Globalizing to Embrace the World

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Globalizing to Embrace the World Powered By Docstoc
					Women’s Worlds 2005
Volume 5                                                                                Thursday, June 23, 2005

 Globalizing to
 Embrace the World
    “Globalization is a synonym for embracing the world, the
 main theme for WW05,” said Frances Raday (Israel), the
 moderator for yesterday’s plenary session titled “Globaliza-
 tion, Economic Values and Poverty.” Ideally, globalization
 should signal the world coming together with the ultimate
 purpose of creating a win-win situation for all. However,
 the world is still far from its ideal and globalization process-
 es continue to marginalize certain groups, such as women.
    Instead of trickling down development from the West-                                                                            Photo by Ji-sun Kim
 ern hemisphere to the East and building democratic institu-        Jiyul Sunim (Korea) quilts a “green resonance” with participants.
 tions, globalization lingeringly produces sex tourism, the
 migration of women, and informal female labor. Thus,
 globalization seems to increase the heinous gap between
 the rich and the poor.
                                                                    Becoming One with Nature
    Gigi Francisco (Philippines) highly criticized the role of         In the invited speaker session,          enced was not my miraculous recov-
 the World Trade Organization (WTO) in championing                  Jiyul Sunim (Korea) a Buddhist              ery, but the invaluable experience of
 neo-liberalism and the “hyper-liberalization” of trade.            nun delivered her speech under the          nature’s infinite energy. And for now
 WTO guidelines only allow a leeway for rich countries to           title, “Embracing Mt. Cheonsung:            our choice is not between develop-
 implement “protectionism” by subsidizing their agricultur-         The ‘Green Resonance’ of a Human-           ment and conservation; rather, it is
 al products and marginalizing developing countries. In             Salamander ” She is currently               time to gather wisdom to find the
 addition, uncertain Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) puts           engaged in a campaign protesting            answers to the voices that warn us
 women working in the service sector in jeopardy by                 against the construction of a tunnel        not to take another step further.”
 making them jobless once foreign investors leave the               through Mt. Cheonsung.                        To a question as to whether Jiyul
 country.                                                              Jiyul Sunim said, “Although we           Sunim pursues life-centric or life-
    Nancy Folbre (U.S.) argued that Gross Domestic Prod-            cannot ignore the additional conve-         egalitarian beliefs, she answered that
 uct (GDP) and the System of National Account (SNA) can             niences created from the construc-          there is no exact standard for these
 no longer act as proper measurements to a nation’s well-           tion, we should focus our hearts on         beliefs. She believes these logical,
 being. Women’s non-market work, which benefits women               this small salamander that is endan-        reasonable, and realistic standards
 and the society, must be appreciated because women trans-          gered. Our life energy will be ampli-       and concepts are rather making this
 fer a great amount of their time.                                  fied, creating an even greater positive     world a darker place. “I detach
    Wu Qing (China) emphasized how people, as                       effect on the world.”                       myself from the secular concepts. I
 constituents of global citizen networks, must promote pro-            Emphasizing the role and harmony         promote my emotion and visions to
 literacy projects, educating women for social change.              of yin and yang (female and male),          the movement. That is why I some-
 Grassroot movements are also important for women to act            she spoke of the earthy maternal            times call it the free and rootless
 as seeds in a circle to share resources that are limited across    instincts of yin. Then Jiyul Sunim          movement.”
 borders. Women must walk their talk by engaging them-              stated that she views society in a                                 by Na-hyun Kim
 selves in various activities in changing the negative influ-       different point of view from men. “I
 ence of globalization.                                             think that is the power of women and         Notice Board
    Joanna Kerr (Canada) ended the session by introducing           it is in this respect that the participa-
                                                                                                                 Before the Farewell Festival, free
 a way to participate in the promotion of women’s intrinsic         tion of women in politics and in soci-
                                                                                                                 dinner will be served to all
 rights by participating in the Association for Women’s             ety overall can find its meaning.”           participants at the cafeteria in the
 Right in Development (AWID) International Forum on                    Jiyul Sunim concluded her speech          Human Ecology Building at 18:00.
 Women’s Right and Development in October in Thailand.              by sharing an important lesson from
                                               by Rhie-young Lim    a 100 day hunger strike earlier this         More notices on page 2
                                                                    year. “The important thing I experi-

      The Daily Newspaper for the 9th International Interdisciplinary Congress on Women is published by Ewha Voice,
      Ewha Womans University’s monthly English student newspaper.
Thursday, June 23, 2005                                  Today’s Highlights                                                                                                                                   Today’s Highlights                                         Thursday, June 23, 2005

Today’s Schedule                                                                                                                                  Expanding Women Leadership Korean Culture in Globalization
08:30-10:20 Plenary Session                                                                                                                         June 23, 13:00-14:30 at the POSCO Building rm. 461                          June 23, 13:00-18:00 at the POSCO Building rm. 252
(Welch-Ryang Auditorium, Daegangdang)                                                                                                               Speakers: Mary S. Hartman (U.S.), Pil-wha Chang (Korea), Hyo-song Cho       Speakers: Young Choi (Korea), Hei-sook Kim (Korea), Mi-hyun Kim
13:00-18:00 Subsessions                                                                                                                             (Korea), Carmen Ambar (U.S.)                                                (Korea), Young-mi Kim (Korea), Hae-ran Cho (Korea), So-young Lee,
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Chengzi Li (China)
Invited Speakers Sessions                                                                                                                            Though barriers prohibiting women’s leadership have been
10:30-12:00                                                                                                                                       lowered, women leaders continue to be in short supply around the              It is nothing new to state that Korea has developed at an extraordi-
“Gender and ICT Empowerment: Addressing Some                                                                                                      world. Women are not dominating high political offices or corporate        nary pace in the past two centuries. Western values, which have had a
Usage Questions” Chat Garcia Ramilo, Jung-hee Lim,
                                                                                                                                                  board rooms. The session, “Theories and Challenges of Women’s              great influence on the Korean peninsula, have often ended up misrep-
                                                                                                                                                  Leadership Development” with participants including heads of insti-        resenting what the ultimate liberation for Korean women who have
Cabrera-Balleza Mavic, Nancy J. Hafkin (POSCO
                                                                                                                                                  tutions from western and eastern societies will explore activities,        been downcast throughout a patriarchial history entails.
Building rm. B151)
                                                                                                                                                  share challenges, and compare ideas on how women in top positions             The conflicts these “Shin Yosung” (New Women) who stand in
“Valuing Care: A Feminist Critique of Global                                                                                                      may improve the work force’s ability to improve performance.               between tradition and counter-tradition in the 19th and 20th centuries
Capitalism” Nancy Folbre (POSCO Building rm. B152)                                                                                                   Mary S. Hartman (Canada), Professor and Director of Institute for       have continued to challenge Korean women today. This panel will
                                                                                                                            Photo by Ji-sun Kim
                                                         Participants actively engage in the Plenary Sessions held every morning.                 Women’s Leadership will be presenting her paper, “Women in                 address specific problems the Korean women face in this era of glob-
13:00-14:30                                                                                                                                       Power: a Theoretical Framework.” Hartman will speak on a whole             alization through feminist analyses on cultural areas.
“New Initiatives of Women Towards Empowerment”
Dorothy Fernandes (LG Convention Hall)                    Changing the Paradigm                                                                   range of resistance behaviors and strategies that affect women’s
                                                                                                                                                  development in leadership roles. She will contend that women’s
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                The first presentation will discuss the dilemma women face
                                                                                                                                                                                                                             between cultural decentralization and maintenance of cultural integri-
“The Development and Issues of Women’s Studies in                                                                                                 networks across national boundaries will be a major factor contribut-      ty, which denies women as subjects. This dilemma will be
the Context of Argentina or South America” Beatriz           The 21st century demands new            former coordinator for the African           ing to the breakthrough in women’s expanded leadership throughout          approached from various philosophical standpoints, followed by the
Gloria Bonder (POSCO Building B151)                       approaches towards health, the environ-    Women’s Development and Communi-             the world. Hartman will also point to a new framework for interpret-       presentation of a study which explores three stages of the modern
                                                          ment, and the role of the state. The       cation Network (FEMNET) will                 ing women in leadership in order to take a fresh look at how histori-      history of women’s literature in Korea.
                                                          plenary session, “Changing Paradigms       discuss on “The role of African men in       ans and policymakers have understood, or misunderstood, the west in           The second presentation will delve into how opposing conceptions
                                                          for the State, Health and Environment”     AIDS prevention.”                            relation to the rest of the world.                                         of women’s buddhahood were taken in the Koryo and middle ages of
“Revisiting the Gender/Technology & Science Relation
                                                          will outline problems of current para-       Gloria Bonder (Argentina), Director           Hyoung Cho (Korea) and Hartman will address and compare the             the Korean society. It will also discuss how women of privileged
in Transnational Perspective” Charis Thompson
                                                          digms and offer possible solutions where   of the Area “Gender, Society and Poli-       challenges in Korea and the U.S., and will discuss the theoretical         classes were active and educated during the Chosun Dynasty.
(POSCO Building B152)                                     the state and citizens may work together   cies” in FLACSO, will speak about            contributions that women’s leadership can make to women’s studies.            The final presentation will take a look at Korean sexual discourses
                                                          on health and environmental issues.        “The impact of science and technology        Discussions will focus on women’s leadership development, high-            in Confucian society of the Chosun dynasty, portrayed in E-J-Yong’s
Artists’ Series Session                                      Ito Peng (Canada), Professor of the     policies on social development.” She         lighting model programs, mapping out the contributions that women’s        movie ‘Scandal.’ It will also discuss how ethnic Korean women in
14:45-16:15 “6 Senses of Dance” Ki-sook Cho               Department of Sociology at the Univer-     will focus on the advances in gender,        leadership has played in the business arena, professional fields, non-     China are portrayed on Yanbian TV dramas, as they confront cultural
(Humanities Building rm. H12)                             sity of Toronto will present on “The       science and technology (S&T) research,       profit organizations, and higher education.                                clashes in the age of globalization.
                                                          State, health policies and Asian           education and policy-making in Latin                                                                  by Na-hyun Kim                                                                 by Eun-a Lee
Film Series Sessions                                      Women.” She will focus on the political    America. She will provide examples of
                                                          economy of Japan as well as social         educational projects that articulate how
10:30-11:50 “No More Tears Sisters”
12:00-13:00 “Transnational Tradeswomen”                   policies created in response to post-      S&T work with social and economic            Video ACTivists Free Females Artists from the Social Norm
                                                          industrial pressures.                      development based on gender equity.
13:10-14:10 “Pine and Fires: Women’s Lives in
                                                             Irene Dankelman (Netherlands) will        Sandra Harding (U.S.), Professor of                                                                                                             tion in society, various types of video works
                                                          present her paper, “Women: Agents of       Life and Social Welfare at the Universi-       June 19-24, 14:30-16:30                                                                            for women and sexual minorities will be
14:20-15:00 “Going Silent”
                                                          Change for a Healthy Planet.” Well-        ty of the Air, Chiba Prefecture in Japan,      Place: Mary Hall, Sogang University                                                                screened in public. The trend of feminism
15:10-15:30 “Out-of-date Custom as a Factor of            known for her concept “Sustainable         will present her paper, “Science, multi-                                                                                                          video influenced by the social and the politi-
Discrimination of the Women”                              Development,” she will emphasize the       ple modernities and culture.” She will          The Feminism Video ACTivist is held                                                               cal context will be examined through artists
15:40-16:30 “Password: Women”                             need to integrate an ecologically          assert that cultural diversity is a          biannually. This year’s fair is divided into                                                         and their activities in and out of the country.
16:40-16:55 “Songbird”                                    sustainable approach in all global         resource for the production of scientific    three main sections: the Screening Program,                                                             The theme of the exhibition, “Asia
17:05-18:05 “Umma”                                        arenas. She will conclude by identifying   knowledge. Harding is well-known for         the Feminism Art Performance & Concert,                                                              Lesbian Video ACTivist” is meaningful
(POSCO Building rm. B153)                                 a future-oriented perspective in which     her book, “Is Science Multicultural:         and the Feminism Online Relay to support                                                             because viewers can see the frontline of
                                                          women and men can contribute towards       Post-colonialism, Feminism & Episte-         the theme “Asia Lesbian Video ACTivist.”                                                             feminism video activism reflected on the
Social Program                                            a healthier planet.                        mologies.”                                   There are minor fairs that show the trend                                                            works of various artists. Also, by displaying
                                                             Annie Njoki Wainaina (Kenya),                                      by Eun-joo Lee    and culture of feminism video art under the                                    Photo by Ji-sun Kim   artworks of the past and the present, history
18:00 Dinner at the cafeteria in the Human Ecology                                                                                                                                                  Desiree Lim asserts that the current media
Building                                                                                                                                          three categories to help the understanding of                                                        from the year 1970 to 2005 can be easily
                                                                                                                                                                                                    often only portray the male’s perspective.
                                                           Notice Board                                                                           the viewers.                                                                                         seen. Korea, Japan, and Hong Kong’s
19:00-20:00 Farewell Festival: “We are sisters” at the
                                                                                                                                                     Around 20 national and international femi-     artist presently more active as a movie critic;    artworks allow the chance for Asia’s femi-
University Stadium (in case of rain, Welch-Ryang
                                                           Information on Luggage Depository:        Tour of the Folk-Village and Shamatic        nism video activists are invited and nearly 70    Julie Zando, an artist widely acting as part of    nism voices to be shared by concentrating on
                                                           Participants can leave their luggage      Ritual Performance: (in cooperation          artworks are exhibited. The invited artists are   the first generation of lesbianism video           lesbianism.
                                                           in the WW05 Secretariat (POSCO            with the "Gender and Religion"               Pipilotti Rist, a performing international        artists; and Iri, a newly rising Japanese             The exhibited art works include music
Side Events                                                Building rm. 152) from June 24 to         section of the IICW) Experience              feminism video artist; Desiree Lim, an artist     lesbianism video artist.                           video, pop art, advertisement, and pornogra-
10:30-13:00 Publication Party: “Celebrating the            25. Number tickets will be given out      Korean folk customs and the vibrant          successfully expressing lesbianism through           Feminism Video Activist is another form         phy. It is hoped that all the events and exhibi-
Publication of ‘Eight-Country Women’s Studies              to be attached to your luggages.          form of religious practice. June 24,         artwork; Ellen Pau, a nationally influential      of the feminism movement to reveal                 tions help the communication between artists
Textbooks’”                                                Make sure not to lose your tickets.       12:00-19:00. For more information            godmother of Hong Kong feminism videos            women’s media codes in a male dominant             from different cultural sectors. Tickets can be
                                                           The service is available from 08:00       contact or visit          and a first generation artist expressing femi-    media society. To protect human dignity            bought online (
June 19-24 Feminism Video Activist 2005 (Mary Hall,
                                                           to 18:00.                       
Sogang University)                                                                                                                                nism through such videos; So-young Kim, an        against the sexual oppression and discrimina-                                      by Tae-yeon Kim

2                                                        Women’s Worlds 2005                                                                                                                                      Women’s Worlds 2005                                                                3
Thursday, June 23, 2005                                      Yesterday’s Clips                                                                                                                                      Yesterday’s Clips                                     Thursday, June 23, 2005

New Paradigms through Transnational Feminism                                                                                                            Outlining Gender Issues in Science Education
   The future of feminism after its departure from Eurocentric models
requires new paradigms. The session “New Paradigms through                                                                                                The panel session “Gender Issue in                                                            ductive role. She suggested that a more
Transnational Feminism” focused on seeking alternative models to                                                                                        Science Education” delved into issues of                                                        gender sensitive environment and encour-
guide the future of feminism.                                                                                                                           women in the field of science and their                                                         agement between female students and
   In In-hui Lee’s (U.S) presentation “Dark Mother and Anarchism,”                                                                                      education in China, India, and Germany.                                                         teachers are necessary.
she explained that the Dark Mother, a black lady, is the descendent of                                                                                    In her presentation, “Self Evaluation                                                           In the last presentation, “Changing the
people from all nations and the goddess from olden days. In fighting                                                                                    and Role Expectations of Female College                                                         Culture of Higher Education by Introduc-
multinational corporations and eurocentric social, economic, cultural,                                                                                  Students in Science and Technology in                                                           ing Women’s Issue and Women’s
and poltical ideology, she asserted that “We need to think and connect                                                                                  China,” Lili Zhang (China) pointed to the                                                       Science,” Elisabeth de Sotelo (Germany)
with our own spirituality with our local and native indigenous culture                                                                                  difficulties and barriers that female                                                           outlined ten points of basic renewal, which
instead of looking, connecting spirituality in other traditions. And also                                                                               students face in universities. According to                               Photo by Ji-sun Kim
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        can be attributed to feminist involvement
whenever we have that kind of consciousness, there is always the                                                                                        Zhang, women represent one-third of the         From left: Zhang (China), Sotelo                in research from a pedagogical perspec-
Anarchist movement. So I was trying to offer Anarchism and Dark                                                                                         total employees in the field of science and     (Germany), and Patel (India)                    tive. Some of the ten points were
                                                                                                                             Photo by Ji-sun Kim
mother as a new concept, a new paradigm for an alternative world.”                                                                                      engineering, but compared to the male                                                           autonomous determination and integration
   As an Indian woman living in America, Elizabeth Philipose (U.S.)            Lee (U.S.) represents Shamanism culture through her attire.              counterparts, they work in less prestigious     outlined the gender constitution of             of women’s issues, the subjectivity of
presented on, “The Politics of Pain and the End of Empire” and                                                                                          positions. Her survey results also proved       science related majors in India, especially     women and the discovery of new contents,
explored American politics and policies on pain critically. She stated      responded that the issue is also problematic in terms of gender and         that more female students show better           focusing on the highest seats of learning.      recognition of the gender-specific commu-
that “central concern in my paper is with the need of global emotional      class.                                                                      progress in their studies, but are neither      She found out that certain majors, the so-      nication forms and women’s cultural
literacy, one that challenges the use of violence for political ends.”        The last presentation by Satthyaraj Venkateson (India) on “Glocal         interested nor satisfied with their fields of   called “soft-science” majors such as            values as an education goal for men.
She referred extensively to the torture photos of the Abu Gharib pris-      Feminism: Bridging Minority Feminism and Third World Feminism”              study. She argued that sex segregation          botany, zoology, and anthropology, were           After the presentations, many partici-
ons in Iraq. She asserted that the victims were not tortured to tell the    was an analysis of cultural blindness of Eurocentric feminist models        and difficulties of job searching for           dominated by women; whereas the “hard-          pants raised questions on how each culture
truth or to tell the facts they knew, but rather that they were tortured    and “the intersection between the black feminist scholarship and post-      women have a strong impact on the               science” such as computer science and           influences women in choosing their
for enjoyment and were sexually and mentally abused. She objected           colonial feminist scholarship.”                                             professional efficacy of female students.       engineering field were dominated by             majors, and how the “soft” and “hard”
that racism still exists in American policy to which participants                                                                  by Tae-yeon Kim        Amrita Patel (India) presented her            men. She explained that this phenomenon         sciences differ in each culture and time
                                                                                                                                                        paper on “Gender Differences in Science         is due to women’s triple burden as a            period.
                                                                                                                                                        Education: A Case Study of Orissa.” It          scientist, a housekeeper, plus the repro-                                      by Bo-mi Kim

    For the Improvement of Health Services for Women
      With regards for advancements in
    health services for women, Margarethe
                                                    because people do not come to us.”
                                                       By handing out fliers in Turkish, hold-
                                                                                                   between patients and doctors for males
                                                                                                   and females, not to mention the sexual
                                                                                                                                                     A New Look at Korea’s Historical Women Figures
    Hochleitner (E.U.) introduced the               ing student presentations, having discus-      harassment rates among them. To add,                 The session “Orientalism and Feminism” attempted to reconstruct        view that women
    “Mosques project: A Prevention Project          sions, and giving out self-evaluation ques-    she stated that it is difficult for women to      historical women figures. Both presenters emphasized the impor-           were uncondition-
    for Immigrant Turkish Women in                  tionnaires at mosques, the project was         receive research funding and become               tance of “context” in analyzing historical figures and how the            ally victimized.
    Austria.” Following Hochleitner, medical        proved successful. However, Hochleitner        academic scholars in medical studies.             stereotypical historical analysis had simplified and distorted them.      Although women
    student Ingjerd Helene Jossang (Norway)         urged, “But free access is not all that is       As a solution, Jossang proposed that               Young-min Kim (U.S.) argued that conventional ideas about              were bound by
    presented her thesis, “Education of             needed. We must go further.” She said          social and cultural environment, ethnicity,       Confucianism are too simplified and often misleading. According to        social restrictions,
    Doctors A Feminist’s Perspective.”              she will continue to pursue the project.       and cultural differences must be taken            dominant interpretations, Confucianism has deprived women of their        there were groups
      Focusing on Austria’s health system,             The next speaker, Ingjerd Helene            into consideration in biological study.           basic rights and promoted a strict social structure that confined         of women who
    Hochleitner emphasized the importance           Jossang, spoke of her graduation thesis        More specifically, she suggested that             women’s talents in public spheres. However, Kim argues that Confu-        tried to break free
    of granting free access to medical care for     which asks, “Do we need a gender               medical schools deal with the term                cianism contains much more diversity and variation in its contents,       from the norms.
    immigrant Turkish women who are                 perspective in the training of doctors?”       ‘gender’ in scientific courses offered to         and that scholars should be more sensitive to the historical complexity      Lee presented
    exposed to and are unaware of risk factors      She answered this by exemplifying three        students in the first year so that students       of the relationship between Korean women and Confucianism.                two types of
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   Photo by Ji-sun Kim
    of cardiovascular diseases. Also, due to        factors: first, diagnostic procedures for      can learn to be critical. She discussed the          To illustrate his point, he introduced the famous story of Chun-       women, the Jong-
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      From left: Young-min Kim (U.S.) and Mi-sook
    cultural discrimination and language            women with acute myocardial infraction         need of medical case studies to deal with         hyang, a daughter of a courtesan, who falls in love with the town         bu and the schol-      Kim (Korea)
    barriers the problems are more severe.          (heart attack) is not enough in comparison     gender issues, and the need to have               governor’s son Mongryong. Chunhyang vows her love for Mongry-             ars. Jong-bu, or
    According to her research, Turks rank           to that offered to men; second, a study        discussions with teachers and students on         ong despite threats of death, and her chastity is rewarded with           the housewife of a Yangban clan, are like that of “modern-day
    highest in Europe in regard to coronary         held in the U.S. on the delivery of prema-     the difference between male and female            marriage and an elevation of class. While some see this as a typical      CEOs,” says Lee. “They are the ones responsible for managing the
    mortality.                                      ture babies among black women reveals          patients. “We need to reflect on the              Confucianist story, Kim said taking a glimpse at Chunhynag’s under-       family rituals, governing the household finance, and controlling all
      The presentation displayed the active         that stress responses are high due to pover-   danger of only viewing a sex without a            lying motive may reveal a subversive message of the story. He claims      the servants,” explained Lee. The scholars, on the other hand, were
    movements of medical staff and students         ty, insecure living conditions, and racial     gender perspective because we can slide           it was her desire to marry a yangban and uplift her social status that    women who tried to write and study. Because knowledge was only
    who put a project into practice and orga-       discrimination; third, the effect of pharma-   into the patriarchal way of understanding         made her cling on to the values of Confucianism. Chunhyang has            produced and delivered in the “male language,” they had to conform
    nized prevention programs for Turkish           ceuticals that test females without looking    the human body,” she said. “Having a              unique characteristics, Kim argued, and they are shown by how she         themselves to masculine identities, in order to pursue the field of
    women at 28 local mosques. Her active           at the side effects.                           gender perspective is an important                refuses her identity as a courtesan and says, “A woman’s virtue is the    academics.
    approach and sense of progression could            Additionally, Jossang raised questions      context which leads how we understand             same for high and low ranks,” outlining the notion that all human            Lee said they are only two of the many different types of Joseon
    be sensed, as she stated, “What can we do       regarding the difference in working            ourselves and how we view others.”                beings, regardless of class, are equal.                                   women. “We should not neglect these women and their efforts to
    to reach them? We have to go to people          conditions and communication levels                                        by Soo-hyun Kim          Sook-in Lee (Korea) attempted to interpret the lives of the women      overcome the social barrier of that time,” said Lee, “and we should
                                                                                                                                                     in the Joseon Dynasty from a perspective opposing the conventional        try to discover and analyze more historical women figures.”

4                                                            Women’s Worlds 2005                                                                                                                                    Women’s Worlds 2005                                                               5
Thursday, June 23, 2005                                           People                                                                                                                                                     People                                             Thursday, June 23, 2005

Gender Equality from the Cradle to the Grave                                                                                                          Shed the Flawed Myth of Women’s “Given” Work
   “Gender equality must be granted to all                                                       because IPPF gave Wainaina an opportunity               “We can no longer subscribe to the ‘given’       professor’s advice and studied theoretical
from the day she is born in her cradle to her                                                    to learn how to collaborate with numerous            that household work is the lowest valued of         sociology. She did no less than better than
final sleep in the grave,” are the very powerful                                                 countries through an organization. Also,             all labor, that ‘anyone’ can do it, and that it     most of her male counterparts. Besides over-
words spoken by Njoki Wainaina (Kenya),                                                          Wainaina was able to gain knowledge about            really should be done for free,” and “When          coming gender barriers, another great lesson
one of the most prominent women activists in                                                     the situations in other African nations and the      we shed that myth, the female sphere can            was learned from taking theoretical sociolo-
Africa. She has truly devoted herself to the                                                     problems that challenged them. Therefore,            achieve equality,” are the words of Ueno            gy classes for Chizuko the theory itself was
empowerment of marginalized and deprived                                                         such experiences helped Wainaina coordinate          Chizuko (Japan), a leading Japanese feminist        gender biased and flawed.
women in a society that harshly forbids                                                          the projects imposed by FEMNET that later            known for her prominence and “notoriety” in           From then on, Chizuko decided to partic-
females to engage themselves in such radical                                                     gloriously triumphed at the Beijing Confer-          women’s studies. Chizuko has authored               ipate in a more pragmatic and active method
movements. Njoki Wainaina was the former                                                         ence in 1995. “The Beijing Conference                sixteen books such as “The Challenge of             of promoting women’s rights in the Japanese
chairperson for the African Women’s Devel-                                                       benchmarked a new era for African activists          Marxist feminism,” published in 1983.               society where the conservative political
opment and Communication Network                                                                 by showing the world that we can achieve             Chizuko has also written an award-winning           system often hinders such movements. Ever
(FEMNET), which was set up in 1988.                                                              something together and leap a step forward in        book, “The Rise and Fall of Modern Fami-            since the emergence of the Industrial
                                                                            Photo by You-jin Cho
   Though Wainaina spent her childhood in a                                                      safeguarding the basic rights of women,” said        ly,” in 1994 which describes the factors            society a male-dominated society with
                                                                 Njoki Wainaina                                                                                                                                                                                                    Photo by Yoo-mi Park
small traditional village in Kenya where male                                                    Wainaina proudly.                                    influencing Japanese households.                    environmental problems, Japan has walked
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Ueno Chizuko
dominancy was the norm, her parents were gender-sensitive and               The conference in Beijing was momentous and made Wainaina                    Born and raised in Toyamo, a medieval            in the wrong direction of development,
raised Wainaina’s siblings and herself to believe that both sexes are realize that men are also actively taking part in struggles to promote          castle town, Chizuko received traditional           according to Chizuko. She argues that               something that should be done by women for
fundamentally equivalent. Wainaina’s father was highly opposed to women’s rights. Male activists stated that degrading the position of                schooling. After coming in contact with the         instead of trying to catch up with male stan-       free. Nonetheless, a huge paradigm shift
female genital circumcision. Though it is a deeply ingrained tradition, women not only brought injustice to women, but also an ailment to             ideas of Michael Foucault, a French philoso-        dards, women must endeavor to create a new          concerning the once-mistaken belief has
Wainaina states that female genital circumcision originates from the the entire society. Hence, Wainaina started to incorporate and empha-            pher who denies the notion of enlightenment         social structure where their work is no longer      been set by the new law. Chizuko states that
idea of male supremacy. The rather “unique” upbringing by her size males’ roles in elevating women’s status in her studies.                           and asserts that sexual behavior is something       neglected and looked down upon.                     the empowerment of women still has a long
parents in a rural African village was the motivational impetus that        With regards to WW05 also referred to as “Beijing Plus Ten,”              learned, everything changed for the tradition-        One particular activity that Chizuko              way to go.
fuelled Wainaina to believe in gender equality.                           Wainaina comments, “The WW05 is vital at this point of time when            al Japanese girl.                                   engaged herself in was the legalization of the        Chizuko believes that events such as
   Before working for FEMNET, Wainaina was a coordinator for the society needs not only women activists but scholars in women’s stud-                    Chizuko bravely decided to subvert her           Care Insurance Act enacted in 2000. As an           WW05 are momentous not only because
International Planned Parenthood Federation (IPPF), an organization ies who provide concrete statistics and theories to backup and propel             traditional values and was motivated to delve       important figure in the Senior Women’s              people of diverse nations and cultures
that provides sexual and reproductive health services. It was actually women’s rights in a more swaying manner.”                                      deeper into the field of sociology at Kyoto         League which specializes in care issues of          exchange their ideas, but because it offers
her work in the IPPF that created the foundations for FEMNET                                                                    by Rhie-young Lim     University. Her professors advised her to           Japan, Chizuko contributed in making                opportunites for individuals of different
                                                                                                                                                      take courses that they thought would be easi-       women’s care labor a paid and recognized            generations to come together for the guaran-
                                                                                                                                                      er for females and where male competitors           sector. Women’s care work, especially for           tee of rights of females of future generations.
A Pioneer to Feminist Movements in Latin America                                                                                                      were few. Chizuko, however, discarded her           the elderly, has always been regarded as                                          by Rhie-young Lim

   According to Merriam-Webster, a
“pioneer” is a person who pursues and settles
in a new region. Metaphorically speaking, all
                                                                                                   mainstream gender and equality in policies
                                                                                                   and programs in 17 countries. “Both the
                                                                                                   UNESCO Chair and the Master Learning
                                                                                                                                                      A Dreamer, a Writer, a Feminist: Nora Okja Keller
scholars and activists participating in WW05                                                       course try to explore potentials of Interna-          People say that the life of a writer is reflected in their writing, just   was raised in
are pioneers. Among them, Gloria Bonder                                                            tional Communication Technologies (ICTs)           as Nora Keller’s (U.S.) “Comfort Women” published in 1997 and                 Hawaii and
(Argentina) receives the spotlight as being a                                                      for education, networking, and capacity            “Fox Girl” reflect her life. At the heart of her two famous novels stat-      mainland U.S.
pioneer in women’s studies in Latin America.                                                       building,” said Bonder.                            ed above is the relationship of a mother and a daughter, which was            Therefore,
   Bonder is an active advocate of women’s                                                            Along with the efforts put in by Bonder to      inspired from her close and intimate relationship with her mother and         many of her
rights and one of the most prestigious schol-                                                      improve women’s status, Latin American             with her daughters. Her experiences of the occupation of Beccah are           characters are
ars on women and gender issues. She found-                                                         countries have implemented laws and educa-         also reflected in her novels.                                                 also of mixed
ed the Centro de Estudios de la Mujer                                                              tion programs to encouage women to go one             With a slight smile on her face, Keller says, “Writing is a lot like       blood. The use
(CEM), a women’s institution in Latin                                                              step further. “In Argentina, there is a national   parenting. In fact, my life as a parent informs much and inspirations         of Korean
America, and was also the creator and gener-                                                       law which stipulates that 30 percent of all        come from all aspects of my life.” The three reasons that drove her           language and
                                                                      Photo by Yoo-mi Park
al coordinator of the National Equal Oppor-                      Gloria Bonder                     elective positions in the parliament be given      publish the book were 1. to apologize to her mother for not being             folk tales,
tunity Program for Women in the Education-                                                         to women. Moreover, there is the Affirma-          respectful and being rebellious during her adolescent years; 2. to            which make
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Photo by You-jin Cho
al Area of the Culture and Education             programs, she has developed on gender and         tive Action law, and progressive laws against      show her daughters; 3. to write for women. Keller emphasized, “I              her writing
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Nora Okja Keller
Ministry in Argentina.                           education, science and technology, commu-         violence,” she says. In terms of education in      wanted to give women a voice.” To achieve her goal, instead of                style unique,
   Bonder contributes a great deal of time and   nication and young women.                         Latin America, especially in the South, there      focusing on the facts, she focused on the emotions in the story.              have made her work famous. She is one of the most remarkable Kore-
effort as the Director of Area “Gender, Soci-      Her achievements and laudable activities        are no differences in enrollment, and there is        Keller’s novels include stories of survival, war, self-sacrifice, the      an American writers in terms of the impact her novels have had on
ety and Politics” in the Latin American Post-    do not end there. Bonder also coordinates the     equal access to education. “On the other           fierce love between mother and child, and the pain inflicted on               society, and on the identity of racially mixed people.
graduate Institute in Social Sciences (FLAS-     UNESCO Chair on Women, Science, and               hand, many black and indigenous women are          women during war time. Her books alerted Americans and Europeans                She believes that the power of the writer is being able to affect the
CO). Bonder said, “Basically, we research on     Technology in Latin America and the Virtual       not in the same situation.”                        who were unaware of the term “comfort women,” and the term                    society, as well as being able to affect oneself internally and physical-
how to improve women’s participation in          Master Program on Gender, Society, and               Bonder holds a graduate degree in gender        became generalized. It also sparked an increasing interest in the histo-      ly. In conclusion, she stated, “Writing itself has power. The act of
educational programs in Latin America and        Politics. In addition to organizing the           and education from the University of               ry of comfort women both on- and offline.                                     writing helps me figure out what I am thinking about. It gives a way
on how to teach science from a gender            UNESCO Chair, she has also overseen the           Cambridge, U.K. Currently, she is a visiting          In her novels, she reevaluates her identity as a mixed-race. “Writing      to understand the world. And that is very powerful. It can transform
perspective.” She added, “We try to find         creation of a Master Learning course offering     professor at the University of Wisconsin.          is one to explore myself as a Korean-American.” Her mother is Kore-           the way you think and the way you see the world around you.”
visions of gender analysis.” Through these       training for graduate students on how to                                            by Eun-joo Lee   an and her father is German-American. She was born in Korea and                                                                         by Tae-yeon Kim

6                                                          Women’s Worlds 2005                                                                                                                                           Women’s Worlds 2005                                                                7
Thursday, June 23, 2005                                              Photo Sketch


                  Photo by Yoo-mi Park, You-jin Cho, Na-hyun Kim
2                                                                                                    3

1. “Media in ‘f’” was exhibited on the 2nd floor in the Arts &
Design Building. The exhibition “Ho Fatso” was interactively
installed by Rania Ho (China).

2. The Alicia Political Performance “La Festa de Terroristas”
was performed to “pray for all innocent victims of terrorism,
expecially women and children... around the Middle East,
Russia, Latin America and here!!” In the photograph are
artists Chisato Katata (Japan) and Ki Young (Korea).

3. The “Drawing Freely” road board, organized by the Blan-
ket and Sponge Project in Asia (BASPIA), allowed partici-
pants to express their feelings through painting.

4. “Cul-de-sac,” another exhibition at “Media in ‘f’,” was
created by Lyra Garcellano (Philippines).

                                                                     Ewha Voice Staff
Ewha Womans University, 11-1 Daehyeon-dong Seodaemun-gu, Seoul, Korea 120-750
Tel: (02) 3277-3169 Fax: (02) 313-5194 Email: Homepage:

Publisher: Organizing Committee of Women’s Worlds 2005
Editing Coordinator: Seo-my Kang / Editor-in-Chief: Sook-young Park / Senior Editors: Mi-ri Kwon, Chae-gyung Jun, Youn-seung Lee / Editors: Bo-mi Kim, Soo-hyun
Kim, Eun-joo Lee / Staff Reporters: Na-hyun Kim, Tae-yeon Kim, Eun-a Lee, Rhie-young Lim / Cub Reporters: Ji-young Kim, Hye-won Song, Keum-jo Shim, Kyu-
rhee Lee / Photographers: Yoo-mi Park, You-jin Cho, Ji-sun Kim
Copy Editors: Hannah Chang, Johndre Jennings

8                                                                  Women’s Worlds 2005

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Description: “Globalization is a synonym for embracing the world, the main theme for WW05,” said Frances Raday (Israel), the moderator for yesterday’s plenary session titled “Globalization, Economic Values and Poverty.” Ideally, globalization should signal the world coming together with the ultimate purpose of creating a win-win situation for all. However, the world is still far from its ideal and globalization processes continue to marginalize certain groups, such as women.