native americans northwest coast by theydont

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									North American Indians Moccasins These colourful hand-made moccasins are from North America and are embroidered with leaf and flower patterns. It is possible that they were brought back to Britain on one of Captain Cook's great sailing voyages during 1770-1780. Buckskin and silk moccasins like these are typical of most of the North American Indian tribes. These are 24cm long with front and side flaps and have delicate leaf motifs decorated with white, pink, blue, green and orange stitched beads. These look similar to slippers that people wear today. Using the moccasin as inspiration, design an item of footwear for use today. Consider why these moccasins have a stitched beaded leaf design on them.

Comb This comb is a Tlingit horn comb from the Tlingit Indian tribe of the North-West Coast of America and was probably collected around 1782; it may have been used for special religious ceremonies. The comb has been cut from a single piece of animal horn; it has 17 teeth and is khaki green in colour. The short comb has a high back that is carved into a design where the neck, head and long beak of a heron bird form the back edge. The beak points down to the head of a whale in profile. Different styles of combs can be seen in the Egyptian and Viking sections. Consider the different materials used and discuss. Compare two of the combs and discuss your favourite, and explain why.

Conical Hat and Cape Made from tightly woven strands of stiff cedar roots and worn by the Native American tribes, conical basketry hats and capes of North-West American coast type were seen, drawn and collected in 1778 during Captain Cook's third great sailing expedition. Both items were usually worn together. The hat is a soft cone shape and the short circular cape is shaped to a narrow top with leather overstitching around the collar. These items were highly sought after and used to trade for other goods. By trading with the Europeans, the North American tribes were able to provide us with many of the artefacts seen museums today.

Decorated Coat This American Indian robe or coat is made from buckskin, is painted and has intricate detailed beading and patterning on the central panels. William Hunter acquired it from people who had visited Canada and the North-West coast of America during the late 18th Century. Native American women made these and other items of clothing by hand. The coat is 110cm in length and is decorated with intricate black and red designs with tiny beads stitched onto the cuffs. These coats were made from animal skins, usually the Caribou. The skins were cut using flint tools like the flint arrow seen below. Native American Indians still make clothing in this way as gifts for close family members.

Bear Claw Necklace North American Indians often made bear claw necklaces similar to this one. They were highly prized and most Indian chiefs wore them as a symbol of bravery. They were treated as family heirlooms and usually passed from father to son. The North American Indian would kill a Grizzly Bear using only a knife and then make the claws into a necklace. Many necklaces were made from the claws of more than one bear. North American Indians were very lucky to survive a fight with a Grizzly Bear and live to wear its claws as a necklace. These 11 claws are 8-9cm long. Consider why the necklace was seen to be important in North American Indian culture.

Model Kayak The Tlingit and Haida tribal people lived and struggled in the harsh conditions on the west coast of what is now Canada and northern United States. They developed the kayak for travelling, hunting and fishing on water. Traditional kayaks are slender, watertight boats propelled by paddles. This model kayak is 74.5cm in length. It has a light wooden frame and is completely covered in leather with an opening for the paddler. Model kayaks were made for children to play with and also to help them appreciate how important they were to the survival of their tribes. These rare models are important museum pieces as contact with Europeans changed the native people forever.

Snowshoes Without snowshoes, Native American Indians would not have survived the harsh winters of North America. As they lived in forests filled with soft, fluffy snow, snowshoes allowed them to move around easier as they hunted and travelled across the land. These 74.8cm long snowshoes are made from wood, leather and fibre. Different styles of snowshoe enabled people to walk across different types of snow. Many designs were larger versions of animals’ feet, such as a bear paw or a moose hoof. When settlers came to North America, they learned how to make snowshoes from the Indians and then developed their own styles. Today, people use snowshoes made from metal and rubber although there is less need for them today.

Haida Oil Bowl People from the Haida Gwaii islands in North America who possessed a carved wooden personal or family food dish were expected to bring it along to a feast and to use it afterwards to take food home to their relatives. This 18.8cm bowl with squared ends is a dipping bowl, used at feasts to hold oil or grease from seal or whale blubber. Each end of the bowl has a shark or dogfish carved in low relief. Personal food dishes were often carved from a solid block of wood, usually alder. Smaller bowls were made for children to use. Discuss why animals were carved on the bowls. Consider what would you choose to carve on your bowl?

Pipe Figure This black stone pipe is believed to be from the Haida Gwaii islands, which are near Canada. Here stone carvings were first carved around 1800 to make pipes for tobacco rituals performed during tribal ceremonies. Mythical images were usually carved on pipes. This 13.8cm long pipe is carved into the shape of a man’s head with a small animal head behind it. Tobacco and smoking were important to the American Indian tribes; pipe smoking took on a ritual and religious importance in many tribes. Rituals such as smoking served various functions, including healing and maintaining success in hunting and farming. The rituals also expressed beliefs about the relationship of Native Americans with the universe and the world around them; these beliefs are often seen in Native American art.

Arrow Point Humans have used flint for tools and weapons since the Stone Age. This 6.5cm long flint arrow point from the North-West coast of America may have been secured onto an wooden shaft or spear and used to hunt animals or for fishing. Flint tools are extremely sharp and were used for a variety of purposes. Leather used to make painted coats was first scraped clean using flint tools and wooden bowls such as the Haida bowl could also be carved using flint. A flint arrow point would have been useful to keep in your pouch. They had many different uses and could be sharpened regularly. Many Indians were buried with their flint tools. Consider the different ways you could use a flint arrow point.


								
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