Creating a Hospitality Learning Organization: Key Issues in Developing a Learning Culture in the Hotel-working Environment Janet Choy Yat Shun BSc (Hons) International Hotel and Tourism Management HTMi Switzerland Introduction Competition is increasing and the worldwide economic downturn has influenced many organizations. It is hard to become successful or even survive in the business’s ‘battlefield’. “What becomes critical is the extent to which a company’s knowledge base matches changing competitive conditions through learning” (Pettigrew and Whipp 1991:305 cited by Mabey et al. 1998). Therefore, in this current turbulent business environment, an organization needs to adopt “competitive, global perspectives, transformational change, and futuristic strategic planning” (Szostek 2001). Nevertheless, the changing context of human resource management and culture diversity is common factors within organizations (ibid). In order to achieve its goal, people in an organization should be willing to learn and be creative through obtaining more knowledge, skills, and insights into their industry. The significance of learning is, “…a continuous process that not only enhances existing capabilities but also leads to the development of the skills, knowledge and attitudes that prepare people for enlarged or high-level responsibilities in the future” (Armstrong 2006:560). An organization should formalize organizational learning and to create a learning organization with effective system. The core of learning organization is based on Peter Senge’s five disciplines (1994), which are personal mastery, mental models, shared vision, team learning, and system learning. Rowden (2001) explains it as “a model of strategic change in which everyone is engaged in identifying and solving problems so that the organization is continuously changing, experimenting and improving, thus increasing its capacity to grow and achieve its purpose” (ibid: 117). Hence, the organization can continue to grow and create further developments through employees continually learning and improvement. Concept of Organizational Learning “A healthy organizational learning system lends confidence to attempt new things because newness is just another learning opportunity” (Rogers 2005:1). Organizational learning is defined as a key process, which improving and correcting the actions by gaining new knowledge and skills from the organizations’ members. Harrison (2000 cited by Armstrong 2006) stated organizational learning is not just combining all the learning of individuals or groups into the organization. Moreover, organizational behaviour can be influenced by observation during the learning process. Organizational learning is a powerful tool for the organizations to increase their performance and level of quality (Rogers 2005). Relation between Individual and Organizational Learning Individual learning is a part of organizational learning. Basically, individuals are the members in the organization. “People learn all the time, and through doing so acquire knowledge, skills and insight” (Armstrong 2006:554). People in organizations have basic knowledge and skills from their previous educations or work experiences. They have a potential to have the further improvement by continually learning and correction from their mistakes. More importantly, people should learn how to learn more effectively within the organization. However, if they learn without any mutual purpose towards the organization’s goal, it becomes meaningless learning. Therefore, organization should create a positive learning environment in its members. At the same time, they should share knowledge and increase efficiency to achieve the organization’s goals. The essential parts forming the organizational learning are improvement of knowledge and creation. Furthermore, organizational learning is “a highly composite process involving increase of knowledge and improved knowledge in individuals as well as better utilization of fragmented knowledge through communication and interaction processes running in the formal and informal networks within the organization” (Gonzalez 2004:7). In order to manage the organizational learning, it is necessary to invest and develop intellectual capital of its members with the updated knowledge and skills. The organization should evaluate and measure some of the key issues such as the learning methods, outcomes, and the interaction within the organizational learning. Nevertheless, Gonzalez (2004) commented that organizational learning does not pay attention to the individual learning; even the learning theorists and instructional technologists do not sense it. Most of the organizations are not improving or failed, because they do not recognized the leverage of individuals learning which can influence the whole organization. “This peculiar disregard of the individual learning aspect is a weakness of current organizational learning” (ibid). Prange (1999) argued that individuals learn but it is not the organization that does the learning process. In fact, can an organization learn? It is a contradiction in that “learning refers to the processes of thinking and remembering that take place within an individual’s brain” (ibid). Concept of a Learning Organization “Learning is an essential ingredient if organizations are to survive; that learning at operational, policy and strategic levels needs to be conscious, continuous and integrated; management is responsible for creating an emotional climate in which all staff can learn continuously” (Garvin, 1993:543 cited by Armstrong, 2006). The learning organization is one where there is a system, structure, and process to continually increase employee’s capacity of learning that is involved at all system levels. It is necessary to balance individual with organizational needs. “It invites those with shared vision to network, enhancing the human potential in a collaborative environment” (Szostek, 2001). In order to encourage individuals learning in the organization, the first step is to create a culture of learning that “facilitates the learning of all of its members and continuously transforms itself” (Pedler et al, 1991:312 cited by Mabey et al., 1998). Employees should have creative and critical thinking. Moreover, it is important to have a spirit of flexibility and experimentation. Organizations should allow for mistakes to be made so they can learn from them. This helps to build up a culture of friendly belief and the importance of problem solving instead of blaming. For instance, “being a Virgin company’s about thinking differently and finding new ways of doing things” (Virgin Media, 2009). Virgin Company has created a positive organizational learning attitude and workplace climate for its employees. The Virgin founder Richard Branson has a favourite quote “Screw it, let’s do it” (Branson, 2006), which he allows his employees to make mistakes. Employees should learn from the mistakes and failures by try and try again, until they can achieve to the company’s goal (ibid). Moreover, he encourages people to adapt the new things that they have learned in everyday, so they can be more creativity and productivity. However, Mabey (1998) observed there is no right or success formula for each organization and they have to discover its own pathways. Therefore, organizations should have to seek their own purpose and the steps to become a learning organization. Senge (1990) argued with regard to organizations “we learn best from our experience, but we never directly experience the consequences of many of our most important decisions” (Senge, 1990:23). Organizations cannot receive any valued outcomes until they have experienced to implement a learning organization. Peter Senge’s Fifth Discipline According to Senge (2004) and Leach (2007), the core of the learning organization consists of the five key disciplines that are, personal mastery, mental models, shared vision, team learning and system thinking. Senge (2004) commented on the emphasis of how thinking and interaction influence people in organizations to feel disoriented, “it means shifting their point of orientation from outward to inward” (Senge, 2004:48). Jacobs (2008) stated that to begin integrating these disciplines; the learning organization must create various conditions, for instance, a safe and open environment, an orientation that is positive and forward-thinking, an organizational structure that encourages self-direction and self-evaluation, an atmosphere that encourages inquiry, curiosity, and reflection, not conformity. Senge (1990) commented that system thinking is the conceptual cornerstone of the fifth discipline. “It is the discipline that integrates the others, fusing them into a coherent body of theory and practice” (ibid: 12). This is illustrated in appendix 1. In order to develop system thinking, management need to understand the concept and implement it. Organizations also need to provide the right workplace atmosphere and environment. Moreover, members have the ability to manage changes effectively from seeing the whole picture of the organization. System thinking benefits the organizations. However, the disadvantage is difficult to predict the whole pattern of changes for the organization and its members. Personal mastery is the personal vision, which “the discipline of continually clarifying and deepening our personal vision, of focusing our energies, of developing patience, and of seeing reality objectively’” (Senge, 1990:7). Organizations can benefit from encouraging people to do their best in the direction of personal mastery. However, success is not guaranteed which “organizations learn only through individuals who learn. Individual learning does not guarantee organizational learning. But without it no organizational learning occurs” (ibid: 139). Therefore, organizations must guide individuals to enrich their knowledge and have continuous improvement to guide their personal vision and competence. Besides, it is important for employees to redefine their jobs and be proactive in the right conditions. Mental Models are “deeply ingrained assumptions, generalizations, or even pictures and images that influence how we understand the world and how we take action” (Senge 1990: 8). However, people are not automatically aware of their mental models and the impacts they have on their behaviour. Arango (1998) commented that many mental models are included learning organizations, and are built around the people served, the role of organization, and the nature of the activities performed by the organization. These may have a conflict or reflection between the images of the employees and the real environment, because somehow the images cannot be applied to the real world. The basic thought of shared vision in the organization is what they hope to become. The practice of shared vision involves “the skills of unearthing shared ‘pictures of the future’ that foster genuine commitment and enrolment rather than compliance” (Senge 1990:9). In order to build a shared vision, it is important to focus on the way of learning. “In mastering this discipline, leaders learn the counter-productiveness of trying to dictate a vision, no matter how heartfelt” (ibid). Organizations need to clarify their vision and image of their future, but remain open minded to benefit from the growth that occurs as the vision becomes for members. According to Senge (1990), organizations do not learn unless the individuals learn together as a team. Team learning is about group interaction, which is based on a personal mastery of a shared vision. People, or the groups, must be able to think and mutually learn in the same direction. Senge (1990) suggested that the success not only benefits the organizations, it also helps people to grow and develop more rapidly. However, it will reduce the productivity of the members maintain in the same team. The reason is the members have felt comfort in their current position. It will lead to increases the conflicts and boredom within the team. Therefore, the organization should break the teams in certain periods. Its members can meet and work with the other people, so it helps to them to come up the new ideas and become more effective in work. Transform organizational learning to a learning organization in hospitality industry “Organizational learning is a learning process and learning organization is an organizational structure based on learning” (Malhotra 1996). In order to become a successful learning organization, Yogesh (1996) stated that the key issue is the organization need to be willing to learn from the experiences in both successes and failure, and raise the ability of an organization and understanding through analysis, experimentation and observation. To implementing a learning organization into the hospitality industry, Cors (2003) commented that there are some essential features must be included within a learning organization such as a culture of learning, continuous learning at the system level, people-centred, and a spirit of flexibility. For instance, Ritz-Carlton hotel encourages its employees to learn with their extraordinary commitment (Gallo 2008). They teach their managers and supervisors to become the teachers. Each department supervisors will have thirty minutes meeting with its staffs in learning by utilizing discussion every day. They will learn the latest technology and methods to improve the quality of their performance and service (ibid). They also discuss about the current market needs and the competitive advantage. Besides learning from their ‘teachers’, the employees need to learn from their colleagues by sharing “wow stories” (ibid). “These are true stories of employee heroics that go above and beyond conventional customer service expectations” (ibid). By telling the successful experiences in the reality, the employees obtain the value of recognition of their equivalence and strengthen their customer service skill. This approach can improve the satisfaction for both customer and employee (ibid). Moreover, they have created a positive workplace climate that “Ritz-Carlton managers don't focus on what employees have done wrong but instead seek to help them improve on a given task” (ibid). This is a powerful tool to build a higher level of employees’ self-motivation and continual improvement. Benefits of being a Learning Organization in the hospitality industry “Organizational learning outcomes contribute to the development of a firm’s resource based capability” (Armstrong, 2006:540). To understand organizational learning transforms to a learning organization that helps the people in organizations become more effective and innovative. According to Pace (2002) and Gephart & Marsick e al (1996), the authors stated the most effective way to promote organizational learning is an assessment tool. “Recent investigations are developing ways to measure the impact of organizational learning on outcomes such as financial performance, waste production, continuous improvement, customer focus, and employee behaviors, satisfaction, and performance” (Cors, 2003:12). Accordingly, it helps to increase productivity and efficiency. Being a learning organization in hospitality industry, it offers “the holistic advantage of promoting competitive advantage and employee happiness at once” (Gephart, Marsick et al, 1996), which raise the competitiveness in the market. Organizations will enable to be adaptable and flexibility of managing changes. Moreover, they have the ability of agility with a faster movement in the highly competitive market. Employees can increase motivations by continuous learning. (Kaufman & Taras 2000). Limitations of a Learning Organization in the hospitality environment However, there are some disadvantages and limitations of being learning organization in the hospitality environment. Firstly, Hayek (1973 cited by Gonzalez 2004) has been strongly emphasized “the regrettable incompleteness and fragmentation of human knowledge” (ibid). Human knowledge has a limitation that people have different demands of learning and cannot learn everything. Moreover, it has limitations for the organizations, which are difficult to set a clear direction, and gives definition of learning organization for the employees. “Honouring full participation while maintaining reasonable expectations for people’s behaviour and for realistic use of organizational resources” (Cors, 2003:19). Even organizations have imagined a picture of the future, but they will not perceive the result by doing it. Therefore, this is an experiment for organizations to explore and develop a learning organization. Grieves (2008) commented organizations have a difficulties to assess its achievements which there are no authentic tools or assessment instruments for the organizations to use and measure for that. Conclusion and Recommendations In order to be successful and effective organizations, its members are necessary to be able to learn and continually learning. A good working condition and learning climate are important for the employees. Most importantly, people should share their knowledge, gain skills, and improve from their errors. Therefore, they can learn and help each other toward to achieve the organization’s goal. Learning organization can benefits organizations become more productivity, adaptability, and innovative. Besides, organizations develop a learning organization is a long-term strategy which can increase competitive advantages by increasing the ultimate human capital. Nevertheless, there are some limitations that influence to sustainable success of any learning organization. The factors are the limitations of human knowledge and organization. People have limited capacity of knowledge. Moreover, some people prefer to work with their own style and they consider themselves are talented or skilled enough. Therefore, they are not willing to learn and adapt the new things. It is a challenge for organizations to create a learning organization involves all its members. Furthermore, organizations cannot provide any concrete definition to explain to its members. It also lack of tools or methods to measure the achievement and performance in a learning organization. If any organizations in the hospitality industry want to become a learning organization, I recommend the organizations can provides some guidelines in the handbook that give the clear and sufficient guidance for its member. The organizations also should encourage them to learn and build their learning habits through some activities such as team discussion, case study, or brainstorming. It helps its members to be more creative and critical thinking, which also improve their self-motivation and develop teamwork. References: Arango, J. B. 1998. Helping non profits become more effective. U.S.A: Algodones Associates Inc. Armstrong, M. 2006. A Handbook of Human Resource Management Practice. 10th ed. London: Kogan Page Limited. Bransons, R. 2006. Screw it, let’s do it: Lessons in life. UK: Virgin books. Cors, R. 2003. What is a Learning Organization? Reflections on the Literature and Practitioner Perspectives. USA: University of Wisconsin-Madison. Gallo, C. 2008. Employee Motivation the Ritz-Carlton Way. Business Week [online] February. Available from: http://www.businessweek.com/smallbiz/content/feb2008/sb20080229_34749 0.htm [Accessed 20 October 2009]. Gephart, M. A., V. J. Marsick, et al. 1996. "Learning Organizations Come Alive." Training &Development: 35-45. Gonzalez, J. 2004. Merging Organizational Learning with Learning Theory- A Task for the 21st Century? Norway: Agder University College. Grieves, J., 2008. Why we should abandon the idea of the learning organization. Emerald [Online] 15 (6) Available from: http://www.emeraldinsight.com/Insight/ViewContentServlet?contentType=Arti cle&Filename=Published/EmeraldFullTextArticle/Articles/1190150604.html [Accessed 1 October 2009]. Jacobs, M., 2008. Creating Learning Organizations: Integrating the Five Disciplines. System in SYNC [Online] Available from: http://www.systemsinsync.com/pdfs/Integrating%20Disciplines.pdf [Accessed 12 September 2009]. Kaufman, B. E. & Taras, D. G. 2000. Nonunion Employee Representation: History, Contemporary Practice, and Policy. USA: M. E. Sharpe, Inc. Leach, C. 2007. Senge’s five disciplines. Self-directed Learning Education [online] Available from: http://caleach.com/tutorial/Module_2/GS_Overview.htm [Accessed 18 September 2009]. Prange, C. 1999. ‘Organizational learning – desperately seeking theory?’ in Easterby-Smith, M. Araujo, L. and Burgoyne J. (eds.) Organizational Learning and the Learning Organization. London: Sage. Mabey, C., Salaman, G. & Storey, J., 1998. Human Resource Management – A Strategic Introduction, 2nd ed. UK: Blackwell Publishing. Malhotra, Y. 1996. Organizational Learning and Learning Organizations: An Overview. [Online] Available from: http://www.brint.com/papers/orglrng.htm [Accessed 2 October 2009]. Senge, P. M. 1990. The Fifth Discipline: The Art and Practice of the Learning Organisation. New York: Doubleday. Senge, P. et. al. 1994. The Fifth Discipline Fieldbook: Strategies and Tools for Building a Learning Organization. USA: Currency and Doubleday. Senge, P. M. 1990. Five Disciplines. 12 Manage [Online] Available from: http://www.12manage.com/methods_senge_five_disciplines.html# [Accessed 2 October 2009]. Szostek, L. 2001. Create the Learning Organization. [Online] Available from: http://www.businessknowhow.com/manage/learningorg.htm [Accessed 10 September 2009]. Rogers, E. 2005. The Architecture for Building a Learning Organization at Goddard. NASA [online] Available from: http://ses.gsfc.nasa.gov/ses_data_2005/051101_Rogers_Abstract.htm [Accessed 20 October 2009]. Rowden R.W. 2001. The Learning Organisation & Strategic Change. S.A.M. Advanced Management Journal, 66 (3) Summer, pp. 117. Virgin Media. 2009. About us: Look closer. Virgin Corporation [online] Available from: http://careers.virginmedia.com/about/index.htm [Accessed 22 October 2009]. Yogesh, M. 1996. Organizational learning and learning organizations: An overview. Brint [online] Available from: http://www.brint.com/papers/orglrng.htm [Accessed 2 October 2009]. Appendix: Appendix 1: Fifth discipline Source: Senge, P. 1990. Learning organization.
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