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Ontwikkeling en validering van e

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					            ICT competence:

           what’s in a name?


    Ilse Sinnaeve – Johan van Braak – Jo Tondeur

(Ghent University, Department of Educational Studies)



   Marleen Evers (Katholieke Universiteit Leuven)
Introduction
    growing interest in monitoring
    ICT integration in education

   contribution of different factors
         ICT policy
         ICT infrastructure
         Perceptions
         ICT competencies
                 Educational rationale
                 Social rationale
                 Economic rationale


Ilse Sinnaeve, Johan van Braak, Jo Tondeur & Marleen Evers
ECER 2008 – Göteborg
Focus of the presentation

 What is ICT competence?
                 Literature review
                 Operational definition


 How can we measure ICT competence?
                 Review ICT monitors
                 Indicators & operationalisation



Ilse Sinnaeve, Johan van Braak, Jo Tondeur & Marleen Evers
ECER 2008 – Göteborg
1. What is ICT competence?

                   Experience?
                                                                  Attitude?
                                       Knowledge?

       Skills?                                               Capacity?
                         proficiency?

                                                Literacy?

                                                                  Know how?
     ICT competence?


Ilse Sinnaeve, Johan van Braak, Jo Tondeur & Marleen Evers
ECER 2008 – Göteborg
Different theoretical perspectives
& research disciplines

  Different terminology
  Different meanings
  Different accents

    Examples               (based on Markauskaite, 2006)


Ilse Sinnaeve, Johan van Braak, Jo Tondeur & Marleen Evers
ECER 2008 – Göteborg
Theoretical         central aspects                 focus of learning outcomes
perspective

Basic ICT skills understanding & ability practical-technical knowledge &
perspective      to use ICT tools        skills to use hardware and
                                         software

Situated            critical capabilities to        capability to apply ICT in various
literacy            use ICT in various              relevant real-life contexts, e.g.
perspective         contexts                        education, training, leisure
                     ICT literacy as a
                    social practice,
                    acquired in real
                    everyday situations

metacognitive       1. cognitive self-                    capability of selfregulated
capabilities        appraisal during ICT                  autonomous learning of ICT
perspective         related activities                    skills, computer self-efficacy,
                    2. cognitive self-                    independent coping with ICT
                    management during                     problems, planning &
                    ICT use                               implementing of cognitive
                                                          strategies
              Ilse Sinnaeve, Johan van Braak, Jo Tondeur & Marleen Evers
              ECER 2008 – Göteborg
ICT competence?

 Complexity
 Multiple aspects
 Different accents

Common characteristics?

   concrete context (Cesarini, 2004)
   ability to act in this context (Schneckenberg & Wildt, 2006)
   knowledge and skills component (Savolainen, 2002)
   attitude (Albirini, 2006; Verloop, 2003)



Ilse Sinnaeve, Johan van Braak, Jo Tondeur & Marleen Evers
ECER 2008 – Göteborg
 Description of ICT competence

“a set of knowledge, skills and attitudes for
integrated and functional use of ICT in an
educational context”

 Further elaboration: teachers‟ ICT
competences



Ilse Sinnaeve, Johan van Braak, Jo Tondeur & Marleen Evers
ECER 2008 – Göteborg
Teachers‟ competences regarding ICT

1. Specific technology knowledge and skills

        basic competences to use elementary hardware &
       software; e.g. handle computer and peripherals; use of
       communicationtools (Hew & Brush, 2007; Kirschner &
       Davies, 2003; Becta, 2005)

        ability to use ICT in an adequate and productive way
       + support in their use of ICT (Hakkarainen et al., 2001)
       students

          Important but insufficient to guarantee ICT
       integration!


Ilse Sinnaeve, Johan van Braak, Jo Tondeur & Marleen Evers
ECER 2008 – Göteborg
2. Pedagogical competence to use ICT in classroom

        Knowledge & skills to use technology based learning
       environment (Hakkarainen et al., 2001)
        enrichment of learning environment (Hew & Brush,
       2007)

       Insight in the effects of ICT on their role as teachers
       and on the students (autonomy, motivation, learning
       styles etc.)
       Reflective competences (Buettner, 2006)

3. Class management skills ~ ICT
        e.g. organisation of learning activities, differentiation,
       … (Lim et al., 2003)



Ilse Sinnaeve, Johan van Braak, Jo Tondeur & Marleen Evers
ECER 2008 – Göteborg
Teachers‟ ICT competences
= “a set of knowledge, skills and attitudes for integrated and
functional use of ICT in an educational context”


   Knowledge ánd skills ánd attitudes
          technical-instrumental
          pedagogical-didactical
          class management
          general computer attitude




Ilse Sinnaeve, Johan van Braak, Jo Tondeur & Marleen Evers
ECER 2008 – Göteborg
 Functional use

       Link between knowledge/skills/attitudes
      and acting: functional use!
       For teacher: use of ICT for teaching and
      learning activities
                   Planning and preparing lessons
                   Teaching activities
                   Evaluation and monitoring of students
                   Communication with students



Ilse Sinnaeve, Johan van Braak, Jo Tondeur & Marleen Evers
ECER 2008 – Göteborg
 Integrated use


        Use of ICT not an sich
        But: an integral part of teaching and
       learning activities
                  E.g. use of ICT for collaborative learning;
                   enrichment of the learning environment; …




Ilse Sinnaeve, Johan van Braak, Jo Tondeur & Marleen Evers
ECER 2008 – Göteborg
 Contextuality

        Macro context:
                  E.g. knowledge & information
                   society, educational ICT policy
        Meso context: schoolcharacteristics
                  E.g. ICT plan in school, professional
                   development initiatives, infrastructure
        Micro context: classroom & students‟
         characteristics
              E.g. grade, SES students, access to ICT

Ilse Sinnaeve, Johan van Braak, Jo Tondeur & Marleen Evers
ECER 2008 – Göteborg
          2. How can we measure ICT
             competences?
                                                          I feel competent to help
I can assess and select software                             students accomplish
   for teaching and learning                              complex tasks in an IT-
                                                                 environment

     How would you describe
     yourself as a user of the
      following ICT facilities?
           -Digital camera
       - searching web and
               internet                             I can use a wordprocessor
        -Video conferencing
                  -…



          Ilse Sinnaeve, Johan van Braak, Jo Tondeur & Marleen Evers
          ECER 2008 – Göteborg
 Review of ICT monitors and
international research projects

       ICT monitor (the Netherlands)
       Information and Communications Technologies in
      Schools Survey (Canada)
       The impact of ICT initiatives in Scottish schools
      (Scotland)
       Second Information Technology in Education
      Study – SITES 2006
      …



Ilse Sinnaeve, Johan van Braak, Jo Tondeur & Marleen Evers
ECER 2008 – Göteborg
 Central indicators

      General ICT competence
                 technical, pedagogical and other
                  aspects
                 +: Small number of items 
                  general view
                 -: no in depth information



Ilse Sinnaeve, Johan van Braak, Jo Tondeur & Marleen Evers
ECER 2008 – Göteborg
  Technical-instrumental skills
       Frequently found in instruments
       list of ICT applications: how well can you use it?
       Technological vs. functional point of view
               E.g.: I can use a word processor – I can
                write a letter using a word-processing
                program
               E.g. I can use a search engine – I can find
                the information that I need on the internet
       +: concrete situations  better understanding of
      items
       -: link with education?


Ilse Sinnaeve, Johan van Braak, Jo Tondeur & Marleen Evers
ECER 2008 – Göteborg
  Pedagogical-didactic competences
       Less found in existing instruments
             Technology > educational point of view?
       Classification into categories:
              Planning and preparing lessons
              Teaching activities
              Communicate with students
              Monitor and evaluate learning process of students
              Class management skills


  General computerattitude
       Different aspects: anxiety, pleasure, relevance, …
       Affective – cognitive – conative elements



Ilse Sinnaeve, Johan van Braak, Jo Tondeur & Marleen Evers
ECER 2008 – Göteborg
3. Development of an instrument…

                                                  Screening of
      Literature review                           ICT monitors



                             Development
                              instrument


           Focus group                                  Cognitive
            with experts                                interviews



Ilse Sinnaeve, Johan van Braak, Jo Tondeur & Marleen Evers
ECER 2008 – Göteborg
 General computer attitude
       8 items
       6-point scale: completely disagree ----
        completely agree
       Examples:
                 The use of a computer is useful to me.
                 I like to know a lot about computers.
                 I feel at ease when using a computer.




Ilse Sinnaeve, Johan van Braak, Jo Tondeur & Marleen Evers
ECER 2008 – Göteborg
 Technical skills
       Not questioned as such
       Argumentation:
                 Educational focus > technical focus
                 Functional use of ICT can be questioned in
                  combination with pedagogical-didactical
                  competence
                 Pragmatic: fast technical evolution of hardware,
                  software and peripherals




Ilse Sinnaeve, Johan van Braak, Jo Tondeur & Marleen Evers
ECER 2008 – Göteborg
 Pedagogical-didactical competence
       25 items
       5-point scale:
              I can’t – a little – sufficient – good – excellent
              + ‘don’t know’
       Asked in combination with „use of ICT in
      classroom‟
              5 point scale: never – several times a year –
               several times a month – weekly - daily
       Examples:




Ilse Sinnaeve, Johan van Braak, Jo Tondeur & Marleen Evers
ECER 2008 – Göteborg
                              How well can you use           How often do you use
                              ICT for the following          ICT for the following
                              purposes?                      purposes?
use office                    1 2 3 4 5           9          1 2 3 4 5
applications to
prepare my lessons
use ICT to support            1 2 3 4 5           9          1 2 3 4 5
collaborative learning
organize lessons in           1 2 3 4 5           9          1 2 3 4 5
which my students
use a variety of ICT
applications
coaching and                  1 2 3 4 5           9          1 2 3 4 5
supervision of my
students by means of
ICT

Ilse Sinnaeve, Johan van Braak, Jo Tondeur & Marleen Evers
ECER 2008 – Göteborg
4. Conclusion

       Better understanding of ICT competence ~ ICT
      integration
       Contribution to development of instrument to
      measure ICT competence
                  inform policy makers: provide reliable & up-to-date
                  information for future policy decisions
                  inform schools: school feedback - support schools in
                  their process of professional development
                  further research…




Ilse Sinnaeve, Johan van Braak, Jo Tondeur & Marleen Evers
ECER 2008 – Göteborg

				
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