Wagerup Cogeneration Project Environmental Impact Statement by ozg53444

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									Wagerup Cogeneration Project
   Environmental Impact Statement




                    WP03100-EV-RP-0004

                           Final – Rev 1

                              June 2006
WAGERUP COGENERATION PROJECT – ENVIRONMENTAL
IMPACT STATEMENT
   Final – Rev 1
   June 2006




Sinclair Knight Merz
ABN 37 001 024 095
7th Floor, Durack Centre
263 Adelaide Terrace
PO Box H615
Perth WA 6001 Australia
Tel: +61 8 9268 4400
Fax: +61 8 9268 4488
Web: www.skmconsulting.com

COPYRIGHT: The concepts and information contained in this document are the property of Sinclair
Knight Merz Pty Ltd. Use or copying of this document in whole or in part without the written
permission of Sinclair Knight Merz constitutes an infringement of copyright.
Alinta Cogeneration (Wagerup) Pty Ltd
Wagerup Cogeneration Project
Environmental Impact Statement
Final Rev 1




Contents
1.       Introduction                                                                                                                      1
         1.1        The Proposal                                                                                                           1
         1.2        Project Benefits                                                                                                       1
         1.2.1      Stage One (Open Cycle, Peaking Operation)                                                                              2
         1.2.2      Stage Two (Cogeneration, Baseload Operation)                                                                           2
         1.3        The Proponent                                                                                                       3
         1.4        Project Location                                                                                                    3
         1.5        Approvals                                                                                                          11
         1.6        Project Schedule                                                                                                   12
         1.7        Scope and Purpose of this Document                                                                                 12
         1.8        Document Structure                                                                                                 13

2.       Project Description                                                                                                           15
         2.1        Plant Characteristics                                                                                              15
         2.2        Operation and Integration with Alcoa                                                                               21
         2.3        Services, Utilities and Cooling Systems                                                                            21
         2.3.1      Power Transmission                                                                                                     21
         2.3.2      Fuel Supply                                                                                                            21
         2.3.3      Water Supply                                                                                                           22
         2.3.4      Stormwater Drainage                                                                                                    22
         2.3.5      Closed-circuit Heat Exchange Cooling System                                                                            23
         2.4        Workforce                                                                                                          23

3.       Existing Environment                                                                                                          25
         3.1        Climate                                                                                                            25
         3.1.1      Temperature and Humidity                                                                                               25
         3.1.2      Rainfall and Evaporation                                                                                               26
         3.1.3      Winds                                                                                                                  26
         3.2        Local Air Quality                                                                                                  26
         3.3        Geology, Soils and Topography                                                                                      28
         3.4        Surface Water Hydrology and Groundwater Hydrogeology                                                               29
         3.4.1      Surface Water                                                                                                          29
         3.4.2      Groundwater                                                                                                            30
         3.5        Flora and Vegetation                                                                                               30
         3.6        Fauna                                                                                                              31
         3.7        Heritage                                                                                                           31
         3.7.1      Aboriginal Heritage                                                                                                    31
         3.7.2      European Heritage                                                                                                      32
SINCLAIR KNIGHT MERZ

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                                                                                                      Wagerup Cogeneration Project
                                                                                                    Environmental Impact Statement
                                                                                                                        Final Rev 1




         3.8        Previous Land Use                                                                                                  32

4.       Construction Impacts and Management Strategies                                                                                33
         4.1        Introduction                                               33
         4.2        Summary of Construction Activities                         33
         4.3        Overview of Environmental Management Program during Construction
                                                                               34
         4.4        Vegetation                                                 35
         4.4.1      Background                                                                                                             35
         4.4.2      Management Strategies                                                                                                  35
         4.5        Drainage and Site Hydrology                                                                                            36
         4.5.1      Background                                                                                                             36
         4.5.2      Management Strategies                                                                                                  36
         4.6        Dust                                                                                                               36
         4.6.1      Background                                                                                                             36
         4.6.2      Management Strategies                                                                                                  37
         4.7        Noise and Vibration                                                                                                37
         4.7.1      Background                                                                                                             37
         4.7.2      Noise Criteria                                                                                                         38
         4.7.3      Management Strategies                                                                                                  38
         4.8        Solid Waste                                                                                                        39
         4.8.1      Background                                                                                                             39
         4.8.2      Management Strategies                                                                                                  39
         4.9        Domestic Liquid Waste                                                                                              40
         4.9.1      Background                                                                                                             40
         4.9.2      Management Strategies                                                                                                  40
         4.10       Hydrocarbon and Hazardous Materials                                                                                40
         4.10.1 Background                                                                                                                 40
         4.10.2 Management Strategies                                                                                                      40
         4.11       Traffic and Transport                                                                                                  41
         4.11.1 Background                                                                                                                 41
         4.11.2 Management Strategies                                                                                                      41

5.       Operational Impacts and Management Strategies                                                                                 43
         5.1        Introduction                                                 43
         5.2        Summary of Operation Activities                              43
         5.3        Overview of Environmental Management Program during Operation43
         5.4        Drainage and Site Hydrology                                  44
         5.4.1      Background                                                                                                             45
         5.4.2      Management Strategies                                                                                                  45
         5.5        Air Quality                                                                                                        45
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Alinta Cogeneration (Wagerup) Pty Ltd
Wagerup Cogeneration Project
Environmental Impact Statement
Final Rev 1




         5.5.1      Background                                                                                                             45
         5.5.2      Ambient Air Quality Criteria                                                                                           46
         5.5.3      Existing Emissions and Ambient Air Quality                                                                             47
         5.5.4      Emissions from Alinta Cogeneration Project                                                                             47
         5.5.5      Predicted Local Air Quality Impacts                                                                                    49
         5.5.6      Management Strategies                                                                                                  58
         5.6        Greenhouse Gases                                                                                                   45
         5.6.1      Background                                                                                                             58
         5.6.2      Predicted Greenhouse Emissions                                                                                         58
         5.6.3      Management Strategies                                                                                                  64
         5.7        Noise and Vibration                                                                                                64
         5.7.1      Background                                                                                                             64
         5.7.2      Noise Criteria                                                                                                         65
         5.7.3      Predicted Noise Impacts                                                                                                67
         5.7.4      Management Strategies                                                                                                  75
         5.8        Solid Waste                                                                                                        76
         5.8.1      Background                                                                                                             76
         5.8.2      Management Strategies                                                                                                  76
         5.9        Domestic Liquid Wastes                                                                                             76
         5.9.1      Background                                                                                                             77
         5.9.2      Management Strategies                                                                                                  77
         5.10       Process Liquid Waste                                                                                               77
         5.10.1 Background                                                                                                                 77
         5.10.2 Management Strategies                                                                                                      77
         5.11       Hydrocarbons and Hazardous Materials                                                                               77
         5.11.1 Background                                                                                                                 78
         5.11.2 Management Strategies                                                                                                      78
         5.12       Public Health and Safety                                                                                           78
         5.12.1 Background                                                                                                                 78
         5.12.2 Management Strategies                                                                                                      80
         5.13       Visual Amenity                                                                                                     80
         5.13.1 Background                                                                                                                 80
         5.13.2 Management Strategies                                                                                                      80

6.       Stakeholder and Community Consultation                                                                                        81
         6.1        Alinta’s Approach to Community Consultation                                                                        81
         6.2        Consultation Program                                                                                               81
         6.2.1      Wagerup Unit Three Expansion                                                                                           81
         6.2.2      Alinta Cogeneration Project                                                                                            81
         6.3        Key Points of Interest and Issues Raised                                                                           84

7.       Summary of Management Commitments                                                                                             89
SINCLAIR KNIGHT MERZ

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                                                                                              Alinta Cogeneration (Wagerup) Pty Ltd
                                                                                                      Wagerup Cogeneration Project
                                                                                                    Environmental Impact Statement
                                                                                                                        Final Rev 1




8.       Glossary                                                                                                                      91
         8.1        Glossary of Abbreviations                                                                                          91
         8.2        Glossary of Units                                                                                                  92

9.       References                                                                                                                    95



Figures
         Figure 1-1 Regional Location                                                                                                       5

         Figure 1-2 Locality Plan                                                                                                           7

         Figure 1-3 Site Plan                                                                                                               9

         Figure 1-4 Indicative Project Schedule (Stage One)                                                                                12

         Figure 2-1 Schematic Representation of Staged Development                                                                         17

         Figure 5-1 Location of Air Quality Discrete Receptors                                                                             53

         Figure 5-2 Location of Noise Sensitive Receptors                                                                                  71




Tables
         Table 2-1 Operating Profile During the Transition Phase                                                                           15

         Table 2-2 Key Characteristics of Proposed Power Plant                                                                             19

         Table 3-1 Averaged Climatic Data for Wokalup                                                                                      25

         Table 3-2 Surface Water Licence Allocation and Abstraction Volumes for 2003                                                       29

         Table 4-1 Summary of Construction Activities                                                                                      33

         Table 5-1 National Environmental Protection Measure – Air Quality Standards and Goals47

         Table 5-2 Key Emission Characteristics of Gas Turbine Units                                                                       48

         Table 5-3 Summary of NOX Emissions from Power Generation (g/s as NO2)                                                             49

         Table 5-4 Map Coordinates of Discrete Receptor Locations                                                                          51

         Table 5-5 Maximum Predicted Concentrations - Hamel Town (Receptor 10)                                                             55

SINCLAIR KNIGHT MERZ

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Alinta Cogeneration (Wagerup) Pty Ltd
Wagerup Cogeneration Project
Environmental Impact Statement
Final Rev 1




         Table 5-6 Maximum Predicted Concentrations - Yarloop (Receptor 4)                                                                 56

         Table 5-7 Summary of Acute and Chronic Hazard Indices                                                                             57

      Table 5-8 Predicted Annual Greenhouse Gas Emissions using WRI/WBCSD Emission
Factors (Scope 1 Emissions)                                                 60

      Table 5-9 Predicted Annual Greenhouse Gas Emissions using AGO Full Fuel Cycle
Emission Factors                                                              61

      Table 5-10 Annual Greenhouse Gas Emissions for the Wagerup Unit 3 Expansion
(Calculated based on WRI/WBCSD Emission Factors)                            61

       Table 5-11 Allocation of Emissions during Stage Two Operation (Calculated based on AGO
Full Fuel Cycle Emission Factors)                                                        62

      Table 5-12 Predicted Emissions Intensity for Alinta Wagerup Cogeneration Project
(Calculated based on AGO Full Fuel Cycle Emission Factors)                      63

      Table 5-13 Emissions Intensity of Existing and Proposed Power Plants in Western Australia
(Calculated based on AGO Full Fuel Cycle Emission Factors)                              63

         Table 5-14 Assigned Noise Levels for all Premises                                                                                 65

         Table 5-15 Adjustments for Annoying Characteristics                                                                               66

         Table 5-16 Sound Power Levels                                                                                                     68

         Table 5-17 Guaranteed and Estimated Maximum Plant Sound Power Levels                                                              69

         Table 5-18 Predicted Noise Levels – Alinta Stage One                                                                              70

         Table 5-19 Predicted Noise Levels – Alinta Stage Two                                                                              74

         Table 5-20 Process Liquid Waste                                                                                                   77

         Table 5-21 Hydrocarbon and Hazardous Material Inventory                                                                           78

         Table 6-1 Summary of Key Consultation Activities                                                                                  83

         Table 6-2 Summary of Issues Raised During Stakeholder Consultation                                                                84




SINCLAIR KNIGHT MERZ

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                                                                                                      Wagerup Cogeneration Project
                                                                                                    Environmental Impact Statement
                                                                                                                        Final Rev 1




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Alinta Cogeneration (Wagerup) Pty Ltd
Wagerup Cogeneration Project
Environmental Impact Statement
Final Rev 1




1.            Introduction
1.1       The Proposal
Alinta Cogeneration (Wagerup) Pty Ltd (Alinta) proposes to develop two cogeneration units on the
Alcoa World Alumina Australia (Alcoa) Wagerup Refinery site as part of its plan to continue
delivering clean, reliable and competitively priced electricity to customers on the South West
Interconnected System (SWIS). Each cogeneration unit is comprised of a gas turbine generator
(GTG), which generates electricity, and a heat recovery steam generator (HRSG), which utilises
hot exhaust gases from the GTG to produce high-pressure steam. By providing electricity to
customers throughout the South West, as well as supplying steam for refinery purposes,
cogeneration is an efficient use of a single fuel source.

The use of cogeneration units as a potential option for supplying steam to the Wagerup Refinery
has been assessed as part of the Environmental Review and Management Programme (ERMP) for
Wagerup Refinery Unit Three (ERMP) (Alcoa, 2005a).

In order to accommodate the timing of varying demands for the Alinta project, staged development
of these facilities is required. Stage One of the development will involve the construction and
operation of the GTGs for open-cycle peaking duty, producing electricity but not steam. Stage Two
of the development will involve the construction of the HRSGs.

The timing of Stage One development is driven by Alinta’s commitment to provide reserve
capacity to the SWIS for the summer peak power demand period. This reserve capacity will ensure
that an appropriate level of system security and reliability is maintained.

Stage Two of the development will meet Alcoa’s increased steam demands should the Alcoa
Wagerup Refinery expansion proceed. However, should the refinery expansion not proceed the
cogeneration project will progress when required to meet base-load demand from contestable
customers on the SWIS. As the Alcoa Wagerup Refinery has a finite demand for steam, under this
scenario the steam supplied from the Alinta cogeneration facility will replace steam currently
provided by Alcoa’s existing boilers.

A transition phase will be required between Stage One and Stage Two operation. During this phase
the operating hours of the GTGs will increase as the HRSGs and other Stage Two equipment is
being designed, built and commissioned, but no steam will be produced.


1.2       Project Benefits
The development of power generating plant at Wagerup will play an important role in satisfying
increasing demands for power throughout the South West.

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                                                                                              Alinta Cogeneration (Wagerup) Pty Ltd
                                                                                                      Wagerup Cogeneration Project
                                                                                                    Environmental Impact Statement
                                                                                                                        Final Rev 1




Development of the cogeneration project represents a significant capital investment in the Wagerup
region. In addition, the project will directly employ a construction workforce estimated to peak at
between 250 and 400 personnel, with local contractors invited to tender for work they are qualified
to undertake.

The development of plant at Wagerup will be undertaken in two stages. Each of these stages serves
particular needs and offers particular benefits. These are discussed in Section 1.2.1 and Section
1.2.2 below.


1.2.1     Stage One (Open Cycle, Peaking Operation)
Power demands vary both seasonally and diurnally, with greatest demand typically occurring
during the day in summer due to air-conditioning loads. As part of reforms to the Western
Australian electricity sector, the “reserve capacity mechanism” was developed to ensure that an
appropriate level of system security and reliability is maintained during these peak periods. The
Independent Market Operator (IMO) is responsible for the operation of the reserve capacity
mechanism. Under the reserve capacity mechanism, Alinta has committed to provide generating
capacity by 1st October 2007, to cater for the 2007/08 summer peak period.

Power demand during peak periods develops rapidly and usually only lasts for a relatively short
time. Open-cycle GTGs are particularly suited to meeting such demand as they are capable of being
brought on-line and off-line quickly. In comparison, coal-fired plant typically takes several hours to
be brought on-line and is therefore not suitable for peaking duty. Similarly, cogeneration plants are
more suited to providing base-load power as continual operation is required for efficient steam
supply.

Since peaking plant may only run for a small proportion of time, low capital costs are required to
ensure economic viability. Open-cycle GTGs represent the lowest capital cost per kilowatt installed
of any other comparable generating plant.


1.2.2     Stage Two (Cogeneration, Baseload Operation)
Following the installation of Heat Recovery Steam Generators (HRSGs) in Stage Two of the
development, Alinta will be able to provide steam to Alcoa while selling base-load power to
contestable customers on the SWIS. This is one of the most efficient, clean and reliable ways of
making electricity. In essence, the benefit of cogeneration is that with one fuel input (natural gas)
there are two outputs: electricity and steam. This results in high overall thermal efficiencies and
comparatively low greenhouse emissions intensities attributable to electricity generation.




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Alinta Cogeneration (Wagerup) Pty Ltd
Wagerup Cogeneration Project
Environmental Impact Statement
Final Rev 1




1.3       The Proponent
The proponent for the project is Alinta Cogeneration (Wagerup) Pty Ltd., a wholly owned
subsidiary of Alinta Ltd (Alinta).

Alinta is an operator, manager and part owner of energy assets worth approximately $7.5 billion.
Alinta aims to be a leader in the management of energy infrastructure and the provision of energy
related products and services. Alinta is listed on the ASX with a market capitalisation of
approximately $2.4 billion and employs approximately 1,400 people throughout Australia and New
Zealand. Alinta will market the electrical power generated to contestable customers through open
access to the SWIS and provide steam to the Wagerup Refinery.

Once commissioned, Alcoa World Alumina Australia (Alcoa) will operate the plant and perform
routine maintenance under contract to Alinta. Alcoa World Alumina Australia is a trading name of
the unlisted public company, Alcoa of Australia Limited, whose principal shareholders are Alcoa
Inc (60%) and Alumina Ltd (40%).

Address of Proponent:
Alinta Cogeneration (Wagerup) Pty Ltd
The Quadrant
1 William St
Perth WA 6000

GPO Box W2030
Perth WA 6846

Key Contacts:
Project Director                                                          Environmental Consultant
Alinta Cogeneration (Wagerup) Pty Ltd                                     Sinclair Knight Merz
Mr David Bitney                                                           Ms Lorie Jones
Project Director                                                          Principal
Phone: (08) 9486 3165                                                     Phone: (08) 9268 9626
Fax: (08) 9486 3049                                                       Fax: (08) 9268 4598
Email: david.bitney@alinta.net.au                                         Email: ljones@skm.com.au


1.4     Project Location
The proposed plant will be sited at Alcoa’s Wagerup Refinery, located off the South West Highway
approximately 120km south of Perth (Figure 1-1). The refinery is situated on flat land
approximately 2km west of the foot of the Darling Range and is contained within freehold land
owned by Alcoa. The surrounding landuse is predominantly rural, with most of the region cleared


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                                                                                              Alinta Cogeneration (Wagerup) Pty Ltd
                                                                                                      Wagerup Cogeneration Project
                                                                                                    Environmental Impact Statement
                                                                                                                        Final Rev 1




for agriculture (Figure 1-2). The Darling Range to the east of the refinery is predominantly
characterised by State forest.

The Wagerup Refinery is contained within the Peel Region Scheme, which reserves the refinery
site for “Industrial” purposes, with the majority of adjoining land uses being reserved for “Rural”
purposes. Rezoning of the land is not required before the Wagerup Cogeneration Project can be
implemented.

The townships of Yarloop and Waroona are located approximately 2.5km south and 6.5km north of
the proposed cogeneration project location respectively. The closest non Alcoa-owned residence is
1.8km to the south-east of the proposed project location.

The proposed plant will be built on a portion of a 7.65 hectare site on the eastern side of the Alcoa
Refinery (Figure 1-3). This land will be excised from within Alcoa’s existing landholding and
transferred to Alinta. The centroid of this parcel of land is located to the south-east of Alcoa’s
existing powerhouse at 398875E; 6357540N (MGA94 Zone 50).




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                                                                                                               )                                                                 0      2      4             8 Km

                                                                                                                                                                                       Scale 1:350 000




                                                            Wagerup Cogeneration Project                                                                                                 Figure 1-1
                                                                         REGIONAL LOCATION                                                                                               Rev No. 2
                                                                                                                                                                                         Project: WP03100
                                                                                                                                                                                         Drawn: 19/12/2005

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                                                                                              Alinta Cogeneration (Wagerup) Pty Ltd
                                                                                                      Wagerup Cogeneration Project
                                                                                                    Environmental Impact Statement
                                                                                                                        Final Rev 1




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                                                       395000                                                                                400000
6365000




                                                                                                                                                                                                                    6365000
                                                                                                                              WAROONA




                                                                                                                                    Y
                                                                                                                                 HW
6360000




                                                                                                                                                                                                                    6360000
                                                                                                                         N
                                                                                                                      ER
                                                                                                                  EST
                                                                                                              W




                                                                                                                                                                Conve yo
                                                                                                                                                                            r
                                                                                                          WAGERUP
                                                  Residue Drying
                                                                                                SOUTH




                                                                                                          REFINERY
                                                       Area




                                                                                                                                                   Proposed Cogeneration
                                                                                                                                                   Project Location
6355000




                                                                                                                                                                                                                    6355000
                                                                                                 YARLOOP




                                                       395000                                                                                400000
    Legend
                 ALCOA owned land (as at July 2005)

                 Cogeneration Plant Area
                                                        Wagerup Cogeneration Project


                                              F
   0           600    1,200           2,400
                                                                     LOCALITY PLAN                                                                                                  Figure 1-2
                     Metres                                                                                                                                                         Rev No. 3
                  Scale 1:70000                                                                                                                                                     Project: WP03100
            Horizontal Datum: AGD84                                                                                                                                                 Drawn: 13/01/2006
          Map Projection: AMG84 Zone 50

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                                                                                              Alinta Cogeneration (Wagerup) Pty Ltd
                                                                                                      Wagerup Cogeneration Project
                                                                                                    Environmental Impact Statement
                                                                                                                        Final Rev 1




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                398200                            398400                              398600                            398800                               399000

          NOTE:
          PLANT LAYOUT OVERLAID ON AERIAL IMAGE
          IS INDICATIVE ONLY

                                                                                                                            !
                                                                                                                            !
6357600




                                                                                                                                                                                   6357600
                                                                       Gas Pipeline
                                                               Alternative Route 1a
                                                                                                                                                      Water Pipeline
                                                                                                               Extent of Site Works                   Re-alignment
                                                                                                               Stage 1

                                Gas Pipeline
                          Alternative Route 1
6357400




                                                                                                                                                                                   6357400
                                                                Gas Pipeline
                                                        Alternative Route 1b


                                                           Construction
                                                            Site Fence

                                                                                                                            !
                                                                                                                            !
6357200




                                                                                                                                                                                   6357200
                                                                                                                                                 Gas Pipeline
                                                                                                                                                 Alternative Route 3


                                                                                               Gas Pipeline
                                                                                         Alternative Route 2
6357000




                                                                                                                                                                                   6357000
                                                                                               Gas Pipeline
                                                                                               Alternative Routes 2 & 3
6356800




                                                                                                                                                                                   6356800
                                                       Gas Pipeline Route




                                                                                                                                                      F
6356600




                                                                                                                                                                                   6356600




                                                                                                                                           0     30     60           120

                                                                                                                                                  Metres
                                                                                                                                               Scale 1:5000
                                                                                                                                        Horizontal Datum: AGD84
                                                                                                                                      Map Projection: AMG84 Zone 50

                398200                            398400                              398600                            398800                               399000

                                                        Wagerup Cogeneration Project                                                                  Figure 1-3
                                                                                                                                                                         Rev No. 7
                                                                          SITE PLAN                                                                             Project: WP03100
                                                                                                                                                               Drawn: 24/05/2006

            Alinta Boundary          Water Supply Pipeline - Proposed Re-alignment Route            Gas Pipeline - Route Option 1       Gas Pipeline - All Route Options
            Extent of Site Works !
                                 !   Connection Point to Existing Water Pipeline                    Gas Pipeline - Route Option 1a      Gas Pipeline - Route Option 2
                                     Construction Site Fence                                        Gas Pipeline - Route Option 1b      Gas Pipeline - Route Option 3

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                                                                                                      Wagerup Cogeneration Project
                                                                                                    Environmental Impact Statement
                                                                                                                        Final Rev 1




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Alinta Cogeneration (Wagerup) Pty Ltd
Wagerup Cogeneration Project
Environmental Impact Statement
Final Rev 1




1.5      Approvals
The Environmental Protection Act 1986 (the EP Act 1986) provides for the prevention, control and
abatement of pollution and environmental harm, and for the conservation, preservation, protection,
enhancement and management of the environment. With respect to obtaining approvals for
proposals, the two most salient parts of the Act are Part IV – Environmental Impact Assessment
and Part V – Environmental Regulation.

The proposed cogeneration power plant is considered a prescribed premise (Category 52 –
Electrical Power Generation) under Part 1 of Schedule 1 of the Environmental Protection
Regulations 1987 (EP Regulations). As such, assessment of the proposal under Part IV and
regulation under Part V of the EP Act 1986 will be required.

As was the case with previous environmental assessments of like projects, namely:
      Pinjarra Cogeneration Project – EPA Bulletin 1081;
      Cockburn 2 Combined Cycle Gas Turbine – EPA Bulletin 1086;
      Kemerton Power Station (peaking plant) – EPA Bulletin 1121; and
      Gas-fired Cogeneration Facility (Worsley) – EPA Bulletin 1189;

“Assessment on Referral Information” has been undertaken by the EPA under Part IV of the EP
Act 1986.

It should also be noted that the environmental impact of a cogeneration facility has already been
presented in Environmental Review and Management Program (ERMP) Wagerup Refinery Unit
Three Expansion (Alcoa, 2005a) and Wagerup Refinery Unit Three Environmental Review and
Management Program – Response to Public Submissions (Alcoa, 2005b) and assessed in EPA
Bulletin 1215 Wagerup Alumina Refinery – Increase in Production to 4.7 Mtpa; and Wagerup
Cogeneration Plant (EPA, 2006). As such, this document focuses on the differences between
impacts associated with the proposed Alinta Wagerup cogeneration power plant and those already
assessed by the EPA through Alcoa’s ERMP.

In order for Alinta to meet its reserve capacity obligation by 1st October 2007, approval for
preliminary works has been granted by the EPA prior to receipt of a Works Approval.

Further to assessment and approval under the EP Act 1986, additional approvals are being sought
from the:

      Department of Industry and Resources;
      Economic Regulation Authority;
      Department of Consumer and Employment Protection (Energy Safety);
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                                                                                                      Wagerup Cogeneration Project
                                                                                                    Environmental Impact Statement
                                                                                                                        Final Rev 1




        Health Department;
        Local Government; and
        Western Australian Planning Commission.

Formal advice has been received from the Commonwealth Department of Environment and
Heritage that approval under the Environmental Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act
(1999) is not required.

Approvals associated with a transmission line from the Wagerup Refinery to the SWIS and a
terminal substation are being progressed separately by Western Power on behalf of Alinta.


1.6      Project Schedule
Figure 1-4 provides an indicative project schedule for Stage One construction and commissioning.

                                                                    2005                2006                               2007
Description                                                          Q4       Q1      Q2    Q3         Q4       Q1       Q2    Q3          Q4
Environmental Studies and Approvals
Preliminary Site Works
Plant Construction
GTG Installation and Precommissioning
Commissioning
Commitment to meet Reserve Capacity Obligation
Note:                – Approval for preliminary works
                     – Works approval


        Figure 1-4 Indicative Project Schedule (Stage One)

While approval for both Stage One and Stage Two of the proposal is being sought, the exact timing
of the Stage Two development will depend on the expansion of the proposed Wagerup Refinery or
commercial demand for additional electricity on the SWIS. The preliminary development schedule
for Stage Two involves approximately 18 months of engineering design and procurement followed
by 12 to 24 months of construction and commissioning. The total construction time will vary
depending on whether the two HRSGs are built in parallel or in series. Stage Two design will
commence when a decision is made to transition to base-load operation.


1.7       Scope and Purpose of this Document
This document provides detailed information on Alinta’s proposed Wagerup Cogeneration Project.
While consideration has been given to Alcoa’s refinery expansion plans when discussing this
proposal, it is important to note that the Wagerup Unit Three Expansion is subject to a separate
approvals and licensing process. The development of the Alinta Wagerup Cogeneration Project is
not contingent on Alcoa’s Wagerup Unit Three Expansion.



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Alinta Cogeneration (Wagerup) Pty Ltd
Wagerup Cogeneration Project
Environmental Impact Statement
Final Rev 1




The purpose of this document is three-fold:

     1) To demonstrate that the environmental impacts of the cogeneration project, during both
        construction and operation, can be readily managed to meet the EPA’s environmental
        objectives;
     2) To define Alinta’s commitment to manage the cogeneration project, as the proponent, in an
        environmentally acceptable manner; and
     3) To demonstrate that the environmental impact of the cogeneration project described herein
        represents an insignificant change when compared to that already assessed by the EPA as
        presented in Environmental Review and Management Programme (ERMP) for Wagerup
        Refinery Unit Three (ERMP) (Alcoa, 2005a) and Wagerup Refinery Unit Three
        Environmental Review and Management Program – Response to Public Submissions
        (Alcoa, 2005b) and assessed in EPA Bulletin 1215 Wagerup Alumina Refinery – Increase
        in Production to 4.7 Mtpa; and Wagerup Cogeneration Plant (EPA, 2006).

The content of this document is designed to support parallel assessment and approval under both
Part IV and Part V of the EP Act 1986. Specifically, this document has been prepared to
accompany both the “EPA Referral Form – Proponent” and the “Application for Works Approval”
form.

Environmental impacts associated with the transmission line from the Wagerup Refinery to the
SWIS and a terminal substation are being assessed separately by Western Power on behalf of
Alinta. As such, these issues are considered beyond the scope of this document.


1.8      Document Structure
The contents of the remaining sections of this document are as follows:

      Section 2 provides the project description;
      Section 3 overviews the environmental setting to provide context for potential environmental
      issues and management strategies;
      Sections 4 and 5 outline potential environmental impacts during both construction and
      operation and present appropriate management strategies;
      Section 6 summarises the stakeholder consultation process for the project; and
      Section 7 summarises management commitments made by the proponent.




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                                                                                                      Wagerup Cogeneration Project
                                                                                                    Environmental Impact Statement
                                                                                                                        Final Rev 1




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Alinta Cogeneration (Wagerup) Pty Ltd
Wagerup Cogeneration Project
Environmental Impact Statement
Final Rev 1




2.            Project Description
2.1      Plant Characteristics
The proposed development will include two units, each consisting of a gas turbine generator (GTG)
and a heat recovery steam generator (HRSG). The units will be built in two stages:

      Stage One – GTG (operated in open-cycle to meet peak power demands); and
      Stage Two – GTG + HRSG (operated as cogeneration to meet steam demand and base-load
      power demand)

The staged development of the proposal is schematically depicted in Figure 2-1.

Stage One of the Wagerup Cogeneration Project will meet Alinta’s reserve capacity obligation. The
GTGs will operate in peak mode with gas firing as required to support the SWIS when there is an
impending shortage of generation capacity.

Stage Two of the development will meet Alcoa’s increased steam demands should the Alcoa
Wagerup Refinery expansion proceed. However, should the refinery expansion not proceed the
cogeneration project will progress when required to meet base-load demand from contestable
customers on the SWIS. Under this scenario, Alcoa’s existing boilers will be “backed-off” to
accommodate the steam produced from the cogeneration units.

To ensure that demand for base-load power is in place prior to Stage Two commissioning,
increased operating hours in open-cycle will be required during a designated transition phase. The
transition phase will span three years and will commence in the year a decision is made to develop
Stage Two. Stage Two engineering design, procurement and construction will be undertaken during
the transition phase. Operating hours during the transition phase are estimated in Table 2-1,
indicating a total of 18,500 hours per unit over three years.

      Table 2-1 Operating Profile During the Transition Phase
 Year                                                                     Operating Hours of GTGs
 Year 1 (Year of decision to develop Stage Two)                           4,400 hours per unit
 Year 2                                                                   6,600 hours per unit
 Year 3                                                                   7,500 hours per unit
Note:
1. The operating hours shown are based on a detailed analysis of Alinta’s customer electricity requirements and operating
strategy, encompassing a number of key interrelated factors including:
      customer demand projections including annual, seasonal and daily variations;
      participation in the forthcoming Wholesale Electricity Market (WEM);
      the technical operation of the Wagerup units and the rest of the Alinta generating portfolio in meeting customer
      demand and operating within the WEM; and
      the strategic direction of Alinta with regard to its overall Western Australian energy operations.
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                                                                                              Alinta Cogeneration (Wagerup) Pty Ltd
                                                                                                      Wagerup Cogeneration Project
                                                                                                    Environmental Impact Statement
                                                                                                                        Final Rev 1




Preliminary design assumes that the total plant net power output using gas fuel corresponds to
354MW at average temperature conditions (18oC) and 351MW at maximum ambient temperature
(41oC). Power will be delivered at 330kV into Western Power’s South West Interconnected System
(SWIS).

Hot exhaust gases from each GTG will be directed through their respective HRSG units, to produce
high-pressure steam from condensate water supplied from the existing refinery and powerhouse.
Each HRSG will be equipped with natural gas-fired supplementary firing via duct burners. The
HRSGs will operate to supply Alcoa’s steam demand, expected to be around a steady state plant
total level of 460tph, which requires a minimal level of supplementary firing when two units are
operating. In the event of outage of one of the cogeneration units, the other unit will be able to
supply the required steam at the same conditions by increasing the supplementary firing to 100%.

As a requirement of registration with the Independent Market Operator (IMO), Alinta has
guaranteed reliability of supply when there is a shortage of system capacity. Diesel fuel is therefore
required to provide backup should there be any problems with the gas supply. Distillate firing will
also be used to test the GTGs. Operation under diesel will not exceed 100 hours per unit, per
calendar year.

Key characteristics of the proposed power plant during Stage One of the development (open-cycle
and open-cycle running with distillate firing) and Stage Two (cogeneration) as well as during the
transition phase are provided in Table 2-2.




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                           Stage One                                                                                             Stage Two


            FUEL                                                                                        FUEL                       FUEL




            FUEL                                                                                        FUEL                       FUEL

                                             STGs                                                                                                                                 STGs

                                                       PROCESS                                                                                                                                             PROCESS
                                                        STEAM                                                                                                                                               STEAM

       GTGs                                                                                         GTGs + HRSGs

                           Boilers
                                                                    Scenario 1:
                                                                    Cogeneration without
                                                                    refinery expansion
                                                                                                                                                                                  STGs
                                                                                                        FUEL                       FUEL




LEGEND
                                                                                                        FUEL                       FUEL


   Alinta proposed power plant equipment

                                                                                                                                                                                                           PROCESS
                                                                                                                                                                                                            STEAM
   Alcoa existing power plant equipment
                                                                                                    GTGs + HRSGs


   Alcoa proposed power plant equipment                             Scenario 2:                                                  Boilers
                                                                    Cogeneration with
                                                                    refinery expansion


    Sinclair Knight Merz
    263 Adelaide Tce
                                                    Wagerup Cogeneration Project
                                                                                                                                                                                                   Figure 2-1
    Perth WA 6149
    Tel: +61 8 9268 4500                                                                                                                                                                           Rev No. 1
    Fax: +61 8 9268 9625             Schematic Representation of Staged Development                                                                                                                Project: WP03100
                                                                                                                                                                                                   Drawn: 16/11/2005
                                                                                                                                                                                                   Drawn by: CSW

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                                                                                              Alinta Cogeneration (Wagerup) Pty Ltd
                                                                                                      Wagerup Cogeneration Project
                                                                                                    Environmental Impact Statement
                                                                                                                        Final Rev 1




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Alinta Cogeneration (Wagerup) Pty Ltd
Wagerup Cogeneration Project
Environmental Impact Statement
Final Rev 1



      Table 2-2 Key Characteristics of Proposed Power Plant
                                                                                         Stage One                      Transition                     Stage Two                 Presented in ERMP
                                                                                       Open-cycle:                     Open-cycle:                  Cogeneration:
 Characteristic                                                   Units                                                                                                             Cogeneration
                                                                                       Gas (Diesel)                       Gas1                          Gas1
 Project Life                                                     years                   Up to 25                            3                             >25                     >35 (refinery)
                                                                                                                                   3
 Estimated Maximum Operating Time per Unit                        hours/yr          Up to 1,000 (Up to                     6,167                           8,760                         7,500
                                                                                          100)2
 Project Cost4                                                    A$m                         240                            N/A                        Up to 150                   Breakdown for
                                                                                                                                                                                   cogeneration not
                                                                                                                                                                                       provided
 Total Plant Net Power Output                                     MW                    351 @ 41oC                     345 @ 18oC                     345 @ 18oC                          280
                                                                                                    o                              o                                o
 Net Efficiency (HHV) - GTG                                       %                      30 @ 41 C                      32 @ 18 C                      32 @ 18 C                      Not stated
                      - GTG + HRSG5                                                          -                              -                          74@ 18oC
 High Pressure Steam Production                                   tph                          0                              0                            4606                           430
 (7.2 MPa(g) @ 485oC)
 Facility Footprint                                               Ha                     4.9ha (no                    No additional                   No additional                     Additional
                                                                                      disturbance of              disturbance beyond              disturbance beyond             infrastructure located
                                                                                        previously                     Stage One                       Stage One                     within existing
                                                                                     undisturbed land)                                                                             refinery boundary
 Number of Stacks                                                 -                            2                  No additional stacks           4 (2 from Stage One                       2
                                                                                                                                                        no longer
                                                                                                                                                      connected)
 Height of Stacks                                                 m                           35                  No additional stacks                    2 x 50                          50
                                                                                                                                                          2 x 35
 Fuel Tank Capacity (nominal)                                     m3                        1,800                      No additional                  No additional                   Not stated
                                                                                                                         capacity                       capacity
 Construction Period                                              months                    15-18                            N/A                     12-24 months7                  Breakdown for
                                                                                                                                                                                   cogeneration not
                                                                                                                                                                                       provided
 Fuel Consumption                                                 GJ/yr            3,392,583 (390,979)                 21,908,9613                     31,774,164                     29,734,000
                                                                                                                                                                8
 Net Water Usage                                                  ML/yr                      125                             125                           208                      Breakdown for

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                                                                                                                                                               Wagerup Cogeneration Project
                                                                                                                                                             Environmental Impact Statement
                                                                                                                                                                                 Final Rev 1



                                                                                         Stage One                      Transition                     Stage Two                 Presented in ERMP
                                                                                       Open-cycle:                     Open-cycle:                  Cogeneration:
 Characteristic                                                   Units                                                      1                                                     Cogeneration
                                                                                       Gas (Diesel)                       Gas                           Gas1
                                                                                                                                                                                  cogeneration not
                                                                                                                                                                                     provided
 NOx Emissions                                                    tpa                   171.1 (29.2)                       927.93                        1,330.8                       971.39
 Sulphur Dioxide (SO2)                                            tpa                     3.9 (0.9)                         21.93                          31.6                         18.99
 CO2 Emissions10                                                  tpa                190,200 (28,940)                   1,228,0003                      1,781,000                    1,667,00011
                                                                                                                                   3
 Particulates                                                     tpa                     13.6 (4.4)                        88.4                           126.1                          0
 Noise                                                                             No increase in noise           No increase in noise           No increase in noise            No increase in noise
                                                                                        impacts on                     impacts on                     impacts on                      impacts on
                                                                                       surrounding                    surrounding                    surrounding                     surrounding
                                                                                         residents                      residents                      residents                       residents
 Liquid Effluent Discharges (Blowdown)                            ML/yr                     25-35                          25-35                           25-35                   Breakdown for
                                                                                                                                                                                  cogeneration not
                                                                                                                                                                                      provided
 Solid Waste (construction)                                       t                          <20                             N/A                            <20                    Breakdown for
                                                                                                                                                                                  cogeneration not
                                                                                                                                                                                      provided
 Solid Waste (operation)                                          tpa                        <10                             <15                            <15                    Breakdown for
                                                                                                                                                                                  cogeneration not
                                                                                                                                                                                      provided
Note:             1 – Distillate firing may be required in emergency situations;
                  2 – Total operating time will not exceed 1,000 hours per unit;
                  3 – Averaged over three years;
                  4 – Cost of works excluding cost of land, cost of buildings unrelated to the prescribed premises and consultancy fees paid in relation to the works;
                  5 – Calculated in accordance with "AGO Generator Efficiency Standards" (AGO, 2000) calculation methodology, for one GTG and HRSG operating fully fired.
                  6 – Based on two HRSGs operating with minimal supplementary firing (producing 230tph each). One HRSG fully fired can produce 430tph;
                  7 – Depends on whether the two HRSGs are constructed in parallel or sequentially;
                  8 – 56ML/yr attributed to the GTG with the remainder associated with steam production;
                  9 – Emission rates taken from Alcoa (2005b), annual emissions calculated for 8,760 hours of operation to allow comparison;
                  10 – Based on WRI/WBCSD emission factors; and
                  11 – Data provided by ENVIRON (2005), email from Ian Yull dated 13th December 2005.
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Alinta Cogeneration (Wagerup) Pty Ltd
Wagerup Cogeneration Project
Environmental Impact Statement
Final Rev 1




2.2       Operation and Integration with Alcoa
Alinta will own and construct the plant. Once the plant is operational, Alcoa will operate it from its
Wagerup powerhouse control room. Operational activities will be managed under Alcoa’s existing
Environmental Management system for the Wagerup Refinery, which was certified to the
International Standards Organisation 14001 EMS Standard in February 2001. The Wagerup EMS
and its associated documents will be amended as necessary to incorporate changes associated with
this Proposal.

The operating agreement between Alinta and Alcoa will stipulate that all management
commitments and licence conditions are to be met. Compliance with the operating agreement will
be actively verified by Alinta.

In addition to operating the plant, Alcoa will also perform routine maintenance under contract to
Alinta. As such, Alcoa’s safety and quality management systems will also be utilised over the
operational life of the project.


2.3      Services, Utilities and Cooling Systems
Key services and utilities, namely power, fuel supply, water supply, stormwater drainage and the
cooling systems are specifically addressed below. Ancillary services such as fire water and
emergency power will be supplied from the existing Alcoa systems.


2.3.1     Power Transmission
Electricity produced by the cogeneration units will be exported to the SWIS through a new 330kV
transmission line from the refinery to the existing Kemerton to Southern Terminal transmission
line. Environmental approval for the new line and a new terminal substation is being progressed by
Western Power on behalf of Alinta.


2.3.2     Fuel Supply
Natural gas will be sourced from the Dampier to Bunbury natural gas pipeline. Custody of the gas
will be transferred at the outlet of the gas gate station, which will be located adjacent to Alcoa’s
current metering station. The takeoff will be fitted with an isolating valve and metering.

From the takeoff, a nominal 350mm size pipeline will be routed either through the Alcoa plant via
existing pipe racks or around the refinery (see Figure 1-3). A constructability workshop will
determine which option is chosen. The pipeline will terminate at a gas receival station located
adjacent to the cogeneration plant.

The receival station would consist of coalescer filters, gas heat exchangers with separate hot water
generators and pressure regulating/shutoff with each system in a dual redundant duty/standby

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                                                                                                      Wagerup Cogeneration Project
                                                                                                    Environmental Impact Statement
                                                                                                                        Final Rev 1




configuration to improve reliability and availability. No gas compression will be required as the
pipeline operator is able to guarantee minimum gas delivery pressures to meet the gas turbine gas
fuel inlet criteria.

Diesel backup will be required to ensure reliability of supply. The IMO requires that enough
distillate be stored on site to ensure 12 hours of operation. Annual operation under diesel is not
expected to exceed 100 hours per unit per calendar year. Ultra-low sulphur content diesel will be
used.

Following a decision to proceed to Stage Two, Alinta will seek a higher level of guarantee on gas
supply. Such a guarantee is not commercially viable during Stage One due to the limited number of
operating hours. Once such an arrangement is in place, the units will only be fired on distillate in
emergency situations and for test firing.


2.3.3     Water Supply
Water required during construction and operation will be drawn from sources utilised by the Alcoa
Refinery. If the Wagerup Refinery expansion proceeds, additional water allocation may be required
above Alcoa’s existing surface water licence extraction limits. An Ecological Water Requirement
study has been performed in the case that additional water would be required, and the results are
documented in the ERMP (Alcoa, 2005a). The detail of licensed abstraction volumes is presented
in Section 3.4.1.

There will be no additional potable water requirements during operation and the power station will
utilise a closed-circuit heat exchange cooling system.

Process water requirements during operation are limited to demineralisation water requirements,
estimated to be 125ML annually during Stage One and 208ML annually during Stage Two. Alinta
will construct a new water treatment plant, taking raw water from Alcoa’s water supply dam.
Demineralisation water will be used for NOX control (when distillate-fired) air intake cooling,
power augmentation, and boiler make-up water (during operation in cogeneration only).

Water requirements during construction will be employee drinking water, dust suppression and
flushing and cleaning of piping systems.


2.3.4     Stormwater Drainage
Alcoa operates an efficient closed water circuit in which all rainfall runoff on site is captured and
used as process make-up water for the refinery. All clean stormwater from the cogeneration project
site will be directed into Alcoa’s closed water system. Stormwater which has the potential to
contain hydrocarbons will be disposed offsite to a licensed facility.


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Alinta Cogeneration (Wagerup) Pty Ltd
Wagerup Cogeneration Project
Environmental Impact Statement
Final Rev 1




2.3.5     Closed-circuit Heat Exchange Cooling System
Cooling towers have not been proposed as part of the Alinta Cogeneration Project. The generator
cooling air and the lubrication and control oil systems of each individual GTG will be cooled using
radiators, with air movement driven by fans. The radiators and fans will be located adjacent to the
Gas Turbine Generators.


2.4       Workforce
An estimated peak workforce of 250 personnel will be required during Stage One construction. The
size of the workforce during Stage Two will depend on whether the two HRSGs are constructed in
parallel or sequentially and is estimated at between 200 and 400 personnel.

Local contractors will be invited to tender for construction work and locals will be able to express
interest in contract work that they are qualified to undertake.

Personnel will commute to site from the metropolitan area and neighbouring rural settlements.
Access to the site will be via the refinery access road off the South West Highway.

No additional personnel will be required for the operation of the plant.




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                                                                                                      Wagerup Cogeneration Project
                                                                                                    Environmental Impact Statement
                                                                                                                        Final Rev 1




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Wagerup Cogeneration Project
Environmental Impact Statement
Final Rev 1




3.            Existing Environment
The following section details both the physical and cultural setting of the Wagerup site. The
majority of information presented below has been sourced from the Wagerup Refinery Unit Three
Expansion ERMP (Alcoa, 2005a). The reader is directed to this document for further information if
required.


3.1       Climate
The Wagerup area is characterised by a Mediterranean climate with mild wet winters and warm dry
summers. Climatic data available for the Wagerup Refinery includes relatively recent
measurements made on site by Alcoa and longer-term monitoring by the Bureau of Meteorology at
Wokalup, 22km south of the refinery. A summary of climatic data recorded at Wokalup since 1951
is provided in Table 3-1.

      Table 3-1 Averaged Climatic Data for Wokalup
                         Jan      Feb       Mar      Apr      May       Jun      Jul       Aug      Sep       Oct      Nov       Dec       Ann
Mean Daily Max           30.9     30.8      28.3     24.3     20.2      17.4     16.7      17.1     18.6      21.0     24.0      27.8      23.0

Temp (°C)
Mean Daily Min           15.6     16.1      14.8     12.7     10.6      9.0      8.0       7.9      8.5       9.5      11.4      13.6      11.4

Temp (°C)
Mean 9am Rel.            54       56        59       68       77        81       83        79       75        69       63        56        68
Hum. (%)
Monthly rainfall         14.0     16.9      21.8     50.5     137.4     193.7    187.7     135.6    93.2      61.7     36.9      14.4      963.7
                                                                                                                                           (total)
(mm)
Highest                  108.6    90.4      79.2     56.0     60.8      63.5     52.3      66.5     49.8      65.6     44.6      35.8      -
recorded daily
rainfall (mm)
Mean 9am wind            4.1      4.4       4.2      3.4      2.5       2.5      2.7       2.9      3.2       3.4      3.5       3.6       3.4
speed (m/s)




3.1.1     Temperature and Humidity
Temperatures recorded at Wagerup are characteristic of the South West region. The warmest
months are January to February, with maximum temperatures in these months exceeding 40°C and
averaging over 30°C. The coldest month is July when the average maximum temperature is below
17°C. Average minimum temperatures range from approximately 8°C in August to 16°C in
February.

The mean relative humidity recorded at the Wagerup Refinery typically peaks in the early
mornings and drops during the day. Relative humidity is generally highest in winter.

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3.1.2    Rainfall and Evaporation
Annual rainfall at the Wagerup Refinery averages approximately 960mm, with around 78% falling
between May and September. However, the most intense rainfall events tend to occur in the
summer months.

The mean annual rainfall recorded at the Wagerup Refinery is higher than that recorded elsewhere
on the Swan Coastal Plain. This is due to the proximity of the refinery to the Darling Scarp, which
has a slight orographic influence on rainfall. As moist air is forced to rise over the escarpment the
subsequent drop in air temperature increases the likelihood of rainfall.

Long-term evaporation data (30-year record) is available at Wokalup. The mean annual
evaporation at Wokalup is 4.9mm/day. Mean daily evaporation ranges from 9mm/day in January to
2.1mm/day in June and July. The total average annual evaporation is approximately 1,790mm/year,
which exceeds annual rainfall at Wokalup by approximately 826mm.

3.1.3     Winds
Winds at Wagerup are controlled by both large scale synoptic weather patterns and local features
(SKM, 2001). During summer, the passage of high pressure systems to the south generates synoptic
easterlies over the region, while during winter months the passage of cold fronts and low pressure
systems results in more frequent westerly synoptic flows between periods of lighter winds.
However, as the Wagerup Refinery is located in close proximity to the Darling Scarp, topographic
features are particularly important in modifying these larger scale winds. These topographic
features tend to:

      generate very strong local winds during summer, principally at night and in the early morning,
      which are known as “gully wind” or “foothill winds”;
      create rotors or wind reversals near the foothills under easterly winds;
      channel or deflect westerly winds near the base of the escarpment along the escarpment; and
      create light drainage (katabatic flows) down the escarpment.

The most pronounced result of these localised effects is the generation of very strong easterly
winds, up to a factor of two times higher than elsewhere on the Swan Coastal Plain (SKM, 2001).


3.2      Local Air Quality
Alcoa has an extensive ambient air monitoring program in place at Wagerup. A network of high
volume dust samplers has been in operation since the 1980s, to which a range of other samplers,
monitoring installations and ambient monitoring campaigns have been added over time, including:



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      Continuous dust samplers (TEOMs) at four sites;
      Continuous and campaign based NOx monitors at one permanent site, with historic monitoring
      at other sites;
      Ozone samplers operated at two sites for a one year period;
      Carbon monoxide continuous monitoring operated at one site for a one year period;
      Periodic sulphur dioxide, VOC, carbonyl and acid gas samplers at multiple sites;
      A campaign of intensive fine and ultrafine particle monitoring at the Boundary Rd, Yarloop
      site;
      Tracer gas monitoring campaigns at multiple locations in Yarloop, Hamel and Wagerup;
      Active and passive VOC and carbonyl compound samplers at a range of sites located around
      the refinery and residue areas;
      Field odour survey campaigns (trained field assessors making personal odour observations
      using standard methodology) focusing on refinery and RDA odour impacts on four different
      occasions; and
      A long-path continuous differential optical absorption system (OPSIS) for simultaneous
      measurement of multiple pollutant gases, located south of the refinery at Boundary Road.

Data collected as part of Wagerup’s Ambient Air Quality monitoring program between March
2002 and March 2003 was presented in the Wagerup Ambient Air Quality Monitoring Report,
December 2003 (Alcoa, 2003a). Of particular interest, with respect to likely emissions from the
proposed plant, are ambient levels of oxides of nitrogen (NOx) and carbon monoxide (CO).

Regarding NOx, the report stated that:

      The average level of NOx in the local atmosphere is less than 10ppb, with a one-hour
      maximum value of around 40ppb. All results were well below the one hour maximum National
      Environment Protection Measure (NEPM) value of 120 ppb;
      There is a weak correlation between NOx values and winds from the direction of the refinery,
      indicative of a detectable refinery influence over the background level of NOx, however the
      degree of influence was small and could not be established with the techniques used in this
      work;
      There appears to have been a detectable reduction in the influence of the refinery on NOx
      levels following the installation of low-NOx burners in the refinery powerhouse, although it
      was not possible to quantify the reduction; and
      NOx concentrations show an expected diurnal variation, with elevated levels during the night
      and lower levels during the day.


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From these data it was concluded that the refinery does have a detectable influence on NOx levels
in the local atmosphere (Alcoa, 2005a).

Regarding CO, the report stated that:

      CO averaged <0.1ppm, with one hour maxima of <1ppm; all values were much lower than the
      NEPM limit of 9ppm over 8 hours; and
      The observed peaks in CO were highest in south-westerly winds, and do not correlate with
      winds from the refinery direction.

On the basis of these observations it was concluded that the levels of CO in the local airshed are
very low (close to the limit of detection most of the time) and not detectably influenced by the
refinery (Alcoa, 2005a).

3.3       Geology, Soils and Topography
The geology of an area has a large effect on the shape of the land and the type of soils that are
formed. The Wagerup Refinery is located next to a boundary between two geological regions; the
Swan Coastal Plain and the Yilgarn Craton. The boundary between these geological regions is
marked by the Darling Scarp which rises abruptly to a height of approximately 300mADH
(Australia Height Datum) to the east of the refinery. The land in the vicinity of the refinery gently
slopes towards the west, from an elevation of 55mADH in the east to approximately 40-45mADH
on the western side of the refinery.

The geology of the proposed site is characterised by the surficial Yoganup Formation (leached or
ferruiginised beach sand, conglomerate and dunes) which is approximately 15m thick and includes
a surface fill of variable thickness (of up to 3m) comprised of sandy clay and lateritic gravel
overlain by sand placed there during refinery construction (Peck and Thomas, 1997). The Yoganup
Formation is interspersed by the Ascot Limestone Formation (Parsons Brinckerhoff/Nield
Consulting, 2004).

The surficial formations in the vicinity of the proposed site are underlain by the Cattamarra Coal
Measures and the Leederville Formation. The Cattamarra Coal Measures are comprised of
sandstone, siltstone, shale and some minor coal. The Leederville Formation is comprised of sand,
siltstone, shale and clay.

The area in the vicinity of the proposed site is classified as ‘moderate to low’ risk of acid sulphate
soils (ASS) occurring at depths >3m (Western Australian Planning Commission, 2004). There are
no areas in the vicinity of the proposed site that are designated as representing ‘high’ risk ASS
areas.


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A baseline soil and groundwater assessment of the proposed Alinta site concluded that the soil is
not contaminated with “contaminants of concern”.


3.4           Surface Water Hydrology and Groundwater Hydrogeology
3.4.1     Surface Water
The Wagerup Refinery is located within the lower reaches of the 2,055km2 Harvey River
catchment, the largest catchment draining into the Peel-Harvey Estuary. The catchment is
principally drained by the Harvey River, which is located approximately 4km west of the Wagerup
Refinery. Local tributaries in the vicinity of the refinery include Yalup Brook to the north and
Bancell Brook to the south. No natural surface water features are in the vicinity of the proposed
location of the cogeneration plant.

The regional surface hydrology has been significantly altered following the development of
agricultural irrigation and drainage schemes during the early 1900s. Approximately 51% (53GL) of
the total mean annual stream flow from the upper Harvey River is diverted for irrigation and town
water supplies (Water and Rivers Commission, 1998). However, due to extensive clearing for
agriculture, it is estimated that runoff from the lower Harvey catchment is of the order of 300%
greater than it was prior to European settlement. Consequently, the total annual flow in the Harvey
River entering the Harvey Estuary is estimated to be between 25 to 50% greater than pre-European
flows (Water and Rivers Commission, 1998).

The runoff water collection system for the refinery and associated residue drying area operates as a
closed system which maximises the recycling of water and also protects the natural environment
from water quality related impacts. The refinery is a net user of water, with the major losses from
the system associated with evaporation, cooling and moisture retained in the process residue.

The Wagerup Refinery is almost totally dependent on surface water to provide process make-up
water. Make-up water is abstracted from three licensed surface water sources (Table 3-2).

      Table 3-2 Surface Water Licence Allocation and Abstraction Volumes for 2003
Licence no.               Catchment               Expiry                        Licensed                   Volume
                          Location                                              Abstraction                Abstracted  by
                                                                                Volume                     Alcoa in 2003/4
                                                                                (ML/year)                  (ML/year)
99246                     Black Tom               30/06/2007                    2,500                      1,572
                          Brook
97472                     Yalup Brook             30/06/2007                    1,600                      1,174
151027                    Harvey River            30/06/2007                    4,400                      1,550
                          Drain




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Under environmental licence (6217/9) Alcoa monitors surface water quality downstream from its
operation. Surface water monitoring results are collated and reported annually to the DoE.
Monitoring results from the years 2000 to 2003 indicate that the Wagerup Refinery operations have
not had an impact on catchment surface water quality (Alcoa, 2002; Alcoa, 2003b).


3.4.2     Groundwater
The Wagerup Refinery is sited at the eastern edge of the Perth Basin, the major groundwater
feature of the Swan Coastal Plain. The Perth Basin extends from north of Geraldton to the lower
south-west of Western Australia. The Perth Basin comprises several aquifers, many of which are
important sources of groundwater. Shallow aquifers include the superficial formations and the
Leederville Formation. Shallow groundwater in the area of Alcoa’s Wagerup operations flows
westwards and eventually discharges into the Harvey River Main Drain. The major aquifer
underlying the Leederville Formation is the Yaragadee, which is replaced in the Wagerup region by
the Cattamarra Coal Measures.

A baseline soil and groundwater assessment of the proposed Alinta site concluded that the
groundwater beneath the site is not contaminated with “contaminants of concern”.


3.5       Flora and Vegetation
Alcoa’s Wagerup operations lie on the edge of the Drummond and Sale Botanical Sub-districts
within the Darling Botanical District Province (Beard, 1979; 1980; 1981; and 1990). Three
vegetation complexes have been described by Heddle et al (1980) and Mattiske and Havel (1998)
within the vicinity of the Wagerup Refinery:

      Guildford Complex, dominated by a mixture of Open Forest in section and Tall Open Forest
      including Corymbia calophylla (Marri) and Eucalyptus Wandoo (Wandoo);
      Forrestfield Complex dominated by an Open Forest including Corymbia calophylla (Marri)
      and Eucalyptus marginata subsp Marginata (Jarrah); and
      Darling Scarp Complex including a mosaic of Open Forest Eucalyptus marginata subsp
      Marginata (Jarrah).

Three rare species which are declared under the Wildlife Conservation Act 1950 have previously
been located or have the potential to be present in the region. These species are:

      Caladenia hugelii: A rare orchid recorded on the ridge hill shelf communities by Fermco
      (1982);
      Diuris purdiei: A rare orchid that has been recorded in wetlands between Perth to Waroona,
      although it is rarely seen because it rapidly establishes after intense fires and then declines; and


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      Synaphea stenoloba: Previously recorded near the Pinjarra Refinery and more recently near the
      old Wagerup town site. This species may potentially occur in the remnant vegetation near
      Wagerup Refinery.

The two orchid species are also listed under the Environmental Protection and Biodiversity
Conservation Act 1999 (EPBC Act 1999) as ‘Endangered’ (Mattiske, 2003). Based on current
information, no Priority species were recorded in the Wagerup Refinery area (Mattiske, 2003).

Very little remnant vegetation is located in the immediate vicinity of the Wagerup Refinery due to
extensive clearing for agriculture. Vegetation was cleared from the refinery site itself in the early
1980s. After construction, some areas were re-vegetated. Removal of some of this replanted
vegetation will be required prior to construction of the proposed plant. This vegetation was not
designated as either locally or regionally significant by Matiske (2003) when assessing remnant
vegetation on Alcoa owned land.


3.6      Fauna
The endemic fauna of the Swan Coastal Plain have not been well researched, as a result of urban
and agricultural development in this area occurring prior to extensive scientific fauna surveys being
conducted (Anderson, 1984).

In 2002 Alcoa commissioned a fauna survey of the farmlands in the vicinity of the Wagerup
Refinery (EMRC, 2003). The survey recorded the following:

      14 mammal species, including seven introduced species;
      86 bird species, including Baudin’s Cockatoo (formerly named the White-tailed Black
      Cockatoo); and
      11 reptile species (a further eight reptile species were reported by Alcoa staff, making a total of
      19 recorded species).

Baudin’s Cockatoo is an officially gazetted rare species listed as vulnerable under the EPBC Act
1999 and listed as ‘Rare; likely to become extinct’ under the WA Wildlife Conservation Act 1950.
As Baudin's Cockatoo requires mature hollow trees for nesting, and re-planted vegetation at the
proposed site is relatively young, no impact on this species is expected.


3.7           Heritage
3.7.1    Aboriginal Heritage
Twenty-seven Aboriginal archaeological sites have been recorded within an eight kilometre radius
of Alcoa’s Wagerup operations. Twenty-five of the archaeological sites are artefact scatters and the
remaining two are camping grounds (Alcoa, 2005a).

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Alcoa’s Wagerup operations were most recently surveyed in June 2000. The surveyed area covered
both the refinery boundary and surrounding pastoral areas. During this survey two archaeological
sites and a total of five isolated artefacts were located. All of the archaeological material was
located to the south-west of the residue drying area (Archae-aus, 2000).

No known or recorded Aboriginal Heritage sites occur at the proposed cogeneration plant site.


3.7.2     European Heritage
There are no places or objects within Alcoa’s Wagerup operations area that are included on the
Register or the Interim List of the Register of the National Estate. There are no known sites or
items of non-Aboriginal heritage significance in the Wagerup operations area (Alcoa, 2005a).


3.8       Previous Land Use
Alcoa has advised that, prior to construction of the Alcoa Refinery, the Wagerup site land use was
farmland with mixed grazing. The south-east corner of the proposed Alinta site was used as a
contractor's area during the construction phase of the refinery. No other previous uses of the Alinta
site have been identified.




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4.            Construction Impacts and Management
              Strategies
4.1       Introduction
The following sections identify the typical construction activities which would be undertaken for
both Stage One and Stage Two construction of the cogeneration plant and address each of the
potential environmental issues associated with these activities.

4.2      Summary of Construction Activities
Table 4-1 identifies typical construction activities relevant to each stage of construction. Stage One
will include the site preparation required for the ultimate cogeneration plant and auxiliary
equipment. The list of activities has been identified in consultation with Alinta, Alcoa and the SKM
engineering management team.
      Table 4-1 Summary of Construction Activities
Activity                                                                    Stage One                           Stage Two
Establishing security, fencing and procedures                               Y                                   Y
Site clearing and levelling                                                 Y – incorporates                    No additional works
                                                                            requirements for Stage
                                                                            Two
Set up site amenities                                                       Y                                   Y
Establish waste handling and disposal facilities                            Y                                   Y
Establish water supplies and temporary power                                Y – incorporates                    No additional works
                                                                            requirements for Stage
                                                                            Two
Construction of drainage systems                                            Y – incorporates                    No additional works
                                                                            requirements for Stage
                                                                            Two
Construction of internal road and hardstands                                Y – incorporates                    No additional works
                                                                            requirements for Stage
                                                                            Two
Construction of foundations (on-site batching)                              Y                                   Y
Delivery of plant to site                                                   Y                                   Y
Construction and erection of plant                                          Y                                   Y
Construction of waste water treatment and tie in to                         Y                                   No additional works
Alcoa discharge systems
Construction of gas pipeline (from metering station to                      Y                                   N
power plant site, see Figure 1-3)
Construction of condensate tanks                                            N                                   Y
Construction and erection of power transmission line                        Y                                   No new transmission
(by Western Power on behalf of Alinta)1                                                                         line required
Construction and erection of liquid fuel storage facilities                 Y                                   N
Removal of temporary waste handling facilities                              Y                                   Y

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Activity                                                                    Stage One                           Stage Two
Landscaping                                                                 Y – incorporates                    No additional works
                                                                            requirements for Stage
                                                                            Two
Site clean up                                                               Y                                   Y
Note
1 - Impacts related to the transmission line are not considered in this document.


4.3      Overview of Environmental Management Program during Construction                                                                      Alinta commits to
An Environmental Management Plan (EMP) has been developed for Stage One of the project. The                                                    developing an EMP
                                                                                                                                               for the project,
plan has been developed to define management tasks for the design, construction and
                                                                                                                                               which will define
commissioning of Stage One. The EMP provides a framework for the management of relevant                                                        system and
environmental issues, including mandatory management system elements, such as training,                                                        management
auditing and monitoring requirements, as well as minimum requirements for managing key                                                         requirements for
                                                                                                                                               design, construction
environmental aspects. The following specific management plans are included:
                                                                                                                                               and commissioning.

      Flora and Fauna Management Plan;
      Noise Management Plan;
      Air Quality Management Plan;
      Solid Waste Management Plan;
      Liquid Waste Management Plan;
      Hazardous Materials and Hydrocarbon Management Plan;
      Water Management Plan; and
      Traffic Management Plan.

It is not the intention of the EMP to provide detailed and prescriptive requirements for contractors
to implement. Rather, the EMP outlines the key environmental management strategies and
minimum requirements that are to be implemented by contractors (personnel) to minimise potential
impacts on the environment. The EMP will form part of the contractual obligations for each
contractor.

At the tendering stage, potential contractors will be required to demonstrate an understanding of the
environmental issues of relevance to their activities and acknowledge resourcing and cost
implications for ensuring environmental obligations will be met. Prior to beginning activities on
site, contractors will be required to provide a work break down structure, showing that
environmental risks have been considered and, where appropriate, will be required to prepare their
own Environmental Management Plans. It is envisaged that the EMP will provide a framework for
these subsequent plans, with the management strategies outlined within the EMP document
providing the minimum management requirements. The EMP has been designed to complement the

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Environmental Management System currently in place for Alcoa’s Wagerup Refinery. Alinta will
conduct regular audits to ensure that contractors are in compliance with their approved
management plans, as defined in the EMP.

Potential impacts during construction have been identified in consultation with the construction
management team, Alinta and Alcoa.

Assessment of these environmental factors and development of management strategies has been
guided by the principles of environmental protection, natural resource management and
sustainability set out in Section 4A of the EP Act 1986 and outlined in EPA Position Statement 7
‘Principles of Environmental Protection’ (EPA, 2004).

The environmental factors relevant to the project are identified in the following sections, along
with management strategies specific to each factor.


4.4    Vegetation
Management Objectives
      Minimise removal of screening vegetation.

4.4.1     Background
Clearing of vegetation will be required for development of the power station site, relocation of the
water pipeline, installation of the new gas lateral and installation of boundary fencing (shown in
Figure 1-3). The vegetation to be removed consists of trees which were replanted following
construction activities for the Wagerup Refinery. There is no under storey and the planted trees are
not considered to be either locally or regionally significant. Some of the vegetation to be cleared
provides visual screening of the refinery from the Alcoa access road. All vegetation removal for
both Stages One and Two will occur during site preparation in Stage One.

Top soil is not considered a valuable source of seeds. No fill is required to be imported to the site,
with the exception of some material to be imported for structural purposes.


4.4.2     Management Strategies
Strategies to ensure vegetation clearing is minimised include:

      Communication of the value of screening vegetation through design;
      Clear definition of clearing boundaries on design drawings;
      Pegging of areas to be cleared;
      Mulching of vegetation and re-use of mulched material where appropriate for landscaping; and
      Re-planting of vegetation where possible.
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4.5    Drainage and Site Hydrology
Management Objectives
      Minimise potential for erosion due to stormwater flow; and
      Minimise potential for contaminated stormwater to enter Alcoa’s stormwater system.

4.5.1     Background
The site does not drain directly to any surface water bodies. Installation of site drainage for both
Stage One and Two of the proposal will occur during site preparation activities for Stage One. The
site drainage will be connected to the existing Alcoa stormwater system, a closed system which
allows recycling of stormwater into the refinery process, with no release externally.


4.5.2    Management Strategies
The construction EMP will include specific minimum requirements to reduce the potential for
erosion or for contaminated stormwater to enter the Alcoa stormwater system. Drainage
management has been determined with reference to the Environmental Protection Authority (EPA)
Draft Guidance No. 26 ‘Management of Surface Run-off from Industrial and Commercial Sites’
(EPA, 1999a) and includes the following strategies:

      Erosion control procedures will be in place prior to earth moving activities;
      Sound design of drainage systems (e.g. open drains to prevent scour); and
      Clear definition of requirements for bunding and storage of chemicals (see Section 4.10.2 for
      management strategies for hydrocarbons and hazardous materials).


4.6    Dust
Management Objectives
      Ensure that dust generated during construction does not cause any environmental or human
      health problem or significantly impact on amenity; and
      Use all reasonable and practicable measures to minimise airborne dust.

4.6.1      Background
Approximately 4.9 hectares of land will be disturbed in order to accommodate the proposed
facilities and associated infrastructure. Civil works will be performed as part of site preparation in
the first months of site activity. Civil works for both Stage One and Stage Two will be performed
during Stage One.

During construction, dust may be generated as a result of:

      clearing of vegetation;

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      earthmoving activities;
      truck unloading;
      vehicular movement on unsealed tracks; and
      wind action on cleared/graded areas.

Dust emissions have the potential to adversely affect human health and safety and public amenity.
The local community is well informed on dust sources from the Alcoa refinery and sensitive to
changes in dust characteristics. Dust impacts on vegetation and fauna are limited due to the site
being located adjacent to cleared farmland.


4.6.2    Management Strategies
Contractors on site will be required to identify dust management procedures within their
Environmental Management Plans.

Minimum requirements for the management of dust to be incorporated in the project EMP are:

      Communication of the importance of minimising dust emissions;
      Site areas to be opened on an ‘as required’ basis;
      Regular watering of exposed surfaces and stockpiles, with dust controlled to the satisfaction of
      the construction manager; and
      Sealing exposed surfaces as soon as possible.


4.7    Noise and Vibration
Management Objectives
      Ensure that noise impacts of construction activities comply with statutory requirements
      specified in the Environmental Protection (Noise) Regulations 1997; and
      Ensure that vibration impacts from construction activities are acceptable.


4.7.1    Background
The closest noise sensitive receptor to the project site is a residence located 1.8km to the south-east.
Noise from the construction phase of the project will be generated by:

      General civil or earthworks operations; and
      Construction works on site.

Vibration is not expected to be an issue for locations outside the Alcoa property.



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                                                                                                      Wagerup Cogeneration Project
                                                                                                    Environmental Impact Statement
                                                                                                                        Final Rev 1




4.7.2    Noise Criteria
Noise from construction works is addressed by Regulation 13 of the Environmental Protection
(Noise) Regulations 1997. This regulation states that for construction work carried out between
7am and 7pm on any day, which is not a Sunday or public holiday, the following applies:

      The construction work must be carried out in accordance with control of noise practices set
      out in Section Six of Australian Standard 2436-1981 “Guide to Noise Control on Construction,
      Maintenance and Demolition Sites”;
      The equipment used for the construction must be the quietest reasonably available; and
      The DoE may request that a Noise Management Plan be submitted for the construction work
      at any time.

If construction is undertaken outside of these hours, then the following additional requirements
must be followed:

      A Noise Management Plan must be submitted to the DoE (or appropriately delegated
      authority) at least seven days before the work starts, and the plan must be approved by the
      DoE. The plan must include:
      – Details of and reasons for the construction work which is likely to be carried out;
      – Details of and duration of activities likely to result in noise emission that fail to comply
          with the standards prescribed under Regulation 7 of the Environmental Protection (Noise)
          Regulations 1997;
      – Predictions of noise emissions on the construction site;
      – Details of measures to be implemented to control noise emissions;
      – Procedures which would be adopted for monitoring noise emissions if required; and
      – Complaint response procedures to be adopted.
      All nearby occupants who are likely to receive noise levels which fail to comply with the
      standard under Regulation 7, must be advised of the work to be done at least 24 hours before it
      commences; and
      It must be shown that it was reasonably necessary for the work to be done out of hours.

The above references Regulation 7 which provides assigned noise levels that are generally
considered acceptable at the recipient. These are summarised in Section 5.7.2.


4.7.3     Management Strategies
Contractors will be required to provide management procedures to demonstrate they will manage
noisy activities, to ensure that construction noise emissions comply with Regulations.

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Final Rev 1




Management strategies will include:

      Informing all employees and contractors of the importance of minimising noise levels through
      an induction plan;
      Development of a project noise management plan;
      Restricting noisy construction activities to between 7am to 7pm where possible;
      Notification of nearby residences with regard to the construction schedule;
      Notification of near neighbours in the event that construction activities are required to extend
      outside of the hours stipulated in the noise regulations; and
      Logging all complaints received in a register and responding to complaints in a manner
      satisfactory to regulatory authorities.

4.8    Solid Waste
Management Objectives
      Ensure that generation of solid waste is minimised; and
      Solid waste is handled and disposed in such a manner as to minimise impact on the
      environment and maximise reuse and recycling.

4.8.1    Background
Solid waste generated during both stages of construction will generally comprise of domestic waste
and construction waste. As identified in Section 4.4, green waste will also be generated during
vegetation clearing. It is not anticipated that any hazardous solid waste will be generated.

Cleanaway currently provides a comprehensive waste management service to the Alcoa refinery,
which includes waste handling, disposal and recycling, and monitoring and auditing of waste
volume and type.


4.8.2   Management Strategies
The Construction EMP will define minimum requirements for waste management including:

      A requirement for all contractors to define the likely solid wastes they will produce and how
      they will be disposed; and
      Requirement for the services of Cleanaway to be engaged to manage wastes from all
      contractors in a consistent manner.




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                                                                                                    Environmental Impact Statement
                                                                                                                        Final Rev 1




4.9    Domestic Liquid Waste
Management Objectives
      Ensure that domestic liquid waste is managed and disposed of in a manner that minimises
      impacts on the receiving environment; and
      Ensure compliance with all relevant Health and Environmental Regulations.

4.9.1    Background
During construction of Stage One, the labour force is expected to peak at approximately 250.
During construction of Stage Two the labour force will be between 200 and 400, depending on
whether the HRSGs are built in parallel or consecutively. Domestic waste volumes from the site are
expected to peak at approximately 15kL/day.

The construction workforce will be housed in existing accommodation in the surrounding areas,
hence only site generated liquid waste is considered here.


4.9.2    Management Strategies
During construction, domestic effluent will either be disposed of via connection to Alcoa’s existing
sewage facilities or captured and periodically removed by road tanker for disposal to an approved
waste handling facility.


4.10   Hydrocarbon and Hazardous Materials
Management Objectives
      Ensure hydrocarbons and hazardous materials are handled and stored in a manner that
      minimises the potential for impact on the environment through leaks, spills and emergency
      situations.


4.10.1 Background
Hydrocarbon materials such as fuel, lubricants and oils will be stored on-site for the operation of
earthmoving equipment. Hazardous materials such as acid and solvents may also be used. During
Stage Two of construction (construction of the boilers) cleaning waste will be generated in
significant quantities, consisting of either an acid or alkali cleaning liquid containing metals and
other chemicals flushed from the boilers prior to commissioning.

No known soil contamination exists at the proposed site for the cogeneration units.


4.10.2 Management Strategies
The construction EMP will define minimum requirements for all contractors. Contractors will be
required to identify all hydrocarbons and hazardous materials to be brought to site. Management
strategies and minimum requirements will include:
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Environmental Impact Statement
Final Rev 1




      Storage of all fuel, lubricant and oil within bunded facilities in accordance with Alcoa
      requirements and Australian standards;
      Ensuring all refuelling occurs within designated areas where possible, or spill trays are used in
      cases where equipment can not be fuelled in designated areas;
      Monitoring of the capacity of storage bunds and ensuring stormwater is removed and disposed
      of appropriately;
      Installation of oily water separators in key locations;
      Ensuring spill clean-up procedures are defined and clean-up material is maintained;
      Ensuring any contaminated soil is disposed of at a licensed landfill facility; and
      Utilisation of Alcoa’s emergency response team, who will be inducted to the site to ensure
      awareness of the location of hazard material stores.

4.11   Traffic and Transport
Management Objectives
      Ensure road traffic is managed to meet an adequate standard of level of service and safety;
      Ensure that the transportation and storage of fuels/chemicals complies with the Australian
      Dangerous Goods Code; and
      Ensure the requirements of Main Roads Western Australia are met.

4.11.1 Background
An estimated peak workforce of 250 personnel will be required during Stage One construction. The
size of the workforce during Stage Two will depend on whether the two HRSGs are constructed in
parallel or sequentially and is estimated at between 200 and 400 personnel. There is, therefore, the
potential for an additional 500 passenger vehicle trips on a daily basis during construction of Stage
One and between 400 and 800 passenger vehicles trips on a daily basis during construction of Stage
Two. However, it should be noted that this number of vehicle trips is likely to be reduced through
car-pooling and other transport arrangements. It is estimated that the current number of vehicle
trips associated with the existing Alcoa work force is 900 per day.

During the busy periods of the construction phase it is estimated that an additional 10 to 15 small to
medium trucks will travel to and from the site per day. The construction phase will also require the
transport of large loads as key components of the facility are delivered to site.

An increase in the number of vehicles on the road has the potential to increase: traffic congestion;
risk of accidents along the main transport routes; and road wear.


4.11.2 Management Strategies
Alinta will implement the following traffic and transport management strategies:
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                                                                                                      Wagerup Cogeneration Project
                                                                                                    Environmental Impact Statement
                                                                                                                        Final Rev 1




      Incorporation of traffic management requirements in the EMP;
      Working closely with relevant State Government agencies, such as the Main Roads
      Department, to ensure that high safety standards are maintained when transporting freight; and
      Consulting with Shire authorities and the local community about traffic movement
      management to minimise disruption to the local community.




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Environmental Impact Statement
Final Rev 1




5.            Operational Impacts and Management
              Strategies
5.1         Introduction
The following section identifies the typical activities which would be undertaken during operation
of the power station and addresses each of the potential environmental issues associated with these
activities.

5.2       Summary of Operation Activities
A list of operation activities has been identified in consultation with Alinta, Alcoa and the SKM
engineering management team. For the purpose of this assessment, commissioning activities are
also included in the following list:

      Commissioning;
      Compliance testing;
      Operation of generating plant;
      Starting and stopping generating plant;
      Maintenance;
      Operating, monitoring and maintaining water treatment plant;
      Receival, monitoring and offloading liquid fuels and storage facilities;
      Monitoring gas receival systems;
      Monitoring wastewater facilities;
      Regular licence compliance testing;
      Monitoring plant performance;
      Safety and emergency response;
      Liaison with WPC for transmission/power receival issues;
      Monitoring and maintaining dangerous goods register; and
      Maintenance of spare inventories.


5.3        Overview of Environmental Management Program during Operation
The significance of environmental impacts during operation will be greatly affected by the design
criteria already incorporated into the project and the auditing of construction and commissioning to
ensure design guidelines and objectives are met. For example, stringent noise design criteria have
been imposed on suppliers of equipment, and stormwater drainage, bunding and air quality
monitoring systems have been defined during design. The Alinta power station will be operated by

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                                                                                                      Wagerup Cogeneration Project
                                                                                                    Environmental Impact Statement
                                                                                                                        Final Rev 1




Alcoa personnel, with no additional staff required. Operational activities will be managed under                                               Alinta commits to
Alcoa’s existing Environmental Management system for the Wagerup Refinery, which was                                                           developing an
certified to the International Standards Organisation 14001 EMS Standard in February 2001. The                                                 Operations EMP
Wagerup EMS is based on the 'continuous improvement' model outlined in ISO 14001 where                                                         that will dovetail
                                                                                                                                               into the existing
organisations:
                                                                                                                                               Alcoa EMS.

      develop an Environmental Policy;
      plan how to manage and reduce environmental impacts by setting goals and actions required to
      meet these goals;
      implement these plans;
      monitor and audit implementation of these plans against the system and raise corrective actions
      where activities are not achieving the desired outcomes; and
      review the EMS as a whole to see if it is meeting its objectives of improving environmental
      performance.

The Alcoa Wagerup EMS is audited by both internal and external parties on a regular basis to
ensure that the system is operating effectively and resulting in continual improvement in
environmental management. The Alcoa Wagerup EMS and its associated documents will be
amended as necessary to incorporate changes associated with this Proposal.

Potential impacts during operation have been identified in consultation with the SKM engineering
project team, Alinta and Alcoa.

Assessment of these environmental factors and development of management strategies has been
guided by the principles of environmental protection, natural resource management and
sustainability set out in Section 4A of the EP Act 1986 and outlined in EPA Position Statement 7 –
Principles of Environmental Protection.

The environmental factors relevant to the project are identified in the following sections, along
with management strategies specific to each factor.


5.4    Drainage and Site Hydrology
Management Objectives
      Minimise potential for erosion due to stormwater flow; and
      Minimise potential for contaminated stormwater to enter Alcoa’s stormwater system.




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Environmental Impact Statement
Final Rev 1




5.4.1    Background
The site does not drain directly to any surface water bodies. Uncontaminated stormwater will be
connected to the existing Alcoa stormwater system, a closed system which allows recycling of
stormwater into the refinery process, with no release externally.


5.4.2   Management Strategies
The management strategies identified for construction activities will apply equally to operations.


5.5    Air Quality
Management Objectives
      Ensure that gaseous and particulate emissions from the Alinta plant in isolation and in
      combination with emissions from Alcoa’s refinery meet acceptable criteria for ambient ground
      level concentrations;
      Ensure that all reasonable and practicable measures are taken to minimise emissions of NOX,
      SOX, CO and particulates.

5.5.1     Background
Air quality issues remain a key focus for Alcoa and the surrounding community. In recognition of
this, an air quality modelling assessment has been performed for the Alinta project and has been
documented in “Wagerup Cogeneration Project – Air Quality Assessment” (SKM, 2006a). This
report was peer reviewed by Katestone Environmental (2005) and additional assessment was
recommended to identify the impact of minor variations in model configuration, compared to that
used in the Alcoa assessment and to predict the impact of running the gas turbines on part load.
The results of this additional modelling are presented in “Wagerup Cogeneration Project – Air
Quality Assessment, Supplementary Air Quality Modelling” (SKM, 2006b).

The results of air quality modelling of the predicted emissions from the Wagerup Cogeneration
Project have been used to predict ambient ground-level concentrations at sensitive receptors. The
predicted concentrations have been compared with relevant air quality criteria and the results have
been used to assess the health risk posed by the air emissions of the proposal. The report focuses on
any change in potential impacts of the Alinta cogeneration proposal, as compared to the
cogeneration proposal as presented in the ERMP (Alcoa, 2005a).

This air quality section summarises material from the above-mentioned SKM report.




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                                                                                                      Wagerup Cogeneration Project
                                                                                                    Environmental Impact Statement
                                                                                                                        Final Rev 1




The following air pollutant species have been identified as being relevant to the proposed
cogeneration units:

      oxides of nitrogen (NOX);
      carbon monoxide (CO);
      sulphur dioxide (SO2); and
      particulate matter < 10 µm (PM10).

VOC emissions are expected to be negligible for gas turbine plant fuelled by Western Australian
natural gas. VOC emissions were predicted in the ERMP for two 140MW gas turbine generators
using modified USEPA AP-42 emission factors. Given that concentrations of aldehyde and
aromatic hydrocarbon emissions from gas turbines are so low that they cannot be accurately
“ground truthed”, predicting emissions for these VOCs based on modified USEPA AP-42 emission
factors is considered overly conservative. In addition, the health risk attributed to VOC emissions
from the cogeneration plant assessed in the ERMP Response to Public Submissions (Alcoa, 2005b)
only accounts for an average 0.02% and 1.74% of the total acute hazard and chronic hazard
respectively (averaged across 16 receptors). Consequently, SKM has not remodelled VOC
emissions for the Alinta cogeneration plant. SKM (2006a) provides an expanded discussion of
VOC considerations.


5.5.2     Ambient Air Quality Criteria
Air quality impacts can be assessed by comparing model predictions with appropriate ambient air
criteria. Currently, the EPA does not have Statewide standards for ambient ground-level
concentrations. The National Environmental Protection Council’s (NEPC) National Environment
Protection (Ambient Air Quality) Measure (NEPM) (NEPC, 2003) standards and goals are still to
be implemented in legislation throughout the State. Implementation by the DoE is to take the form
of a state wide Environmental Protection Policy, as discussed in the document ‘Developing a
Statewide Air Quality Environmental Protection Policy’ (EPA, 1999b). It is proposed that these
standards apply outside industrial areas and residence free buffer zones around industrial areas. The
NEPM standards for criteria pollutants which are relevant to this assessment are listed in Table
5-1. These specify a maximum concentration and the goal that is to be achieved within ten years of
the NEPM introduction (by 2008).




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Environmental Impact Statement
Final Rev 1




      Table 5-1 National Environmental Protection Measure – Air Quality Standards and Goals
                                                         Maximum Concentration                                Goal by 2008
                                    Averaging
         Pollutant                                            ppm                µg/m   3
                                                                                                         Maximum Allowable
                                     Period
                                                                                                           Exceedances
     Nitrogen dioxide                  1-hour                 0.12                246                          1 day a year
                                       1-year                 0.03                 62                               none
     Sulphur dioxide                   1-hour                 0.20                571                          1 day a year
                                     24-hours                 0.08                229                          1 day a year
                                       1-year                 0.02                 57                               none
    Particles as PM10                24-hours                   -                  50                         5 days a year
    Carbon monoxide                   8-hours                  9.0              11,250                         1 day a year



The NEPM aims to protect people’s health and well-being, through the means of a nationally
acceptable ambient standard. The NEPM standards are generally designed to protect those who are
most susceptible to experiencing health effects when a particular contaminant is inhaled. All the
values are based on health effects, and have been derived from epidemiological studies,
international guidelines and, in some cases, laboratory research.

For the pollutants of interest and the averaging periods assessed in this report, the NEPM is suitable
for assessing the potential health impact of individual pollutants and for assessing cumulative
impacts from the proposed cogeneration plant. This approach is consistent with that taken in the
ERMP (Alcoa, 2005a) for NO2, SO2, CO and PM10.


5.5.3    Existing Emissions and Ambient Air Quality
Sources of emissions from the Alcoa Wagerup Refinery, both for the existing plant and the
proposed expanded plant, are detailed in the ERMP (Alcoa, 2005a) and ERMP Response to Public
Submissions (Alcoa, 2005b) documents.


5.5.4   Emissions from Alinta Cogeneration Project
Key characteristics for the Alinta cogeneration plant stack emissions are presented in Table 5-2.
For comparison, the table also presents the characteristics of the cogeneration plant assumed for the
ERMP Response to Public Submissions (Alcoa, 2005b).




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                                                                                                      Wagerup Cogeneration Project
                                                                                                    Environmental Impact Statement
                                                                                                                        Final Rev 1




        Table 5-2 Key Emission Characteristics of Gas Turbine Units
                            Alinta Open-              Alinta Open-               Alinta                   Alinta                  ERMP
                               cycle(1)                  cycle
                                                               (1)
                                                                             Cogeneration
                                                                                          (1)
                                                                                                      Cogeneration(1)          Cogeneration
                                                                                                                                            (2)

                              gas-fired              distillate-fired                                  one unit fired
     Location
 (Easting Northing)
  (AMG, zone 50)
       Unit 1              (398742 6357332)         (398742 6357332)         (398703 6357334)         (398703 6357334)         (398663 6357452)
       Unit 2              (398770 6357386)         (398770 6357386)         (398731 6357387)                                  (398663 6357371)
     Nominal unit                  175                      175                      175                      175                          140
    capacity (MW)
 NOx concentration                30(4)                     42(4)                    25(4)                    32(4)                         -
  (ppmvd @ 15%
    O2, as NO2)
   NOx emissions                  26.4                      40.5                     21.1                     28.5                     15.4
    (g/s, as NO2)
  SO2 (g/s per unit)               0.6                      1.3                       0.5                      0.7                         0.3
    PM10 (g/s per                  2.1                      6.1                       2.0                      2.4                         0
        unit)
  CO (g/s per unit)               16.1                      8.8                       2.9                     13.9                         3.8
                     (3)
 Stack height (m)                   35                       35                       50                       50                          50
   Stack diameter                   6                         6                       6.7                      6.7                         6.2
        (m)
  Exit temperature                 525                      525                      229                      209                          171
          o
         ( C)
  Exit velocity (m/s)               44                       44                       21                       20                          18
     Buoyancy                     1.75                      1.75                     1.65                      1.0                         1.5
    enhancement


Note:
1. Data provided by Alstom, suppliers of Alinta GTG plant, based on an Alstom 13E2 GTG using dry low-NOX emission
technology. Emissions for open-cycle and cogeneration plant are reported for different ambient conditions, to best reflect the
range of conditions under which the plant will be operating. Open-cycle plant is to operate for peaking power supply with
                                    o
ambient temperatures of up to 41 C and utilising evaporative cooling and over-spray fogging for maximum power output.
                                                                                    o
Cogeneration plant emissions are provided at average ambient temperatures of 18 C, with evaporative cooling but no other
power augmentation (over-spray fogging or similar).
2. Data taken from “Wagerup Refinery Unit Three Environmental Review and Management Program – Response to Public
Submissions Appendix F” (Alcoa, 2005b).
3. A “bypass” stack will be installed during the open-cycle phase, with a new main stack added when the plant operates in
cogeneration mode. Once the plant is operating in cogeneration mode, the “bypass” stack will be disconnected.
4. These emissions levels are consistent with EPA guidance on maximum NOx from gas turbines of 34ppm (power station
>10MW) (EPA, 2000a). Higher emissions concentrations for the cogeneration plant with one unit fired are the result of duct
firing to maintain steam production and do not reflect higher emissions from the gas turbine.

Table 5-3 presents NOX emissions from power generation plant for both the Alinta and Alcoa
operations, and shows how the Alinta cogeneration plant will replace the steam generating capacity
of the Alcoa boilers in the event that the refinery expansion is delayed.




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Final Rev 1




        Table 5-3 Summary of NOX Emissions from Power Generation (g/s as NO2)
        NOX Sources                                                               Operating Mode
                              Existing              Open Cycle                  Cogeneration with               Cogeneration with
                               Plant                                            Existing Refinery               Expanded Refinery
    Operating Mode                               Gas-         Distillate         Both          One unit           Both          One unit
                                                 fired         -fired            units          fired             units          fired
    Alinta Plant
      Electricity                  0              350             350             350              175             350             175
    Generated (MW)
        Cogeneration                             26.4            40.5             21.1            28.5            21.1             28.5
           unit 1
        Cogeneration                             26.4            40.5             21.1              0             21.1               0
           unit 2
    Alcoa Plant
          Boiler 1               17.7            17.7            17.7               0               0             17.7             17.7
          Boiler 2               16.5            16.5            16.5               0               0             16.5             16.5
          Boiler 3                4.4             4.4             4.4               0               0              4.4              4.4
        GTG/HRSG                 13.6            13.6            13.6             13.6            13.6            13.6             13.6
    Total Emissions              52.2             105            133.2            55.8            42.1            94.4             80.7
Note:
1. Data for Alinta plant provided by Alstom, suppliers of Alinta GTG plant.
2. Data for Alcoa plant taken from “Wagerup Refinery Unit Three Environmental Review and Management Program –
Response to Public Submissions Appendix F” (Alcoa, 2005b).

Table 5-3 also demonstrates the effectiveness of displacing Alcoa boiler plant with the Alinta
cogeneration plant for steam production. Comparison of the results under the Alinta cogeneration
scenario against those for the existing refinery indicates that 350MW of electrical power can be
provided to the South-West Interconnected System (SWIS) with only a minor net increase in NOX
emission (i.e. from 52.2 to 55.8g/s NOX).


5.5.5     Predicted Local Air Quality Impacts
Local air quality impacts have been predicted using air quality modelling as described below.


5.5.5.1 Modelling Methodology
The scope of work and assessment methodology for air quality modelling has been developed in
consultation with Alcoa and Alinta. The air quality modelling study focuses on any change in
potential impacts of the Alinta proposal, when compared to the proposal as assessed for the
Wagerup Unit Three Expansion. Modelling and assessment methodologies therefore mirror those
presented through environmental approval documentation associated with the Wagerup Three
Expansion project.


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                                                                                                                        Final Rev 1




The air quality modelling has been performed using TAPM as used for the ERMP and
subsequently updated to include meteorological data assimilation (as defined in Appendix I of the
ERMP Response to Public Submissions). The impact of minor variations in model configuration,
compared to that used in the Alcoa assessment is discussed in “Wagerup Cogeneration Project –
Air Quality Assessment, Supplementary Air Quality Modelling” (SKM, 2006b).

Air quality modelling conducted for the ERMP (Alcoa, 2005a) by CSIRO used TAPM version 2.6.
Later modelling work conducted by ENVIRON used TAPM version 3.0. This current study has
also used TAPM version 3.0 to be consistent with the most recent work by ENVIRON, as
presented in the ERMP Response to Public Submissions (Alcoa, 2005b). TAPM data files were
supplied to SKM by ENVIRON. The model for the existing plant has not been re-run, and output
files from the most recent modelling were also provided by Alcoa. All modelling has been
performed using assimilated meteorological data.

Each emissions source has been modelled once by TAPM as a gaseous tracer. Model tracer run
outputs for each source group were combined using the TAPM post-processor to construct the total
air quality impact for each pollutant species. The post-processor is a CSIRO program used to
combine and weight the different model runs (now integrated into TAPM version 3.0).

The model outputs include a range of relevant averaging periods for operating scenarios as
recommended by the Department of Environment air modelling guidelines (DoE, 2000).

The base case for the assessment consists of the existing sources of the Alcoa Wagerup Alumina
Refinery. Modelling results have been analysed to determine the impacts of the cogeneration plant
sources in isolation as well as the cumulative impacts of the new sources and existing sources. In
the case where the Alinta cogeneration plant operates with the existing refinery, emissions from the
refinery boilers have been removed from the modelling assessment as steam generated in the Alinta
HRSGs will displace that produced by the boilers. The boilers currently perform an auxiliary
function of destroying non-condensables generated in the digestion process of the Alcoa refinery.
For this operating scenario, a new combustion source, such as a Regenerative Thermal Oxidiser,
will be installed to destroy the non-condensables. A review of similar plant at Alcoa’s Pinjarra
Refinery indicates that combustion emissions from such a source would be minimal and would not
impact the results of the modelling assessment presented in this report.

Cumulative PM10 concentrations have incorporated fugitive emissions from Alcoa’s residue
operations, as calculated for the ERMP using CALPUFF.

Consistent with model studies reported in the ERMP and ERMP Response to Public Submissions,
this study addresses the impacts of emissions from the Alcoa Wagerup Refinery and the proposed


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Environmental Impact Statement
Final Rev 1




Alinta Wagerup Cogeneration Project. Background concentrations due to emissions from other
sources (eg bush fire, paddock dust) are not included.

Sixteen discrete receptors were modelled in accordance with the ERMP (Alcoa, 2005a). The
locations of the discrete receptors used in the modelling are presented in Table 5-4 and in Figure
5-1.

      Table 5-4 Map Coordinates of Discrete Receptor Locations
      Receptor              AMG (zone 50)              AMG (zone 50)
      Number                 Easting (m)                Northing (m)
            1                    398091                    6354834
            2                    399393                    6355006
            3                    396830                    6352949
            4                    397138                    6354827
            5                    395721                    6352503
            6                    399650                    6354240
            7                    390775                    6358733
            8                    392360                    6362131
            9                    396099                    6362024
           10                    398460                    6362000
           11                    398207                    6360331
           12                    399210                    6364535
           13                    400520                    6364215
           14                    400727                    6360830
           15                    402726                    6356435
           16                    397365                    6359285
Note:
1. Coordinates taken from Table 5 of the CSIRO Phase B Final Report (CSIRO, 2005) as presented in Appendix G of
Appendix G of the ERMP (Alcoa, 2005a). Coordinates for receptors 12 and 15 in that table were incorrect and have been
corrected with reference to TAPM input files and receptor locations in published figures.




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                                                         395000                                                                             400000




              Legend
                  ALCOA owned land (as at July 2005)
              h
              g   Air Quality Receptor Sites
6365000




                                                                                                                                                                                                                6365000
                  Cogeneration Plant Area                                                                          WAROONA
                                                                                                                                h 12
                                                                                                                                g                         13
                                                                                                                                                      h
                                                                                                                                                      g




                              8
                                                                                    9                                     10
                          h
                          g                                                     h
                                                                                g                                     h
                                                                                                                      g




                                                                                                                                  Y
                                                                                                                                                             14




                                                                                                                               HW
                                                                                                                                                         h
                                                                                                                                                         g
                                                                                                                    11
                                                                                                                h
                                                                                                                g
6360000




                                                                                                                                                                                                                6360000
                                                                                                                RN
                                                                                                              TE
                                                                                                    16 W    ES
                                                                                                   h
                                                                                                   g
              7
          h
          g
                                                                                                                                                            Conve yo
                                                                                                                                                                         r
                                                                                                         WAGERUP
                                                                                                SOUTH




                                        Residue Drying                                                   REFINERY
                                             Area


                                                                                                                                                                                              15
                                                                                                                                                                                          h
                                                                                                                                                                                          g
                                                                                                                                                  Proposed Cogeneration
                                                                                                                                                  Project Location
6355000




                                                                                                                                                                                                                6355000
                                                                                                                                        2
                                                                                                   4              1                h
                                                                                                                                   g
                                                                                               h
                                                                                               g              h
                                                                                                              g
                                                                                                                                            6
                                                                                                                                        h
                                                                                                                                        g
                                                                                             YARLOOP

                                                                                              3
                                                                                          h
                                                                                          g
                                                                            5
                                                                        h
                                                                        g




                                                                                                                                                                       F
6350000




                                                                                                                                                                                                                6350000




                                                                                                                                                        0       600      1,200              2,400

                                                                                                                                                                        Metres
                                                                                                                                                                Scale 1:75000
                                                                                                                                                          Horizontal Datum: AGD84
                                                                                                                                                        Map Projection: AMG84 Zone 50



                                                         395000                                                                             400000

                                                           Alinta Cogeneration Project
                                                                                                                                                                              Figure 5-1
                                              Location of                                                                                                                     Rev No. 2
                                                                                                                                                                              Project: WP03100
                                    Air Quality Discrete Receptors                                                                                                            Drawn: 13/01/2006


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       Environmental Impact Statement
       Final Rev 1




       5.5.5.2 Modelling Results
       The complete results from the air dispersion modelling at various averaging times for each of the
       criteria pollutants, compared to the NEPM criteria, are provided in SKM (2006a), including
       summary tables and contour plots.

       Ground-level concentrations for all gaseous pollutants are well below relevant assessment criteria.
       With respect to particulate matter however, the existing refinery can be a significant source of
       particulates, due to fugitive dust from stockpiles and residue areas, as documented in Appendix D
       (Air Assessments, 2005) of Appendix G of the ERMP (Alcoa, 2005a).

       For comparison with Alcoa’s assessment results, Table 5-5 and Table 5-6 present maximum
       ground-level concentrations at Hamel (Receptor 10) and Yarloop (Receptor 4) for the existing
       refinery and the expanded refinery with cogeneration plant installed.

             Table 5-5 Maximum Predicted Concentrations - Hamel Town (Receptor 10)

                                            Alcoa Assessment                             Alinta Scenarios with Alcoa plant

                                                                                                              OC
Pollutant Averaging Guideline                                                              OC gas-        distillate- Cogen
           Period          3                                                              fired with      fired with   with    Cogen
                     (µg/m )
                                                                                           Existing        Existing Existing    with
                                                      ERMP(1)                              Refinery        Refinery Refinery Expansion
                                                     (1)
                                            ERMP     Expansion
                                            Existing   Case 6  Existing                     (Stage          (Stage         (Stage         (Stage
                                            Refinery  (Cogen) Refinery                       One)            One)           Two)           Two)
NO2      1-hour                    246               35               27            35              35              35            24                28
         Annual                     62              0.3              0.3           0.2             0.4             0.5           0.4               1.1
SO2      1-hour                    571              4.2              4.2           3.1             3.0             3.0           1.7               4.3
         24-hour                   228              0.9              0.7           0.6             0.7             0.7           0.3               0.8
         Annual                     57             0.02             0.02          0.01            0.02            0.02          0.01              0.02
CO       8-hour                 11,250             29.0             25.7          19.2            19.2            19.2          17.8              19.9
PM10     24-hour                    50             10.3             11.7          10.3            10.3            10.3          10.3              11.7
       Note:
        1. The Alcoa assessment results as shown in this table are for assimilated data and were provided separately to SKM by
             Environ (2005, pers comm). This data was provided to the Department of Environment post submission of the ERMP
             Response to Public Submissions (Alcoa, 2005b).
        2. Maximum predicted concentrations for emissions from Alcoa Refinery and Alinta generation plant sources only.
        3. Maximum 8-hour average CO concentrations from the ERMP and cited in this table were estimated from 1-hour
             average     concentrations   using     a   power-law      relationship       (Environ,    2005    pers      comm)
             8-hour average CO concentrations for Alinta plant have been estimated by SKM as running averages of eight
             consecutive 1-hour average concentrations.




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                                                                                                    Environmental Impact Statement
                                                                                                                        Final Rev 1




      Table 5-6 Maximum Predicted Concentrations - Yarloop (Receptor 4)

                                                 Alcoa Assessment                              Alinta Scenarios with Alcoa plant

                                                                                                                  OC
Pollutant Averaging Guideline                                                                  OC gas-        distillate-       Cogen
           Period    (µg/m3)                                                                  fired with      fired with         with     Cogen
                                                                                               Existing        Existing        Existing    with
                                                          ERMP(1)                              Refinery        Refinery        Refinery Expansion
                                                         (1)
                                                ERMP     Expansion
                                                Existing   Case 6  Existing                     (Stage          (Stage           (Stage        (Stage
                                                Refinery  (Cogen) Refinery                       One)            One)             Two)          Two)
NO2          1-hour                    246                60              60            59              60               60              44          55
             Annual                     62               0.4             0.4           0.3             0.4              0.5             0.3         0.4
SO2          1-hour                    571               9.6             9.4           6.6             6.6              6.6             4.1        10.1
             24-hour                   228               1.1             1.1           0.8             0.9              0.9             0.5         1.2
             Annual                     57              0.03            0.03          0.02            0.02             0.03            0.02        0.03
CO           8-hour                 11,250              51.7            56.1          29.8            32.2             31.1            28.9        28.7
PM10         24-hour                    50               9.0             6.0             9             9.1              9.3             9.2         6.2
Note
 1. The Alcoa assessment results as shown in this table are for assimilated data and were provided separately to SKM by
     Environ (2005, pers comm). This data was provided to the Department of Environment post submission of the ERMP
     Response to Public Submissions (Alcoa, 2005b).
 2. Maximum predicted concentrations for emissions from Alcoa Refinery and Alinta generation plant sources only.
 3.    Maximum 8-hour average CO concentrations from the ERMP and cited in this table were estimated from 1-hour
       average     concentrations   using     a   power-law   relationship     (Environ, 2005     pers    comm)
       8-hour average CO concentrations for Alinta plant have been estimated by SKM as running averages of eight
       consecutive 1-hour average concentrations)


To maintain consistency with previous assessments by Alcoa, a “hazard index” has been calculated
to assess the cumulative health risk of non-cancer compounds. This sums the ratio of predicted
concentration and effect-thresholds for individual pollutants and assumes that the toxicological
effect of the pollutant is additive. This type of calculation can be limited because different
pollutants effect different parts of the body, and it can double count risks if the threshold is based
on studies that involve exposure to mixtures. Hazard indices for both acute and chronic effects have
been calculated based on the ground-level concentrations predicted by air quality modelling.

The methodology for determining hazard quotients and indices has been taken directly from work
performed by ENVIRON for the ERMP (Alcoa 2005a) and the ERMP Response to Public
Submissions (Alcoa, 2005b) including the choice of pollutants, averaging periods and percentile
ground-level concentrations input from the air quality modelling. It should be noted that with
respect to the Alinta plant emissions, only criteria pollutants are relevant, however, the previous
work performed by ENVIRON incorporated metals and organics as relevant to refinery emissions.
Hazard indices for the Alinta plant in combination with Alcoa plant, as calculated by ENVIRON,
have been estimated by replacing the contribution from the cogeneration plant assessed by Alcoa
with the estimated contribution from the Alinta plant. A full description of pollutants, relevant
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criteria and calculation methods used by ENVIRON can be found in Appendix E of the ERMP
Response to Public Submissions (Alcoa, 2005b).

The complete results of hazard index calculations can be found in SKM (2006a). A summary of
acute and chronic hazard index calculations for selected receptors is presented in Table 5-7.

      Table 5-7 Summary of Acute and Chronic Hazard Indices

                              Alcoa Assessment                                  Alinta Scenarios with Alcoa plant
                                                                                                          Cogen plus
                                                                                                             ERMP
                                                                                           OC              existing
     Receptor                                                      OC gas-             distillate-         refinery,          Cogen plus
                                                                  fired plus           fired plus         with boilers           ERMP
                                                                    ERMP                 ERMP              "backed             expanded
                                               ERMP                existing             existing            off"(1,2)         refinery
                                                                                                                                       (1,3)
                            ERMP             Expansion            refinery(1)          refinery(1)
                           Existing            case 6                                                        (Stage               (Stage
                          Refinery(1)        (Cogen)(1)          (Stage One)         (Stage One)              Two)                 Two)

                                                          Acute Hazard Indices

 4 - Yarloop                  0.50                0.47                0.54                 0.56                0.49                0.49

 10 - Hamel                   0.32                0.35                0.35                 0.36                0.31                0.37

                                                         Chronic Hazard Indices

 4 - Yarloop                  0.02                0.02                0.03                 0.03                0.02                0.02

 10 - Hamel                   0.02                0.02                0.02                 0.02                0.02                0.02
Notes:
1. Refinery hazard indices are based on assimilated data and include the contribution from all pollutants previously
   assessed and presented in Appendix E of ERMP – Response to Public Submissions (Alcoa, 2005b), including metals
   and organics.
2. Estimated by replacing the contribution of NO2, SO2, PM10 and CO for the existing Alcoa boilers (predicted using TAPM
   output files provided by ENVIRON Australia), with the contribution estimated for the Alinta cogeneration plant.
3. Estimated by replacing the contribution of NO2, SO2, PM10 and CO for the cogeneration unit assessed in the WGP3
   ERMP (predicted using TAPM output files provided by ENVIRON Australia), with the contribution estimated for the
   Alinta cogeneration plant.


Table 5-7 shows that the hazard indices for Yarloop and Hamel remain below 1 for all operating
scenarios. Moreover, the complete set of results presented in the supporting air quality assessment
report (SKM, 2006) show that the hazard indices remain below 1 for all operating scenarios and all
receptors.

As a general rule for interpreting a hazard index, values less than 1 present no cause for concern,
and values greater than 1 generally do not represent cause for concern, due to the inherent
conservatism of a preliminary risk assessment. However, it is usual for these values to undergo


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                                                                                                    Environmental Impact Statement
                                                                                                                        Final Rev 1




further investigation to refine the assumptions made. Hazard quotients with values around 10 do
present some concern regarding possible health effects and require further detailed investigation.

Based on the above interpretation, and given that the hazard indices for all receptors under all
operating scenarios remain below 1, it is concluded that the potential health risk from air quality
impacts is negligible.


5.5.6     Management Strategies
Alinta is committed to the following management strategies:

      Installation of dry low NOX burners; and
      The management of burner conditions through temperature monitoring.

In addition to the above management strategies, Alcoa maintains an on-going ambient air quality
monitoring program. Routine stack emission monitoring will be performed in line with Alcoa’s
existing stack monitoring program.


5.6    Greenhouse Gases
Management Objectives
      Ensure all reasonable and practicable measures are taken to minimise greenhouse gas
      emissions; and
      Ensure that greenhouse gas emissions, both individually and cumulatively, meet appropriate
      criteria and do not cause an environmental or human health problem.

5.6.1    Background
Human activities are known to have significantly increased the atmospheric concentrations of
greenhouse gases since the pre-industrial era. Scientific observations mostly support a picture of
changes in the global climate system, which are believed linked to this increased atmospheric
concentration of greenhouse gases. The main contributing greenhouse gases are carbon dioxide,
methane, nitrous oxide and tropospheric ozone.

Electricity generation from fossil fuels is a major source of greenhouse gas emissions. The
principal greenhouse gas emitted by the Alinta Wagerup Cogeneration project will be carbon
dioxide (CO2).


5.6.2         Predicted Greenhouse Emissions
5.6.2.1 Methodology
Predicted greenhouse gas emissions following the Wagerup Unit 3 expansion were presented in the
Wagerup ERMP (Alcoa, 2005a). Alcoa has utilised the methodology of the World Resource

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Final Rev 1




Institute / World Business Council for Sustainable Development (WRI/WBCSD) Greenhouse Gas
Emissions Reporting Protocol Initiative (WRI/WBCSD, 2004) to estimate greenhouse gas
emissions. The objective of the WRI/WBCSD Greenhouse Gas Protocol Initiative is to develop
internationally accepted greenhouse gas accounting and reporting standards for business and to
promote their broad adoption.

The methods utilised in the WRI/WBCSD Protocol are similar to the Australian Greenhouse Office
(AGO) methods more commonly used in Australia (AGO, 2004). The principal difference between
the two methodologies relates to the treatment of indirect emissions. For the purpose of energy
related emissions, both direct and indirect emissions are captured in the AGO methodology through
the use of “full fuel cycle emission factors”. In contrast, the WRI/WBCSD Greenhouse Gas
Emissions Reporting Protocol calls for separate reporting of direct and indirect emissions. A review
of factors used in the AGO methodology is currently underway, with a view to harmonising the
reporting approach with the WRI/WBCSD Greenhouse Gas Emissions Reporting Protocol and
simplifying the range of emissions factors applied.

To help delineate between direct and indirect emissions sources, three “scopes” are defined in the
WRI/WBCSD Protocol for greenhouse gas accounting and reporting purposes. Scope 1 emissions
are direct emissions from sources owned or operated by the organisation concerned. Greenhouse
gas emissions not covered by the Kyoto Protocol (e.g. CFCs, NOx etc.) are not included in Scope 1.
Scope 2 emissions are related to the generation of purchased electricity consumed by the
organisation. Scope 3 is an optional reporting category that allows for the treatment of all other
indirect emissions.

Scope 1 (direct) emissions for the proposed plant at Wagerup are attributable to the combustion of
fuels to produce electricity and steam. In accordance with the WRI/WBCSD Protocol, emissions
associated with the sale of own-generated electricity are not added to Scope 1.

Alinta will not be purchasing electricity and therefore has no Scope 2 emissions. Consistent with
the Scope 2 definition, emissions from the generation of purchased electricity that is consumed
during transmission and distribution are reported by the company that owns or controls the
transport and distribution operation (Western Power), not by the proposed power generator
(Alinta).


5.6.2.2 Results
The estimation of greenhouse gas emissions relies upon multiplying the amount of energy used
(taking into account various fuels) by appropriate factors. The WRI/WBCSD methodology uses the
following factors:



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                                                                                                      Wagerup Cogeneration Project
                                                                                                    Environmental Impact Statement
                                                                                                                        Final Rev 1




1 GJ of energy used = 56.06 kg CO2 equivalents for natural gas; and
1 GJ of energy used = 74.01 kg CO2 equivalents for distillate fuel.

Scope 1 emissions, estimated using WRI/WBCSD emissions factors, for the Stage One and Stage
Two development as well as during the transition phase are provided in Table 5-8. As can be seen
in Table 5-8, total CO2-e emissions during Stage One are relatively minor (approximately 12%)
when compared to Stage Two operation.

      Table 5-8 Predicted Annual Greenhouse Gas Emissions using WRI/WBCSD Emission
      Factors (Scope 1 Emissions)
                                                              Quantity used               Emission factor             CO2-e Emissions
          Description                       Fuel
                                                                  (GJ)                     (kg CO2-e / GJ)               (tonnes)
 Stage One

 Peaking (900 hours)                    Natural Gas             3.393 x 106                      56.06                      190,200

 Peaking (100 hours)                     Distillate             0.3910 x 106                     74.01                       28,940
                                                                                                                            219,140
 Transition Phase
 Averaged over three                                                          6
                                        Natural Gas             21.91 x 10                       56.06                     1,228,000
 years (6,167 hours)
 Stage Two
 Baseload (8,760 hours)                 Natural Gas             31.77 x 106                      56.06                     1,781,000


For comparison, greenhouse gas emissions have also been estimated using AGO full fuel cycle
emission factors:

1 GJ of energy used = 60.0 kg CO2 equivalents for natural gas; and
1 GJ of energy used = 81.4 kg CO2 equivalents for distillate fuel.

Predicted emissions for the Stage One and Stage Two development as well as during the transition
phase are provided in Table 5-9.




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        Table 5-9 Predicted Annual Greenhouse Gas Emissions using AGO Full Fuel Cycle
        Emission Factors
                                                              Quantity used               Emission factor             CO2-e Emissions
          Description                       Fuel
                                                                  (GJ)                     (kg CO2-e / GJ)               (tonnes)
 Stage One

 Peaking (900 hours)                    Natural Gas             3.393 x 106                       60.0                      203,600

 Peaking (100 hours)                     Distillate             0.3910 x 106                      81.4                       31,830
                                                                                                                            235,430
 Transition Phase
 Averaged over three                                                          6
                                        Natural Gas             21.91 x 10                        60.0                     1,315,000
 years (6,167 hours)
 Stage Two
 Baseload (8,760 hours)                 Natural Gas             31.77 x 106                       60.0                     1,906,000


A comparison of predicted Stage Two CO2-e emissions (using WRI/WBCSD emissions factors)
with those presented in the ERMP is presented in Table 5-10. As can be seen in Table 5-10, the
estimated GHG emissions from the Alinta Cogeneration plant are approximately 7% greater than
those estimated by Alcoa.

        Table 5-10 Annual Greenhouse Gas Emissions for the Wagerup Unit 3 Expansion
        (Calculated based on WRI/WBCSD Emission Factors)
  Existing Refinery             ERMP Expansion                     ERMP                         Alinta                      Alinta
      Emissions                      Case 6                  Cogeneration in                Cogeneration               Cogeneration +
   (t CO2-e / year)              (t CO2-e / year)                isolation                  (t CO2-e / year)               Refinery
                                                              (t CO2-e / year)                                           Expansion
                                                                                                                       (t CO2-e / year)
        1,425,0001                   2,641,0002                   1,667,0003                   1,781,000                    2,757,000
Note:             1) The existing refinery GHG emissions reported in the ERMP of 1,327,000 t CO2-e per annum were derived
                  using an AGO emission factor of 52.7 kgCO2/GJ. To enable direct comparison with the expanded refinery
                  scenarios, the existing refinery GHG emissions have been recalculated using a WRI/WBCSD emission
                  factor of 56.06 kgCO2/GJ.
                  2) The value presented in the ERMP was 2,255,000 t CO2-e per annum. Since the submission of the ERMP
                  there has been further design work and investigations into the Wagerup Unit 3 project. Based on additional
                  work, the projected energy use for the refinery and cogeneration has been further refined. The projected
                  energy use for the refinery under the cogeneration scenario (assuming 2x140MW units) is now estimated as
                           6
                  46.8x10 GJ/annum. This equates to an increase of approximately 17.5% in the projected energy use.
                                                                                     th
                  3) Data provided by ENVIRON (2005), email from Ian Yull dated 13 December 2005.

As a cogeneration power plant produces two outputs (electricity and steam) from the same fuel
supply, total CO2-e emissions need to be apportioned between the different generated energy
streams. There are many different methods available for apportioning emissions, with the emissions
attributed to electricity generation varying considerably depending on the particular methodology
utilised. Estimated emissions from the proposed Wagerup Cogeneration Project have been
apportioned using the “equivalent electricity (kilowatt lost) method” to maintain consistency with


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                                                                                                      Wagerup Cogeneration Project
                                                                                                    Environmental Impact Statement
                                                                                                                        Final Rev 1




cogeneration projects previously assessed by the EPA, namely the Pinjarra Cogeneration Project
(EPA Bulletin 1081) and the Worsley Cogeneration Project (EPA Bulletin 1189).

The equivalent electricity (kilowatt lost) method translates the steam produced from the
cogeneration plant into an equivalent amount of electricity that would be produced by a steam
turbine generator (STG) in a combined-cycle power plant. This method assumes that the energy
used to produce steam would produce at least as much electricity in a STG. The basis of the
equivalent electricity (kilowatt lost) method is the calculation of the equivalent plant net heat rate
(fuel consumption per unit of electrical energy), derived by dividing the estimated total annual fuel
consumption by the estimated total electrical output of an equivalent combined cycle plant. The
key supposition in this methodology is therefore the estimated net STG electrical power.

Based on a nominal electricity output of 345MW and a high-pressure steam production of 460t/hr
(72bar, 485oC) for the proposed plant at Wagerup, it is estimated that the steam output would
generate an additional 135MW of electricity in combined cycle format, making the total equivalent
output of electricity 480MW. As seen in Table 5-8 and Table 5-9 the estimated total annual fuel
consumption in Stage Two is 31.77 x 106GJ. The equivalent plant net heat rate is therefore:

             Fuel consumed                31.77 × 10 9 MJ
=                                      =                  = 7,556MJ/MWh
  Equivalent electrical energy produced (480MW × 8760h )

The share of fuel energy attributed to electricity production is then determined by applying the
equivalent plant net heat rate to the electrical energy produced by the GTG in the cogeneration
plant:

= (345MW × 8,760h ) × 7,556MJ/MWh = 22.84 × 10 9 MJ/y

The fuel energy attributed to both electricity and steam production is then used to apportion the
total CO2-e emissions, as presented in Table 5-11.

      Table 5-11 Allocation of Emissions during Stage Two Operation (Calculated based on
      AGO Full Fuel Cycle Emission Factors)
                                             Annual fuel
                                                                           Emissions factor (kg                    CO2-e emissions
         Description                        consumption
                                                                                CO2-e/GJ)                             (t CO2-e)
                                                (GJ)
              Total                            31.77x106                               60.0                            1,906,000
           Electricity                         22.84x106                               60.0                            1,370,000
                                                          6
             Steam                              8.93x10                                60.0                              536,000




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Wagerup Cogeneration Project
Environmental Impact Statement
Final Rev 1




The total CO2-e emissions attributed to electricity production is then divided by the total amount of
electricity produced to determine an emissions intensity. Emissions intensities for the Stage One
and Stage Two development as well as during the transition phase are provided in Table 5-12.
Emissions intensities presented in Table 5-12 have been calculated based on AGO full fuel cycle
emissions factors.

        Table 5-12 Predicted Emissions Intensity for Alinta Wagerup Cogeneration Project
        (Calculated based on AGO Full Fuel Cycle Emission Factors)
                                                              Emissions (kg              Power Output             Emissions Intensity
                    Description
                                                                 CO2-e)                     (MWh)                  (kg CO2-e/MWh)
 Stage One                           Natural Gas                203,600,000                  316,6001                        643
                                                                                                       1
                                     Distillate                 31,840,000                    35,160                         905
 Transition (averaged                Natural Gas              1,315,000,000                 2,127,6152                       618
 over three years)
 Stage Two                           Natural Gas              1,370,000,000                 3,022,2002                       453
                                                                         o
Note:             1) Based on average operating conditions of 41 C ambient temperature and 40% relative humidity.
                                                                o
                  2) Based on average operating conditions of 18 C ambient temperature and 70% relative humidity.

Emissions intensities for other existing and proposed plants in Western Australia (calculated using
AGO full fuel cycle emission factors) are provided in Table 5-13 for comparison. As can be seen
in Table 5-13, when operating on natural gas during both Stage One and the transition phase, the
proposed plant compares favourably to coal fired power stations and is below the SWIS average.
When operating on distillate during Stage One the proposed plant is marginally above the SWIS
average. During Stage Two operation the estimated emissions intensity compares favourably to
other cogeneration plants.

        Table 5-13 Emissions Intensity of Existing and Proposed Power Plants in Western
        Australia (Calculated based on AGO Full Fuel Cycle Emission Factors)
                                                                                                                 Emissions Intensity
                     Power Station                                                Type
                                                                                                                  (kg CO2-e/MWh)
 Proposed Alinta Cogeneration Plant                             Stage One: Natural Gas                                      643
                                                                           Distillate                                       905
                                                                Transition                                                  618
                                                                Stage Two                                                   453
 SWIS1                                                          Total                                                       900
              2
 Muja A-B                                                       Coal – mid merit                                           1,205
 Collie A2                                                      Coal – base load                                            950
                                                        3
 Cockburn 2 Combined-Cycle Gas Turbine                          Natural gas – base load                                     398
 Worsley Cogeneration4                                          Natural gas – base load                                     490
 Alcoa Pinjarra Cogeneration5                                   Natural gas – base load                                     489
                                 6
 Kemerton (Open-Cycle)                                          Natural gas / distillate - peaking                       648 / 843
Note:             1) Western Power, 2005. Annual Report;
                  2) SKM, 2002. Collie Power Station Expansion SER:
                  3) Western Power, 2002. Cockburn 2 Combined Cycle Gas Turbine;
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                                                                                                      Wagerup Cogeneration Project
                                                                                                    Environmental Impact Statement
                                                                                                                        Final Rev 1




                  4) Strategen, 2005a. Proposed New Gas-fired Cogeneration Facility;
                  5) ENVIRON, 2002. Pinjarra Cogeneration Project.;
                  6) ATA Environmental, 2003. Kemerton Power Station Referral.


5.6.3   Management Strategies
Having particular regard to the:

      use of natural gas as the predominant fuel source;
      minimal use (up to 100 hours per unit per annum) of liquid fuel; and
      comparatively low emissions intensities during both Stage One and Stage Two operation;

it is Alinta’s opinion that the proposal can be managed in a satisfactory manner.
                                                                                                                                               Alinta commits
Alinta is committed to integrating greenhouse issues into business decision-making.                                                            to continue to
                                                                                                                                               investigate and
Notwithstanding the emissions savings from the proposed development Alinta will continue to
                                                                                                                                               develop green-
investigate and develop other green-friendly electricity projects, including renewable and energy-                                             friendly
efficient generation technologies.                                                                                                             electricity
                                                                                                                                               projects.

5.7    Noise and Vibration
Management Objectives
      Ensure that noise impacts emanating from the proposed Alinta plant comply with statutory
      requirements specified in the Environmental Protection (Noise) Regulations 1997;
      Ensure no increase in noise impact at nearby residences; and
      Ensure that vibration impacts emanating from the proposed plant are maintained at an
      acceptable level.

5.7.1     Background
There are a number of residences located within reasonably close proximity to the proposed
development site, with the closest residence 1.8km to the south-east of the Alinta site. Noise
emanating from the Alcoa refinery is currently resulting in noise levels at some noise-sensitive
receptors that exceed the levels normally specified in the Environmental Protection (Noise)
Regulations 1997. Under Regulation 17 of the Environmental Protection (Noise) Regulations 1997,
Alcoa has requested a variation to the noise limits that normally apply. This variation has not yet
been approved by the Minister for the Environment and would not, in any case, apply to noise
emitters other than Alcoa. Alcoa has committed to no increase in noise impacts on residential
receptors as a result of the proposed refinery expansion, and has identified that noise attenuation of
existing plant will be required to offset additional noise sources. Noise predictions for the
expansion of the Alcoa plant took into account the development of a cogeneration facility through
the application of a nominal sound power level. This allowance was 104dB for each unit, or a total
of 107dB for the plant as a whole.
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Wagerup Cogeneration Project
Environmental Impact Statement
Final Rev 1




Alinta is committed to meeting the intent of Alcoa’s commitment to no increase in noise impacts at
sensitive receptors, for both Stage One and Stage Two of the Alinta proposal. As such, guaranteed
noise levels have been obtained from the supplier of the gas turbines, and a noise modelling study
has been performed to predict likely noise impacts and identify management requirements.


5.7.2     Noise Criteria
The quantitative criteria used to assist in estimating the extent of any acoustical impacts from a
project or development are defined within the Environmental Protection (Noise) Regulations 1997.
These regulations set assigned noise levels that are based on the nature of the receiving premises,
land use zoning and the road transport activity within 450m of the receiving premises as well as the
duration of the noise emissions and the time of day when they occur. Table 5-14 presents the levels
assigned by the regulations. The influencing factor cited in Table 5-14 is determined in accordance
with Schedule 3 of the regulations. For the residential premises in question, the influencing factor
is 0.

      Table 5-14 Assigned Noise Levels for all Premises
    Type of premises                  Time of day                                    Assigned level (dB)
     receiving noise
                                                                      LA10                       LA1                     LA,Max
 Noise sensitive                  0700 to 1900                45dB(A)                   55dB(A)                  65dB(A)
 premises at locations            hours Monday to             + influencing              + influencing            + influencing
 within 15 metres of a            Saturday                    factor                    factor                   factor
 building directly
 associated with a                0900 to 1900                40dB(A)                   50dB(A)                  65dB(A)
 noise sensitive use              hours Sunday and             + influencing             + influencing            + influencing
                                  public holidays             factor                    factor                   factor
                                  1900 to 2200                40dB(A)                   50dB(A)                  55dB(A)
                                  hours all days               + influencing             + influencing            + influencing
                                                              factor                    factor                   factor
                                  2200 hours on               35dB(A)                   45dB(A)                  55dB(A)
                                  any day to 0700              + influencing             + influencing            + influencing
                                  hours Monday to             factor                    factor                   factor
                                  Saturday and
                                  0900 hours
                                  Sunday and public
                                  holidays
 Noise sensitive                  All hours                   60dB(A)                   75dB(A)                  80dB(A)
 premises at locations
 further than 15
 metres from a
 building directly
 associated with a
 noise sensitive use
 Commercial premises              All hours                   60dB(A)                   75dB(A)                  80dB(A)
 Industrial and utility           All hours                   65dB(A)                   80dB(A)                  90dB(A)
 premises
Notes:
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                                                                                                      Wagerup Cogeneration Project
                                                                                                    Environmental Impact Statement
                                                                                                                        Final Rev 1




1)     LA,Max – The loudest noise level permitted during a 15-minute to 4-hour sampling period.
2)     LA1 – The noise level which may be exceeded for 1% of a 15-minute to 4-hour sampling period.
3)     LA10 – The noise level which may be exceeded for 10% of a 15-minute to 4-hour sampling period.



The assigned noise levels are also conditional on no annoying characteristics existing, such as tonal
components etc. If characteristics can not be removed in a reasonable and practicable manner, then
any measured level is adjusted upwards accordingly. The adjustments that apply are detailed in
Table 5-15.

      Table 5-15 Adjustments for Annoying Characteristics
 Tonality                                   Modulation                                Impulsiveness
 +5dB                                       +5dB                                      +10dB
Note: the regulations limit the combined adjustments for these characteristics to a maximum of 15 dB.


It is expected that noise will be free of all three characteristics identified in Table 5-15 at
residential locations, but may not be free of tonality at the Alcoa property boundary.

Regulation 7 of the Environmental Protection (Noise) Regulations 1997 requires that noise emitted
from other premises shall not result in the noise received at another premises exceeding the
assigned levels. Noise received at any premises will be the sum of all noise emissions impacting
on that premises and will include noise emissions from other premises, transport activities and
naturally occurring sources such as wind, birds etc.

Where more than one premise is contributing to the noise received at another premise, the
cumulative effect of their combined emissions is addressed in regulation 7 of the Environmental
Protection (Noise) Regulations 1997 by allowing the noise from a particular premise (even if this
emission in isolation meets assigned levels) to be considered as “significantly contributing to” the
noise received on another premises.

Regulation 7 states that a noise emission can significantly contribute to the noise received if the
emission is less than 5 dB below the assigned level. This approach does not follow the laws of
acoustical physics, but has been adopted for legal robustness and technical simplicity. If only two
sources are influencing the level of noise received at a premises, each source must be only 3 dB
below the assigned level to achieve compliance with regulation 7(1). On the other hand, if four
sources are influencing the same receiving premises, each source must be 6 dB below the assigned
level if this level is to be achieved. Similarly, if eight sources were involved, each source must be 9
dB below.

While there are three potential contributors to noise received at noise sensitive premises to the
north of the Alcoa refinery (Alcoa, Alinta and Iluka Resources), there are only two contributors
(Alcoa and Alinta) to noise received at sensitive locations to the south of the refinery, as the Iluka
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Environmental Impact Statement
Final Rev 1




operations are unlikely to impact on noise levels in this location. It should also be noted that Iluka
advises they will be in rehabilitation mode within two years. At this time it is unlikely they will
operate at night. Thus, if the noise from each emitting premises is 3dB or more below the assigned
level, the assigned level prescribed by regulation 7(1) will be achieved. Both premises will,
however, remain in “significantly contributing” mode and could possibly be required to reduce
noise emissions by 2dB should a third source of similar sound power be introduced, although this is
extremely unlikely.

Regardless of the technical argument on cumulative noise impact provided above, and assuming no
annoying noise characteristics, noise emissions from the proposed Alinta plant would be
considered to comply with the requirements of the Environmental Protection (Noise) Regulations
1997 if the night-time noise contribution at sensitive receptors was no greater than 30dB(A). To
comply with industry-to-industry noise limits, noise levels from the Alinta plant are required to not
exceed 60dB(A) at the perimeter of the Alinta property.

Vibration is not expected to be an issue, as gas turbine plant is designed to run at vibration levels
which are essentially undetectable by humans at any distance away. The units are also installed on
large concrete foundations such that any vibrations are damped out before reaching the ground in
normal operating duties. Also, any ground detectable vibration would indicate a serious problem
with the plant which would require it to be shut down before damage is incurred.

5.7.3         Predicted Noise Impacts
5.7.3.1 Methodology
An assessment of the noise impact of the Alinta proposal has been performed by SVT Engineering
Consultants and the results are presented separately in the report “Preliminary Noise Assessment
for the Alinta Wagerup Power Proposal” (SVT, 2006a), and an addendum to this report entitled
“Addendum to Noise Assessment for the Alinta Wagerup Power Proposal” (SVT, 2006b).

Noise level predictions have been undertaken for three data sets which represent:

1) Commercially guaranteed noise emission data;
2) Maximum expected noise emission data; and
3) Practical achievable noise emission data which could reasonably be achieved with additional
   noise control measures.

Alcoa’s SoundPlan refinery noise model has been used to predict noise levels from the proposed
Alinta plant. The model has been updated with guaranteed sound power levels for Stage One and
estimated sound power levels for Stage Two. The predicted noise levels have been compared with
existing and predicted noise levels for the Wagerup Refinery and proposed expansion.

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                                                                                                       Wagerup Cogeneration Project
                                                                                                     Environmental Impact Statement
                                                                                                                         Final Rev 1




A detailed noise model has been developed using “Predictor” noise modelling software. This
includes specific noise sources associated with the power generation equipment as well as barrier
effects of enclosures and buildings associated with the proposal. The model is intended to predict
noise levels in the near-field only and is not suitable for predicting noise at residences. The detailed
model has been used to predict an overall sound power level for the plant for input into the
SoundPlan model, and for predicting noise at the Alinta/Alcoa property boundary.

The following sound power level data (Table 5-16) represents the contractually guaranteed noise
emission levels for individual components of Stage One (open-cycle plant) and readily achievable
levels for Stage Two. This data has been input into the detailed model. It should be noted that a
review of similar plant recently built or proposed in Western Australia indicates that the noise
emissions predicted for the Alinta plant can be considered “best practice” for Western Australia.

        Table 5-16 Sound Power Levels
                                                        Octave Band Centre Frequency (Hz)
Equipment                                               63         125        250        500       1k       2k       4k        8k          Sum
                                                                                                                                           dB(A)
Stage One – Open-cycle Plant
Gas Turbine Enclosure                                   107        106        94.5       87.2      89.3     78.8     73.5      81.9        95
Air Inlet Cross Section (Filterhouse Inlet)             109        106        98.7       80.9      75.6     75.6     78.8      83.0        94
Air Inlet Duct and Elbow                                97.7       91.4       81.9       76.7      89.3     91.4     88.2      76.7        96
GTG Exhaust Horizontal Transition Duct                  103        96.6       90.3       81.9      83.0     80.9     76.7      73.5        85
GTG Exhaust Stack Body and Exhaust                      107        101        98.7       92.4      90.3     80.9     78.8      78.8        96
     1
Duct
GTG Exhaust Stack Outlet 1                              117        103        98.7       96.6      91.4     84.0     80.9      80.9        98
Lube Oil and Generator Cooling Module                   96.6       99.8       95.6       94.5      89.3     85.1     78.8      75.6        95
Large step Up Transformer                               90.8       95.8       94.8       94.8      88.8     83.8     78.8      71.8        95
Small Step up Transformer                               93.8       88.8       87.8       87.8      81.8     76.8     71.8      64.8        88
                               2
Gas conditioning facility                               61.0       63.0       62.0       66.0      74.0     81.0     80.0      76.0        85
Stage Two – HRSG components
HRSG Casing and Drums                                   109        103        100.7      94.4      92.3     82.9     80.8      80.8        98
HRSG Stack                                              109        103        100.7      94.4      92.3     82.9     80.8      80.8        98
HRSG Stack Outlet                                       118.6      104.6      100.3      98.2      93.0     85.6     82.5      82.5        100
HRSG Boiler Feed Pumps                                  83.2       86.1       87.6       91.2      91.0     89.8     80.0      77.1        95
Note:
     1)    The GTG exhaust stack body and exhaust duct, and the GTG exhaust stack outlet will not be contributing noise
           sources during Stage Two operation.
     2)    A single gas conditioning facility is required.

For Stage One the following noise reduction measures will be incorporated:
        Auxiliary equipment will be located within the main turbine enclosures which will be designed
        to achieve the sound power levels given in the table above;
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Environmental Impact Statement
Final Rev 1




        The horizontal exhaust ducting will be contained within an enclosure (in addition to the duct
        insulation); and
        The air inlets will include weather hoods to reduce flow induced noise.

Table 5-17 below summarises the differences in noise emission data provided for the guaranteed
maximum level, the expected maximum level and the practical achievable level.

        Table 5-17 Guaranteed and Estimated Maximum Plant Sound Power Levels
                                                                  Sound Power Level – dB(A)
                                                                                                                          Practical
                                                                     Guaranteed              Expected Max
Equipment                                                                                                                Achievable
                                                                      Max Level                 Level
                                                                                                                           Level
Stage One – Open-cycle Plant
Gas turbine enclosure                                                       95                        93                       92
Air inlet cross section (filterhouse inlet)                                 94                        92                       91
Air inlet duct and elbow                                                    96                        93                       92
GT exhaust horizontal transition duct                                       85                        85                       85
                                                          1
GTG Exhaust Stack Body and Exhaust Duct                                     96                        93                       92
                                   1
GTG Exhaust Stack Outlet                                                    98                        96                       95
Lube oil and generator cooling module                                       95                        93                       92
Large step up transformer                                                   95                        92                       92
Small step up transformer                                                   88                        85                       85
                               2
Gas conditioning facility                                                   85                        85                       85
Total Level Stage One (per unit/total)                                 (104/107)                 (102/105)                 (101/104)


Stage Two – HRSG components3
                                                                                2
HRSG Inlet Duct, Casing and drums                                          98                         98                       96
                                                                                2
HRSG Stack                                                                 98                         98                       96
                                                                                    2
HRSG Stack Outlet                                                         100                        100                       98
                                                                                2
Boiler Feed Pumps                                                          95                         95                       93
Total Level Stage Two (per unit/total)                                 (107/110)                 (106/109)                 (104/107)
Note:
     1)    The GTG exhaust stack body and exhaust duct, and the GTG exhaust stack outlet will not be contributing noise
           sources during Stage Two operation.
     2)    A single gas conditioning facility is required.
     3)    A supplier has not been selected for the HRSGs and hence these figures (which are the same as the maximum
           expected figures) are not commercially guaranteed.

5.7.3.2 Results
Received noise levels have been predicted for seven noise sensitive receptors surrounding the
Alcoa Refinery, with the locations the same as those nominated in the ERMP (Alcoa, 2005a).
Figure 5-2 shows the location of these receptors.


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                                                                                                      Wagerup Cogeneration Project
                                                                                                    Environmental Impact Statement
                                                                                                                        Final Rev 1




All predictions are for worst-case sound propagation conditions, i.e. a 3m/s wind blowing from the
source to the receiver, combined with a thermal inversion.


Stage One
Table 5-18 provides the predicted noise levels for Stage One of the proposal in isolation, the
existing noise levels from the Alcoa refinery and the cumulative noise levels. Existing noise levels
are taken from Appendix H of the ERMP (Alcoa, 2005a).

      Table 5-18 Predicted Noise Levels – Alinta Stage One
                     Receptor                Existing Alcoa               Alinta Stage One             Alinta Stage One
                                                Refinery                     in isolation                with Existing
                                                                                                           Refinery
                                        Guaranteed Maximum Noise Emission Levels
                          R1                         42.0                          22.5                         42.1
                          R2                         45.6                          25.4                         45.6
                          R3                         48.8                          26.1                         48.8
                          R4                         47.8                          28.4                         47.9
                          R5                         45.9                          27.1                         46.0
                          R6                         47.2                          33.0                         47.4
                          R7                         40.9                          26.4                         41.1
                                          Maximum Expected Noise Emission Levels
                          R1                         42.0                          20.2                         42.0
                          R2                         45.6                          23.1                         45.6
                          R3                         48.8                          23.8                         48.8
                          R4                         47.8                          26.1                         47.8
                          R5                         45.9                          24.8                         45.9
                          R6                         47.2                          30.7                         47.3
                          R7                         40.9                          24.1                         41.0
                                         Practical Achievable Noise Emission Levels
                         R1                        42.0                           19.4                          42.0
                         R2                        45.6                           22.3                          45.6
                         R3                        48.8                           23.0                          48.8
                         R4                        47.8                           25.3                          47.8
                         R5                        45.9                           24.0                          45.9
                         R6                        47.2                           29.9                          47.3
                         R7                        40.9                           23.3                          41.0




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                                                        395000                                                                           400000




          Legend
               ALCOA owned land (as at July 2005)

           h
           g   Noise Sensitive Receptor Sites
6365000




                                                                                                                                                                                                              6365000
               Cogeneration Plant Area
                                                                                                                 WAROONA




                                                                                                                                        Y
                                                                                                                                     HW
                                                                                                                                     N
                                                                                                                                  ER
                                                                                                                               ST
                                                                                                                            WE
                                                                                                                        R1
                                                                                                                    h
                                                                                                                    g
6360000




                                                                                                                                                                                                              6360000
                                                                                                                      R2
                                                                                                                 h
                                                                                                                 g
                                                                                                      R3
                                                                                                 h
                                                                                                 g

                                                                                                                                                          Conve yo
                                                                                                                                                                       r
                                                                                                          WAGERUP
                                                                                              SOUTH




                                      Residue Drying                                                      REFINERY
                                           Area



                                                                                                  R4
                                                                                              h
                                                                                              g                                   R6            Proposed Cogeneration
                                                                                                          R5                  h
                                                                                                                              g                 Project Location
                                                                                                      h
                                                                                                      g
6355000




                                                                                                                                                                                                              6355000
                                                                                                                                      R7
                                                                                                                                  h
                                                                                                                                  g


                                                                                            YARLOOP




                                                                                                                                                                     F
6350000




                                                                                                                                                                                                              6350000




                                                                                                                                                      0        600     1,200              2,400

                                                                                                                                                                      Metres
                                                                                                                                                               Scale 1:75000
                                                                                                                                                         Horizontal Datum: AGD84
                                                                                                                                                       Map Projection: AMG84 Zone 50



                                                        395000                                                                           400000

                                                         Alinta Cogeneration Project
                                                                                                                                                                            Figure 5-2
                                              Location of                                                                                                                   Rev No. 2
                                                                                                                                                                            Project: WP03100
                                       Noise Sensitive Receptors                                                                                                            Drawn: 13/01/2006


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                                                                                              Alinta Cogeneration (Wagerup) Pty Ltd
                                                                                                      Wagerup Cogeneration Project
                                                                                                    Environmental Impact Statement
                                                                                                                        Final Rev 1




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Wagerup Cogeneration Project
Environmental Impact Statement
Final Rev 1




The noise levels predicted using Alcoa’s refinery noise model at noise sensitive locations
surrounding the refinery show that noise emission from the Alinta Wagerup Power Proposal results
in received noise levels less than 30 dB(A) at all locations considered except for location R6 to the
south-east of the proposed site. Predicted noise levels for the commercially guaranteed maximum
noise emission case reach 33 dB(A) at this location under worst-case night-time sound propagation
conditions. Noise levels of 31 dB(A) and 30 dB(A) were predicted for the expected maximum and
the practical achievable noise emission cases respectively.

Under the Environmental Protection (Noise) Regulations 1997, the predicted noise levels at
receptor R6 for the commercially guaranteed maximum and expected maximum cases marginally
exceed the level to be considered not significantly contributing to an exceedance of the assigned
noise level. However, a combination of worst-case operating conditions and weather conditions
would be required for this to occur.

The predicted noise levels for the practical achievable noise emission case comply with the
Environmental Protection (Noise) Regulations 1997 at all receptors under all conditions.

When compared with existing noise levels (see Table 5-18) it is clear that noise from the proposed
Alinta plant will not affect Alcoa’s commitment to “no increase in noise impacts”. Also, because of
the substantial difference between existing noise levels and those predicted for the proposed Alinta
plant in isolation, the change in predicted noise levels will not be perceivable and it is unlikely that
noise emission from the proposed Alinta plant would contribute to any tonality observed at nearby
residences.

The results from the detailed noise model of Stage One indicate that noise levels at the
Alinta/Alcoa site boundary will be less than 60dB(A) and will therefore comply with industry to
industry noise limits.


Stage Two
Table 5-19 provides the predicted noise levels for: the existing Alcoa refinery; Stage Two of the
proposal in isolation; Stage Two with the existing refinery; and the expanded refinery. Noise levels
for the existing refinery and the expanded refinery are taken from Appendix H of the ERMP (Alcoa
2005a).




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                                                                                                      Wagerup Cogeneration Project
                                                                                                    Environmental Impact Statement
                                                                                                                        Final Rev 1




      Table 5-19 Predicted Noise Levels – Alinta Stage Two
                                                                 Predicted Noise Level dB(A)
          Receptor            Existing Alcoa             Alinta Stage Two             Alinta Stage Two             ERMP Expanded
                                 Refinery                   in isolation                with Existing              Refinery (includes
                                                                                          Refinery                   cogeneration
                                                                                                                         plant)
                                            Guaranteed Maximum Noise Emission Case
              R1                     42.0                         25.5                         42.1                          41.5
              R2                     45.6                         28.4                         45.7                          45.6
              R3                     48.8                         29.1                         48.8                          48.7
              R4                     47.8                         31.4                         47.9                          48.3
              R5                     45.9                         30.1                         46.0                          46.8
              R6                     47.2                         36.0                         47.5                          46.8
              R7                     40.9                         29.4                         41.2                          41.5
                                             Maximum Expected Noise Emission Case
              R1                     42.0                         24.9                         42.1                          41.5
              R2                     45.6                         27.8                         45.7                          45.6
              R3                     48.8                         28.5                         48.8                          48.7
              R4                     47.8                         30.8                         47.9                          48.3
              R5                     45.9                         29.5                         46.0                          46.8
              R6                     47.2                         35.4                         47.5                          46.8
              R7                     40.9                         28.8                         41.2                          41.5
                                             Practical Achievable Noise Emission Case
              R1                     42.0                         23.2                         42.1                          41.5
              R2                     45.6                         26.1                         45.7                          45.6
              R3                     48.8                         26.8                         48.8                          48.7
              R4                     47.8                         29.1                         47.9                          48.3
              R5                     45.9                         27.8                         46.0                          46.8
              R6                     47.2                         33.7                         47.4                          46.8
              R7                     40.9                         27.1                         41.1                          41.5



The noise levels predicted using Alcoa’s refinery noise model at noise sensitive locations
surrounding the refinery show that noise emission from the Alinta Wagerup Power Proposal when
operating in cogeneration mode, and assuming the commercially guaranteed noise emission data
for the open-cycle stage, will result in received noise levels less than 30 dB(A) at all locations
considered except for locations R4, R5 and R6 to the south of the proposed site. At location R6
predicted noise levels reach 36 dB(A) under worst-case night-time sound propagation conditions. A
reduction in noise levels of 0.6 dB(A) is predicted for the maximum expected noise emission case,
with locations R4 and R6 receiving noise above 30 dB(A). A further reduction of 1.7 dB(A) (2.3
dB reduction compared to the commercially guaranteed case) is predicted for the practical

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                 Alinta Cogeneration (Wagerup) Pty Ltd
                 Wagerup Cogeneration Project
                 Environmental Impact Statement
                 Final Rev 1




                 achievable case, with location R6 only receiving noise above 30 dB(A). In this case the predicted
                 noise level is higher (4dB) than is required to show the Alinta plant is not “significantly
                 contributing” as defined in the Environmental Protection (Noise) Regulations 1997 for all
                 conditions. Noise management strategies identified in Section 5.7.4 reflect this result.

                 When compared with existing noise levels (see Table 5-19) it is clear that noise from the proposed
                 Alinta plant operating in cogeneration mode will have minimal effect on Alcoa’s commitment to
                 “no increase in noise impacts”. Also, because of the substantial difference between existing noise
                 levels and those predicted for the proposed Alinta plant in isolation, it is unlikely that noise
                 emission from the power proposal would contribute to any tonality observed at nearby residences.

                 The results from the noise model of Stage Two indicate that noise levels at the Alinta/Alcoa site
                 boundary will be less than 60dB(A) and will therefore comply with industry to industry noise
                 limits.


                 5.7.4     Management Strategies
                 As part of the Wagerup Unit Three Environmental Review and Management Program (ERMP),
                 Alcoa has set an objective that the refinery expansion (including cogeneration) will not increase
                 noise impacts on surrounding residences. Alinta is committed to ensuring that this requirement is
Alinta commits   met during both Stage One and Stage Two of the proposal. Alinta is also committed to meeting
to develop a     regulatory requirements.
Noise
Management       1. Alinta is committed to the development of a Noise Management Plan which will include the
Plan.
                    following:

                            a. Monitoring of noise levels to confirm noise emissions from Stage One of the Proposal;

                            b. Remodelling of noise impacts once noise emission levels for Stage Two are agreed
                               with an equipment supplier and results from (a) are obtained. The location of noise
                               sensitive receptors will be confirmed at this time as it is noted that Alcoa’s Land
                               Management Plan provides opportunities for those living at the nearest residences to
                               relocate if they consider they are being impacted by the Refinery’s operations;

                            c. In the event that predicted noise levels from step (b) are above 30dB(A) at the closest
                               receptor, additional management strategies will be determined. The most practicable
                               way of reducing noise impacts at the affected receptor will be investigated and
                               implemented, including:

                                         i. Further noise reductions in the Alinta plant; and/or


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                                                                                                      Wagerup Cogeneration Project
                                                                                                    Environmental Impact Statement
                                                                                                                        Final Rev 1




                       ii. Offsetting noise from the cogeneration plant with attenuation in the existing
                           Alcoa plant).

           d. Noise emissions from each stage of the Alinta proposal will be verified to confirm that
              levels are lower than or equal to those modelled. In the event that predicted noise
              emissions are exceeded, additional attenuation will be performed.


5.8    Solid Waste
Management Objectives
      Minimise generation of solid waste; and
      Handle and dispose of solid waste to minimise the impact on receiving environments.

5.8.1    Background
Solid waste generated during operation will comprise:

      normal domestic waste;
      commercial waste; and
      miscellaneous solid waste generated during maintenance activities (oily rags, packaging
      material, inert waste).

Minimal additional domestic waste will be generated, as no additional employees will be required
to run the plant.

Cleanaway provides a comprehensive waste management service to the Alcoa refinery, which
includes waste handling, disposal and recycling, and monitoring and auditing of waste volume and
type.


5.8.2   Management Strategies
Waste management during operation of the Alinta proposal will be in accordance with Alcoa’s
Waste Management Procedures.


5.9    Domestic Liquid Wastes
Management Objectives
      Ensure that domestic liquid waste is managed and disposed of in a manner that minimises the
      impact on receiving environments; and
      Ensure compliance with relevant health and environmental regulations.




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Wagerup Cogeneration Project
Environmental Impact Statement
Final Rev 1




5.9.1     Background
As no additional Alcoa or Alinta staff will be required to operate the plant, it is not expected that
any additional offices or ablution facilities will be required during operation.


5.9.2    Management Strategies
No specific management strategies are required.


5.10   Process Liquid Waste
Management Objectives
      Ensure that process liquid waste is managed and disposed of in a manner that minimises the
      impact on receiving environments; and
      Ensure compliance with relevant health and environmental regulations.

5.10.1 Background
Liquid waste generated during operation will be primarily derived from blowdown from the Water
Treatment Plant and Evaporative Condenser (GTG air inlet cooler). A limited amount of liquid
waste will also be derived as condensate from air conditioning used to cool the control cabinet.
Volumes are provided in Table 5-20 below.

      Table 5-20 Process Liquid Waste
Liquid Waste Stream                 Generation Rate                            Annual Volume (ML)
                                        (m3/hr)                                       Transition
                                                                  Stage One                              Stage Two
                                                                                       Yr 1 - 3
Blowdown from Water               4.5 to 5                      25 to 35             25 to 35           25 to 35
Treatment Plant and
Evaporative
Condensor

Air       conditioning            0.01                          0.88                 0.88               0.88
condensate




5.10.2 Management Strategies
Process liquid waste not containing hydrocarbons will be stored and disposed to Alcoa’s cooling
lake or residue drying area.


5.11   Hydrocarbons and Hazardous Materials
Management Objectives
      Ensure hydrocarbons and hazardous materials are handled and stored in a manner that
      minimises the potential for impact on the environment through leaks, spills and emergency
      situations.
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                                                                                                         Wagerup Cogeneration Project
                                                                                                       Environmental Impact Statement
                                                                                                                           Final Rev 1




5.11.1 Background
The operation of the Alinta plant will involve the transportation, storage and handling of
hydrocarbons and hazardous materials. A summary of the materials likely to be used through all
stages of operation is provided in table Table 5-21.

      Table 5-21 Hydrocarbon and Hazardous Material Inventory
Material                                         Hazard                              Working Volume                 Storage Volume
Natural Gas                                      Flammable                           N/A                            N/A
Distillate                                       Combustible                         N/A                            Nominal 1,800m3
                                                                                             3
Lubricating oils                                 Combustible                         120m                           No additional
                                                                                                                    storage
Cleaning fluids                                  Toxic/Flammable                     N/A                            No additional
                                                                                                                    storage
Paints and thinners                              Combustible/Flammable               N/A                            No additional
                                                                                                                    storage
Water treatment chemicals (acids,                Corrosive/Toxic                     N/A                            15m3
inhibitors, bases)
Transformer oil                                  Combustible                         165m3                          No additional
                                                                                                                    storage



5.11.2 Management Strategies
Hydrocarbons and hazardous materials management during operation of the Alinta proposal will be
in accordance with Alcoa’s extensive Management Procedures.


5.12   Public Health and Safety
Management Objectives
      Ensure that the risk to the public is as low as reasonably practicable; and
      Ensure that risk is managed to meet the Environmental Protection Authority’s criteria for off-
      site individual fatality risk.

5.12.1 Background
Any industrial development that involves the storage and transportation of hazardous substances
can pose a risk to employees, the public and the environment.

The Environmental Protection Authority (EPA) has developed individual risk criteria that should
be taken into account when assessing a proposed hazardous industry. Off-site individual risk is the
risk that any one member of the public will be killed as a result of an accident.

Criteria relevant to the development of the proposed power station are summarised in the EPA
publication, Guidance for Risk Assessment and Management: Offsite Individual Risk from


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Wagerup Cogeneration Project
Environmental Impact Statement
Final Rev 1




Hazardous Industrial Plant (EPA, 2000). This document specifies the off-site individual risk
criteria for fatalities from a hazardous industrial plant:

             “Risk levels from industrial facilities should not exceed a target of 50 in-a-million per
             year (50x10-6) at the site boundary for individual industry, and the cumulative risk
             imposed upon an industry should not exceed a target of 100 in-a-million per year
             (100x10-6).
             A risk level for non-industrial activity located in buffer zones between industrial facilities
             and residential zones of ten-in-a-million (10x10-6) or lower is so small as to be acceptable
             to the EPA.
             A risk level in residential zones of 1 in-a-million per year (1x10-6) or less is so small as to
             be acceptable to the EPA.
             A risk level in “sensitive developments”, such as hospitals, child care facilities and aged
             care housing developments of between one half and one-in-a-million per year (0.5 to
             1x10-6) is so small as to be acceptable to the EPA.
             In addition, risk minimisation must be demonstrated in all new proposals”.

On-site risks to employees are managed under the Occupational Safety and Health Act 1994 and
Mines Safety and Inspection Act 1994 and Regulations, which are not discussed here. Societal risk
is a measure of the chance of a number of people, or more, being killed as a result of an accident.

A Public Safety risk assessment has been undertaken for the existing Wagerup Refinery and the
proposed expansion (documented in Appendix Q of the ERMP (Alcoa, 2005a)). The risk
assessment focussed on accidental events which may have an acute impact on members of the
public, with a range of hazards identified, analysis to determine if these have the potential to impact
public outside of Alcoa’s boundary. Hazards assessed included the potential for rupture of the
natural gas pipeline which reaches the surface near the Alcoa site boundary and will be used to
provide gas to the Alinta cogeneration plant. The analysis indicated that none of the events assessed
has the potential to result in serious acute harm to persons outside of Alcoa’s boundary.

In terms of off-site risk, the Alinta proposal varies to that already considered in the ERMP, in that it
includes the requirement to store 1,800m3 of distillate fuel. The existing distillate storage at Alcoa
is 1,000m3. However, it is not expected that this change in the project characteristics will affect the
outcome of Alcoa’s Public Safety risk assessment.

The following is concluded with respect to the Alinta proposal:




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                                                                                                      Wagerup Cogeneration Project
                                                                                                    Environmental Impact Statement
                                                                                                                        Final Rev 1




5.12.2 Management Strategies
The maintenance and performance monitoring of the controls associated with identified hazards are
addressed within Alcoa’s Wagerup Safety Management System (which meets the requirements of
AS 4801 “Occupational Health and Safety Management Systems”) and the Alcoa Major Hazard
Management System. These systems will be expanded to incorporate the Alinta plant.

The ongoing design process for the Alinta proposal will include all the normal hazard review
processes such as HAZID, Risk Reviews and HAZOP.


5.13   Visual Amenity
Management Objectives
      Ensure that the visual amenity of the plant and associated infrastructure from adjacent public
      areas is minimised.

5.13.1 Background
As the Alinta power station is within the existing Alcoa refinery, the predicted change in public
visual amenity is expected to be minimal. The stack height in Stage Two will be 50m, which is
significantly less than the height of the existing Alcoa structures – the Alcoa powerhouse multiflue
is 65m tall and the Alcoa calciner multiflue is 100m tall. The Alinta site will be adjacent to the
Alcoa access road and may require removal of existing screening vegetation. Lighting of the plant
will be consistent with Alcoa’s existing standards to ensure safe operation and it is not expected
that the Alinta plant will be visually distinct from the refinery.

Approvals for transmission lines and a terminal substation are being sought separately to this
document, by Western Power on behalf of Alinta.


5.13.2 Management Strategies
Alinta is committed to the following management strategies:

      Removal of screening vegetation on the Alcoa access road will be minimised;
      Landscaping and replanting of screening vegetation will be performed; and
      Appropriate measures for management of light spill, such as directing light downward (where
      practical) and keeping glare to a minimum, will be investigated and implemented.




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Wagerup Cogeneration Project
Environmental Impact Statement
Final Rev 1




6.            Stakeholder and Community Consultation
6.1      Alinta’s Approach to Community Consultation
Alinta acknowledges that talking to communities, seeking input into plans, sharing environmental
performance and understanding community needs is critical to maintaining its “community licence
to operate”. Alinta recognises the importance of becoming a major corporate entity within the
South West. In retailing both gas and electricity throughout the region, Alinta has the opportunity
to develop and consolidate existing relationships with members of the local community.
Consequently, a range of consultation methods has been employed by Alinta to involve and inform
the community of the company’s activities.


6.2           Consultation Program
6.2.1     Wagerup Unit Three Expansion
As described in Chapter 6 of the Wagerup ERMP (Alcoa, 2005a), an extensive consultation
program was implemented for the environmental assessment phase of the Wagerup Unit Three
Expansion (which included cogeneration as a potential option for supplying steam to the Wagerup
Refinery). Involvement mechanisms included the Wagerup Community Consultation Network
(CCN), subject specific working groups, the Wagerup Tripartite Group, community meetings, local
council deputations, presentations, mail-outs, environmental reports, annual reviews and
newsletters. Informal community feedback and participation was also achieved through community
partnerships, one-on-one discussions with neighbours and involvement in community led
committees, initiatives and forums.

These consultation mechanisms provided a vehicle for disseminating information and addressing
particular issues related to cogeneration as a component of the wider project proposal.


6.2.2     Alinta Cogeneration Project
In recognition of the extensive consultation already undertaken for the Wagerup Unit Three
Expansion, the stakeholder consultation strategy for the Alinta Cogeneration Project was
specifically aligned to that used by Alcoa.

The Wagerup Tripartite Group was identified as the appropriate forum for discussing the Alinta
Cogeneration Project with key stakeholders, as members of the group have a working knowledge
of the licensing and approvals process at Wagerup. Membership of the Wagerup Tripartite Group
consists of Alcoa representatives, government representatives and local community members who
have expressed an interest in active involvement in the consultation process. Minutes of Wagerup
Tripartite Group meetings are published in the local paper, the Harvey Reporter (which has a
circulation of over 7,000) and on the Department of Environment website.

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                                                                                                      Wagerup Cogeneration Project
                                                                                                    Environmental Impact Statement
                                                                                                                        Final Rev 1




In addition to the Wagerup Tripartite Group, presentations regarding the project have also been
given to the Alcoa Wagerup Community Consultation Network (CCN) and the Shire of Waroona.

Briefing letters have also been sent to the following stakeholders:

       Department of Health1
       Department of Industry and Resources1
       Department of Land Information1
       Water Corporation1
       Department for Planning and Infrastructure1
       Department of Conservation and Land Management1
       Harvey Water1
       Office of Energy
       Chamber of Commerce and Industry of WA - South West
       Chamber of Commerce and Industry of WA
       Peel Development Commission
       South West Development Commission
       Federal Member for Canning
       State Member of the Legislative Assembly for Collie-Wellington
       Conservation Council of Western Australia

Articles on the Alinta Cogeneration Project have been included in Alcoa publications
WagerUpdate and Alcoa News. WagerUpdate is distributed to over 3,500 local households and 350
key stakeholders. Alcoa News is distributed to approximately 4,500 Alcoa employees, Alcoa
retirees and stakeholders. Alinta also provided information about the project at the combined
Wagerup Refinery and Willowdale Mine Open Day on 23rd October 2005, which was attended by
over 1,500 people.

A Community Information Sheet was also sent to all street mail boxes and post office boxes (1,300
copies) in the Shire of Waroona and all street mail boxes and post office boxes (355 copies)
in Yarloop (located in the Shire of Harvey)2. The information sheet included an invitation to



1
    Identified as Decision-making Authorities in the Wagerup ERMP (Alcoa, 2005a).

2
 Subsequent feedback from local residents has indicated that some copies of the Community Information
Sheet may not have been distributed by the local mail contractor.

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Environmental Impact Statement
Final Rev 1




community information sessions, which were held in Waroona and Yarloop. The community
information sessions were also advertised in the Harvey Reporter.

Rev 0 of this Environmental Impact Statement has also been made publicly available for review
and formal comment through both the Works Approval application process and the Shire of
Waroona approvals process.

All information sent to stakeholders has included contact details for those with further queries. To
date, five direct enquiries have been received from Alinta. Additional information was provided as
requested.

A summary of the nature and timing of key consultation activities is provided in Table 6-1.

      Table 6-1 Summary of Key Consultation Activities
Stakeholder                                                             Communication
September 2005
Local residents and key stakeholders                                    Article in WagerUpdate Volume 12
Wagerup Tripartite Group                                                Briefing presentation
Alcoa CCN                                                               Briefing presentation
Shire of Waroona                                                        Briefing letter
Shire of Harvey                                                         Briefing letter


October 2005
Department of Health                                                    Briefing letter
Department of Industry and Resources                                    Briefing letter
Department of Land Information                                          Briefing letter
Water Corporation                                                       Briefing letter
Department for Planning and Infrastructure                              Briefing letter
Department of Conservation and Land Management                          Briefing letter
Harvey Water                                                            Briefing letter
Office of Energy                                                        Briefing letter
Chamber of Commerce and Industry of WA - South                          Briefing letter
West
Chamber of Commerce and Industry of WA                                  Briefing letter
Peel Development Commission                                             Briefing letter
South West Development Commission                                       Briefing letter (follow-up information provided on
                                                                        request).
Federal Member for Canning                                              Briefing letter
State Member of the Legislative Assembly for Collie-                    Briefing letter
Wellington
Conservation Council of Western Australia                               Briefing letter
Alcoa employees, Alcoa retirees and stakeholders                        Article in Alcoa News
Local residents                                                         Briefing information provided at the Alcoa combined
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                                                                                                      Wagerup Cogeneration Project
                                                                                                    Environmental Impact Statement
                                                                                                                        Final Rev 1




Stakeholder                                                             Communication
                                                                        Wagerup Refinery and Willowdale Mine Open Day.


November 2005
Wagerup Tripartite Group                                                Briefing note
Alcoa CCN                                                               Briefing presentation


December 2005
Wagerup Tripartite Group                                                Briefing presentation


February 2006
Shire of Harvey                                                         Briefing letter
Wagerup Tripartite Group                                                Briefing note
General Public                                                          Works Approval application – public comment period
                                                                        (advertised in the West Australian). EIS (Rev 0)
                                                                        publicly available for review.


March 2006
Shire of Waroona                                                        Briefing letter
                                                                        Briefing presentation
Alcoa CCN                                                               Briefing presentation
Local residents                                                         Community Information Sheet sent to residents in
                                                                        the Shire of Waroona and the town of Yarloop.
                                                                        Council development application advertised. EIS
                                                                        (Rev 0) publicly available for review.
                                                                        Direct contact with four local residents. Additional
                                                                        information sent to three residents as requested.


April 2006
Local residents                                                         Community Information Sessions held in Waroona
                                                                        and Harvey (advertised in the Community
                                                                        Information Sheet and the Harvey Reporter).




6.3      Key Points of Interest and Issues Raised
A summary of issues raised by stakeholders during the consultation process is provided in Table
6-2. Not all of the issues raised (e.g. those related to residential gas reticulation or the proposed
transmission line) are within the scope of this document and have been omitted from the table.

      Table 6-2 Summary of Issues Raised During Stakeholder Consultation
Issues raised                     Stakeholders                     Response
Licensing of the plant.           Wagerup Tripartite               Alinta will hold the operating licence for the plant.
                                  Group
Capacity of the                   South West                       The project comprises construction of two 162MW gas
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Final Rev 1




Issues raised                     Stakeholders                     Response
proposed plant.                   Development                      turbines that will each have a 175.5MW peak capability.
                                  Commission, Local
                                  Residents
The capacity of the gas           Local Residents                  The capacity of the gas turbine generators proposed in
turbine generators is                                              the ERMP was based on the cogeneration units currently
different to that in the                                           being built at Pinjarra. Since submission of the ERMP,
Alcoa Environmental                                                additional investigations by Alinta identified that this
Review and                                                         particular type of gas turbine would not be available in
Management Program                                                 the timeframe required to meet Alinta’s commitment to
(ERMP).                                                            provide reserve generating capacity for the 2007/2008
                                                                   summer.
Effect on air quality.            Local Residents                  The proposed Alinta plant, in all operating modes, will
                                                                   not cause significant increases in ground-level
                                                                   concentrations of pollutants. Air emissions’ modelling
                                                                   demonstrates that emissions will easily meet air quality
                                                                   guidelines. Alinta is confident that the proposal is safe
                                                                   from an environmental health perspective.
Computer modelling of             Local Residents                  Computer models represent our current best
air emissions is too                                               understanding of what happens to air emissions and how
uncertain to be used in                                            they impact on local and regional air quality. As such,
an impact assessment.                                              there will always be room for improvement as our
                                                                   understanding develops with on-going research.
                                                                   However, the TAPM air quality model as used in the
                                                                   Alinta Wagerup Cogeneration Plant assessment, has
                                                                   been developed by the CSIRO Division of Atmospheric
                                                                   Research for regulatory use in Australia and arguably
                                                                   represents industry best practice.
                                                                   Most importantly, modelling results demonstrate that the
                                                                   contribution of the Alinta cogeneration plant to expected
                                                                   ground-level concentrations is not significant.
                                                                   Cogeneration is recommended as the most efficient and
                                                                   environmentally friendly means of generating power from
                                                                   fossil fuels. Under Stage Two, Scenario 1 development,
                                                                   displacement of existing Alcoa steam boilers by the
                                                                   proposed cogeneration plant will contribute to a
                                                                   reduction in total air emissions due to steam generation.
Why has PM10 been                 Local Residents                  The Alinta Wagerup assessment directly incorporated
modelled but not PM2.5.                                            the results of the Alcoa Wagerup ERMP assessment,
                                                                   which addressed particulate matter as PM10. PM2.5 was
                                                                   not modelled as an individual compound as PM2.5
                                                                   concentrations are not significant and are independent of
                                                                   refinery activities.
                                                                   The relevant air quality standard for particulate matter is
                                                                   the Ambient Air Quality NEPM, which is in terms of PM10
                                                                           3
                                                                   (50µg/m , daily average). The Ambient Air Quality NEPM
                                                                                                            3
                                                                   does include a PM2.5 standard (25µg/m daily average,
                                                                         3
                                                                   8µg/m annual average), but this is an advisory reporting
                                                                   standard only, which is intended to assist in gathering
                                                                   information for a review of the NEPM. The PM2.5
                                                                   standard is not a health-based standard, and it is not
                                                                   appropriate for use in air quality assessments.
Effect on noise                   Local Residents                  Alinta is committed to developing a Noise Management
emissions.                                                         Plan aimed at meeting regulatory requirements and
                                                                   ensuring that there will not be an increase in noise
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                                                                                                    Environmental Impact Statement
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Issues raised                     Stakeholders                     Response
                                                                   impacts from the proposed Alinta plant.
Separation distances              Local Residents                  Environmental Protection Authority Guidance Statement
between the proposed                                               No. 3 “Separation Distances between Industrial and
plant and residents.                                               Sensitive Land Uses” recommends a buffer distance for
                                                                   Electric Power Generation Facilities of between 3,000m
                                                                   and 5,000m depending on the location and size of the
                                                                   facility. However, as stated on page five of the Guidance
                                                                   Statement, the distances provided are not intended to be
                                                                   absolute separation distances, rather they provide
                                                                   general guidance on separation distances in the absence
                                                                   of site-specific technical studies. Such technical studies,
                                                                   namely those related to air quality and noise, have been
                                                                   undertaken for the proposed Alinta Wagerup
                                                                   Cogeneration Project. The results of these studies
                                                                   demonstrate that existing separation distances between
                                                                   the proposed plant and sensitive land uses is adequate.
Additive effect to                Local Residents                  The results of both air quality and noise studies indicate
perceived existing                                                 that the proposed Alinta cogeneration plant will not
issues.                                                            cause significant increases in ground-level
                                                                   concentrations of pollutants or noise emissions.
Impact on land values.            Local Residents                  Alcoa’s Land Management Plan provides opportunities
                                                                   for those living near the existing Refinery to relocate if
                                                                   they consider they are being impacted by the Refinery’s
                                                                   operations. The results of both air quality and noise
                                                                   studies indicate that the proposed Alinta cogeneration
                                                                   plant will not cause significant increases in ground-level
                                                                   concentrations of pollutants or noise emissions.
Increased greenhouse              Local Residents                  EPA Guidance Statement No.12 (EPA, 2002)
gas emissions.                                                     recommends the adoption of strategies that reduce the
                                                                   greenhouse gas output or intensity per unit product from
                                                                   current or future activities over the lifecycle of the asset
                                                                   or activity. The synergistic linking of enterprises to
                                                                   reduce net greenhouse gas outputs, as achieved by
                                                                   cogeneration, is one such recommended strategy.
                                                                   In Stage One, greenhouse gas emissions compare
                                                                   favourably to the average emissions from other
                                                                   generators currently on the grid. In Stage Two
                                                                   (cogeneration) greenhouse gas emissions are well below
                                                                   the average emissions from other generators currently
                                                                   on the grid and significantly less than coal-fired plant.
Greenhouse gas                    Wagerup Tripartite               Differences in greenhouse gas emissions intensities are
emissions intensities             Group                            primarily due to differences in Gas Turbine Generator
are significantly lower                                            technology.
than those presented
for the Alcoa Pinjarra
and Worsley
cogeneration projects1.
Concern over                      Local Residents                  Cooling towers have not been proposed as part of the
perceived use of                                                   Alinta Cogeneration Project. The generator air and
cooling towers.                                                    machine bearing oil will be cooled using radiators, with
                                                                   air movement driven by fans. The radiators and fans will
                                                                   be located adjacent to the Gas Turbine Generators.
Impact on fauna.                  Local Residents                  Limited site clearing of replanted vegetation is required
                                                                   prior to construction of the proposed cogeneration plant.
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Issues raised                     Stakeholders                     Response
                                                                   No fauna habitats have been identified on site.
Water use.                        Local Residents                  Water required during construction and operation will be
                                                                   drawn from sources utilised by the Alcoa Refinery. If the
                                                                   Wagerup Refinery expansion proceeds, additional water
                                                                   allocation may be required above Alcoa’s existing
                                                                   surface water licence extraction limits. An Ecological
                                                                   Water Requirement study has been performed in the
                                                                   case that additional water would be required, the results
                                                                   of which are documented in the Alcoa ERMP (Alcoa,
                                                                   2005a).
Wider community                   Wagerup Tripartite               The stakeholder consultation strategy was specifically
involvement in                    Group, Local                     aligned to that used by Alcoa in recognition of the
consultation.                     Residents                        extensive consultation already undertaken for the
                                                                   Wagerup Unit Three Expansion (in which cogeneration
                                                                   was included as a power supply option).
                                                                   Minutes of the Tripartite Group meetings are published in
                                                                   the Harvey Reporter and posted on the DoE website,
                                                                   project information was provided in WagerUpdate 12
                                                                   (with contact details for those wanting further
                                                                   information) and Alinta also attended the Wagerup
                                                                   combined refinery and mine site open day.
                                                                   A Community Information Sheet has also sent to
                                                                   residents in the Shire of Waroona and the town
                                                                   of Yarloop. Community information sessions were also
                                                                   held in Waroona and Yarloop. These sessions were
                                                                   advertised in the Harvey Reporter and the Communtiy
                                                                   information Sheet.
Local employment                  Wagerup CCN, Local               Local contractors will be invited to tender for construction
opportunities.                    Residents                        work and locals will be able to express interest in
                                                                   contract work that they are qualified to undertake.
What is the approvals             Local Residents                  While cogeneration was assessed as a potential option
process (and                                                       for providing steam in the Alcoa Environmental Review
opportunities to                                                   and Management Programme (ERMP) it should be noted
appeal).                                                           that the Alinta Wagerup Cogeneration Project is the
                                                                   subject of a separate environmental referral and
                                                                   approvals process. Alinta referred the Wagerup
                                                                   Cogeneration Project to the Environmental Protection
                                                                   Authority (EPA) on 7 February 2006. Following
                                                                   assessment by the EPA a Bulletin will be published. A
                                                                   formal two week appeal period will occur after Bulletin
                                                                   publication. Based on consideration of recommendations
                                                                   made by the EPA the Minister for the Environment will
                                                                   determine whether the proposal can be implemented. In
                                                                   parallel to this process, Alinta has also lodged an
                                                                   application for Works Approval with the Department of
                                                                   Environment (DoE). A decision to issue a final Works
                                                                   Approval will not be made by the DoE until Ministerial
                                                                   Approval of the project is given.
Note
       1.   Since the presentation to the Wagerup Tripartite Group, greenhouse gas calculations have been refined and the
            predicted emission intensities are more comparable to those presented for the Alcoa Pinjarra and Worsley
            cogeneration projects.



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Alinta is committed to continuing its communication activities beyond the submission of this
document. Stakeholders will continue to be informed of project developments via a range of
communication channels including those utilised to date.




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7.            Summary of Management Commitments
Management commitments identified through Section 4 and 5 are summarised below:

1) Alinta commits to continuing to investigate and develop green-friendly electricity projects.
2) Alinta commits to developing a Noise Management Plan.
3) Alinta commits to developing an EMP which will define system and management
   requirements for design, construction and commissioning.
4) Alinta commits to developing an Operations EMP which will dovetail into the existing Alcoa
   EMS.




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8.            Glossary
8.1           Glossary of Abbreviations
AHD                      Australia Height Datum
AGO                      Australian Greenhouse Office
Alcoa                    Alcoa World Alumina Australia
Alinta                   Alinta Cogeneration (Wagerup) Pty Ltd
AMG                      Australian Map Grid
ASS                      Acid sulphate soils
ASX                      Australian Stock Exchange
CALPUFF                  Non-steady-state meteorological and air quality modelling system
CCGT                     Combined Cycle Gas Turbine
CCN                      Community Consultation Network
EMP                      Environmental Management Plan
CFC                      Chlorofluorocarbons
CO                       Carbon monoxide
CO2                      Carbon dioxide
CSIRO                    Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation
DoE                      Department of Environment
ENVIRON                  Environmental consultancy
EMP                      Environmental Management Plan
EMS                      Environmental Management System
EP                       Environmental Protection
EPA                      Environmental Protection Authority
EPBC                     Environmental Protection and Biodiversity Conservation
ERMP                     Environmental Review and Management Programme
GHG                      Greenhouse gas
GTG                      Gas turbine generator
HRSG                     Heat recovery steam generator
IMO                      Independent Market Operator
ISO                      International Standards Organisation
LA1                      The noise level exceeded for 1% of a 15-minute to 4-hour sampling period,
                         equating to the loudest 9-seconds measured during the survey period.
LA10                     The noise level exceeded for 10% of a 15-minute to 4-hour sampling period or the
                         loudest 90-seconds. This is frequently referred to as the average-maximum noise
                         level.
LA90                     The noise level exceeded for 90% of a 15-minute to 4-hour sampling period. This
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                                                                                                                        Final Rev 1




                         is frequently referred to as the background noise level.
NEPC                     National Environmental Protection Council
NEPM                     National Environmental Protection Measure
NO2                      Nitrogen dioxide
NOX                      Nitrogen oxides
OPSIS                    Long-path continuous differential optical absorption system
PM10                     Particulate matter with an aerodynamic particle diameter of less than 10 microns
RDA                      Residue drying area
SKM                      Sinclair Knight Merz
SO2                      Sulphur dioxide
SOX                      Sulphur oxides
STG                      Steam turbine generator
SVT                      SVT Engineering Consultants
SWIS                     South West Interconnected System
TAPM                     The Air Pollution Model
TEOM                     Tapered Element Oscillating Microbalance
VOC                      Volatile Organic Compounds
WEM                      Wholesale Electricity Market
WPC                      Western Power Corporation
WGP3                     Wagerup Unit 3 Expansion
WRI/WBCSD                World Resource Institute/World Business Council for Sustainable Development


8.2           Glossary of Units
$                            Australian dollars
%                            percent
°C                           degrees celsius
µg/m³                        microgram per cubic metre
µm                           micrometer
dB                           decibels
g/s                          grams per second
GJ                           gigajoules
GJ/year                      gigajoules per year
GL                           gigalitres
Ha                           hectares
HHV                          higher heating value
Hz                           hertz

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kgCO2-e                      kilograms carbon dioxide equivalent
kgCO2-e / GJ                 kilograms carbon dioxide equivalent per gigajoule
kgCO2-e/ MWh                 kilograms carbon dioxide equivalent per megawatt-hour
kL/day                       kilolitres per day
km                           kilometres
kV                           kilovolts
m                            metres
m³/hr                        cubic metres per hour
mm                           millimetres
mm/day                       millimetres per day
mm/year                      millimetres per year
m/s                          metres per second
MJ/MWh                       megajoules per megawatt-hour
MJ/year                      megajoules per year
ML                           megalitres
ML/year                      megalitres per year
MPa                          megapascals
Mtpa                         million tonnes per annum
MW                           megawatts
ppb                          parts per billion
ppm                          parts per million
ppmvd                        parts per million vapour density
t                            tonnes
t CO2-e/year                 tonnes carbon dioxide equivalent per year
t/hr                         tonnes per hour
tpa                          tonnes per annum
tph                          tonnes per hour




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9.            References
Air Assessments (2005). Air Dispersion Modelling of Fugitive Emissions - Wagerup Refinery.
Prepared for Alcoa World Alumina Australia. April, 2005.

Alcoa World Alumina Australia (2002). Wagerup Annual Environmental Report. Report provided
to Department of Environment.

Alcoa World Alumina Australia (2003a). Wagerup Ambient Air Quality Monitoring Report.

Alcoa World Alumina Australia (2003b). Wagerup Annual Environmental Report. Report provided
to Department of Environment.

Alcoa World Alumina Australia (2005a). Environmental Review and Management Programme,
Wagerup Refinery Unit Three.

Alcoa World Alumina Australia (2005b). Wagerup Refinery Unit Three Environmental Review
and Management Program – Response to Public Submissions.

Anderson, J. (1984). Between Plateau and Plain. Flexible Responses to varied Environments on
Southwestern Australia. Occasional Papers in Prehistory, Research School of Pacific Studies,
ANU, Canberra.

Archae-aus (2000). The Report of Aboriginal Archaeological Survey of the Proposed Wagerup
Residue Retention Expansion Area, Wagerup Alumina Refinery, Western Australia. Report for
Alcoa of Australia Ltd.

ATA Environmental (2003). Kemerton Power Station Referral – Supporting Documentation.
Volume 1.

Australian Greenhouse Office (AGO) (2000). Program Guidelines – Generator Efficiency
Standards. July 2000.

Australian Greenhouse Office (AGO) (2004). AGO Factors and Methods Workbook. August 2004.

Beard, J.S. (1979). The Vegetation of the Pinjarra area, Western Australia and Explanatory
Memoir. 1:250 000. Vegmap Publications, Perth.

Beard, J. S. (1980). A New Phytogeographic Map of Western Australia. Western Australia
Herbarium Notes. Number 3: 37-58.



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Beard, J.S. (1981). Vegetation Survey of Western Australia, Swan Explanatory Notes to Sheet 7.
University of Western Australia Press, Perth.

Beard, J.S. (1990). Plant Life of Western Australia. Kangaroo Press, NSW.

CSIRO Division of Atmospheric Research, Galbally, Ian., Luthar, Ashok., Hibberd, Mark., Hurley,
Peter and Physick, Bill. (2005). Meterological and Dispersion Modelling for Wagerup using
TAPM, Phase 3B: HRA Concentration Modelling, Expanded Refinery Scenario. Aspendale Vic.
CSIRO DAR Report C/0986, Feb 2005.

Department of Environment (DoE) (2000). Air Quality and Air Pollution Modelling Guidance
Notes.
(http://portal.environment.wa.gov.au/pls/portal/docs/PAGE/DOE_ADMIN/GUIDELINE_REPOSI
TORY/MODEL_GUIDE.PDF).

Environmental Management and Research Consultants (EMRC) (2003). A Fauna Survey of Alcoa
and adjacent land near the Wagerup Alumina Refinery – Results of the 2002 Survey. November
2003.

ENVIRON (2002). Pinjarra Cogeneration Project – Environmental Referral. Report prepared for
Alinta Cogeneration (Alcoa Pinjarra) Pty Ltd. December 2002.

ENVIRON (2005). Personal Communication. Email from Ian Yull dated 13th December 2005.

Environmental Protection Authority (EPA) (1999a). Management of Surface Run-off from
Industrial and Commercial Sites, Draft Guidance Statement No. 26. March 1999.

Environmental Protection Authority (EPA) (1999b). Developing a Statewide Air Quality
Environmental Protection Policy. June 1999.

Environmental Protection Authority (EPA) (2000a). Guidance Statement for Emissions of Oxides
of Nitrogen from Gas Turbines, Guidance for the Assessment of Environmental Factors No. 15,
Perth, Western Australia, May 2000.

Environmental Protection Authority (EPA) (2000b). Guidance for Risk Assessment and
Management: Offsite Individual Risk from Hazardous Industrial Plant, Guidance for the
Assessment of Environmental Factors No. 2. Perth, Western Australia, July 2000.

Environmental Protection Authority (EPA) (2002). Guidance Statement for Minimising
Greenhouse Gas Emissions, Guidance for the Assessment of Environmental Factors No. 12. Perth,
Western Australia, October 2002.

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Environmental Protection Authority (EPA) (2004). Principles of Environmental Protection.
Position Statement No. 7. August 2004.

Environmental Protection Authority (EPA) (2006). Wagerup Alumina Refinery – Increase in
Production to 4.7 Mtpa; and Wagerup Cogeneration Plant. Bulletin 1215. January 2006.

Fermco Pty Ltd (1982). Baseline Survey of Lichens and Higher Plants, Wagerup, WA. An
unpublished report prepared for Alcoa of Australia Limited in June 1982.

Heddle, E. M., Loneragan, O. W. and Havel, J. J. (1980). Vegetation Complexes of the Darling
System, Western Australia. In: Atlas of Natural Resources Darling System Western Australia.
Department of Conservation and Land Management, Western Australia.

Katestone Environmental (2005). Review of Alinta Wagerup Cogeneration Air Quality
Assessment.

Mattiske E. M. and Havel, J. J. (1998). Vegetation Complexes of the South-west Forest region of
Western Australia. Maps and report prepared as part of the Regional Forest Agreement, Western
Australia for the Department of Conservation and Land Management and Environment Australia.

Mattiske Consulting Pty Ltd (2003). Flora and Vegetation Assessment Wagerup Farms. Report
prepared for Alcoa World Alumina. May 2003.

National Environment Protection Council (2003). National Environment Protection (Ambient Air
Quality) Measure. July 2003.

Parsons Brinckerhoff/Nield Consulting (2004). Alcoa Wagerup: Review of Impacts on Waters
2003. Report prepared for Alcoa World Alumina Australia.

Peck, A.J. and Thomas, G. (1997). Wagerup Refinery: Contamination of Fill and Soil. Report for
Alcoa of Australia Limited August 1997.

Sinclair Knight Merz (2001). Wind Erosion over Future Wagerup Residue Area. Report prepared
for Alcoa Alumina Australia.

Sinclair Knight Merz (2002). Collie Power Station Expansion – Strategic Environmental Review.
Report prepared for Western Power. June 2002.

Sinclair Knight Merz (2006a). Wagerup Cogeneration Project – Air Quality Assessment. Report
prepared for Alinta Wagerup Cogeneration Pty Ltd.

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Sinclair Knight Merz (2006b). Wagerup Cogeneration Project – Air Quality Assessment –
Supplementary Air Quality Modelling. Report prepared for Alinta Wagerup Cogeneration Pty Ltd.

Strategen (2005a). Proposed New Gas Fired Co-generation Facility. Report prepared for Worsley
Alumina Pty Ltd.

SVT Engineering Consultants (2006a). Preliminary Noise Assessment for the Alinta Wagerup
Power Proposal. Report prepared for SKM.

SVT Engineering Consultants (2006b). Addendum to Noise Assessment for the Alinta Wagerup
Power Proposal. Report prepared for SKM.

Water and Rivers Commission (1998). Proposed Harvey Basin Surface Water Allocation Plan.
Water Resource Allocation and Planning series. Water and Rivers Commission, Policy and
Planning Division, Report WRAO 14.

Western Australian Planning Commission (2004). Figure 5: Peel Region Scheme Acid Sulphate
Soils.        Planning        Bulletin         Number           64.        Available  at:
http://www.planning.wa.gov.au/publications/policies/bulletins/PB64/PB64fig5.pdf

Western Power (2002). Cockburn 2 Combined Cycle Gas Turbine – Project referral to the
Environmental Protection Authority. October 2002.

Western Power (2005). Annual Report – Embracing the Future.

World Resources Institute (WRI) / World Business Council for Sustainable Development
(WBCSD) (2004). The Greenhouse Gas Protocol – A Corporate Accounting and Reporting
Standard (Revised Edition).




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