            relatively permanent     unlimited(?)      long or perm. (?)      semantic
Name of organic compound   Functional group   Structure


 1. Alkane



  2.                            O               O
                                C              RC H
                                     H
  3.                          C C
                               Process Diagram
       The process diagram provides a study tool that allows you to visually represent
methods, processes, steps, or stages that describe how events occur. For example, in a
geology class, you learn about how rock layers are formed. In a nutrition class, you
learn about the digestive process. In a political science class, you learn how a bill is
introduced and passed into law. In a human development class, you learn the stages of
child development.

      Process diagrams take complex information and visually represent it to make it




easier for you to learn and remember the important concepts and facts.
                                    Informal Outline
        The outline provides a study tool that allows you to organize information in a
linear format. It shows how ideas are related to the topic and lists information in relative
importance, using Roman or Arabic numerals or indentations.

       The outline tends to be the format used most often by students for their note
taking and study guides.



                         Three Major Psychological Approaches to Personality

1.     Dynamic (also called psychoanalytic)
       A.        Characteristics
            Person continually in conflict; opposing forces
             Source of forces = psychic apparatus

       B.           Psychic apparatus
               Id: instinctual drives possessed at birth such as hunger, thirst, sex, and aggression
               most important drives (per Freud)

               Ego: reconciles demands of id with "real" world moderates and guides basic
               instincts in line with society's norms provides capacity for delayed gratification

               Superego: conscience ("internalized parent") shaped by social forces such as
               school, church, close acquaintances

 2. Humanistic

 3. Social learning
                              Branching Diagram
       The branching diagram (also called a web or idea map) is less formal and
structured than some of the other study guides. Many students are unfamiliar with this
technique and find it less comfortable as a study aid. However, it is quite useful when
brainstorming ideas for a research paper, as well as being another technique you can
use to organize your lecture or text notes.

       A branching diagram begins with a central circle, in which you write your main
topic. Draw lines radiating out from the circle (like wheel spokes) on which you place the
main ideas or major points. Draw additional lines from these lines, which contain




supporting ideas or points.
                                            Time Line
        The time line provides a study tool that allows you to organize information that is
presented chronologically. This format allows you to review information as a sequence
of events that must be understood and remembered in sequence. Time lines would be
effective to use in classes in which you are presented:

<      historical developments: history, anthropology, political science, music, art




<      biological developments: biology, anatomy, physiology
<      human or other developments: psychology, biology, natural resources




    Day 1---------------conception; zygote forms; cleavage begins
Day 2


 Day 3---------------embryo reaches uterus; now called a morula



 Day 4



 Day 5----------------morula becomes a blastocyst



 Day 6----------------embryo implants in uterus and forms a trophoblast


Day 7---------------embryo size of a period (dot)