Development of Cinema Ontology: A Conceptual and Context Approach

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					                                                           (IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security,
                                                           Vol. 8, No. 7, October 2010

Development of Cinema Ontology: A Conceptual and
                Context Approach
                   Dr. Sunitha Abburu                                                              Jinesh V N
                   Professor & Director                                            Lecturer, Department of Computer Science
           Department of Computer Applications                                           The Oxford College of Science
           Adhiyamaan College of Engineering                                                    Bangalore, India.
                       Hosur, India.                                                             919739072949

Abstract— Stored multimedia data poses a number of challenges               information, including data and knowledge representation,
in the management of multimedia information, includes                       indexing and retrieval, intelligent searching techniques,
knowledge representation, indexing and retrieval, intelligent               information browsing and query processing. Among the
searching techniques, information browsing and query                        multimedia entertainment cinema stands in the first position.
processing. Among the multimedia entertainment, cinema stands               Large numbers of groups are involved in the cinema domain.
in the first position. Ontology is a kind of concept model that
                                                                            Nowadays multimedia entertainment became more and more
could describe system at the level of semantic knowledge as
agreed by a community of people. Ontology is hierarchical and               popular and vast numbers of groups are working on this
thus provides a taxonomy of concepts that allows for the semantic           domain. Most of entertainment media is introducing cinema
indexing and retrieval of information. Ontology together with a             related programs. Today‘s busy world most of us prefer to
set of individual instances of classes constitutes a knowledge base.        watch favorite scenes. Our studies on user requirements
In an abstract sense, we view cinema ontology as a collection of            pertaining to the entertaining of cinema lovers would like to
sub ontologies. Most of the queries are based on two different              watch information about cinema celebrities like date of birth,
aspects of the multimedia objects pertaining to cinema domain               hobbies, list of flopped cinemas, ranking…etc,. And would
viz context information and concept based scenes. There is a need           also like to view scenes pertaining to specific theme, actor
for two kinds of sub ontology pertaining to the cinema domain.
                                                                            …etc, they may be looking for their favorite actor, director,
Cinema Context Ontology and Cinema Scene Ontology. The
former deals with the external information and while the later              musician…etc,. At the same time directors, cameramen, stunt
focus on the semantic concepts of the cinema scene and their                masters…etc, would like to view scenes pertaining to a
hierarchy and the relationship among the concepts. Further                  specific theme or different theme to improve or enhance their
practical implementation of Cinema ontology is illustrated using            capabilities, skills or knowledge. Cinema, clipping and related
the protégé tool. Finally, designing and construction of context            information is/are available in the internet. To improve the
information extraction system and cinema scene search engine                effectiveness and efficiency of system, one must concentrate
are proposed as future work. The proposed structure is flexible             on user community and their requirements in different aspects.
and can be easily enhance.
                                                                               Multimedia objects are required for variety of reasons in
Keywords- Domain ontology; Concept; Context; Cinema;                        different contexts. Video data is rapidly growing and playing a
                                                                            vital role in our life. Despite the vast growth of multimedia
                       I.    INTRODUCTION                                   objects and information, the effectiveness of its usage is very
                                                                            limited due to the lack of complete organized knowledge
   In this busy and competitive world entertainment media
                                                                            representation. The Domain Knowledge should be extracted
plays a vital role. All need some kind of entertainment to come
                                                                            and stored in an organized manner which will support
out of the daily life pressure. The volume of digital video has
                                                                            effective retrieval system. An ontology defines a common
grown tremendously in recent years, due to low cost digital
                                                                            vocabulary, common understanding of the structure of domain
cameras, scanners, and storage and transmission devices.
                                                                            knowledge among the people who needs to share information.
Multimedia objects are now employed in different areas such
                                                                            The use of ontology in information systems provides several
as entertainment, advertising, distance learning, tourism,
                                                                            benefits like knowledge needed and acquired can be stored in
distributed CAD/CAM, GIS, sports etc. This trend has resulted
                                                                            a standardized format that unambiguously describes the
in the emergence of numerous multimedia repositories that
                                                                            knowledge in a formal model. Ontology is hierarchical and
require efficient storage. The stored multimedia data poses a
                                                                            thus provides a taxonomy of concepts that allows for the
number of challenges in the management of multimedia
                                                                            semantic indexing and retrieval of information. Ontology

                                                                                                       ISSN 1947-5500
                                                         (IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security,
                                                         Vol. 8, No. 7, October 2010

provides a means of data fusion by supplying synonyms or
concepts defined using various descriptions. Above points                Ontology development process is an iterative process that will
shows the need of cinema ontology.                                       continue in the entire life cycle of the Ontology. The basic
                                                                         steps for building Ontology are:
   The rest of the paper is organized as follows. The literature               Determine the domain and scope of the ontology.
survey report is in section 2. Section 3 discusses the proposed                Consider reusing existing ontology.
method for cinema domain ontology construction. In section 4,                  Enumerate important terms in the ontology.
we present a practical implementation and experimental                         Define the classes and the class hierarchy.
results. Finally, we conclude with a summary and some                          Define the properties of classes—slots.
directions of future research in section 5.                                    Define the facets of the slots.
            II.   LITERATURE ON ONTOLOGY                                       Create instances.
   Ontology has been developed in the artificial intelligence               When ontology is applied to specific field, it refers as
community to describe a variety of domains, and has been                 domain ontology and is the specification of a particular
suggested as a mechanism to provide applications with domain             domain conceptualization. Ontology together with a set of
knowledge and to facilitate the sharing of information [1] [2]           individual instances of classes constitutes a knowledge base.
[3] [4]. Ontology is a formal, explicit specification of a shared        In reality, there is a fine line where the ontology ends and the
conceptualization [5]. A conceptualization of some                       knowledge base begins. Lili Zhao and Chunping Li [9]
phenomenon in the world identifies and determines the                    proposed ontology based mining for movie reviews which
relevant concepts and the relations of that phenomenon.                  uses the ontology structure as an essential part of the feature
Ontology is typically defined as an abstract model of a domain           extraction process by taking relationship between concepts.
of interest with a formal semantics in the sense that they               The author is using two models movie model and feature
constitute a logical theory. These models are supposed to                model. Amancio Bouza [10] initiated a project on movie
represent a shared conceptualization of a domain as they are             ontology with the aim to standardize the representation of
assumed to reflect the agreement of a certain community or               movies and movie attributes across data bases. This project
group of people. In the simplest case, ontology consist of a set         provides a controlled vocabulary of semantic concepts and the
of concepts or classes which are relevant for the domain of              semantic relations among those concepts. But still, this
interest as well as a set of relations defined on these concepts.        ontology needs further investigation in collecting, filtering and
Ontology is a kind of concept model that could describe                  normalizing concepts, properties, and instances. Shiyan Ou, et
system at the level of semantic knowledge as agreed by a                 al [11] presents an automatic question pattern generation for
community of people. It serves as semantic reference for users           ontology-based question answering for cinema domain. We
or applications that accept to align their interpretation of the         have chosen movie domain for the same reasons given by Gijs
semantics of their data to the interpretation stored in the              Geleijnse[12].Gijs have chosen to study the movie domain for
ontology [6]. As a new kind of knowledge organization tool,              two reasons, firstly, numerous web pages handle this topic, the
ontology has attracted more and more attention.                          query ‗movie‘ in Google results in 180,000,000 hits. The
                                                                         performance of the algorithm will thus not or barely be
   Ontology has been widely used in many fields, such as                 influenced by the lack of data available. Secondly, we can
knowledge representation, knowledge sharing, knowledge                   easily verify the results and formulate benchmarks for
integration, knowledge reuse, information retrieval, and so on.          evaluation purposes. To the best of our knowledge, the need
Hence the development of ontology is seriously impeded [5].              and construction of cinema domain ontology has almost not
In the field of knowledge engineering, different scholars give           been dealt with. In this paper we present a novel solution to
different definitions of ontology according to the content of            construct cinema domain ontology.
ontology, the form of ontology or the purpose of ontology [7].
Different types of ontology may exist, ranging from
                                                                                    III.   CINEMA DOMAIN ONTOLOGY
sophisticated dictionaries to rich conceptual and formal
descriptions of concepts with their relationships and                       Cinema domain ontology contains concepts, relations
constraints. N. F. Noy, and D. L. McGuiness in [8] describe              between concepts, concepts attributes. The concept attributes
the need for ontology as:                                                share object oriented structure. Cinema industry involves
      To share common understanding of the structure of                 heterogeneous systems and people .This is the biggest industry
          information among people or software agents.                   in the entertainment world and more complex. As more
      To enable reuse of domain knowledge.                              number of people with different technical, skills and
      To make domain assumptions explicit.                              background are trying to show their skills in to the cinema
      To separate domain knowledge from the operational                 industry. People from vast and various fields are competing to
          knowledge.                                                     show case their talents, knowledge and the skill sets. All the
                                                                         communities would be interested to know, acquire the
      To analyze domain knowledge.
                                                                         knowledge of the latest and best techniques, styles in their

                                                                                                    ISSN 1947-5500
                                                        (IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security,
                                                        Vol. 8, No. 7, October 2010

own fields. So our proposed Cinema Ontology model supports              Metadata such as who captured the video, where, when…etc,
such kind of requirement.                                               motivated by these demands efforts have been made to build a
                                                                        semantic cinema ontology , exploring more efficient context
   In an abstract view, we view cinema ontology as a                    management and information retrieval system. Our studies on
collection of sub ontologies. The proposed structure is flexible        user requirements concluded that most of the queries are based
and can be easily enhanced. We represent the cinema ontology            on the two different aspects of the multimedia objects viz
(CO) as a collection of sub ontology. CO = {CCo, CSo, CMo               context, concept based scenes. As the requirements may be
…} Domain Knowledge is required to capture the metadata                 related to the cinema scene or the information about the
and annotation in different aspects, as well as to interpret the        cinema. Cinema domain ontology is a hierarchical structured
query. Multimedia objects are required for variety of reasons           set of concepts describing cinema context, cinema scenes
in different contexts by different communities. We derive the           domain knowledge, which can support cinema information
word stakeholder from software engineering aspect for cinema            extraction, storage and retrieval system. This gives the need of
domain as anyone or groups, who are involved, associated or             two kinds of sub ontology pertaining to the cinema domain.
interested in the cinema industry. It is sensible to look for                 Cinema context ontology(CCo)
natural subgroups that will be more homogeneous than the                      Cinema Scene ontology (CSo).
total population. Hence in our case we classified the                       In this scenario, the formalism of knowledge must be
stakeholder community into two classes based on their roles             convenient for structuring the movie descriptions based on
they perform with respect to the cinema domain. Stakeholders            available resource.
who are involved and associated are fall in one class and the
interested will fall in other class. The advantage of such              A. Cinema Context Ontology
classification is that we can easily sum up the retrieval                   The cinema is closely associates with different kinds of
behavior which directly conveys the information requirement.            information like cinema, cinema celebrities, banner, cinema
End user‘s information requirement is a very significant and            ranking, etc. This kind of information or data is not related to
substantial input during database design. Unfortunately this            the content or semantics of the cinema. To represent the
input will not be readily available and has to be manually              complete cinema domain knowledge semantic information
collected and accumulated from the real world. Thus it                  must be associated with context information along with the
involves extensive human expertise and experience. Even after           cinema scenes. Moreover the index considering only
accumulation there is no guaranty that the information is               semantics ignores the context information regarding the video.
complete and correct. This has motivated us to design a                 Unfortunately cinema scenes or multimedia object which is
cinema domain ontology which is flexible and easy to enhance            separated from its context has less capability of conveying
as and when the requirements changes.                                   semantics. For example, diagnostic medical videos are
                                                                        retrieved not only in terms of video content but also in terms
   As per our literature survey not much work has been done             of other information associated with the video (like
in cinema domain. Survey on stake holders information                   physician‘s diagnosis, physician details, treatment plan,
requirements pertaining to the cinema lovers reflects that they         photograph taken on. …etc., ). Context information includes
would like to watch information about cinema celebrities like           information regarding the cinema, such as date of release,
date of birth, hobbies, list of flopped cinemas, ranking…etc,           place of release, director, producer, actors and so on. In the
and also would like to view scenes related to specific theme,           cinema domain context information abstracts complete
actor, director, musician…etc,. Where as directors,                     information of that context i.e., actors, producers, technical
cameraman, stunt masters, and technical groups…etc, would               community personal details …etc,. The context information
like to view scenes pertaining to a specific theme or different         associated to the cinema domain can be classified in to context
theme to improve or enhance their capabilities, skills or               independent information and context dependent information as
knowledge. Themes may based on the interest of the viewer               shown in Fig. 1
pertaining to
      Actor, comedian...
      Actions. (Happy, angry…etc,.)
      Events (celebrations-birthday, wedding, inauguration)
      Location (hill stations, 7 wonders of the world, etc.)                                          Context independent
      Settings used.                                                           Context

      Subjective emotions (happiness, violence)                                Ontology
                                                                                                        Context Dependent
      Costumes used…etc, (dragon, devil, god, special

      Including the presence of a specific type of object
          (trains, cars,etc,. )
                                                                                           Figure.1 Context Information Classification

                                                                                                           ISSN 1947-5500
                                                          (IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security,
                                                          Vol. 8, No. 7, October 2010

Context Dependent Information: The information associated                 hierarchical structure clearly and can be used for application
with a particular cinema, like actors, directors‘ performance in          systems such as video search engines for wide range of cinema
a specific cinema, group of people who are involved in a                  audio, producers, cameramen, directors, musicians …etc,.
cinema, team‘s performance in a cinema i.e. all information               Cinema scene sub ontology is based on the cinema scenes and
associated to a particular cinema.                                        classification of cinema scenes which may help various group
Context Independent Information: The general details about                of people involved in cinema industry and the TV channels to
cinema celebrities like personal details, location details, movie         go for theme, actor oriented entertainment programs. In this
hall details…etc means the information which does not                     ontology the data is arranged in such a way that the extraction
depends upon a particular cinema.                                         or retrieval process will be improved and it will be based on
                                                                          scene in the cinema.
    The stake holder would like get the information about the
cinema and cinema celebrities. This gives the need for cinema                            IV.   A PRACTICAL APPROACH
context sub ontology. Ontology plays a more important role in
                                                                                   Sousan W.L, Wylie, K.L, Zhengxin Chen in [13]
design and sharing of information. To make full use of
                                                                          describes the method to construct Ontology from text. Xinli
available data and more efficient search for desired
                                                                          and Zhao in [14] studied the government ontology and in [15]
information we need proper representation of knowledge.
                                                                          construction of university course ontology is discussed. This
Effective structure of the knowledge improves the efficiency
                                                                          section enters in to details of the method of constructing
of the retrieval system. In cinema context ontology the
                                                                          cinema Ontology. Row cinema is observed by the human
knowledge is represented in such a way that the extraction or
                                                                          observer and is segmented into scenes. Based on the theme in
retrieval process will be improved and it will be based on
                                                                          the scene ontology these scenes are stored in a scene database.
context in the cinema. Context of the cinema like actors,
                                                                          Each scene in the scene database is again given to the human
director, producer, story writer, editor, cameraman, banner,
                                                                          observer to identify various concepts instances of the scene, to
release date ,success rate, awards won by etc, are is purely
                                                                          create the annotation. The scene annotation supports the
text data which can be dealt as information extraction ,storage
                                                                          cinema scene search and retrieval based on various concepts
and retrieval. To support these activities and to improve the
                                                                          like themes, actor, location, action, event …etc, is as shown in
efficiency of the retrieval system information is stored and
                                                                          Fig.2. Context dependent and context independent details are
retrieved based on the context sub ontology.
                                                                          extracted and stored using object oriented concepts.
A. Cinema Scene Ontology
                                                                                                                                  Cinema Ontology
    Domain ontology is greatly useful in knowledge
acquisition, sharing and analysis. In order to acquire the
                                                                                                  Cinema celebrities
richness and the entertainment contained in cinema we are                                            Information
introducing cinema ontology. Craze on cinema celebrates and                                                                        Context
cinema scene acted, directed, edited …etc, by specific
individuals of cinema industry …etc, are too high. The current                 Human               Raw Cinema                        Scene
work is targeted for the cinema stakeholders. The stake holder                Observer                                              ontology.

would like to watch the scenes of cinema celebrities. This
gives the need for the cinema scene database, where the main                                      Cinema Scenes                      Cinema
repository is cinema scenes from various movies based on the                                                                          music
user interest. For all the above reasons there is a need to define
cinema scene ontology. The semantic concepts in generic to
cinema domain concept hierarchy and relationship between
the concepts, attributes of the concepts …etc, needs to be                               Figure.2 Construction of Cinema Ontology
considered. To support the cinema scene retrieval, there is a
need for cinema scene ontology in which knowledge                         The overall process can be formatted in the steps below.
pertaining to cinema scenes can be identified, represented and
classified. The concepts of cinema scenes are identified and              Step1: Multiple cinemas are taken as the source of the
classified in general by considering multiple cinemas. Themes,            semantic data. The power of ontology in organizing concepts
actors, actions, location, action …etc, are different concepts of         can be used in modeling the video data.
the cinema scene ontology.                                                Step2: Manual approach is adopted to identify the semantic
                                                                          concepts in cinemas. Cinemas are segmented into different
   Video scenes can be queried to their semantic content                  scenes based on the concepts.
which will increase the retrieval efficiency. The cinema scene             Step3: Identify the concept hierarchy. Identify the abstract,
sub ontology supports semantic and concept based retrieval of             concrete concept classes in cinema scenes.
cinema scenes. CO can reflect the cinema domain knowledge                 Step4: Concepts are classified into disjoint concepts,
                                                                          overlapping concepts, range concepts …etc,.

                                                                                                        ISSN 1947-5500
                                                       (IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security,
                                                       Vol. 8, No. 7, October 2010

Step5: Build the ontology using ontology construction tool -           ( Mark Musen‘s group at Stanford
protégé and the ontology graph to visualize and evaluate the           University. We generated few figures with the onto graph
ontology.                                                              plug-in to protégé as depicted in Fig.3.a, Fig.3.b, Fig.3c. We
Step6: Post-construction analysis by domain expert.                    selected OWL, as the ontology language, which is standard
                                                                       ontology language recommended by W3C.
     Multiple cinema are taken as a source, and based on
which, core concepts, abstract concept class, concrete concept
classes, concept instances and the concept hierarchy between
them are identified. Manual annotation is generated for cinema
scenes. The main aim is to extract the semantics of cinema
scene using which semantic concepts can be detected and
concept information can be maintained.
A. Identification of Concept in Cinema Domain
     Concept represent Themes, Events, Actions, Locations,
Emotion, Artist or anything that is desirable to mark the
presence in the media object. Concepts may be organized in to
hierarchies. The basic logical unit in the structure of cinema
domain is Scene. Based on cinema, we have segmented the
cinema into various Scene objects, which contains one
complete meaningful scene. A cinema contains concepts like                           Figure 3.a Onto graph showing cinema ontology
Themes, Events, Actions, Locations, Emotion, Artist …etc,. A
raw cinema V can be segmented in to n number of segments or
video objects VOi, i.e., V = {VO1, VO2,...VOi} where i ranges
from 1 to the number of scenes in the cinema. Each Cinema
contains a number of concepts.

         Let C be the set of all possible concepts in a given
domain. C = {C1, C2 …Cj} where j ranges from 1 to the
possible number of concepts. The number of concepts and the
type of concepts depends on the abstract view of the
application and the user requirements. We now can view a raw
video as a collection of concepts, V = {C1, C2 …Ci}. Each
video object VOi contains set of concepts Cc which is a sub set
of the concept set C. VOi = {C1, C6, Cy, Cj….}. Concepts can
be classified in to concept class based on the concept type. A
concept can have z number of subclasses. For example, scene                          Figure 3.b Onto graph showing cinema ontology.
concept can be further classified into comedy, tragedy, fights,
romance …etc, based on the theme. Further a concept class
can have number of concept values, CCm = {CV1,CV2, ……},
where CVo is the possible values that the concept can have.
For example action concept can have subclasses as Fight,
comedy, Song, Tragedy …etc,. Multimedia objects are
described by a set of concepts C1, C2, C3.......Cn where n is
the number of concepts associated to cinema, each concept Ck
can have m concept values. i.e., VOi = {CC1 (CV1), CC2
(CV2)......CCn (CVm)}. E.g.: VOi = {Song (romantic), Hero
(Bachan), shot (trolley)}. Concepts can be identified and
added at any time which increases the flexibility of the
proposed model. User can browse a cinema based on the
semantic concepts like all comedy, tragedy, fighting, romantic                       Figure 3.c Onto graph showing cinema ontology.
…etc and they can search specific type of comedy scene like
comedy scenes in a song, comedy scenes in fighting …etc,.                       V.      CONCLUSION AND FUTURE WORK
[16][17][18] describes ontology tools. We have used Protégé
as an Ontology developing tool to implement our cinema                    Ontology is widely accepted technique for knowledge
ontology construction [19] [20]. Protégé was developed by              system development. Ontology plays important role in design

                                                                                                      ISSN 1947-5500
                                                                (IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security,
                                                                Vol. 8, No. 7, October 2010

and sharing of knowledge. Effective structure of the                                 [5]    Gruber T.R: Towards principles for the design of ontologies used
knowledge improves the efficiency of the retrieval system.                                  for knowledge sharing. International Journal of Human-Computer
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concepts, context hierarchy and the ontology structure is                                   Development for Insect Morphology and Taxonomy System,‖
presented. In the proposed approach based on the users and                                  IEEE/WIC/ACM International Conference on Web Intelligence
their requirement two sub ontology were developed. Cinema                                   and Intelligent Agent Technology, pp. 324–330, December 2006.
context ontology and cinema scene ontology. The former deals                         [8]    N. F. Noy, and D. L. McGuinness, ―Ontology Development 101: A
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implementation of cinema ontology is illustrated using the                                  2009.Vienna,Austria,November 2009 proceedings. Pp.204-214
                                                                                    [10]    Amancio Bouza [] : ―MO – the Movie Ontology‖. MO – the Movie
protégé tool.                                                                               Ontology. 2010.
                                                                                    [11]    Shiyan Ou, Constantin Orasan, Dalila Mekhaldi, Laura Hasler,
Further studies can be done towards:                                                        Automatic Question Pattern Generation for Ontology-based
     Designing and construction of information extraction                          [12]
                                                                                            Question Answering.
                                                                                            Gijs Geleijnse A Case Study on Information Extraction from the
         system based on the cinema context ontology for                                    Internet: Populating a Movie Ontology.
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                                                                                             from Texts: APractical Approach and a Case Study, NWESP '09.
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     Design and construction of ontology base cinema                               [14]    Xinli Zhao; Dongxia Zhao; Wenfei Gao; China Sci. & Technol.
                                                                                            Exchange Center, Beijing, China Research on the construction of
         scene search engine which will support the cinema
                                                                                            government ontology Intelligent Computing and Intelligent
         stake holder‘s needs by retrieving the appropriate                                 Systems, 2009. ICIS 2009. IEEE International Conference on 20-
         cinema scenes pertaining to different themes, actors,                              22 Nov. 2009 Pg 319 – 323.
         actions etc.                                                               [15]    Ling Zeng; Tonglin Zhu; Xin Ding; Study on Construction of
                                                                                            University Course Ontology: Content, Method and Process
                                                                                            Computational Intelligence and Software Engineering, 2009. CiSE
     The use of cinema ontology can more effectively support
                                                                                            , 2009 , Page(s): 1 - 4 .
the construction of cinema scene library in television channels                     [16]    F. L. Mariano and G. P. Asunción, ―Overview and analysis of
as well as cinema production companies for their cinema                                     methodologies for building ontologies,‖ The Knowledge
based programs and brings entertainment for cinema lovers.                                  Engineering Review, vol. 17(2), pp. 129–156, 2002.
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                       ACKNOWLEDGMENT                                                       Description of the State-of-the-Art, Applications, Challenges and
                                                                                            Trends for Ontology Learning from Text,‖ Information,
         This work has been partly done in the labs of
                                                                                            Wissenschaft und Praxis, Vol. 57, No. 6-7. (October 2006), pp.
Adhiyamaan College of Engineering where the first author is
currently working as a Professor& Director in the department                        [18]    Duineveld A. et al. ―Wonder Tools‘? A Comparative Study of
of Master of Computer applications. The authors would like to                               Ontological Engineering Tools.‖ Intl. Journal of Himian-Computer
express their sincere thanks to Adhiyamaan College of                                       Studies. Vol. 52 No. 6, pp. 11 11-1 133. 2000.
Engineering for their support rendered during the                                   [19]    Michael Denny, Ontology Building, ―A Survey of Editing Tools,
implementation of this module.                                                              ‖ pub/a/2002/11 / 06/ ontologies.html.
                                                                                    [20]    Matthew Horridge, Simon Jupp, Georgina Moulton, Alan Rector,
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Description: Vol. 8 No. 6 September 2010 International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security