Dictionary of Psychological Testing_ Assessment and Treatment by alserag

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									Dictionary of Psychological Testing,
     Assessment and Treatment
by the same author

The Psychology of Ageing
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   Dictionary of Psychological
Testing, Assessment and Treatment
               Second Edition

         Ian Stuart-Hamilton

         Jessica Kingsley Publishers
          London and Philadelphia
                                First edition published in 1995
                              Paperback edition published in 1996

                                 This edition published in 2007
                                 by Jessica Kingsley Publishers
                                     116 Pentonville Road
                                      London N1 9JB, UK
                                  400 Market Street, Suite 400
                                 Philadelphia, PA 19106, USA


                      Copyright © Ian Stuart-Hamilton 1995, 1996, 2007

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                    Library of Congress Cataloging in Publication Data
 Stuart-Hamilton, Ian.
   Dictionary of psychological testing, assessment, and treatment / Ian Stuart-Hamilton. -- 2nd ed.
        p. cm.
   ISBN-13: 978-1-84310-494-0 (pb : alk. paper) 1. Psychological tests--Dictionaries.
   2. Psychometrics--Dictionaries. 3. Psychotherapy--Dictionaries. I. Title.
  BF176.S78 2007

                     British Library Cataloguing in Publication Data
            A CIP catalogue record for this book is available from the British Library

                                   ISBN 978 1 84310 494 0
                              ISBN pdf eBook: 978 1 84642 657 5

                             Printed and bound in Great Britain by
                           Athenaeum Press, Gateshead, Tyne and Wear
To the present and future members of the
     Sunley Appreciation Society*

                            * Well, some of them, anyway…
           Introduction to the First Edition
This dictionary is intended as a guide to the basic tools of the trade of psychology
– namely, the commonly-used (and some of the less commonly-used) tests, exper-
imental methods and analyses, and therapies. A quick glance through the book
will show that some definitions get much lengthier definitions than others. I have
intentionally pitched definitions at the likely readership. Thus, in writing the
fairly basic definitions (e.g. of some statistical tests), I have assumed that the
reader is a newcomer to the subject, and hence I have provided a greater depth of
information. For definitions of more complex matters, the immediate definition is
aimed at a reader with some background knowledge (although use of the
cross-referencing allows a less experienced reader to retrace his or her steps for
greater levels of explanation).
     I have intentionally not included every test (statistical or psychological)
known to humankind, because there simply wasn’t room (unless there is genu-
inely a demand for compact dictionaries the size of the London A-Z telephone
directory). When one considers that approximately 20,000 new tests are devised
each year (most to be reported in one journal article and then never seen again),
the reader will appreciate why I have chosen only those which appear to be most
frequently mentioned in the literature. If I have inadvertently omitted a test which
a reader feels I should have included, then if they write to me, I will be happy to
consider it for inclusion in any future edition of this dictionary.
     Many of the dictionary entries are cross-referenced. This has the advantage,
that by judiciously using this facility, the reader should be able to gain at least an
overview of the appropriate subject area. However, a caveat to this is needed. Dic-
tionary definitions, no matter how lengthy, are intended solely as guides and
primers – they are not a substitute for reading a textbook or journal article, which
can provide a deeper, if less immediately accessible level of understanding than a
dictionary can ever hope to do.
     I finish with the traditional plea to dictionary readers to send me details of
omitted definitions.
                                                           Dr Ian Stuart-Hamilton,
                                                   Principal Lecturer in Psychology,
                                              Worcester College of Higher Education
     Introduction to the Paperback Edition
This new paperback edition gives me an opportunity to spruce up a few of the
existing definitions and to add a few entries which slipped through the net. It also
gives me the chance to respond to a couple of enquiries I received about the
hardback edition of this text. First, it will not have escaped the reader’s notice that
there is no Bibliography in this book. Why is this so? This can be best explained
in the following way: Q: why will someone be looking up a term or the name of a
test in a dictionary? A: because they have read about the term or test in a book or
article – which will have a bibliography. Not only would a list of references be super-
fluous, but it would also at least double the length of the book. The second point
is that descriptions of some of the tests in this book are very brief. There are two
reasons for this. The first is that usually all the information someone wants is what
the test is assessing – details can be burdensome and will militate against under-
standing. The second reason is that this dictionary and its companion volumes are
textbooks which are going to be readily available, inter alia, to the general public
and undergraduates – in other words, not fully trained psychologists. Without
being pompous about this, I feel a certain moral responsibility not to divulge lots
of details of tests to the occasional reader who may be looking up a definition to
see what sort of test they are about to be given or have been given during, for
example, a clinical examination or selection procedure. Where tests are described
in greater depth, it is because the details are already widely available in textbooks.
If people want to know lots of details of tests, then they are welcome to consult
the Mental Measurements Yearbooks – that is their purpose. However, if people want
to understand the terms used in books such as the MMYs, then they may well
need a dictionary such as this one – that is its purpose.
     I would like to take this opportunity once again to thank the staff of Jessica
Kingsley Publishers for their invaluable support in the preparation of these dic-
tionaries, and to my wife for putting up with my behaviour whilst writing them.
                                                           Dr Ian Stuart-Hamilton,
                                                   Principal Lecturer in Psychology,
                                              Worcester College of Higher Education

        Introduction to the Second Edition
Ten years have passed since the first edition of this dictionary appeared (though
in the interim there has been a revised edition). For the new edition I have taken
the opportunity to revise some of the existing definitions and add new ones. In
total, about 10 per cent of the book is new.
     As with the previous edition, I have intentionally only given the briefest of
descriptions of tests. To quote from the introduction to the revised edition:
      if people want to know lots of details of tests, then they are welcome to
     consult the Mental Measurements Yearbooks – that is their purpose. However, if
     people want to understand the terms used in books such as the MMYs, then
     they may well need a dictionary such as this one – that is its purpose.
The intention of this book has always been to provide a reader stuck on a techni-
cal phrase in a book or journal paper with just enough information to allow them
to carry on with their reading. No dictionary (unless it offers several paragraphs
of information on each entry, in which case it’s no longer a dictionary of course)
can realistically hope to do more. For many readers (e.g. professionals and
students from outside psychology) this may in any case be all they require or need
to know. I have only tended to provide lengthier definitions when some technical
background information is required to make any sense at all of the term in
question. I have also intentionally restricted the number of entries on types of test
in use. As noted in the introduction to the first edition, some 20,000 new tests are
created each year, and there is no realistic chance of covering all of them in a
compact space. All I can say is that I hope I have covered the frequently used tests.
     In a similar vein, I have attempted to place pragmatic limits on entries on
other topics. Thus, statistical terms used in typical university syllabuses are
included, as are tests commonly available in computer packages and cited in psy-
chology journals and similar publications. Measures rarely used in psychological
research have tended to get rather shorter shrift. The same applies to therapies.
     As usual, I shall be delighted to hear from readers. I must however offer an
apology to several people who were kind enough to write in with suggestions for
new definitions and amendments after the first edition was published. I faithfully
kept a copy of this correspondence with the intention of incorporating it into the


next edition. However, over the last decade I have moved houses twice and indeed
changed not only offices but universities. Somewhere along the line, the corre-
spondence was lost. All I can do is to say sorry – an author never willingly tries to
antagonize their readers!
                                                    Professor Ian Stuart-Hamilton,
                                    Faculty Head of Research and External Activity,
                                                          University of Glamorgan
                             Guide to Use
Cross-references are in italics. Four caveats are required, arising from a desire to
avoid unnecessary repetition or superfluous entries and definitions.

(1) Very occasionally, italicized words’ entries are in a slightly different grammat-
ical inflexion (e.g. feral children may actually be entered as feral child). In
addition, I have deliberately not included every spelling variant or semantic per-
mutation (e.g. ‘water therapy’ would not be included if ‘water treatment’ already
had an entry) unless there is a danger of misunderstanding.

(2) Within a definition, an italicized word in bold type (e.g. definition rather than
definition) indicates that the term is fully defined within the entry being read.
The word’s own entry will simply refer the reader back to this definition.

(3) An entry followed only by a word or phrase in italics indicates a synonym,
which should be consulted for the full definition. It should not be supposed that
the main entry necessarily denotes the best phrase – in many instances, use of
terms is a matter of personal taste.

(4) Words linked by a hyphen are treated as if there is a space between them, and
numbers are entered as if they were given their full spelling.

There are relatively few inverted headings – entries are usually given the word
order they have in normal text. Therefore, if the reader looks up ‘deep play’, he or
she finds deep play, not an irritating note to see play, deep. If the reader should be
aware of related terms, then a cross-reference is provided. Where an inverted
heading has been used, it is for clear logical reasons. On rare occasions, the reader
may be sent on a trip through two or three definitions before gaining the infor-
mation he or she wants. I apologize in advance, but assure the reader that using
other methods, these occasions would be more frequent.

                                                           ABSOLUTE DEVIATION / 15

A                                                ment. E.g. A=measure of behaviour
                                                 (e.g. biting nurses); B=therapeutic
A agreeableness.                                 intervention (e.g. course of therapy).
a- As a prefix in descriptions of disability   abasia A somatoform disorder in which the
  see dys-.                                      patient is unable to walk.
a posteriori test post hoc test.               Abbe criterion Measure of level of ran-
                                                domness in a series of events occurring
a priori test Any method of assessing a         over time.
  planned comparison. See post hoc test.
                                               ABC Movement Assessment Battery for
a priori validity Whether, by the ‘laws’        Children.
  of common sense, a test will measure
  what it claims.                              ABC approach The study of a behaviour
                                                (B) in terms of its antecedents (A) and
A scale A measure of ability to accept          its effects (C). The model is particularly
  ambiguity.                                    used in rational-emotive therapy and
A-state state anxiety.                          behaviour therapy.
A-trait trait anxiety.                         abducens cranial nerve cranial nerve
                                                 number VI. Concerned with the eye
A-S scale A measure of strength of anti-         muscles. Compare with trochlear cranial
  Semitic opinions.                              nerve and oculomotor cranial nerve.
A-type personality Type A personality.         abduction Explaining what is known.
AA Alcoholics Anonymous.                       ability grouping Group of subjects
AAD Academic Achievement Discrepancy.            united by having a similar level of abil-
                                                 ity on a particular measure.
AAI acute alcoholic intoxication.
                                               ability test The term is a confusing one –
AAMD American Association for Mental
                                                 some researchers use it synonymously
                                                 with achievement test, others with aptitude
AAMD Adaptive Behaviour Scale                    test. Since the everyday use of the word
 Adaptive Behaviour Scale.                       ‘ability’ is similarly ambiguous, it is a
                                                 term best avoided.
AAMI age associated memory impairment.
                                               ablation surgical removal.
AAT Achievement Anxiety Test.
                                               abreaction A release of emotion. Usually
AATP Alcohol Assessment and Treatment
                                                 the term denotes such a release during a
                                                 therapeutic session which has tapped
AB design Shorthand for the stages in an         the root of an underlying problem. A
 experimental design. ‘AB’ denotes that          feeling of catharsis may accompany it.
 there are two separate phases. The
                                               ABS Adaptive Behaviour Scale.
 shorthand can of course be applied to
 other designs. E.g. ‘ABC’ indicates 3         ABS-SE Adaptive Behaviour Scale – School
 separate stages.                               Edition.
ABA design Experimental design in              abscissa X axis.
 which the first stage of the experiment
                                               absolute deviation The size of the dif-
 is followed by a second stage before the
                                                 ference (ignoring the plus or minus
 first stage is repeated. The method is
 often used to assess the effect of a treat-

  sign) between a particular value and a         means a rather inferior method of
  value being used as a point of reference.      thinking, in which the subject (an as yet
                                                 undeveloped young child) is restricted
absolute difference The size of the dif-
                                                 only to being able to think about what
  ference (ignoring the plus or minus
                                                 s/he can see – genuine abstraction of
  sign) between two variables.
                                                 thought is held to be beyond him/her.
absolute error See true scores theory.
                                               absurdity test Test (usually of intelli-
absolute frequency The number of                 gence) in which the subject must iden-
  times an event actually occurs (as op-         tify what is wrong with an illogical
  posed to e.g. the proportion of times on       statement or picture.
  which it occurs relative to other events).
                                               abulia profound indecisiveness.
absolute rating Rating made without
                                               abuse The misuse of a position of power
  comparison with other stimuli.
                                                 and/or responsibility in order to cause
absolute risk The probability of having          suffering. Typically divided into three
  a particular disease within a stated time      types: physical (suffering and/or injury
  period. Compare this with relative risk,       by means of e.g. blows or poisoning);
  the differences in probability of having       sexual (forcing an unwilling partner to
  a particular disease across different          engage in sexual activity or to persuade
  groups (e.g. risk of a heart attack in         or command a partner to participate
  smokers and non-smokers).                      when they are incapable of making
absolute threshold See threshold.                an informed decision); and emotional
                                                 (use of behavioural measures to inflict
absolute value The value of a number             suffering whether through action or
  regardless of whether it is positive or        neglect). The terms are often applied to
  negative (e.g. the absolute values of 2        cases of child abuse, but can denote
  and –2 are identical). Usually denoted         abuse in any situation where the abused
  by vertical lines around the number in         is in a position of weakness (e.g. elderly
  question (i.e. |x|).                           frail patients).
absolute zero true zero (see ratio scale).     ABX design Experimental design in
absorbing barrier (1) See random walk.          which the subject is presented with
  (2) absorbing state.                          three stimuli and must decide if one of
                                                them (‘X’) is the same as ‘A’ or ‘B’.
absorbing state A state in some types of
  stochastic sequences which once reached      AC assessment centre.
  cannot be escaped.                           ac- The prefix is often used interchange-
abstinence syndrome withdrawal.                  ably with ak-. A sought-for word may
                                                 be entered with an ak- prefix.
abstract intelligence (1) The ability to
  process abstract concepts. This is con-      Academic Achievement Discrepancy
  trasted with concrete intelligence – the      (AAD) A measure of level of scholastic
  ability to deal with practical problems       underachievement.
  and ‘real-life’ situations. (2) In some      acalculia A profound failure of arithme-
  theories of psychological development,         tic skills.
  particularly those of, or influenced by,
  Jean Piaget, the term ‘abstract intelli-     acanthaesthesia A hallucination in which
  gence’ has much the same meaning as            the patient has the sensation of suffer-
  above. However, ‘concrete intelligence’        ing pin pricks.
                                                                  ACQUIESCENCE / 17

acarophobia A phobia of small animals         achievement age The age at which the
  or objects.                                   average subject (usually a child) scores at
                                                a particular level on an achievement test.
acatamathaesia A profound failure of
                                                E.g., if the child’s scores have an appre-
                                                ciably higher achievement age than the
acataphasia A profound inability to con-        child’s actual age, then s/he is consid-
  struct grammatical and/or meaningful          ered to be bright for his/her years.
                                              Achievement Anxiety Test (AAT)
acathisia A profound and uncontrollable        Measure assessing the degree to which
  restlessness and agitation.                  anxiety enhances an individual’s per-
accelerated test Test that exaggerates         formance (the ‘facilitation scale’) and
  and/or speeds up conditions so that          hinders it (the ‘debilitating scale’).
  the long-term effects of a process can be   achievement motivation level of
  seen within a practicable length of time.     ambition.
  Calculating how a process will perform
                                              achievement need need for achievement.
  in normal conditions from such data can
  be problematic.                             achievement quotient Calculated as for
                                                an intelligence quotient, except using ach-
acceptance error Type II error.
                                                ievement age rather than mental age.
accidental sample Sample in which the
                                              achievement test A measure of what the
  items and/or participants are gathered
                                                subject is currently capable of (e.g. a
  on an ad hoc basis, or at least with no
                                                child’s scholastic attainment). Compare
  clear rationale (i.e. there is no attempt
                                                with aptitude test, and see achievement age.
  to ensure that they are truly randomly
  selected). See opportunistic sampling.      achluophobia A phobia of the dark.
account analysis Analysis of subjects’        achromatopsia A disorder of visual per-
  verbal accounts of their thoughts,            ception, in which everything is seen in
  behaviours, etc.                              shades of grey (or more rarely, a single
accuracy test Any test in which the ac-
  curacy of the answers, rather than time     ACL Adjective Checklist.
  taken to answer, is of prime importance.
                                              acmaesthesia An abnormal perception of
ACE test American Council on Education          what would normally be considered
 test.                                          painful stimulation purely in terms of
                                                the stimulation, and without any feeling
acenaesthesia An absence of feeling of
                                                of pain. E.g. being squeezed very hard
                                                would feel like strong pressure, with no
ACER Tests Set of tests of basic skills         pain.
 pertinent to engineering.
                                              acoasm A hallucination of a formless
acerophobia A phobia of sourness.               noise.
acetylcholine Form of neurotransmitter.       acoria gluttony.
ACF Microcog – Assessment of Cognitive        acousma acoasm.
                                              acousticophobia A phobia of noise.
Ach acetylcholine.
                                              acquiescence acquiescent responding.

acquiescent responding Habitually                  ACTH adrenocorticotrophic hormone.
  agreeing with the semantic direction of
                                                   acting out (1) A characteristic of a pa-
  questions, regardless of what the state-
                                                     tient’s behaviour which reveals a key
  ment is arguing. E.g. in answer to the
                                                     aspect of his/her problem but which
  questions ‘do you agree with hanging?’
                                                     may not be a direct manifestation of the
  and ‘is capital punishment a bad idea?’,
                                                     problem (e.g. being hostile to a particu-
  the subject would answer ‘yes’ on both
                                                     lar therapist because s/he reminds the
                                                     patient of his/her parents). (2) A
acquiescent response set acquiescent                 sudden outburst of virtually uncontrol-
  responding.                                        lable behaviour.
acquired aphasia See aphasia.                      action research (1) The evaluation of a
                                                     situation (usually connected with the
acquired dysgraphia A profound diffi-
                                                     workplace), the introduction of a
  culty in spelling resulting from brain
                                                     change (hoped to be an improving one),
                                                     and the evaluation of the effects of the
acquired dyslexia A profound difficulty              change. The process can be repeated –
  in reading resulting from brain damage.            i.e. having seen the effects of the change,
  This takes various forms, some of which            further changes may be introduced, and
  resemble developmental dyslexics or chil-          their effects evaluated (these changes
  dren learning to read (see phonological            can lead to further changes, etc.). (2)
  dyslexia and surface dyslexia), and one            Research in which the experimenter is
  form (demented dyslexia) is usually associ-        also one of the subjects (typically, in a
  ated with dementia. See attentional                study of social behaviour). (3) Research
  dyslexia, deep dyslexia, direct dyslexia, pho-     on an active process.
  nological dyslexia, surface dyslexia and
                                                   action tremor Trembling during an
  contrast with alexia.
                                                     intended movement.
acrasia A profound absence of self-disci-
                                                   activating event An event which can be
                                                     identified as the trigger for a particular
acroaesthesia Heightened sensation in                behaviour.
  the extremities of the body.
                                                   active therapy General term for any ther-
acroanaesthesia Reduction in sensation               apeutic technique in which the therapist
  in the extremities of the body. Com-               directly offers advice, rather than guiding
  plete loss of sensation is acropara-               the patient’s own thoughts. In contrast,
  esthesia.                                          passive therapy seeks to give as few overt
acrocinesia excessive movement.                      instructions as possible.

acroparaesthesia See acroanaesthesia.              activities of daily living assessment of
                                                     daily living.
acrophobia See phobia.
                                                   activity dimension See semantic differen-
ACS Analysis of Coping Style.                        tial technique.
act psychology School of psychological             activity inventory A catalogue of ac-
  thought active in the late nineteenth              tions performed in a particular task.
  century, which concentrated on the
  totality of the mental experience and the        activity scheduling The division of
  act of thinking, rather than on the sub-           time into a series of activities, so that
  processes of thought.                              the person is aware of what s/he should
                                                                       ADDICTION / 19

  be doing at particular points of the day,      ability of long-stay patients to adjust to
  week, etc.                                     the ‘real world’ upon release.
actor-observer bias The tendency for an        adaptation syndrome Physical reaction
  observer to exaggerate the role of the         (principally hormonal) to extreme stress.
  actor’s own personality in causing a
                                               adapted child See transactional analysis.
  particular sequence of events, and for
  the actor to exaggerate the importance       adaptive behaviour The degree to which
  of the particular situation.                   an individual copes with society. Impor-
                                                 tant in judging degree of mental retarda-
actual illness A mental illness which has
                                                 tion when conventional IQ tests might
  a physical cause.
                                                 be inappropriate (e.g. in some mentally
actualizing tendency The drive towards           retarded members of an ethnic minority
  self-actualization.                            with poor command of the majority
actualizing therapy Therapeutic process
  which emphasizes self-actualization as the   Adaptive Behaviour Scale (ABS)
  primary goal, rather than dealing with        Rating scale, devised by the AAMD, for
  specific problems of which the patient        assessing the degree to which a mentally
  may complain.                                 retarded person can adapt into the com-
                                                munity. Can be divided into three sub-
acuity (vision) The ability to focus on
                                                scales – measuring how far the subject is
  distant objects/fine detail.
                                                self-sufficient in looking after him/
aculalia garbled speech.                        herself, how well s/he fits into the
acute (1) Lasting a short time and/or           community, and how firmly s/he under-
  sudden: contrast with chronic. (2) Very       stands the concept of social norms and
  severe/debilitating.                          responsibility.

acute alcoholic intoxication (AAI)             Adaptive Behaviour Scale – School
  Short-lived but severe mental and             Edition (ABS-SE) Version of the
  physical incapacitation resulting from        Adaptive Behaviour Scale specifically
  over-consumption of alcoholic bever-          designed for mentally retarded partici-
  ages.                                         pants of school age.

acute confusional state delirium.              adaptive test Test whose structure is based
                                                 upon the answers given to earlier ques-
acute post-traumatic stress disorder             tions.
  See post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD).
                                               ADC AIDS dementia complex.
acute stress disorder See post-traumatic
  stress disorder (PTSD).                      ADD attentional deficit disorder.

acute tolerance tachyphylaxis.                 ADD-H attentional deficit disorder with
AD Alzheimer’s Disease.
                                               addiction Psychological and/or physio-
AD-MID A dementia in which the patient           logical dependency on a drug or other
 displays symptoms of dementia of the Alz-       (usually pleasure-giving) substance or
 heimer type and multi-infarct dementia          event. Common addictions include
 simultaneously.                                 illegal drugs (drug addiction), alcohol,
adaptation (1) Adjustment to stimulation         tobacco, and gambling. If the addiction
  and/or the environment. (2) Hence, the         is purely governed by a psycho-
                                                 logical drive, then it is known as a

  psychological addiction, or psychologi-          adjustment disorder A profound
  cal dependency. If the patient’s bodily            distress resulting from a failure to cope
  mechanisms require the drug (i.e. if               with a stressful event or drastic change
  s/he feels physically ill if the drug is           in circumstances.
  withdrawn), then the phenomenon is
                                                   adjustment inventory Name for any
  called physiological addiction or sub-
                                                     measures of how well the subject has
  stance dependence (note that there may be
                                                     adjusted to (i.e. is in harmony with)
  a psychological drive as well).
                                                     his/her environment.
Addison’s disease Organic affective
                                                   adjuvent therapy Supporting therapeu-
 syndrome caused by a deficiency of cor-
                                                     tic techniques given in addition to the
 tisone, and characterized by tiredness
                                                     principal form of therapy.
 and depression. See Cushing’s syndrome.
                                                   ADL assessment of daily living.
additive interaction See interaction.
                                                   Adlerian theory/therapy individual
additive scale interval scale.
ADEPT Adult Development and Enrichment
                                                   AD-MID A dementia in which the patient
                                                    displays symptoms of dementia of the
ADHD Attention deficit hyperactivity                Alzheimer type and multi-infarct dementia
 disorder, a.k.a. ADD-H.                            simultaneously.
adiadochokinesis An inability to execute           adrenaline Chemical which can act as
  repetitive actions, usually caused by damage       both a hormone and a neurotransmitter,
  to the cerebellum. Impaired ability to execute     and which is involved in ‘fright, flight
  repetitive actions is known as dysdiadoc-          and fight’ – namely, it raises metabolic,
  bokinesis.                                         heart and breathing rates and generally
                                                     prepares the body for more energetic
adipsia A profoundly low drive to drink
  (any fluids).
                                                   adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH)
Adjective Checklist (ACL) List of 300
                                                     Hormone which stimulates the release
 adjectives, out of which the subject
                                                     of adrenaline.
 selects those which s/he feels most
 apply to him/herself. Yields an impres-           adrenogenital syndrome Premature
 sive (if unwieldy) 37 scales of personal-           sexual development caused by an
 ity measurement.                                    over-active adrenal gland.
adjunctive behaviour Inappropriate                 adult children Grown up sons and
  behaviour reinforced by events result-             daughters; usually the term more spe-
  ing from that behaviour.                           cifically refers to adults who experience
                                                     problems as a result of events which
adjusted correlation (radj) Mathemati-
                                                     occurred during their childhood (e.g.
  cally adjusted value of the correlation
                                                     ‘adult children of abusing parents’).
  coefficient that controls for potential
  biasing in small samples.                        Adult Development and Enrichment
                                                    Programme (ADEPT) A training
adjusted mean mean adjusted in value to
                                                    programme for older people.
  account for the effects of a covariate.
                                                   adult ego state See transactional analysis.
adjusted R2 Mathematically adjusted
  value of R 2 designed to compensate for          adult offspring adult children.
  measurement errors when the data set
  being analysed is small.
                                                                        AGE NORM / 21

adult survivors survivors (definition 2)        affective psychosis psychosis in which a
  who are adults, who suffered a trau-            major symptom is a gross disturbance
  matic event (e.g. sexual abuse) as              of affect.
                                                afferent (neurons) Carrying signals
Advanced Progressive Matrices                     from the peripheral nervous system to the
 (APM) See Raven’s Progressive Matrices.          central nervous system. See efferent.
adventitious resulting from injury.             affiliation motivation A drive to
                                                  belong to a group, form friendships,
adventitious deafness Deafness result-
  ing from injury.
                                                affiliation need (nAff ) The need to
advocacy group Group representing the
                                                  belong to a group, family, etc.
  case for a particular cause. In the context
  of this dictionary, advocacy groups           affirming the consequent Error of logic
  commonly encountered are those repre-           in which it is assumed that because
  senting the interests of patients with a        event y can be caused by event x, then
  particular condition.                           the existence or truth of y proves the
                                                  existence or truth of x.
aeroacrophobia A phobia of flying.
                                                AG age group.
aerophagia ‘gulping’ in air.
                                                age associated memory impairment
aerophobia A phobia of wind and
                                                  (AAMI) Normal memory decline asso-
                                                  ciated with old age.
aetiological validity The concept that
                                                age cohort A group of people born and
  a patient possessing a particular set of
                                                  raised in the same period of time/
  symptoms must be suffering from a par-
                                                  history. Generally, the age range of such
  ticular disease, because other patients
                                                  a group increases the older its average
  known to suffer from the same disease
                                                  age. E.g. an acceptable grouping of
  possess the same set of symptoms. See
                                                  newborn babies would not include a
                                                  three-month-old; a group of year-old
aetiology (1) The study of causes (e.g. of        babies would not include a 5- year-old,
  disease). (2) cause(s) (e.g. of disease).       but a group of ‘old’ subjects could
AFF auditory flutter fusion.                      have a 20-year age range of 60–80-
affect emotion.
                                                age-equivalent scale Test scores
affectionless psychopathy Disorder                expressed in terms of the proportions
  characterized by an absence of emo-             of an age group who typically possess
  tional responses and disregard for other        them, enabling the assessment of whe-
  people’s emotions.                              ther a person is advanced or retarded for
affective bridge A link made between              their age.
  emotional states on different occasions.      age-grade scale Test scores expressed in
affective disorders General term for a            terms of the school year/grade in
  group of illnesses whose principal              which they are usually found.
  symptom is a severe disturbance in emo-       age norm The mean score for a given age
  tional state. Principal examples are            group, and hence the score one would
  depression and mania.                           expect an average person of that age
affective flattening flat affect.                 group to possess.

age normative effect A factor which              agoraphobia See phobia.
  influences the majority of people at the
                                                 agrammatism A profound failure of
  same point in their lives.
age scale age-equivalent scale.
                                                 agraphia A complete failure to write/
age score mental age.                              spell. See dysgraphia.
AGECAT A computerized package for                agreeableness (A) Personality trait (one
 assessing the mental state of elderly             of the ‘Big Five’) measuring the degree
 patients.                                         to which the subject is prepared to ‘go
                                                   along with’ a situation. Accordingly,
ageusia loss of taste.
                                                   the trait has extremes of gullibility and
aggregate data Data about a group of               cynicism.
  items, people or events which have
                                                 agreement coefficient item reliability.
  something in common (e.g. all aard-
  varks called Kevin, sandwiches with            agricultural psychology Study of psy-
  vegan fillings).                                 chological aspects of farming and the
                                                   rural lifestyle.
aggression An intent to cause harm,
  aggressive socialized conduct disorder         agrypnia insomnia.
  antisocial personality disorder in which the
                                                 agyiophobia A phobia of streets.
  patient is also capable of caring behav-
  iour.                                          AH intelligence tests A collection of
                                                  fluid intelligence tests devised by Alice
agitated depression depression accompa-
                                                  Heim (hence the name). The tests are
  nied by extreme levels of physical agi-
                                                  available in several versions, from AH1
                                                  (the easiest) to AH6 (the hardest),
agitated melancholia (Now outmoded)               which are intended for different subject
  term for depression coupled with anxiety.       groups. E.g., by giving the AH6 test to
                                                  a group of bright subjects, one avoids
agitation Term covering a set of sym-
                                                  the problem of ceiling effects, which
  ptoms indicative of restlessness and dis-
                                                  would be encountered if one gave them
  satisfaction, including acts of physical
                                                  a test designed for the general popula-
  aggression, grabbing, complaining,
                                                  tion. Similarly, a group of dull subjects
  shouting, verbal abuse, etc. Often used to
                                                  might benefit from taking the AH2,
  describe a range of problematic behav-
                                                  because a more demanding test would
  iours found in institutionalized older
                                                  create floor effects.
  adults, particularly those who are intel-
  lectually compromised or suffering from        ahedonia anhedonia.
                                                 ahistorical therapy Therapy which
agitolalia Rapid speech, in which it seems         takes no or relatively little account of
  that the words cannot be pronounced              the patient’s past.
  quickly enough.
                                                 ahypnia insomnia.
agnosia A profound failure of recogni-
                                                 aichmophobia A phobia of pointed
  tion. The failure can be restricted to one
  sense – e.g. auditory agnosia, visual
  agnosia, etc.                                  AIDS dementia complex (ADC)
                                                  dementia caused by the onset of AIDS.
agnosic alexia An inability to read,
  although other linguistic skills (includ-      ailurophobia A phobia of cats.
  ing writing) are intact.
                                                                      ALLAESTHESIA / 23

air encephalograph pneumoencephalo-                heavy drinkers, withdrawal can result in
  graph.                                           delirium tremens.
Ai3Q personality inventory assessing obses-      aleatory Pertaining to chance.
  sional personality.
                                                 alethia Inability to suppress a memory.
ak- The prefix is often used interchange-
                                                 Alexander technique A therapeutic
  ably with ac-. A sought-for word may
                                                   technique, whose principal point of
  be entered with an ac- prefix.
                                                   interest lies in its emphasis on bodily
akathisia extreme restlessness.                    posture. It is claimed to help alleviate
                                                   negative symptoms and create a feeling
akinaesthesia Loss of sensitivity to
                                                   of greater well-being.
  signals from muscles and tendons.
                                                 alexia A complete failure to read or to
akinesia Inability to initiate movements.
                                                   recognize words or letters (in dyslexia
akinetic apraxia Inability to perform              there is a partial ability). Only usually
  spontaneous movements.                           seen in brain-damaged individuals.
alalia A profound absence of speech.             alexia without agraphia agnosic alexia.
Alcohol Assessment and Treatment                 alexithymia Inability to monitor one’s
  Profile (AATP) structured interview              own emotional state.
  package eliciting details of a patient’s
                                                 algebraic transformation square root
  drinking habits and attitudes.
alcohol dependence alcoholism.
                                                 algesia (1) Sense of pain. (2) Heightened
alcohol withdrawal delirium delirium               sense of pain.
                                                 algolagnia General term for receiving
alcoholic dementia Old (and mislead-               sexual pleasure from pain, whether
  ing) synonym for Korsakoff ’s syndrome.          through masochism or sadism.
alcoholic psychosis General term for             algophilia masochism.
  intellectual impairment caused by alco-
                                                 alienation An actual state and/or per-
                                                    ceived feeling that one is separate and
Alcoholics Anonymous (AA) Self-help                 detached from others.
  group for people suffering from alco-
                                                 alienation coefficient The opposite of
                                                    the correlation coefficient – a measure
alcoholism substance abuse where the sub-           assessing how unrelated two variables
  stance in question is alcohol. Although           are.
  most alcoholics are heavy drinkers, the
                                                 all or nothing thought Erroneous
  condition is determined less by the
                                                   belief that anything less than absolute
  quantity consumed than by the alco-
                                                   success in seeking a particular goal is to
  holic’s abnormal need for it (either con-
                                                   be regarded as abject failure.
  stantly or in binges), and the fact that the
  alcohol consumption is having negative         allachaesthesia allaesthesia.
  effects on the patient’s well-being and
                                                 allaesthesia A misperception of the
  on those close to him/her. As the illness
                                                   location of a sensation in the body –
  progresses, alcoholics tend to require
                                                   often that it is on the opposite side of
  ever-increasing amounts of drink in
                                                   the body (when it is more properly
  order to attain the same effects. With
                                                   called allochiria).

allele One possible form a gene may take         alpha error Type I error.
   at a particular position on a chromo-
                                                 alpha level significance level.
                                                 Alpha Test Test of verbal intelligence
allesthesia allaesthesia.
                                                   used by the American Army during
allocentrism Attributing an event to en-           World War I for personnel selection
   vironmental factors (as opposed to the          (the Beta Test was visuo-spatial). The
   self ).                                         test was one of the first wide-scale uses
                                                   of psychometrics, and has been heavily
allochiria See allaesthesia.
                                                   criticized for cultural bias.
allopsychosis Any mental illness in which
                                                 alpha waves A pattern of electrical acti-
   the patient’s principal problem is directed
                                                   vity in the brain detected by electroen-
   towards the outside world. This contrasts
                                                   cephalograph (EEG) with a frequency
   with autopsychosis, where the perceived
                                                   between 8 and 12 Hz.
   problems lie within the patient.
                                                 alternate form reliability See reliability.
allotriophagia Consumption of unusual
   foods or food combinations.                   alternating personality See multiple per-
Allport-Vernon-Lindzey Scale Study of
  Values.                                        alternating psychosis bipolar disorder.
Allport’s theory of personality devel-           alternative hypothesis (Hi) The reverse
  opment Gordon Allport argued that                of the null hypothesis – the prediction
  children do not possess personalities as         that the experiment will demonstrate a
  much as a collection of behaviours,              statistically significant event of the type
  which vary according to the needs of             predicted by the researcher.
  the moment (e.g. children behave radi-
                                                 altruistic suicide See Durkheim’s tax-
  cally differently with their friends and
                                                   onomy of suicide.
  their parents). The behaviours even-
  tually coalesce into selves, which are         aluminium theory of dementia of the
  sets of behaviours consistently used in          Alzheimer type The (unproven) theory
  different settings (e.g. the child has a         that an abnormally large intake of alu-
  ‘home self ’, a ‘school self ’, etc.). An        minium (through environmental
  individual reaches maturity when the             factors and/or faulty ‘body filters’) is
  selves in turn coalesce into a proprium,         the cause of dementia of the Alzheimer
  which is a personality or self relatively        type.
  stable across situations. In addition,         Alzheimer’s disease dementia of the Alz-
  Allport saw maturity as involving                heimer type.
  shifting the motivation for actions from
  simply earning reward, avoiding                amaurotic idiocy Inherited mental retar-
  punishment, obeying orders, etc., to            dation, accompanied by blindness.
  motivation to do something for its own         amaxophobia A phobia of motor vehicles.
  sake and virtues (functional autonomy).
  This shift in motivation is called the         ambiguous figure A visual stimulus
  lack of emotional continuity.                   which can be perceived as possessing
                                                  two or more distinct identities.
alogia Lack of, or very limited, speech.
                                                 ambiguous loss Phenomenon usually
alpha coefficient coefficient alpha.              encountered in severely demented patients,
                                                                   AMPHETAMINES / 25

  whereby the afflicted individual exists          The term, strictly speaking, means total
  only physically – there is no sign of a          memory loss, although it is rarely used
  sentient being occupying the body.               as such – see dysmnesia.
ambivalence The simultaneous holding             amnesic aphasia anomic aphasia.
 of positive and negative feelings about
                                                 amnesic apraxia Inability to remember
 something or someone.
                                                  sequences of movements.
ambiversion See extroversion.
                                                 amnesic syndrome amnestic syndrome.
amblyopia Defective vision with no dis-
                                                 amnestic apraxia amnesic apraxia.
 cernible physical cause.
                                                 amnestic dysgraphia A profound
ambulatory schizophrenia schizotypal
                                                  writing disability – the patient can
 personality disorder.
                                                  write individual letters, but writing is
amenorrhoea An abnormal absence of                otherwise incomprehensible.
 menstrual bleeding. In primary ame-
                                                 amnestic syndrome Amnesia resulting
 norrhoea there is no onset of periods at
                                                  from brain damage (either injury or
 puberty whilst in secondary ame-
                                                  damage from toxins, alcohol, etc.)
 norrhoea, periods cease during adult-
                                                  where there is no other severe intellec-
 hood for reasons not commensurate
                                                  tual impairment. Some commentators
 with the onset of the menopause.
                                                  treat the syndrome as synonymous with
amentia mental retardation.                       anterograde amnesia, although the DSM
                                                  includes retrograde amnesia as well.
American Association for Mental
 Deficiency (AAMD) American group                amniocentesis A sampling of amniotic
 promoting the rights and needs of                fluid (the fluid surrounding the baby in
 mentally retarded people.                        the womb) during early pregnancy,
                                                  which can reveal chromosomal defects
American Council on Education
                                                  (particularly trisomy 21) in the foetus.
 (ACE) Test Intelligence test primarily
 designed for (American) students.               amok A culture-bound disorder (found
                                                  chiefly in Asia) characterized by a
amimia A profound inability to use
                                                  period of extreme listlessness followed
                                                  by a very energetic and violent out-
amitriptyline An antidepressant.                  burst.
amnesia A failure of memory usually              amphetamine sulphate Type of amphet-
 abnormally severe, arising from e.g.             amine.
 stroke, head injury, illness (e.g. dementia),
                                                 amphetamines Group of drugs whose
 or poisoning. The term is occasionally
                                                  principal effect is an increased level of
 used for memory loss which is normal or
                                                  energy and euphoria (in large doses,
 not unduly serious in its effects (e.g.
                                                  they can induce delusions). They have
 childhood amnesia). Anterograde amnesia
                                                  accordingly found popularity as an
 is amnesia for events which took place
                                                  illegal drug. They are still used for
 after the brain damage occurred (see
                                                  legitimate medical purposes, and until
 amnestic syndrome). Retrograde amnesia is
                                                  the 1960s, were available in the UK
 amnesia for events preceding the brain
                                                  without prescription (principally as a
 damage (usually this is confined to
                                                  slimming aid – the drugs also reduce
 memory failure for a brief period before
 the damage occurred, not the patient’s
 entire past life – see psychogenic amnesia.

amusia A profound failure in musical            analogy test Intelligence measure in
 perception (i.e. tone and rhythm deaf ).         which subjects must identify the logic
                                                  of an analogy in an example, and then
amyl nitrate A drug with a legitimate use
                                                  provide a similar analogy (usually from
  as a heart stimulant, but more often
                                                  a multiple choice). E.g. ‘kippers are to
  used illegally – induces a burst of energy
                                                  marmalade as soup is to: (a) washing
  and feelings of euphoria.
                                                  powder (b) mashed potatoes (c) hot
amyloid precursor protein (APP)                   chocolate (d) penguins’.
 Gene located on chromosome 21 linked
                                                analysand The patient in psychoanalysis.
 to some cases of dementia of the Alzheimer
 type.                                          Analysis of Coping Style (ACS)
                                                 Measure of social skills in subjects aged
Amytal A type of barbiturate. The drug
                                                 5–18 years.
 lowers inhibitions, and accordingly, has
 been dubbed the ‘truth drug’, much             analysis of covariance (ANCOVA)
 beloved of spy films (in which its               analysis of variance in which a difference
 efficacy has been grossly exaggerated).          is examined after the coincidental
                                                  effects of a covariate have been statisti-
anaclisis Extreme dependence on others.
                                                  cally controlled for. This means that
anaclitic depression Depression experi-           any differences found cannot be attrib-
  enced by a child upon prolonged sepa-           uted to the coincidental effects of the
  ration from its parent(s); more gener-          covariate. It logically follows that the
  ally, depression upon the death of a            ANCOVA can also be used to demon-
  parent.                                         strate that a difference is attributable to
anal expulsive personality See anal               the effects of the covariate if control-
  retentive personality.                          ling for it removes the group difference.
                                                  E.g. one can show that in 5–10-year-
anal retentive personality Derived                olds, children with big feet have higher
  from the anal stage of Freud’s psychoana-       maths scores than small-footed child-
  lytic theory, a personality type character-     ren. This may indicate advantages of
  ized by miserliness and an obsessional          big-footedness, but it is also the case
  need for detail, rules and procedures.          that the big- footed children are usually
  Held to be due to retaining faeces              older (i.e. the difference between the
  rather than expelling them when the             groups may simply be due to their dif-
  need is felt as an infant. The reverse          ferent average ages). By using age as a
  behaviour leads, it is argued, to the anal      covariate in an ANCOVA, the effects of
  expulsive personality, which is over-           age can be removed from the equation,
  amenable and over-relaxed.                      and the difference between the scores
anal stage See Freud’s psychoanalytic theory.     of big and small-footed children can be
                                                  re- examined.
analeptic drug Any drug designed to
  stimulate.                                    analysis of covariant structures Form
                                                  of LISREL measuring causal relation-
analogue study Study in which a natu-             ships.
  ralistic situation is replicated in a labo-
  ratory. Often the situation cannot be         analysis of variance (ANOVA) A para-
  precisely replicated, so an analogous           metric measure of the differences
  situation is devised (e.g. taking ability       between two or more groups’ scores on
  at video games as an indication of              one or more measures or between one
  ability to fly fighter planes).                 group’s performance on two or more
                                                    ANDROGYNOUS PERSONALITY / 27

  measures. Significance is assessed using        analytical psychology Term sometimes
  the F ratio. Essentially, the ANOVA can           applied to Jung’s psychoanalytic theory.
  be employed to measure three things:
                                                  anamnesis Medical history of a patient
  differences between two or more
                                                    before treatment. Often the term is
  groups on the same measure (between
                                                    restricted to the patient’s own account.
  groups measure); differences in the same
                                                    The medical history post-treatment is
  group’s performance on two or more
                                                    known as catamnesis.
  different measures (within groups
  measure); and differences in the pattern        anancasm compulsion.
  of responses made by two or more dif-           anancastia A state of feeling compelled
  ferent groups on two or more different            to perform an action against one’s will.
  measures (the interaction measure).
  Analyses of quantitative differences (i.e.      anancastic disorder Disorder charac-
  everything but the interactions) are also         terized by an unrealistic level of perfec-
  known as main effects. The format of              tionism and/or pedantry and/or an
  the ANOVA remains basically the same              expectation that others should obey
  when the number of variables being                similar unfeasibly exacting standards.
  assessed is increased or decreased,             anaphia A profound absence of the sen-
  although the interactions become more             sation of touch.
  complex (see interaction). It should be
  noted that when two groups are being            anaphylaxis The recurrence of symp-
  compared on one variable with one                 toms which had been triggered by an
  level, then this is a t test, which can thus      earlier upsetting event, when experi-
  be regarded as a form of ANOVA. The               encing a similar event.
  ANOVA is labelled according to the              anarithmia acalculia.
  number of between and within groups
  measures used, and whether the                  anarithria A profound absence of speech.
  measures are all within, all between, or        anatomically correct dolls anatomically
  a mixture. Hence, a two way between               detailed dolls.
  ANOVA analyses two between groups
  measures; a four way within ANOVA               anatomically detailed dolls Dolls pos-
  analyses four within groups measures;             sessing genitalia, used by therapists in
  and a three way mixed ANOVA analyses              e.g. cases of child abuse, to enable the
  three measures, of which at least one             children to describe the nature of the
  and no more than two is between                   abuse.
  groups. The ANOVA is one of the com-            anchor point A point of reference on a
  monest measures of group differences              scale against which a participant makes
  employed by psychologists. It assumes             his/her judgements.
  normally distributed populations. See
                                                  ANCOVA analysis of covariance.
  analysis of covariance, ANOVA table,
  Hoyt’s analysis of variance, interaction,       androgen General term for hormones
  multivariate analysis of variance, post hoc       determining male sexual characteris-
  tests, repeated measures analysis of variance     tics.
  and Type I sums of squares.
                                                  androgynous personality A personal-
analytic psychology analytical psychol-             ity combining the ‘better’ attributes of
  ogy.                                              stereotypical ‘masculine’ and ‘femi-
                                                    nine’ behaviours (e.g. being gentle
                                                    but independent, tough-minded but

  succouring, etc.). Compare with undif-       animus See Jung’s psychoanalytic theory.
  ferentiated sex role identity.
                                               ankle clonus See clonus.
andromania nymphomania.
                                               Anna O See hypnosis.
androphobia A phobia of men.
                                               anniversary reaction Negative feelings
anecdotal evidence Evidence accrued              engendered by it being the anniversary
  from hearsay or witness reports, which         (or general time of year) of an event dis-
  has not been systematically examined           tressing to a subject (e.g. death of a
  for its veracity. A more specific form of      close friend or relative). The term can
  testing is implied by anecdotal testing.       also refer to positive feelings associated
                                                 with the anniversary of a more cheerful
anecdotal testing Measurements of a
  participant’s behaviour gathered from
  observers who have seen the subject in       Annual Review of Psychology Annual
  question (e.g. of a mentally ill patient’s    collection of critical essays on recent
  behaviour in the time before referral –       developments in key areas of psychol-
  the reports of relatives, friends, etc.,      ogy.
  may be more reliable than the patient’s
                                               anodyne drug Any drug with pain-
  self-report). See anecdotal evidence.
                                                 killing or soothing properties.
anemophobia aerophobia.
                                               Anomalous Sentences Repetition
anencephalia Absence of brain.                  Test (ASRT) Measure designed to dis-
                                                tinguish patients in early stages of
anergasia Loss of function, usually with
                                                dementia from those with pseudodementia.
  the implication that there is a known
                                                Participants are required to repeat sen-
  physical cause.
                                                tences spoken by the tester which are
anergia Loss of energy.                         grammatically correct but have no
anergic Pertaining to anergia.                  meaning.

anergy anergia.                                anomia (1) Inability to name. (2) anomie
                                                 (rare usage).
anginophobia A phobia of choking or of
  suffocation.                                 anomic aphasia Aphasia characterized
                                                 by an inability to find specific words.
anhedonia Loss of pleasure or the ability        The term is largely interchangeable
  to seek and feel pleasure.                     with anomia.
aniconia A profound inability to pro-          anomic suicide See Durkheim’s taxonomy
  duce mental images.                            of suicide.
anima See Jung’s psychoanalytic theory.        anomie Loss of a value system, caused by
animal assisted therapy Using interac-           extreme stress.
  tion with animals (typically, providing      anomie scale A measure of moral values
  the patient with a pet – more precisely        or, more usually, lack of them.
  known as pet therapy) as a therapeutic
  measure.                                     anorexia Undereating, for reasons other
                                                 than a conventional reduction diet. The
animal model Using the findings from             disorder can have many causes: the
  observations and experiments on                commonest are some forms of cancer
  animals as an analogue of human per-           and anorexia nervosa.
                                                                         ANTIMODE / 29

anorexia nervosa A mental disorder in           anoxia A lack of oxygen; if this occurs at
  which the patient wilfully starves/seri-        birth, then mental retardation can result.
  ously undereats, in the erroneous belief
                                                ANS autonomic nervous system.
  that s/he is overweight and has an
  unattractive body shape. The illness is       answer until correct (AUC) score
  largely (but not solely) confined to            Marking system for a multiple choice
  females, usually in adolescence. Com-           test, in which a subject makes as many
  pare with bulimia and bulimia nervosa.          attempts as is necessary until s/he
  See anorexia.                                   obtains the right answer; the more
                                                  attempts made, the fewer points scored.
anorexigenic appetite-suppressing.
                                                  See inferred number right (INR) score.
anorgasmia Inability to orgasm.
                                                Antabuse Trade name of disulfiram.
anosmia Inability to smell.
                                                antecedent In expressing a ratio (e.g.
anosognosia Denial of illness. The term           ‘x:y’), the first number in the expression
  is usually employed specifically to             (i.e. ‘x’). The second number (i.e. ‘y’) is
  describe denial of a very ‘obvious’             the consequent.
  debilitating problem such as paralysis
                                                antecedent variable A variable preced-
  or blindness.
                                                  ing another one, and often inferred to
ANOVA analysis of variance.                       be the cause of the latter.
ANOVA table The ‘correct form’ for pre-         anterior Anatomical term denoting the
 senting the results of an analysis of            ‘head end’ or front section in a quadru-
 variance. The table varies in complexity         ped, and the front or ‘face end’ in a
 with the size of the ANOVA, but all              bipedal animal (e.g. human). See cranial.
 contain the following headings:
                                                anterograde amnesia See amnesia.
 Source, S.S., d.f., M.S., F. ‘Source’ refers
 to the source of the variance. This            anthropomorphism Attributing human
 includes all the empirically observed            qualities, thought processes, etc., to
 measures (the between groups measures            non-human animals. The most extreme
 and within groups measures), plus any            reaction against it is behaviourism.
 interactions. In addition, it also lists       anthropomorphizing anthropomor-
 headings of BETWEEN GROUPS,                      phism.
 VARIANCE. These refer to all between           anthroposophy Therapeutic method
 group variance, all within group                 devised by Rudolf Steiner (1861–
 variance, and the total variance of the          1925), aimed at ‘liberating’ spiritual
 whole analysis. They are essential in            aspects of the mind and behaviour.
 calculating the F ratios and eta squared.      anticathexis Expressing the opposite
 S.S. refers to the sum of squares, which is      emotion from the one actually felt.
 the sum of all the squared deviations
 from the mean. D.f. refers to the degrees of   anticipatory grief Preparing for the
 freedom for the section of the analysis in       death of a loved one.
 question. M.S. is the mean square,             antidepressant A drug to counteract the
 which is the mathematically-adjusted             effects of depression.
 mean of the sum of squares. F refers to
 the F ratio, calculated as the ratio of the    antimode The least frequently occurring
 mean squares.                                    value in a sample.

antipsychiatry movement Movement                  strategies to cope with the problem. See
  which began in the 1960s which criti-           desensitization.
  cizes mainstream psychiatric methods
                                                anxiety hysteria phobia.
  for their alleged degrading of mentally
  ill patients (e.g. by stereotyping            anxiety neurosis (1) Old term for gener-
  patients according to their perceived           alized anxiety. (2) anxiety disorder.
  ‘disease’, over-using tranquillizing          anxiety object An object inducing a
  drugs, etc.).                                   feeling of anxiety (including phobic
antipsychotic drug Drug designed to               objects).
  counteract the effects of psychotic ill-      anxiety-relief response Behaviour therapy
  nesses.                                         technique. The patient learns to associ-
antisocial personality disorder (psy-             ate a word or act with a feeling of
  chopathy) personality disorder charac-          calmness. Accordingly, repeating the
  terized by a profound lack of moral             act or word in moments of anxiety should
  sense, often resulting in illegal and/or        help reduce the negative feelings.
  violent behaviour. Sufferers may also         anxiety states Group term for generalized
  engage in sports and other activities           anxiety, obsessive-compulsive disorder and
  with a high level of risk.                      panic disorder.
antonym test Test in which the subject          anxiety tolerance The maximum level
  must supply the opposite of a word              of anxiety an individual can experience
  supplied by the experimenter.                   without suffering psychological and/
anxiety The term is usually used in the           or physical damage.
  lay sense of the word. Namely, a feeling      anxiolytic drug minor tranquillizer.
  of profound agitation and of an im-
  minent unpleasant experience, often           anxyolytic anxiolytic.
  with accompanying physical symp-              AOA age of acquisition.
  toms of racing pulse, sweating, breath-
  lessness, etc. Normally, the sensation is     APA (1) American Psychiatric Associa-
  experienced as a reaction to anxiety-          tion. (2) American Psychological Asso-
  provoking events (e.g. a trip to the           ciation.
  dentist, ‘exam nerves’, etc.), and is rela-   APA guidelines Any set of guidelines
  tively quickly dissipated. If the feeling      (usually on codes of professional
  of anxiety is unusually severe or pro-         conduct and publication protocol)
  tracted, or arises without apparent            issued by the American Psychological
  reason, then it is usually classified as       Association.
  one of the anxiety disorders.
                                                apeirophobia A phobia of infinity.
anxiety disorders General term for a
  group of illnesses whose principal            Apgar score Named after its inventor
  symptom is a high level of (unrealistic)       Apgar. A scaled measure of a newborn
  anxiety. Principally, these are the anxiety    baby’s physical condition. Takes five
  states, and the phobias.                       criteria – heart rate; respiratory effort
                                                 (i.e. how well s/he is breathing); muscle
anxiety hierarchy Therapeutic tech-              tone; reflex irritability (i.e. how well
  nique in which an over-anxious patient         baby responds to an irritating stimu-
  arranges a series of events in order of        lus); and colour (for Caucasians, the
  how anxious they make him/her feel.            pinker the better). Each measure is
  This forms the basis of developing             scored on a three point scale, and pro-
                                                           APPROXIMATION ERROR / 31

  vides a quick indicator of the baby’s           applicant client.
                                                  application blank American term for
aphagia A profoundly low drive to eat.              application form.
aphasia Failure of language. Strictly             applied psychology Any method of
  speaking, the term refers to an entire            applying psychological theory and
  loss of language (a partial failure is            techniques to ‘real life’ problems. The
  dysphasia), but it is generally used for          term principally covers clinical psychol-
  any language failure. Also, usually               ogy, educational psychology and occupa-
  refers to acquired aphasia – i.e. the pat-        tional psychology.
  ient has acquired it through accident or
                                                  applied research Research with a
  illness, and prior to this s/he had
                                                    solution to a practical problem as its
  normal linguistic abilities. Aphasia can
                                                    goal. This contrasts with basic research,
  be broadly divided into three catego-
                                                    whose principal interest is in a theoreti-
  ries – receptive aphasia is a specific
                                                    cal concept, but not necessarily its prac-
  failure to understand language, expres-
                                                    tical utility.
  sive aphasia a failure to produce it, and
  global aphasia a failure of both compre-        approach-approach conflict The
  hension and production. For more                  conflict a participant feels when s/he
  specific categories, see: anomic aphasia.,        equally desires to perform two acts.
  ataxic aphasia, audio-verbal aphasia,           approach-avoidance conflict (1) The
  auditory aphasia, Broca’s aphasia, conduc-        conflict a participant feels when s/he
  tion aphasia, developmental aphasia, mixed        desires to perform an act, which s/he
  transcortical aphasia, transcortical aphasia,     knows has previously been punished.
  transcortical motor aphasia, transcortical        (2) In young children, the simultaneous
  sensory aphasia, and Wernicke’s aphasia.          desire to approach and to avoid a
  Also see jargon aphasia.                          stranger.
aphephobia A phobia of being touched.             Approaches to Study Inventory (ASI)
aphonia Inability to speak (the patient            Questionnaire of study habits. Divided
  may, however, be able to whisper or              into 16 sub-scales, it assesses a range of
  croak).                                          study skills (e.g. over-reliance on
                                                   details, ability to comprehend broad
APM Advanced Progressive Matrices.
                                                   issues, etc.).
apoE apoliproprotein E.
                                                  approximate visual access Misreading
apoliproprotein E (apoE) A gene found               a word as one which looks similar (e.g.
  on chromosome 19 believed to be                   ‘house’ for ‘horse’). Found especially in
  linked to dementia of the Alzheimer type          beginning readers and surface dyslexics.
  (and also vascular dementia). The gene
                                                  approximation error Inaccuracy intro-
  comes in several forms, the commonest
                                                    duced by using approximate rather
  being e2, e3 and e4. It is e4 that is
                                                    than stringently accurate measurements
  believed to be associated with a higher
                                                    (e.g. in calculating the circumference of
  possibility of developing late-onset
                                                    a circle, estimating the value of pi to be
  DAT. Interestingly, the e2 variant seems
                                                    21/7). The seriousness of the error is
  to carry a lower risk of developing
                                                    usually dependent upon demands of
                                                    the particular situation (e.g. using the
apoplexy stroke.                                    22/7 value may be adequate for
                                                    planning a garden pond, but may be
APP amyloid precursor protein.

  seriously inaccurate when planning a        ARIMA autoregressive integrated moving
  space voyage).                               average.
apraxia Inability to perform intentional      arithmetic mean mean.
                                              arithmomania (1) An unnatural preoc-
aprosexia A profound failure of atten-          cupation with the mathematical prop-
  tion.                                         erties of events. (2) An obsessive desire
                                                to count.
aprosodia Failure of speech intonation.
                                              Arlin Test of Formal Reasoning
apsychognosia Absence of understand-
                                               Measure of a child’s reasoning abilities.
  ing of the effects of one’s actions.
                                               Based around Piaget’s concepts of
aptitude test A measure of what the par-       formal and concrete intelligence.
  ticipant is potentially capable of, even
                                              array (1) Set of data or stimuli (often
  although s/he may not currently attain
                                                arranged in order of size). (2) The set of
  such heights (e.g. an IQ test might
                                                variables associated with another
  show that a child’s teaching is not
  stretching him/her sufficiently). Com-
  pare with achievement test.                 arrested development A failure to
                                                develop beyond a particular stage of
aqua-energetics Therapeutic technique
                                                development (particularly with refer-
  which, through emphasis on posture
                                                ence to social age).
  and breathing whilst floating in water,
  attempts to release tensions, repressed     arrows (in correlation/regression
  feelings, etc. A central feature of some      illustrations) A line with an arrow
  forms of the therapy is the use of nude       head at one end indicates a causal rela-
  group therapy sessions in swimming            tionship, with the arrow indicating the
  pools.                                        direction of causation. A line with
                                                arrow heads at both ends indicates the
aquaphobia A phobia of expansesof water
                                                items are related, but there is not a
  and/or bathing.
                                                causal relationship. In structural equation
arachnophobia See phobia.                       modelling, a two-headed arrow indi-
arbitrary inference The drawing of a            cates variance shared by the connected
  wildly incorrect conclusion about an          items that is not explained by the
  event by a patient, which conforms to         equation.
  his/her dysfunctional views (e.g. inter-    art therapy Therapeutic method in
  preting anything less than an effusive        which the patient, through making an
  greeting as ‘evidence’ that nobody likes      artistic object (e.g. painting, sculpture),
  him/her).                                     explores his/her feelings, motives, etc.
archetype See Jung’s psychoanalytic theory.   arteriosclerotic dementia multi-infarct
area sampling cluster sampling.                 dementia.

arena The situation in which a therapy        articulated thoughts during simu-
  takes place (e.g. one-to-one, group           lated situations Therapeutic tech-
  sessions, etc.).                              nique in which the patient hears or sees
                                                a situation acted out and paused at
arhythmia A profound absence of sense           regular intervals, to allow him/her to
  of rhythm.                                    comment on what s/he thinks about
                                                the enacted scene. The scenes could be
                            ASSESSMENT FOR TRAINING AND EMPLOYMENT (ATE) / 33

  e.g. situations which the patient finds        by many authorities as, a form of autism
  hard to deal with.                             (sometimes the two illnesses are found
                                                 in the same family, indicating a genetic
artifact An incidental by-product of an
                                                 component). The principal differences
  experimental method, which may
                                                 between the conditions are that the
  colour the results.
                                                 Asperger patient possesses near-normal
artificial dichotomy See dichotomous             language, and usually has a higher
  variable.                                      degree of social skills. Sufferers are
artistic morphology The study of the             often perceived as normal, if eccentric.
  use of shape in art.                         Asperger Syndrome Diagnostic Scale
Arthur Scale A non-verbal intelligence           (ASDS) Test for assessing presence or
  test for children.                             absence of symptoms associated with
                                                 Asperger’s syndrome.
ascending pathways nerves conducting
  impulses along the spinal cord to the        ASQ Attributional Style Questionnaire.
  brain. Compare with descending path-         ASRT Anomalous Sentences Repetition Test.
                                               Assertion Inventory Measure of the
ascriptive responsibility Acknowledge-          degree to which a person feels comfort-
  ment of responsibility for an illegal or      able about asserting him or herself in
  morally wrong act, which will be puni-        particular situations.
                                               assertion training (AT) Form of behav-
ASD autistic spectrum disorder.                  iour therapy, training people to express
ASDS Asperger Syndrome Diagnostic Scale.         themselves and their wishes more easily
                                                 and forcefully (but not aggressively, as is
asemia A failure to recognize and/or use         often erroneously supposed).
  symbols and gestures. Sometimes used
  more loosely to denote a failure to          assertiveness training assertion training.
  understand language.                         Assessing Reading Difficulties Reading
ASH Automated Social History.                    skills test for subjects aged 5–8 years.
                                                 Subjects are given an odd man out test, in
ASI Approaches to Study Inventory.               which all but one of a list of words have
ASI-S Shortened version of Approaches to         the same sound in common – the subjects
 Study Inventory.                                have to name the ‘odd one out’ (e.g.
                                                 ‘cat, hat, rat, man’). The test claims to
asitia A profound aversion to food.              assess phonemic awareness skills, and
  Loosely used as a synonym for anorexia         performance is correlated with reading
  nervosa.                                       ability.
asociality Inability to form social rela-      assessment centre (AC) A detailed per-
  tionships.                                     sonnel screening, using a variety of tech-
asonia Inability to discriminate between         niques.
  sound frequencies.                           Assessment for Training and Employ-
Asperger’s syndrome Named after its              ment (ATE) Set of tests assessing basic
  discoverer, H. Asperger. A condition           intellectual and social abilities and apti-
  quite similar to, and currently classified     tudes in the context of suitability for

  employment. The Differential Aptitude            astasia-abasia A somatoform disorder, in
  Tests form a sub-section of the battery.           which the patient is unable to stand or
                                                     walk, although the legs otherwise fun-
assessment of daily living (ADL) Any
                                                     ction normally.
  method of measuring daily activities,
  usually with the purpose of identifying          astereognosis A failure to recognize by
  memory slips, etc.                                 touch.
asset search Therapeutic technique in              asthenia A feeling of profound weak-
  which the patient lists all his/her attrib-        ness.
  utes. Sometimes the search is confined
                                                   asthenic personality Abnormally pro-
  to looking for positive attributes
                                                     nounced inability to experience
  (positive asset search) e.g. to increase the
                                                     pleasure and enthusiasm, coupled with
  confidence of patients with low self-
                                                     increased sensitivity to stress.
  esteem, depression, etc.
                                                   asthenophobia A phobia of weakness.
assets-liabilities technique Technique
  used in some therapies, in which the             Aston Index Reading skills test battery for
  patient lists everything which is good             subjects aged 5–14 years. Includes
  and bad in his/her life. This list is used         picture recognition, a vocabulary test,
  to decide what the therapy should try              the Goodenough Draw-a-Man Test, the
  to remove, what should be enhanced,                Schonell Graded Word Reading Test,
  etc.                                               various tests of phonological skills and
                                                     memory. Primarily designed to assess
assignment therapy group therapy.
                                                     poor readers with suspected dyslexia.
association The degree to which two or
                                                   astraphobia A phobia of thunder and
  more variables are related to each other.
association area association cortex.
                                                   asymbolia A failure to recognize sym-
association cortex See primary cortex.               bolic information.
association test Any test in which the             asymbolia for pain A failure to recog-
  participant must produce a word asso-              nize that pain signals indicate pain.
  ciated with a given example. See con-
                                                   asymmetric correlation See symmetric
  trolled association test and free association.
associational fluency Fluency in pro-
                                                   asymmetric distribution Distribution
  ducing similes or synonyms. Often
                                                     with skew.
  tested by giving a participant a list of
  words and asking for their synonyms.             asymptote The uppermost value, of e.g.
                                                     performance (may be actual or a theo-
associative visual agnosia A less severe
                                                     retical perfect upper limit).
  form of visual agnosia. The participant
  may be able accurately to copy an                asymptotic Approaching (but never
  object, and/or use it as part of a routine         actually reaching) the asymptote.
  learnt before the illness. In other              asynergia A form of ataxia characterized
  respects, however, his/her behaviour is            by a profound lack of coordination
  as that of a patient with full visual              between different muscle groups.
                                                   AT assertion training.
astasia A psychological inability to stand.
                                                   At Ease Collection of computerized
                                                     relaxation therapy techniques.
                                                                               AUDILE / 35

at-risk children/infants Children/              attentional deficit disorder (ADD) A
  infants with a heightened risk of suffer-       disorder first found in childhood, char-
  ing a deleterious change. Although a            acterized by an extreme inability to
  popular media shorthand for ‘at risk            attend. The condition of attentional
  from parental abuse’, the term also             deficit disorder with hyperactivity
  refers to threats from disease, environ-        (ADD-H) indicates that the patient
  mental factors, etc.                            cannot attend, and also exhibits hyper-
at-risk subjects Subjects who stand a
  higher than average chance of develop-        attentional deficit disorder with hyper-
  ing an illness, being abused spouses,           activity See attentional deficit disorder.
  children, etc.
                                                attentional dyslexia An acquired dyslexia
ataractic drug Any drug which tran-               in which the patient reads segments of
  quillizes or otherwise calms.                   separate words as a whole (e.g. ‘kill’ and
                                                  ‘sock’ read as ‘kick’).
ataraxia calmness.
                                                attenuation Reduction in the size of a
ataxia Absence of muscular coordina-
                                                  correlation, due to measurement error.
                                                attenuation, correction for correction
ataxic (1) Pertaining to ataxia. (2)
                                                  for attenuation.
  Muddled, uncoordinated.
                                                attitude measure attitude scale.
ataxic aphasia Aphasia due to an inability
  to articulate.                                attitude scale Any method of assessing
                                                  the strength of a person’s attitudes,
ataxic speech Speech with no intonation
                                                  thoughts or feelings about a topic.
  or stress.
                                                  Commonest examples are the Guttman
ATE Assessment for Training and Employ-           scale, the Likert scale and the Thurstone
 ment.                                            scale.
athetosis Slow repetitive movements             attitudinizing See catatonic state.
  (often twisting) of the limbs, fingers
                                                Attributional Style Questionnaire
  and toes, resulting from brain damage.
                                                  (ASQ) A measure of level of causal attri-
atonia Absence of normal muscle tone.             bution.
ATQ Automatic Thoughts Questionnaire.           attrition subject attrition.
atrophy Loss or severe wastage.                 atypical In diagnosis, a prefix denoting
attainment test achievement test.                 that the patient’s symptoms are most
                                                  like those of the disease forming the
attention The ability to concentrate on a         suffix (e.g. ‘atypical schizophrenia’), but
  target item(s) or task at hand despite          that other uncommon symptoms are
  distracting stimuli. See distractibility,       also present.
  divided attention, selective attention, and
  sustained attention. The term is also used    atypical paraphilia Term for a group of
  in the everyday sense.                          paraphilias not adequately covered by
                                                  the other sub-categories. They include
attention seeking behaviour Behav-                coprophilia, frotteurism, necrophilia, and
  iour, often unpleasant (e.g. very late          telephone scatologia.
  night or otherwise inconvenient tele-
  phone calls), used to attract the atten-      audile auditory type.
  tion of others. Usually an expression of
  a need for help.

audio-oculogyric reflex Turning the                leptic attack or a migraine. (2) In some
  eyes in the direction of a sound.                versions of parapsychology, the psychic
                                                   field which supposedly surrounds the
audio-verbal aphasia An inability to
  comprehend phrases (although com-
  prehension of single words may be              authoritarian personality trait measur-
  intact).                                         ing strength of belief in a disciplined
                                                   society, in blindly accepting orders
audiogenic seizure A fit induced by
                                                   from higher authority figures, in con-
  high frequency sound.
                                                   forming to societal norms, etc.
audiometry The study of hearing.
                                                 authoritarianism authoritarian personal-
auditory agnosia An inability to recog-            ity.
  nize an item or an event by its sound.
                                                 autia Cattell’s term for a personality trait
auditory aphasia An inability to com-              corresponding to ‘imagination’.
  prehend spoken language.
                                                 autism (1) An obsessional interest in the
auditory cortex Collective term for areas          self to the exclusion of others. (2) Rare
  of the cortex responsible for collating          (approx. 4 per 10,000 live births) but
  and interpreting auditory information.           serious disturbance of thought proces-
  Principally located in the temporal lobe         ses arising in infancy. First identified
  (see primary auditory cortex).                   by L. Kanner, although an independent
auditory evoked potential evoked poten-            paper by H. Asperger also identifies the
  tial created by administering a sound to         condition. The autistic child usually
  the subject.                                     avoids social contact, and may have
                                                   lacked ‘cuddliness’ as a baby. S/he
auditory flutter fusion (AFF) The rate             often seeks a monotony of environment
  at which a pulsing sound must repeat             and action (resulting in repetitive ste-
  itself for it just to be heard as a continu-     reotyped movements) which appear to
  ous sound.                                       provide some comfort. There is usually
auditory projection area primary                   a strong linguistic handicap, and social
  auditory cortex.                                 skills are poor. Media coverage of
                                                   autistic children with remarkably good
auditory type Participant whose mental             (by any standards) artistic or arithmeti-
  imagery is primarily auditory. The               cal talents can create the impression
  phrase is sometimes applied to readers           that the disease always has compensa-
  who have a tendency to read words by             tions. However, most autistic children
  mentally ‘sounding them out’. This con-          appear to have poor abilities, and are
  trasts with the visual type, whose               frequently diagnosed as mentally handi-
  imagery (and reading) is predominantly           capped. Autism is usually inherited, but
  visual.                                          cases resulting from brain damage have
auditory-vestibular cranial nerve                  been reported. A case has been made
  cranial nerve number VIII. Concerned             for it being the product of faulty
  with hearing and balance.                        parenting methods (see refrigerator
                                                   parent), but this has been largely dis-
aura (1) An ‘unreal’ and practically inde-         counted. The disease is four times more
  finable sensation (often a feeling akin to       common in males. In earlier terminol-
  dizziness, or that one is losing full            ogy, ‘autism’ referred to schizophrenia,
  contact with one’s surroundings),                and later the term was used synony-
  which may precede the onset of an epi-           mously with schizophrenia (the degree
                                                                         AUTOTELIC / 37

  of division between the two diseases is        automatic thought A thought which
  still debated). The immediate explana-           appears unbidden. A preponderance of
  tion of what is wrong with autistic              these (particularly if negative) can be
  patients is still not fully resolved, but an     indicative of mental illness.
  ingenious recent theory is that they
                                                 Automatic Thoughts Questionnaire
  cannot create representations of how
                                                  (ATQ) A standardized measure of the
  other people think see mind, theory of.
                                                  degree of automatic thoughts a partici-
  See Asperger’s syndrome and triad of
                                                  pant/patient experiences.
                                                 autonomic nervous system Carrying
autistic Pertaining to autism.
                                                   signals to and from the central nervous
autistic continuum The argument that               system to bodily systems over which
  autistic spectrum disorders is a contin-         there is little conscious control (e.g.
  uum of dysfunction, ranging from ex-             glands, smooth and cardiac muscle).
  tremely dysfunctional behaviour through
                                                 autonomy versus shame and doubt
  to apparently ‘normal’ individuals with
                                                   See Erikson’s theory of development.
  traces of ASD-like behaviour that are
  explained away as eccentricities.              autophobia A phobia, of being alone
                                                   and/or of oneself. (Not a fear of cars –
autistic spectrum disorder (ASD) Group
                                                   see amaxophobia).
  term for autism, Asperger’s syndrome and
  (by some but not all commentators) per-        autopsy, psychological psychological
  vasive developmental disorder not otherwise      autopsy.
  specified.                                     autopsychosis See allopsychosis.
autochthonous From within.                       autoregressive Dependent upon preced-
autocorrelation correlation between                ing events.
  events or items in a sequence of events        autoregressive integrated moving
  or items.                                        average (ARIMA) Statistical method
autoeroticism masturbation.                        of discerning trends in sequences of
                                                   autoregressive events and/or measures.
autogenic From within the self.
                                                 autosomal Any aspect of chromosomes
autogenic training A therapy in which
                                                   other than the sex chromosomes.
  the patient trains him/herself to relax,
  using a series of exercises which induce       autosomal dominant Describes genetic
  progressively deeper levels of relax-            inheritance where the genetic material
  ation/meditation.                                responsible is on one non-sex chromo-
                                                   some. In the case of autosomal recessive
automated reporting General term for
                                                   the genetic material must be on both of
  any computerized method of scoring
                                                   a pair of non-sex chromosomes for the
  tests and reporting an interpretation of
                                                   inheritance to manifest itself. It follows
  the findings.
                                                   from this that autosomal recessive traits
Automated Social History Computer-                 are easier to pass on.
 ized questionnaire eliciting personal,
                                                 autosomal recessive See autosomal domi-
 medical, and familial details.
automatic speaking Speaking without
                                                 autotelic Pertaining to the defence of
  any conscious control.
                                                   one’s own interests.

autotopagnosia An inability to name
  parts of the body.                          B
availability heuristic The phenomenon         B-type personality type B personality.
  that the more often one thinks about        Babinski reflex A type of primitive reflex.
  something, the more likely one is to          If a baby’s foot is tickled the toes fan
  identify it as occurring in real life,        out and then curl. The reflex usually
  regardless of the probability of it           disappears at 8–12 months of age. Its
  actually occurring.                           retention after this time probably indi-
average deviation The mean of all raw           cates neurological damage.
  score deviations in a sample.               ‘baby blues’ post-natal depression.
aversion relief therapy Therapeutic           Baby Talk Register (BTR) Non-sexist
  technique in which it is the cessation of     (but less memorable) synonym for
  the aversive stimulus which is reward-        motherese.
  ing (rather than using the threat of pun-
  ishment as in aversive therapy).            BAC British Association for Counselling.
aversion therapy Therapeutic technique        bacillophobia A phobia of germs and/or
  using counterconditioning.                    infection.
aversive therapy aversion therapy.            backward child Largely outdated term
                                                for a child whose abilities fall apprecia-
avoidance Any method of avoiding con-           bly below his/her age norm.
  fronting an aversive issue. This can
  range in severity from avoiding answer-     backward elimination Method of
  ing an awkward question to avoidant           multiple regression in which all the predic-
  personality disorder.                         tor variables are entered and then those
                                                that do not significantly add to the pre-
avoidance conditioning conditioning             dictive power of the equation are
  technique in which the participant            removed.
  learns to prevent an aversive stimulus
  occurring. This contrasts with escape       backward reader Individual whose
  conditioning, in which the subject is         reading abilities fall appreciably below
  trained to stop an aversive stimulus          his/her age norm. No cause for this state
  once it has started.                          of affairs is inferred (i.e. the term is not
                                                synonymous with developmental dys-
avoidant disorder of childhood An               lexia).
  abnormal aversion to approaching
  strangers.                                  backward speller Individual whose
                                                spelling abilities fall appreciably below
avoidant personality disorder person-           his/her age norm. No cause for this state
  ality disorder characterized by an abnor-     of affairs is inferred (i.e. the term is not
  mally poor self-image, and an avoidance       synonymous with developmental dys-
  of social contacts.                           graphia).
avolition A profound lack of willingness      BAI Beck Anxiety Inventory.
  to do anything ‘off one’s own bat’, lack
  of drive, etc.                              balanced Latin square See Latin square
                                              Balthazar Scales of Adaptive Behav-
                                                iour Rating scales assessing the degree
                                                                        BASAL AGE / 39

  to which a mentally retarded child/            tested for e.g. knowledge of which is
  teenager can adapt into the community.         the left or right side of their bodies;
                                                 they have to repeat polysyllabic words,
Bandura’s theory of social learning
                                                 perform various arithmetical tasks,
 Albert Bandura (1925–) observes that
                                                 recite the list of months forwards and
 in many situations, people (especially
                                                 backwards, etc.
 children) learn skills simply by observ-
 ing others performing them, and then          Bannatyne-WISC categories Regroup-
 copying (an example of modelling).             ing by Bannatyne of WISC sub-test
 Often the very first attempt at imitation      scores into three categories – Spatial,
 is very accomplished – an example of           Conceptual and Sequential (essentially
 no-trial learning. Bandura identifies          maths skills).
 various factors which influence the
                                               bar chart bar graph.
 success of social learning. The person
 must attend to the to-be-copied activ-        bar graph Graph for discrete variables, in
 ity, and be physically capable of rep-          which the name of each variable is
 licating it (e.g. it is no use an infant        shown on the X axis, and the values on
 watching someone toss the caber in the          the Y axis. The data entries are repre-
 hope of being able to copy the action).         sented as solid bars, separated by
 The person must also be able to retain          equally-sized spaces. This is not synon-
 a memory of the task. Bandura argues            ymous with a histogram (which is for fre-
 that this is often done with a verbal           quency distribution data), although the
 code (e.g. ‘right hand hold sprocket,           two terms are often used interchange-
 then left hand turn screw’) which is            ably (erroneously).
 more flexible than a visual image.            barbiturates Group of minor tranquil-
 Children under 5 years lack this code,          lizers, now rarely used therapeutically
 and so are more restricted in what they         because they are addictive.
 can learn. The motivation for learning
 and, more important, performing the           Barnum effect The erroneous belief that
 task, depends largely upon whether it          a general description of personality is
 is perceived as rewarding. This can be         an exact description of an individual.
 learnt by vicarious reinforcement (ob-         This can apply to (a) credulous souls
 serving if others are rewarded or              who believe that e.g. newspaper horo-
 punished for performing the same               scopes exactly describe them, or (b) cli-
 actions). In one study, children were          nicians who decide that a patient’s
 shown a film in which aggression was           symptoms and personality fit the too
 either rewarded, punished, or ignored.         general profile created by a test.
 Left to play afterwards, children who         Barron-Welsh test A measure of prefer-
 had seen aggression rewarded were sig-         ence for simple or complex designs.
 nificantly more likely to behave vio-
 lently to toys than were children in the      BARS behaviourally anchored rating scale.
 other two conditions. There is a consid-      Bartlett’s method See factor analysis.
 erable debate over the range of learning
 situations for which Bandura’s methods        BAS British Ability Scales.
 are applicable. See reciprocal determinism.   basal age In a standardized test, the average
Bangor Dyslexia Test (BDT) test battery          age of participants who pass all the
 of dyslexic symptoms, for subjects aged         items passed by an individual partici-
 7 years and above. Little direct                pant.
 emphasis on reading. Subjects are

basal ganglia Section of diencephalon.        basophobia A phobia of standing or
  Involved in planning and execution of         walking.
                                              bathophobia A phobia of depths.
basal measure baseline measure.
                                              Battelle Developmental Inventory
basal metabolism The minimum meta-             (BDI) A test battery, assessing develop-
  bolic rate of the participant’s body at      ment from 0–8 years, in five principal
  rest necessary for the participant to        areas: adaptation to the environment,
  remain awake.                                cognitive skills, communication skills,
                                               motor skills and social skills.
BASC Behavior Assessment System for
 Children.                                    battered child syndrome Pattern of
                                                behaviour which may result from being
baseline measure (1) The level of per-
                                                a victim of physical child abuse (includes
  formance before the onset of treatment.
                                                inability to form adequate relationships,
  (2) The standard of performance
                                                poor self-image).
  against which assessment will be made.
                                              Baye’s formula Baye’s theorem.
Basic Achievement Skills Individual
 Screener (BASIS) Measure of scholas-         Baye’s theorem Formula expressing the
 tic attainment for subjects aged 5–13         probability that an event will occur
 years.                                        because of a particular mutually exclusive
                                               event. E.g. suppose we know that di-
Basic Number Diagnostic Test
                                               sease X causes a certain type of rash in
 (BNDT) See BasicNumberScreeningTest.
                                               90% of patients, but the same rash
Basic Number Screening Test (BNST)             occurs in 20% of patients with disease
 Group test of numerical skills for            Y and 7% of patients with disease Z.
 children aged 7–12 years. A related test      Baye’s theorem can calculate the proba-
 – the Basic Number Diagnostic Test            bility that a patient with this rash has
 (BNDT) is for individual testing to           each of the three diseases.
 identify older children with numeracy
                                              Bayley Scales of Infant Development
 problems (or to identify normal num-
                                               (BSID) Test battery of mental, motor
 eracy skills in children aged 5–7 years).
                                               and behavioural skills/attributes of
basic research See applied research.           infants and young children (up to 42
basic skills Education’s equivalent of pri-    months) used particularly to identify
  mary mental abilities – the educational      abnormal development. A revised
  skills which must be present if the edu-     version (Bayley Scales II) was published
  cation process is to succeed (i.e. basic     in 1993.
  literacy, numeracy, etc.).                  BBCS Bracken Basic Concept Scale.
Basic Skills Test (BST) Measure of basic      BCDP Bracken Concept Development
 literacy and numeracy skills. Intended        Programme.
 for assessment of unskilled or lowly
                                              BDAE Boston Diagnostic Aphasia Examina-
 skilled staff.
basic trust versus mistrust See Erikson’s
                                              BDI (1) Beck Depression Inventory. (2)
  theory of development.
                                               Battelle Developmental Inventory.
basiphobia basophobia.
                                              BDS Blessed Dementia Scale.
BASIS Basic Achievement Skills Individual
                                              BDT Bangor Dyslexia Test.
                                         BEHAVIOURAL EXPECTATION SCALE (BES) / 41

Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI) Self-             Behaviour Evaluation Scale Measure-
 report questionnaire, measuring level          ment of emotional and social develop-
 of anxiety.                                    ment for 5–16-year-olds.
Beck Depression Inventory (BDI)                behaviour modification behaviour
 Widely-used self-report questionnaire,          therapy.
 measuring depression.
                                               Behaviour Rating Scale (BRS) See
Beck Hopelessness Scale (BHS) Self-             Clifton Assessment Procedure for the Elderly.
 report questionnaire, measuring the
                                               behaviour therapy (1) The treatment of a
 degree to which the patient feels
                                                 mental illness or maladaptive behaviour
 hopeful about his/her long-term ex-
                                                 by attempting to modify the patient’s
                                                 behaviour, rather than discussing the
Beck Scale for Suicide Ideation (BSI)            underlying mental state which caused it.
 Self-report questionnaire, measuring            The t e ch n i q u e i s d e r i ved f ro m
 the degree to which a patient has inten-        behaviourism (this excludes introspec-
 tions to commit suicide.                        tion, inter alia). (2) More generally, any
                                                 therapeutic method which draws upon
befriending Activity in which (usually
                                                 experimental psychological research on
  professionally unqualified) volunteers
                                                 the acquisition of traits, and general
  visit sick, lonely or otherwise disadvan-
                                                 learning. Examples of behaviour thera-
  taged individuals to chat, do odd jobs,
                                                 pies include desensitization and flooding.
  etc. The effect can be therapeutic (for
  both parties).                               behavioural assessment (1) A measure
                                                 of a subject’s behaviour in a ‘real life’
behaviour The term is used in a variety
                                                 situation. (2) behaviour therapy.
  of ways in psychology. Often it is used
  in the lay manner (i.e. meaning overt        behavioural checklist behaviour check-
  actions), but it can refer to emotional        list.
  states and thought processes.
                                               behavioural competence The ability to
Behavior Assessment System for                   use appropriate behaviour.
 Children (BASC) test battery assessing
                                               behavioural contagion The acquisition
 behavioural and emotional develop-
                                                 of a new behaviour by members of a
 ment in people aged from early child-
                                                 group copying each other.
 hood to young adult.
                                               behavioural contract See contingency
behaviour checklist Set of descriptions
  of aspects of behaviour, against each of
  which the respondent indicates if the        behavioural disorder functional mental
  description applies to the subject in          disorder.
  question.                                    Behavioural Event Recording Package
behaviour contracting Agreement be-              (BERP) Timing and recording device
  tween therapist and patient regarding          for measuring several different events
  the structure and course of the treat-         simultaneously.
  ment.                                        behavioural expectation scale (BES)
behaviour disorder A maladaptive be-             Form of behaviourally anchored rating
  haviour which is not simply a direct           scale.
  manifestation of an underlying mental

behavioural genetics The study of                 to some form of stimulation. Of the
  genetic factors fully or partly determin-       various stages in this process, the
  ing behaviour.                                  stimulus can be measured, as can the
                                                  strength and/or appropriateness of the
behavioural interviewing In behaviour
                                                  response, but the thought processes
  therapy, helping a patient recognize his/
                                                  used to do this cannot. Hence, beha-
  her problem behaviour, how it arises
                                                  viourism concentrated on the stimulus
  and what its effects are.
                                                  and response, and rigorously excluded
behavioural medicine (1) A combina-               discussion of mental processes. The
  tion of behaviour therapy and medical           theory had a very strong hold on
  treatment, primarily used to treat psy-         psychology from the 1920s to the late
  chophysiological disease. The treatment of      1950s, but was eventually recognized
  children with this technique is called          as being too limited in its scope, and
  behavioural paediatrics. (2) More gener-        researchers began to create models of
  ally, the study of the relationship bet-        mental processing. With its emphasis
  ween behaviour and issues pertaining            on stimulus and response and operant
  to medicine.                                    conditioning, behaviourism gave rise to a
behavioural observation scale (BOS)               number of therapies which essentially
  A measure (often used in occupational           worked by more or less explicitly condi-
  psychology) in which the observer               tioning the patient (see learning theory
  records how often the subject performs          and stimulus-response learning). Critics
  a particular key act.                           have argued that the methods were too
                                                  harsh and mechanistic – in part, objec-
behavioural paediatrics See behavioural           tions may stem from the fact that sym-
  medicine.                                       bolically identical conditioning tech-
behavioural therapy behaviour therapy.            niques can be used to train laboratory
                                                  animals. However, for certain condi-
behavioural toxicology The study of               tions, the treatment is effective (e.g. see
  the effects of toxins (e.g. poisons, pollu-     token economy). See behaviour therapy and
  tion) on behaviour.                             neobehaviourism.
behaviourally anchored rating scale             Belbin test A measure of self-perception
  (BARS) A rating scale in which a des-          of one’s principal abilities in manage-
  cription of typical features associated        rial tasks.
  with the behaviour in question is pro-
  vided to help the scorer make his/ her        Bell Adjustment Scale Adjustment inven-
  choice, and thus improve the reliability       tory, for participants aged 12 years and
  and validity of the measure. E.g. in a         over.
  (hypothetical) scale of trustworthiness       bell-shaped curve Shape of curve of a
  from 1 (‘completely untrustworthy’) to          normal distribution.
  5 (‘completely trustworthy’), against
  the score of 1 might be written ‘cannot       bell-shaped distribution normal distri-
  be left alone for a minute – has often          bution.
  been suspected of, or has actually been       belle indifférence, la See conversion
  caught, stealing’).                             disorder.
behaviourism In its rigid form, the belief      Bellevue Scale Wechsler-Bellevue Scale.
  that psychologists should only study
                                                benchmark measure A test or measure
  what can be objectively measured. All
                                                  which is commonly used in a particular
  voluntary acts can be seen as a response
                                                  situation, and hence likely to be used
                                                   BETWEEN-SUBJECTS MEASURE / 43

  as a common measure. The term usually         BERP Behavioural Event Recording Package.
  implies that the test or measure is
                                                BES behavioural expectation scale.
  widely recognized as being of good
  quality.                                      Beta (ß ) (1) The symbol for the probabil-
                                                 ity that a Type II error (beta error) will be
Bender-Gestalt Test A test of visuo-
                                                 made. See power (of a statistical test). (2)
 spatial skills. The subject is required to
                                                 See signal detection analysis. (3) standard-
 copy geometrical shapes of increasing
                                                 ised coefficient.
 complexity. Test is suitable for partici-
 pants aged 8 years and over. Part of the       beta blockers General term for a range
 Bender Visual Motor Gestalt Test battery.        of drugs that block or reduce stimula-
                                                  tion of a component of the autonomic
Bender Report A computerized assess-
                                                  nervous system (more specifically, the beta-
 ment of performance on the Bender-
                                                  adrenergic receptors). Beta blockers are
 Gestalt Test.
                                                  used in the treatment of a number of
Bender Visual Motor Gestalt Test                  heart conditions and blood pressure
 (BVMGT) Battery of visual and motor              problems, and can also reduce levels of
 skills, including the Bender-Gestalt Test.       anxiety.
benign senescent forgetfulness age              beta error Type II error.
  associated memory impairment.
                                                Beta Test See Alpha Test.
Bennett Differential Aptitude Test
                                                beta waves A pattern of electrical activity
 Aptitude test for basic scholastic and
                                                  in the brain detected by EEG with a fre-
 clerical skills.
                                                  quency below 12 Hz.
Bennett Test of Mechanical Compre-
                                                beta weight (1) A measure of how well a
 hension Aptitude test of basic engineer-
                                                  test score predicts a criterion. (2) See
 ing skills.
                                                  multiple regression.
Benton Revised Visual Retention Test
                                                between-group variance The degree
 Measure of visual skills. The participant
                                                  to which the scores of groups differ
 has to remember a series of increasingly
                                                  on the same measure. Contrast with
 complex shapes. For participants aged
                                                  between- subject variance.
 8 years and over.
                                                between groups ANOVA Analysis of
benzedrine Type of amphetamine.
                                                  variance in which all the measures are
benzodiazapines Group of minor tran-              between groups measures.
                                                between groups measure See analysis of
Bern Sex Role Inventory (BSRI)                    variance.
 Measure of the degree to which a par-
                                                between-subject variance The degree
 ticipant conforms to a ‘traditional’
                                                  to which the scores of subjects within
 gender role.
                                                  the same group differ. Contrast with
Bernoulli distribution binomial distribu-         within-group variance.
                                                between-subjects design See within-
Bernreuter Personal Adjustment In-                subjects design.
 ventory Personality measure yielding
                                                between-subjects measure (1) between
 six scores, representing personality traits.
                                                  groups measure (2) between-subject vari-

Bexley-Maudsley Test A test battery           binomial distribution Frequency distri-
 assessing psychological dysfunction            bution of the probability of a particular
 following brain damage.                        mutually exclusive event occurring at each
                                                possible number of occasions in a set of
BHS Beck Hopelessness Scale.
                                                trials (e.g. if a coin is tossed six times,
bias test bias.                                 the probability of heads coming up on
biased sample A sample of items or              0,1,2,3,4,5 and 6 occasions). The
  subjects which, either deliberately or        larger the number of trials, the more the
  accidentally is not representative of the     binomial distribution resembles the
  population (e.g. assuming that political      normal distribution. See bimodal distribu-
  opinions collected from a fascist rally       tion and Poisson distribution.
  represent the views of the entire elec-     binomial test A test of probability of a
  torate).                                      particular series of mutually exclusive
BIB biographic information blank.               events (e.g. of throwing 4365123 on a
                                                die of TTHHHTT in a series of coin
bibliotherapy The use of reading mate-          tosses). The sampling distribution is the
  rials for therapeutic purposes (e.g.          binomial distribution. Different formulae
  self-help guides, exercises, etc).            are used for series above and below 25
Big Five five factor model of personality.      in length.
bilateral Involving both sides. Hence, in     Binswanger’s disease Dementia whose
  discussing brain damage, a‘ bilateral         origins are disputed, but whose sym-
  loss’ means that the structure has been       ptoms are akin to those of lacunar
  lost from both sides of the brain.            dementia.
bimodal distribution Frequency distribu-      bioavailability The speed with which a
  tion with two modes. In graphical form,       drug becomes active in the body.
  appears as a distribution with two peaks.   biodynamic therapy (1) General term
  Not to be confused with binomial distri-      for a range of therapies exploring links
  bution.                                       between mind and body through
binaural Of both ears.                          physical exercises, massage, etc., the
                                                principal aim being to reach the ‘inner
Binet/Binet-Simon Scale Original                self ’ beneath the socialized exterior. (2)
  (French) version of the Stanford-Binet        The original therapeutic technique
  Scale/Test.                                   devised by Boyesen using the general
binge drinking Drinking excessively             principles of (1).
  large amounts of alcoholic drink in         bioenergetics Therapeutic technique
  sporadic sessions to the point of (often      devised by Lowen out of the work of
  severe) intoxication.                         Reich (see orgone therapy, though note
binge eating Eating excessively large           that bioenergetics is shorn of the
  amounts of food in sporadic sessions,         excesses of Reich’s theories). The tech-
  well beyond the needs of satisfying           nique concentrates on bodily exercises,
  hunger. The sessions may be followed          and, akin to biodynamic therapy, stresses
  by self-induced vomiting. Most com-           the need to concentrate on the ‘inner
  monly found in bulimia nervosa.               self ’ rather than outward appearance
                                                and attitudes that have been created by
bingeing binge eating or binge drinking.        socializing forces.
                                                                                 BLAT / 45

biofeedback Providing information on            bipolar disorder See depression.
  the state of a bodily function. The tech-
                                                bipolar I disorder bipolar disorder.
  nique can be used for therapeutic
  purposes – e.g. a patient might be given      bipolar scale Scale on which partici-
  information on his/her brain wave               pants make their evaluations on a scale
  patterns enabling him/her to judge              finishing at either end with opposite
  how well a relaxation technique is              values (e.g. good-bad, light-dark etc.).
  working (an example of biofeedback            bipolar II disorder See depression.
                                                birth cohort A group of people born in
biofeedback training See biofeedback.             the same period of time. See cohort.
biogenic Of biological origin.                  birth order Siblings arranged in order of
biographic information blank (BIB)                age.
  (1) Sheet requesting biographical details     birth trauma In some psychoanalytic
  which the participant fills in. (2) A           theories, the distress surrounding birth,
  (computerized) system for extracting            which is argued to lie at the root of
  biographical details in which the par-          future psychological problems.
  ticipant's early answers determine the
  questions he or she is subsequently           biserial correlation coefficient (rbis)
  asked.                                          See point biserial correlation coefficient.
biographical approach The analysis of           bivariate With two variables.
  the lives of people. The term is often        bivariate correlation correlation bet-
  specifically applied to the analysis of         ween two variables.
  lives of unusual individuals (e.g. those
  pre-eminent in their fields) to find          bivariate method Any method using
  common factors explaining their un-             two variables (although typically refers
  usualness.                                      to the procedure of changing the inde-
                                                  pendent variable and observing the
biographical inventory List of personal           changes in the dependent variable).
  details about a person.
                                                Blacky Pictures test projective personality
biological age The body’s state of                test, based on Freud’s psychoanalytic theory
  physical development/degeneration.              (i.e. examines how well the participant
  This is gauged against the state of an          has ‘resolved’ the various stages of
  average person of the same chronological        development). The pictures used are of
  age.                                            a family of dogs.
bionomic exogenous.                             blank American term for a form (either a
biopsychosocial research Research com-            test sheet or a form requesting bio-
  bining biological, psychological and socio-     graphical information).
  logical perspectives.                         blank experiment An experiment or
biosocial theory Theory that discusses            task administered to participants which
  the interaction between the body                in itself is of no interest, but is necessary
  (including its psychological processes)         in order to distract the participants
  and social forces.                              from another task whose performance
                                                  is of interest.
bipolar depression bipolar disorder.
                                                BLAT Blind Learning Aptitude Test.
bipolar dimension See dimension.

Blessed Dementia Scale (BDS) A                  blind studies). However, in certain cir-
  simple test of intellectual impairment        cumstances, this knowledge could
  and functioning, usually employed in          (consciously or unconsciously) sway
  the assessment of demented patients. The      the experimenters’ judgements where
  test requires the patient to answer some      measures are essentially subjective. E.g.
  simple memory questions (e.g. ‘what is        if the drugs are being compared for
  your name?’, ‘who is the current Prime        their effect on mood change, then the
  Minister?’) and to perform some simple        experimenters may exaggerate differ-
  intellectual tasks (e.g. ‘count backwards     ences in effects in support of the drug
  in steps of three’). Details of how           they favour. This is an example of
  capable the patient is of looking after       observer bias. In these instances, a double
  him- or herself are collected from a          blind study is used, where neither the
  caregiver. The test provides a useful         participants nor the observers know the
  ‘ready reckoner’ of how intellectually        groupings (the information is kept by a
  impaired a patient is, and how much           third party until testing is complete).
  professional nursing care and assistance      See Clever Hans.
  is required. The Blessed Dementia
                                              blindsight Phenomenon whereby a
  Scale (named after its author, Dr
                                                patient, although supposedly blind
  Blessed) is a British test. An American
                                                from brain damage, can respond to
  equivalent is the Mental Status Question-
                                                some visual stimulation (e.g. pointing
  naire, which has a very similar format.
                                                to the source of a light). The patient
Blind Learning Aptitude Test (BLAT)             is unaware that s/he can ‘see’ the
  Non-verbal intelligence test for vis-         stimulus. The phenomenon is due to
  ually handicapped children, using only        intact connections to parts of the brain
  tactile skills. Participants must distin-     involved in relatively minor aspects of
  guish between shapes by touch, and            visual perception.
  identify the ‘odd one out’. The shapes
                                              block (1) Group of participants assigned
  increase in complexity as the test pro-
                                                together because of something they
                                                have in common. (2) Group of tests
blind study Study in which the partici-         or other items, whose link is either
  pant is unaware of the group to which         that they are all given to the same
  s/he has been assigned whilst the study       participant, or that they are given in
  is conducted (although usually s/he is        the same time period (the latter defini-
  informed after it is over). E.g. partici-     tion applies particularly to repetitious
  pants may be divided into two groups          measures such as reaction times). For
  and receive two different drug treat-         either definition, the source of the simi-
  ments. Knowing which drug they are            larity is called the blocking factor. (3) In
  receiving might influence motivation          therapy, the inability (either voluntary
  and hence performance; this is an unde-       or involuntary) to progress along a par-
  sirable extra variable, and accordingly,      ticular line of thought.
  participants are kept unaware of the
                                              block design test Sub-test of the
  nature of their treatment. A special
                                                Wechsler intelligence tests. The partici-
  form of the blind study is the placebo
                                                pant is required to replicate patterns
  study. In conventional blind studies, the
                                                using a set of blocks. As the test pro-
  experimenters recording the partici-
                                                gresses, the designs become harder to
  pants’ performance are aware of which
  participants belong to which groups
  (the studies are sometimes called single
                                                                       BOEHM-PV / 47

block randomization (-isation) (1)
  Experimental procedure in which                which the stressful situation is deliber-
  subjects are presented with the same           ately concentrated on.
  block of items on more than one
                                               BMDP Bio-Medical Data Package – a
  occasion, but on each new presenta-
                                                commonly-used computerized statisti-
  tion, the items are presented in a differ-
                                                cal analysis package.
  ent order. (2) Presenting blocks of items
  in a random order.                           BNDT Basic Number Diagnostic Test.
block sampling Taking samples of sub-          BNST Basic Number Screening Test.
  groups in proportion to their incidence      Boder Test of Reading-Spelling
  in the total population.                      Patterns Measure of types of reading
blocking factor See block.                      handicap, including a separation of
                                                developmental dyslexia from motivational
blood–brain barrier A physiological
                                                or perceptual problems.
  mechanism which prevents many
  chemicals carried in the blood from          body dysmorphic disorder A dysfunc-
  entering the brain. This protects brain        tional and illusory belief that one’s
  tissue from damage, but it can also filter     body is severely distorted or abnormal
  out potentially beneficial drugs.              in appearance.
blood pressure The pressure of blood           body image The subjective impression
  against the walls of the arteries. Is          one has of one’s own body. An inaccu-
  measured in two components – systolic          rate image – a body image disturbance –
  pressure is the pressure when the heart        can lead to problems such as anorexia
  contracts, and diastolic pressure is the       nervosa, in which the patient is con-
  pressure when the heart relaxes. The           vinced that s/he is too fat.
  pressure is measured in terms of milli-      body image disturbance See body image.
  metres of mercury moved in the mea-
  suring apparatus (a sphygmomano-             body language The behavioural state of
  meter) and is expressed as a ratio of          an individual as indicated by his/her
  systolic/diastolic (e.g. ‘120/80’,             posture and/or physical movements.
  which is a typical reading for a young,        The study of body language can be a
  reasonably healthy adult). High blood          useful research and therapeutic tool (e.g.
  pressure (hypertension) is in itself           in estimating the emotional state of an
  without symptoms, but can be a precur-         individual when a direct question is
  sor of serious illness, particularly car-      impossible). However, several studies
  diovascular problems, including stroke.        have shown that the method is not infal-
  There are many causes of high blood            lible. See non-verbal communication.
  pressure, including disease, but the         Body Shape Questionnaire (BSQ)
  culprits also include an over-rich diet,      Measure of the degree of satisfaction a
  smoking and stress. The condition can         patient finds in his/her body shape.
  also arise for no apparent reason (essen-     Used in e.g. assessment of anorexia
  tial hypertension).                           nervosa.
BLUE best linear unbiased estimator.           bodywork General term for any thera-
blueprint test specifications.                   peutic method which emphasizes or is
                                                 wholly based on bodily movements
blunting Responding to a stressful situa-        and exercises.
  tion by trying not to think about it.
  This contrasts with monitoring , in          Boehm-PV Boehm Test of Basic Concepts –
                                                Preschool Version.

Boehm-R Boehm Test of Basic Concepts –          Bonferroni correction Mathematical
 Revised.                                        procedure applied when a group of
                                                 comparisons are being made on the
Boehm Resource Guide for Basic
                                                 same data to control for the familywise
 Concept Teaching A collection of
                                                 error rate.
 teaching aids for developing certain
 concepts in young (3 years and over)           Bonferroni inequality Measure of
 and retarded children.                          probability of committing a Type I error
                                                 when employing a t test to compare
Boehm Test of Basic Concepts – Pre-
                                                 several pairings of groups drawn from
 school Version (Boehm-PV) Test of
                                                 the same larger set of groups (e.g. if
 3–5-year-old children’s comprehen-
                                                 there are groups A, B, C and D, using
 sion of 26 basic concepts. See Boehm
                                                 the t test to compare A and B, A and C,
 Test of Basic Concepts – Revised.
                                                 A and D, B and C, etc).
Boehm Test of Basic Concepts – Revised
                                                booster session In therapy, a session
  (Boehm-R) Test of 4–7- year-old chil-
                                                  arranged some time after the main
  dren’s grasp of basic concepts. See Boehm
                                                  body of treatment has ceased, to check
  Test of Basic Concepts – Preschool Version.
                                                  on progress, reinforce the original
Bogardus scale A measure of the                   therapy, etc.
 distance (physical and/or social) which
                                                bootstrap statistics General term for a
 a participant likes to keep between
                                                  range of tests in which there are
 him/herself and members of other
                                                  repeated random samplings from a
 social or ethnic groups.
                                                  group of data to determine the data’s
Bogen cage A measure of visuo-spatial             statistical characteristics, rather than
 intelligence. The participant propels a          making reference to the hypothesized
 ball around a maze using a prodder.              population from which the group was
bogus pipeline A technique for eliciting          drawn.
  truthful rather than socially acceptable      borderline intelligence IQ level which
  answers. The experimenter convinces             places a subject on the border of being
  (i.e. deceives) the subject into believing      classified as mentally retarded.
  that s/he is being assessed using a very
                                                borderline personality disorder per-
  accurate lie detector. This supposedly
                                                  sonality disorder characterized by sudden
  acts as an incentive for the subject to
                                                  and unpredictable swings in mood, and
  tell the absolute truth in answering
                                                  a chronic need for companionship.
  potentially embarrassing questions.
                                                  There may also be thought disorders.
BOLD-fMRI (Blood Oxygen Level
                                                borderline significance See significance.
 Dependent fMRI) Commonly used
 fMRI technique.                                borderline state The state of an individ-
                                                  ual who displays symptoms of a mental
bond (1) Emotional attachment – in lay
                                                  illness, but who retains sufficient
  terms, a ‘relationship’, with a set of
                                                  vestiges of ‘normality’ to be considered
  societal expectations on how it should
                                                  sane (although only just). Note that the
  be conducted (e.g. mother–child bond).
                                                  term often carries an implicit value
  (2) The verb for the same process.
bonding The formation of a bond.
                                                Borke Interpersonal Awareness Test
                                                 Two-part measure of children’s aware-
                                                 ness of others’ emotions. Part I:
                                                                 BRADYARTHRIA / 49

  emotion-inducing situations are              box and whisker plot Method of sum-
  described to the participant, who must         marizing data in which the typical
  decide which emotion would be                  values are presented as a box plotted on
  elicited. Part II: the participant hears       the graph, with more extreme values
  stories in which s/he is described as          shown as vertical lines (often T-shaped)
  behaving in various ways towards               projecting from either end of the box.
  another child. The participant must            Typically, the bottom of the box repre-
  judge how the child would feel.                sents the 25th percentile, the top of the
                                                 box the 75th percentile, and a horizon-
BOS behavioural observation scale.
                                                 tal line within the box represents the
Boston Diagnostic Aphasia Examina-               50th percentile. The ends of the lines
 tion (BDAE) Test battery used in the            represent the highest and lowest scores.
 assessment and classification of aphasia.       The length of the box thus represents
BOT Bruininks-Oseretsky Test of Motor Pro-       the interquartile range and whiskers that
 ficiency.                                       are appreciably longer than the box
                                                 indicate outliers. Although this is the
bottom up data mining See data mining.           normal usage, on occasion authors use
bovine spongiform encephalopathy                 the box and whiskers to denote differ-
  (BSE) Degenerative disease of the              ent values, so caution is advised.
  nervous system in cattle, colloquially       BPS (1) British Psychological Society. (2)
  known as mad cow disease. The disease         Bricklin Perceptual Scales.
  probably originated from eating animal
  feed contaminated with scrapie (or           BPS guidelines Any set of guidelines
  possibly infected human remains) and          (usually on codes of professional
  was (at least in the early stages) princi-    conduct) issued by the British Psycho-
  pally confined to the United King-            logical Society.
  dom. A new human disease – variant           BPVS British Picture Vocabulary Scale.
  Creutzfeldt–Jakob Disease (vCJD), first
                                               brachycephalic wide-skulled.
  identified in 1995, is believed to have
  been caused by eating BSE-infected           Bracken Basic Concept Scale (BBCS)
  beef products. At the time of writing,         Measure of concept acquisition in
  this is largely confined to the UK. Early      children aged 2 years 6 months–8 years.
  predictions were of tens or hundreds of        Consists of a group screening test and a
  thousands of deaths, but at the time           more searching diagnostic test done on
  of writing, vCJD has killed circa 150          a one-to-one basis. See Bracken Concept
  people (mostly young adults), with             Development Programme.
  predictions of all future deaths being
                                               Bracken Concept Development Pro-
  circa 70 (though some more pessimis-
                                                 gramme (BCDP) Teaching pro-
  tic predictions have a higher figure).
                                                 gramme for developing concept acqui-
  The symptoms of vCJD are akin to
                                                 sition. Related to Bracken Basic Concept
  Creutzfeldt–Jakob Disease but typically
  early symptoms are anxiety and depres-
  sion before movement and/or cognitive        bracketing collapsing.
  impairment, and brain cell damage has        brady- As a prefix: slow and/or halting.
  a different appearance.
                                               bradyarthria Slow and/or halting speech,
Bowman Test of Reading Compe-                    caused by brain damage.
 tence Reading test for 7–10-year-olds.
 Uses cloze procedure.

bradyglossia Slow and/or halting speech,        term has been overused by the media
  caused by damage to the mouth.                and is probably best avoided.
bradykinesis Abnormally slow move-            Brazelton Scale Measure of newborn
  ments.                                        infant’s mental state, by measuring
                                                reactions to a variety of stimuli (light,
bradylalia Slow and/or halting speech.
                                                rattle, etc.), reflexes, etc. Used to
bradylexia Slow and/or halting reading,         identify possible brain damage, mental
  not simply attributable to low intelli-       retardation, etc. An amended version –
  gence.                                        the Neonatal Behavioural Assessment
bradylogia Slow and/or halting speech.          Scale with Kansas Supplements (NBAS-K)
                                                is also in wide use.
bradyphasia bradylalia.
                                              brick test Semi-serious term for a creativ-
bradyphrenia Abnormally slow thought.           ity test in which the subject must think
bradypraxia Abnormally slow actions             of novel uses for an everyday object
  and reactions.                                (often a house brick, hence the name).
brain death Cessation of function in the      Bricklin Perceptual Scales (BPS)
  brain, particularly the brain stem and       Measure of children’s perceptions of
  other areas controlling basic reflexes,      their parents.
  such as pupillary contraction in bright     brief psychotherapy short-term psycho-
  light.                                        therapy.
brain stem Section of the brain which is      brief psychotic disorder In DSM-IV,
  the meeting place between the spinal          the preferred term for brief reactive psy-
  cord and the brain. Besides acting as a       chosis.
  relay station between the spinal cord
  and other areas of the brain, the brain     brief reactive psychosis Psychosis in
  stem controls many ‘life support’             which the patient possesses some of the
  mechanisms (e.g. blood pressure, respi-       symptoms of schizophrenia, which is
  ration).                                      a reaction to a highly stressful event,
                                                and which lasts under a fortnight. See
brain stimulation Physical stimulation          schizophreniform disorder.
  of the brain by chemical or electronic
  means.                                      brief therapy Any therapeutic method
                                                which is intentionally limited to a small
brainstorming Session in which a group          number of sessions. The definition of
  of people is encouraged to generate           small varies between therapists (e.g.
  ideas, however inappropriate, in the          two or three to 20 or more). See short-
  hope of creating fresh approaches to a        term psychotherapy.
  problem. The method has been used
  therapeutically to encourage patients to    Brinley plot A graph of the average
  consider ways of solving their prob-          response times of older people plotted
  lems.                                         against those of young people perform-
                                                ing the same task.
brainwashing Rather nebulous term for
  a variety of methods of attempting to       Briquet’s syndrome A somatoform dis-
  coerce individuals or groups to change        order, characterized by the patient con-
  their opinions, attitudes or beliefs. The     stantly seeking medical treatment for
                                                non-existent physical complaints.
                                                              BULIMIA NERVOSA / 51

Bristol Social Adjustment Guides                then gives them a distracting task
 (BSAG) Measure of the degree to                (usually counting backwards in units of
 which school age children are able to          two or three), before asking partici-
 adjust to social situations.                   pants to recall the items. The task thus
                                                assesses the fragility of short-term
British Ability Scales (BAS) test battery
  to assess 2–17-year-old children’s
  intellectual abilities. The test can be     BRS Behaviour Rating Scale.
  used as a straightforward measure of
                                              Bruininks-Oseretsky Test Test of chil-
  overall intelligence, and can also
                                                dren’s (4–14 years) motor skills.
  provide a profile of abilities.
                                              Bruininks-Oseretsky Test of Motor
British Picture Vocabulary Scale
                                                Proficiency (BOT) Measure of gross
 (BPVS) Updated version of the English
                                                and fine motor skills for age range
 Picture Vocabulary Test (EPVT). Test
                                                young child to young adult.
 of vocabulary in young children.
 Participants are shown four pictures         BSAG Bristol Social Adjustment Guides.
 and are asked which best represents a        BSE bovine spongiform encephalopathy.
 word provided by the experimenter.
 The words increase in difficulty as the      BSI Beck Scale for Suicide Ideation.
 test progresses. The original (American)     BSID Bayley Scales of Infant Development.
 version of the test is known as the
 Peabody Picture Vocabulary Scale.            BSQ Body Shape Questionnaire.
broad categorizing cognitive style in         BSRI Bern Sex Role Inventory.
  which the participant uses a small          BST Basic Skills Test.
  number of categories, each containing
  a large number of items. This contrasts     BTR Baby Talk Register.
  with narrow categorizing, in which the      buddying befriending. The term has
  participant has a larger number of cate-      recently been used particularly for the
  gories, each with fewer items.                befriending of AIDS patients.
Broca’s aphasia Aphasia whose principal       buffering hypothesis Belief that social
  symptom is an inability to speak.             support systems act as a protection
  Contrast with Wernicke’s aphasia.             against developing illness.
Broca’s area Area of temporal lobe (in most   buggery (1) Anal intercourse. (2) Old
  people, the left lobe) controlling            term for bestiality.
  various aspects of speech production.
  Damage to it causes Broca’s aphasia.        bulimia Gross over-eating. The cause may
                                                be due to organic changes in the brain
Brodmann’s Areas Division of cerebral           (e.g. a tumour) but the most common
  cortex into 47 areas, based on differ-        reason is bulimia nervosa, where the over-
  ences in tissue structure.                    eating may take the form of binge eating,
brontophobia A phobia of thunder.               rather than a constant over-eating.

Brook Reaction Test psychoanalytic            bulimia nervosa The urge to eat unnatu-
  measure, in which participants produce        rally large quantities of food (usually
  free associations to a list of words.         binge eating, followed by self-induced
                                                vomiting). Patients are usually teenage
Brown–Peterson task Named after its             and young adult women. An appreciable
  inventors, the task presents participants     proportion (some studies record circa
  with a list of to-be-remembered items,

  50%) of patients have previously            cacosmia Disorder of smell in which
  suffered from anorexia nervosa. See           non-aversively smelling substances are
  bulimia.                                      perceived as malodorous.
burnout A loss of affect, feelings of         CAD cortical atherosclerotic dementia.
  depression, and generally negative
                                              cafeteria feeding Any study in which
  feelings and poor self-image, resulting
                                                the participant is given a range of foods
  from excessive pressures of work.
                                                to choose from, rather than being pre-
Burt Word Reading Test Reading test             sented with a fixed menu.
 for 6–12-year-olds. Requires subjects
                                              caffeinism Addiction to substances
 to read out loud single words, which
                                                which contain caffeine (principally
 increase in difficulty as the test pro-
                                              CAG creative aggression therapy.
BVMGT Bender Visual Motor Gestalt Test.
                                              California F Scale A measure of authori-
Bzoch-League Receptive-Expressive
                                               tarian personality.
 Emergent Language (REEL) test
 Measure of language development from         California Infant Scales Forerunner of
 birth to 3 years.                             Bayley Scales of Infant Development.
                                              California Personality Inventory
                                               (CPI) Personality measure derived
                                               from the Minnesota Multiphasic Personal-
C                                              ity Inventory, but intended for normal
                                               subjects, rather than clinical popu-
C (1) contingency coefficient. (2) (In some    lations.
  models of intelligence) speed of
                                              callosum corpus callosum.
  thought. (3) conscientiousness.
                                              Cambridge Research Mood Survey
CA chronological age.
                                               (CRMS) Measure of wide variety (23)
CAAS Children’s Attention and Adjustment       of moods in the ‘normal’ population.
                                              CAMDEX Cambridge Mental Disorders
CAB (1) Comprehensive Ability Battery. (2)     of the Elderly Examination. A test
 Cognitive Ability Battery.                    battery of measures for assessing older
CAC Compulsive Activity Checklist.             people for dementia and other aspects of
                                               mental health and psychological well-
cachexia Weakness resulting from mal-          being.
                                              Campbell and Fiske multitrait multi-
cachexis cachexia.                             method Method of measuring con-
cachinnation Laughter – the term often         struct validity.
  applies specifically to inappropriate       Camphill Movement Worldwide thera-
  laughter.                                    peutic movement for training and
cacodaemonomania The delusion that             treating mentally handicapped people
  one is possessed or controlled by the        (children and adults). A particular
  Devil, or some other evil force.             feature are ‘Camphill Villages’, thera-
                                               peutic working communities for adults.
cacoguesia Disorder of taste in which
  normal food has an unpleasant taste.        campimetry The measure of the size of a
                                                participant’s visual field (i.e. how big an
                                                area can a person’s sight ‘take in’).
                                                               CATAGELOPHOBIA / 53

cannabis A variety of hemp, from which is      Caregiver Strain Index (CSI) Measure
  derived marijuana. In low doses, it           of stress and strain in caregivers (usually
  produces feelings of relaxation, height-      caregivers of older patients).
  ened perception, and mild euphoria. In
                                               caretaker (1) caregiver. (2) For the benefit
  larger doses, some intellectual impair-
                                                 of American readers – ‘caretaker’ is more
  ment and (rarely) hallucinations are
                                                 commonly used in British English to
  observed. The drug is rarely addictive,
                                                 denote a janitor, particularly of a school.
  but it has carcinogenic properties.
                                               carryover effect (1) See test wise subjects.
canonical correlation canonical regres-
                                                 (2) The influence of performing in the
                                                 early part of an experiment on later
canonical regression multiple regression         parts of the experiment (e.g. confusing
  technique in which there are two or            memories of items encountered in early
  more criterion variables.                      and later parts of the experiment).
CANTAB Battery of tests of neurological        CARS Childhood Autism Rating Scale.
 and psychological impairment.
                                               Carver Word Recognition Test Read-
CAO computer assisted observation.              ing test for participants aged 4–8 years.
                                                Participants must choose the printed
CAPE Clifton Assessment Procedure for the
                                                representation of a word spoken by the
                                                experimenter from a list of alternatives.
Capgras’s syndrome paranoid disorder
                                               CAS (1) Cognitive Assessment Scale. (2)
 characterized by an irrational suspicion
                                                Clinical Anxiety Scale.
 that one’s friends and close associates
 have been replaced by imposters.              case The patient, or group of patients
                                                 regarded as a single entity being treated
Captain’s Log Set of exercises designed
                                                 (as in e.g. family therapy).
 to improve basic intellectual function-
 ing. The exercises are specifically aimed     case study A detailed investigation of a
 at subjects with mental retardation.            single participant or small group of
                                                 participants, who exhibit a particularly
CAQD Clinical Analysis Questionnaire.
                                                 unusual or even unique characteristic
card sorting task Any task in which the          (e.g. a particularly exotic type of brain
  participant must sort a set of cards (con-     damage).
  ventional playing cards or cards spe-
                                               caseload The number of cases for which
  cially devised for the test in question)
                                                 a therapist is responsible.
  into particular sub-groups.
                                               CASL Comprehensive Assessment of Spoken
cardinal trait general trait.
cardiophobia A phobia of heart disease.
                                               CAT (1) Children’s Apperception Test. (2)
‘care in the community’ community care.         Cognitive Abilities Test. (3) cognitive-
caregiver A person who looks after a            analytic therapy. (4) computerized adaptive
  patient or child.                             test.

caregiver burden The psychological and         CAT scan computerized axial tomography.
  material demands and stress placed on a      catagelophobia A phobia of criticism.

catalepsy The maintainance of a bodily            simply to examine a specific disability
  posture for an abnormally long period.          at categorization (e.g. after brain
  Many commentators use the term inter-           damage).
  changeably with catatonic state.
                                                categorized list List of items which all
catalexia (1) The inappropriate repeti-           belong to the same category or small
  tion of a word or phrase when reading.          group of categories. Sometimes used in
  (2) A form of dyslexia in which this            memory experiments.
  occurs to an abnormal degree.
                                                category (1) A grouping of participants
catalogia Persistent and illogical repeti-        or items on the basis of a unique feature
  tion of a nonsense word or phrase.              which distinguishes them from
                                                  members of other categories (e.g. male
catalytic In therapeutic settings, the
                                                  and female, university students and
  effect created by a question, event or
                                                  school pupils, etc.). A natural category is
  person which creates a fresh insight or
                                                  one which is ‘innately’ perceived as
  action in the patient.
                                                  valid (e.g. basic perceptions of colour,
catamnesis See anamnesis.                         etc.). (2) In some more exacting (and
cataplexy Sudden and temporary col-               rarely used) definitions, the set of all
  lapse (resulting from loss of muscle            groups to which individuals can be
  tone) whilst in a state of extreme anxiety      assigned.
  or strong emotion.                            category scaling Assigning participants
catatonia catatonic state.                        or events to categories. If the categories
                                                  are suitable, the resulting ‘scores’ can be
catatonic schizophrenia See schizophre-           treated as a nominal scale or ordinal scale.
                                                Category Test Computerized version of
catatonic state State of extreme immo-           the Halstead-Reitan test battery.
  bility, without unconsciousness. In
  some instances, it is possible to move        catharsis A feeling of immense relief
  the patient’s limbs into new postures           from tension and release of emotion.
  (without apparent reaction from the             See cathartic therapy and abreaction.
  patient) which are maintained (the            cathartic therapy Any therapeutic
  effect is rather like posing a doll). This      method which enables the patient to
  is known as waxy flexibility. The cata-         release a suppressed emotion or
  tonic state is a principal feature of cata-     memory, e.g. through an outburst of
  tonic schizophrenia. The postures formed        emotion or hypnosis.
  during a catatonic state are sometimes
                                                cathexis (1) Freudian concept of the
  called attitudinizing.
                                                  ‘mental energy’ which people place in
catchment area The geographical area              thoughts of objects or of other people.
  served by a school, hospital, social            (2) In transactional analysis, the energy
  services group, etc.                            required to move between ego states.
categorical variable variable which             CATI computer assisted telephone interview.
  defines membership of a category (defi-
                                                catotrophobia A phobia of mirrors/of
  nition 1).
                                                  breaking mirrors.
categorization (-isation) test Any test
                                                Cattell Culture-Fair Test (CCFT)
  in which participants must place items
                                                 Intelligence test. By avoiding measures
  into groups or categories. The measure
                                                 of linguistic skills and general knowl-
  can gauge intelligence, or may be used
                                                    CENSORED OBSERVATIONS / 55

  edge, it supposedly measures intellec-      CBF cerebral blood flow.
  tual skills equally accessible to people
                                              CBRSC Comprehensive Behaviour Rating
  of all cultural/linguistic backgrounds.
                                               Scale For Children.
Cattell Infant Intelligence Scale Com-
                                              CBQ Cognitive Bias Questionnaire.
 panion to the Stanford-Binet Scale, for
 infants aged 3–30 months.                    CBS chronic brain syndrome.
Cattell scree test scree analysis.            CCEI Crown-Crisp Experiential Index.
Cattell Sixteen Personality Factor            CCFT Cattell Culture-Fair Test.
 Questionnaire (16PF) Personality             CD conduct disorder.
 test assessing 16 aspects of personality
 identified by the test’s author, Raymond     CDAP Chemical Dependency Assessment
 Cattell. The scores can be compressed         Profile.
 into a more manageable four item scale,      CDD childhood disintegrative disorder.
 for which population norms (including
 details of how prevalent the particular      c.d.f. cumulative density function.
 type is in common occupational groups)       CDI Child Development Inventory.
 are available.
                                              CDM Harrington–O’Shea Career Decision-
caudal Anatomical term referring to the        Making System.
  ‘lower’ part of the body or the section
  of an organ which is closest to the tail    CDR Clinical Dementia Rating.
  end.                                        CDS Children’s Depression Scale.
causal analysis The analysis of causes.       ceiling effect Effect achieved by giving a
causal attribution theory A revision of         group a test which is too easy – an
  the learned helplessness model, in which      undesirably large proportion of group
  the patient attributes causes of his/her      members score full or nearly full marks,
  problem to three factors – (a) the            making discrimination between them
  degree to which s/he feels that it is         impossible. See floor effect.
  due to personal factors, rather than        cell In statistics, an intersection of a row
  the workings of the outside world             and column in a data table. If the rows
  (internal-external scale); (b) the degree     and columns represent different treat-
  to which the problem is specific to the       ments or conditions, a cell thus repre-
  situation, as opposed to being a general      sents a specific combination of treat-
  feature of the patient’s life (specific-      ments/conditions.
  global scale); and (c) the degree to
  which the situation is perceived to be a    censored observations Those observa-
  permanent or temporary feature (stable-       tions that do not record what is being
  unstable scale).                              looked for over the period of the study.
                                                E.g. in measuring new cases of mental
causal-comparative research Studies             illness in a random sample of the popu-
  which assess the causes of a phenome-         lation over ten years, at the end of the
  non by comparing two or more groups           decade of observations, a high propor-
  which possess the said phenomenon in          tion of the sample will not have con-
  differing strengths (e.g. do children         tracted any mental illness, and they are
  with good and poor attendance records         said to be censored observations. Note
  [the phenomenon] vary because they            that there is an implication that what is
  have different levels of neuroticism [the     being looked for may occur outside the
  hypothesized cause]?).

  range of the study (e.g. one year later,         cerebellum Area of the brain, primarily
  a proportion of the ‘sane’ members of              responsible for balance and coordinat-
  the sample may have developed mental               ing movement.
  illness). See left censoring, single censoring
                                                   cerebral arteriography Method of
  and type I censoring.
                                                     assessing the state of the blood supply
centile percentile.                                  to the brain – a tracer dye is injected
                                                     into the cerebral blood flow, which is then
central aphasia conduction aphasia.
                                                     observed by X-rays or a similar device.
central deafness Deafness resulting
                                                   cerebral blood flow (CBF) Blood supply
  from damage to the inner ear and/or
                                                     to the brain.
                                                   cerebral contusion Bruising/bleeding
central limit theorem See sampling dis-
                                                     in brain tissue.
                                                   cerebral cortex Usually known by its
central nervous system The collective
                                                     abbreviated name of cortex. The cerebral
  term for neurons which form the brain
                                                     cortex is the characteristic wrinkled
  and the spinal cord.
                                                     surface of the brain. It is divided into
central sulcus The sulcus which marks                two linked hemispheres (left and right)
  the divide between the frontal lobe and            and can be divided into four regions or
  the parietal lobe.                                 lobes (see frontal, parietal, occipital and
central tendency, error of See error of              temporal lobes) which have different
  central tendency.                                  functions. The cerebral cortex is respon-
                                                     sible for the majority of higher intellec-
central tendency, measures of See                    tual functions.
  measures of central tendency.
                                                   cerebral dominance The control of
central tendency error central tendency              other brain functions by the cerebral
  set.                                               cortex.
central tendency set See evaluative set.           cerebral haemorrhage See stroke.
central trait trait which influences a             cerebral localization (-isation) local-
  significant proportion of behaviour,               ization.
  although not as much as a general trait.
                                                   cerebral palsy General term for any
centrencephalic epilepsy See epilepsy.               defect in motor skills (movement)
centroid In mathematics, the overall ‘di-            resulting from brain damage.
  rection’ in which several vectors are            cerebral thrombosis See stroke.
  ‘moving’. The concept is used in, inter
  alia, factor analysis and multivariate           cerebral ventricles Chambers within
  analysis of variance to determine the              the brain containing cerebrospinal fluid.
  strength and nature of certain group             cerebrospinal fluid Fluid which cushions
  trends compared with others.                       the brain and in part supplies it with
cephalo-caudal growth Growth pro-                    nutrients.
  gressing from the head to the tail.              cerebrotonic personality See Sheldon’s
cerebellar speech A speech disorder                  personality types.
  attributable to damage to the cerebellum,        cerebrovascular accident (CVA) stroke.
  and characterized by poor pronuncia-
  tion and lack of a controlled ‘tempo’.
                                             CHI SQUARED TEST OF INDEPENDENCE / 57

cerebrum Largest and outermost section             package eliciting details of a patient’s
  of the brain, whose ‘surface’ is the             substance abuse.
  cerebral cortex. Concerned with most
                                                 chi squared distribution sampling distri-
  higher intellectual functions.
                                                   bution for the chi squared statistic.
cervical level (of spinal cord) Topmost
                                                 chi squared goodness of fit test See chi
  section of the spinal cord. Consists of
                                                   squared (x2) test.
  eight segments, labelled C1 (the
  topmost) to C8.                                chi squared one sample test chi squared
                                                   goodness of fit test.
CFF critical flicker fusion.
                                                 chi squared (x2) test A non-parametric
CFQ Cognitive Failures Questionnaire.
                                                   test of the frequency of occurrence of
C-GAF Version of Global Assessment of              one or more discrete variables. The chi
  Functioning for use with children.               squared goodness of fit test measures the
                                                   frequencies with which each of a single
Chambless Scale Mobility Inventory for
                                                   discrete variable’s categories occurs – i.e.
                                                   do all categories occur with the same
chance error Error due to chance factors           frequency, or are some categories signif-
  – any curious deviation in performance           icantly over- or under-represented? E.g.,
  which cannot be attributed to known              given five ice cream flavours to choose
  factors.                                         from, are all selected with equal likeli-
chance-half correlation split-half corre-          hood? Chi squared is also employed
  lation.                                          to measure whether two or more groups
                                                   fall into two or more categories with
chance level result A result which fails           equal likelihood. E.g. the ice cream
  to reach statistical significance.               problem can be converted into a two
change agent A participant who plans               group problem by considering if men
  and/or initiates change (the term                and women have different preferences
  usually applies to studies of the work-          for the flavours. The test analyses the
  place).                                          differences between the observed
                                                   number of occurrences and the
character disorder A rather nebulous               numbers which would be expected from
  term for a maladaptive behaviour or              a random set of data. The bigger the dis-
  personality (e.g. a gross lack of self-          crepancy between the observed and the
  confidence), which, whilst not neces-            expected, the greater the probability
  sarily indicating mental illness, may be         that the result is significant. There are
  sufficiently unusual to merit treatment.         two important caveats to the chi squared
character neurosis character disorder.             analysis. The first is that if an expected
                                                   value is < 5, then the test should not be
characteristic root eigenvalue.                    run. The second is that when there are
Charteris Reading Test Reading test                only two groups and two categories, 0.5
 for 10–13-year-olds.                              should be deducted from the calculated
                                                   value of chi squared. This is known as
CHD coronary heart disease.                        Yate’s correction. See chi squared test of
chemical dependency substance abuse.               independence.
Chemical Dependency Assessment                   chi squared test of independence A
 Profile (CDAP) structured interview               use of the chi squared test to calculate

  whether responses to one test influence       ptoms appear to be a mixture of autism
  responses to another, subsequent test.        and schizophrenia. Amongst the
                                                symptoms are: an abnormally low
child abuse Deliberate psychological or
                                                desire for normal social contacts,
  physical mistreatment of a child,
                                                distress at changes in surroundings,
  usually by his/her parents and/or
                                                sudden temper tantrums, and a flattened
  other caregivers. Compare with child
                                              childhood psychosis psychosis whose
Child Development Inventory (CDI)
                                                onset is in childhood. The term includes
 Measure of young children’s behav-
                                                autism and childhood onset pervasive devel-
 ioural and intellectual development.
                                                opmental disorder.
child ego state See transactional analysis.
                                              childhood schizophrenia schizophrenia
child neglect Psychological or physical         whose onset is in childhood. The term
  damage befalling a child resulting from       is now largely outmoded. In some older
  lack of care, usually by his/her parents      texts, the term is used fairly inter-
  and/or caregivers. Compare with child         changeably with autism.
                                              Children’s Apperception Test (CAT)
childhood amnesia The loss of mem-             projective personality test of children’s
  ories about early childhood which is         beliefs and motivations. The parti-
  disproportionately greater than would        cipant is shown a series of pictures and
  be predicted from simple forgetfulness.      is asked to make up a story about each
  Originally thought (e.g. by Freud) to        one.
  be due to suppression of emotionally
                                              Children’s Attention and Adjustment
  fraught memories, more recent ex-
                                               Survey (CAAS) Measure of behaviour
  planations have taken a cognitive
                                               problems in children with attention
  approach (e.g. young children are intel-
                                               deficit disorder and/or hyperactivity.
  lectually incapable of storing memories
  efficiently, so they are forgotten).        Children’s Depression Scale (CDS)
                                               Measure of symptoms of depression and
Childhood Autism Rating Scale
                                               related ideas and behaviours (e.g. guilt,
 (CARS) Test assessing the level of
                                               lowered self-esteem, etc.) in children
 autism a child with the condition has.
                                               aged 9–16 years.
childhood disintegrative disorder
                                              Children’s Self-Report and Projec-
  (CDD) A type of pervasive developmental
                                               tive Inventory Set of projective tests for
  disorder characterized by normal devel-
                                               children aged 5–12 years.
  opment in the first 2 years, then regres-
  sion and loss of language, social skills,   Children’s State-Trait Anxiety Inven-
  bowel and bladder control, play and/         tory (CSTAI) Junior version of the
  or motor skills. There are often repeti-     State-Trait Anxiety Inventory.
  tive stereotyped patterns of behaviour
                                              chlorpromazine Type of major tranquil-
  and/or interests.
childhood neurosis Rather nebulous
                                              choice reaction time (CRT) See reaction
  term denoting a neurosis-like, illness
  occurring in childhood.
                                              cholinergic hypothesis Theory that
childhood onset pervasive develop-
                                                much of the memory loss in dementia of
  mental disorder Disorder which
                                                the Alzheimer type can be attributed to
  begins in childhood, and whose sym-
                                                                   CLASS INTERVALS / 59

  depletion of the cholinergic system. See       circular behaviour A behaviour which
  ganglioside, ondansetron, and tacrine.           causes others to react similarly (e.g.
cholinergic system Shorthand for the
  network of neurons which use acetylcho-        circular reaction (1) circular behaviour.
  line. About 90% of neurons in the brain          (2) A term used by the child psycholo-
  are cholinergic.                                 gist Piaget, denoting certain repetitious
                                                   acts in children, which are held to be
chorea Uncontrollable jerky movements
                                                   critical features of intellectual develop-
  (as seen in e.g. Huntington’s chorea, senile
  chorea, and Sydenham’s chorea). The
  adjective is choreiform.                       circumlocution Talking around the
                                                   topic in question because the appropri-
choreiform See chorea.
                                                   ate word cannot be recalled (found to
chromophobia A phobia of colour.                   spectacular effect in some demented
chronic Long-lasting/long-standing.                patients).
  See acute.                                     CIT critical incident technique.
chronic brain disorder Any long-                 civil commitment (American) The
  lasting (although not congenital)                committal of a patient for treatment,
  disorder of mental efficiency, usually           regardless of the patient’s wishes.
  resulting from a long-standing cause
                                                 CJD Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease.
  (e.g. malnutrition/vitamin deficiency from
  a poor diet). Can produce dementia- like       clang association Language disorder in
  symptoms, or can ‘flare up’ relatively           which the patient produces sequences
  suddenly into acute confusional state.           of words which sound similar – usually
                                                   the statements are nonsensical. Most
chronic brain syndrome (CBS)
                                                   often encountered in patients suffering
  Long-term degeneration of brain
                                                   from schizophrenia.
  tissue, resulting in severe impairment of
  personality and/or intellectual func-          Class A drugs Drugs, whose possession,
  tioning. Largely synonymous with                 under UK law, carry the severest penal-
  dementia.                                        ties (i.e. long jail sentence, unlimited
                                                   fine, etc.). They include the opiates,
Chronic Pain Battery (CPB) Question-
                                                   Ecstasy, and psychedelic drugs. Class B
 naire assessing the subjective discom-
                                                   drugs (amphetamines, barbiturates, and
 fort of patients suffering from chronic
                                                   cannabis) carry a lesser fine, and Class C
 pain, their medical history, and their
                                                   drugs (some of the milder stimulants)
 general background. Formed in part
                                                   carry a smaller penalty.
 from the Pain Assessment Questionnaire.
                                                 Class B drugs See Class A drugs.
chronic post-traumatic stress dis-
  order See post-traumatic stress disorder       class boundaries The upper and lower
  (PTSD).                                          limits of a class interval. Synonymous
                                                   with the concept of apparent and real
chronically accessible construct A self-
                                                   limits (see class interval).
  concept which is very readily available.
                                                 Class C drugs See Class A drugs.
chronological age (CA) The length of
  time a person has been alive.                  class interval width (i) See class intervals.
CI confidence interval.                          class intervals Groups of scores for
                                                   which any recorded score uniquely

  belongs to one group. E.g. suppose that          the stimulus is associated with another
  a test has a maximum score of 30 and a           stimulus which normally elicits the
  minimum of 0, and scores are always in           response. The technique was first
  whole numbers. If we define ‘high’               objectively studied by the Russian
  scores as between 21 and 30, ‘medium’            physiologist Ivan Pavlov, in the early
  as between 10 and 20, and ‘low’ as               years of the twentieth century. Dogs
  between 0 and 9, then it can be seen             salivate when presented with food;
  that a score can only fall into one of           Pavlov discovered that if a bell was
  these three categories, which can thus           rung (or in other experiments, a light
  be defined as class intervals. Such a def-       was flashed) just before the presenta-
  inition would not be possible if the             tion of the food, then after several days,
  category boundaries overlapped (e.g.             the dogs began to salivate simply on
  High =19–30, Medium = 9–21, Low                  hearing the bell, presumably because
  = 0–11). The lowest score necessary to           they expected food to follow. The tech-
  be within a particular class interval is         nique is used in certain forms of behav-
  called the lower apparent limit, whilst          iour therapy – the therapist trains the
  the highest score to merit inclusion in          patient to associate a behaviour which
  the same class interval is called the            is to be encouraged with a rewarding
  upper apparent limit. The upper real             stimulus, and, conversely, to associate
  limit (URL) is half the smallest unit of         an undesirable behaviour with an
  measurement being used, above the                aversive stimulus. For an extreme case
  upper apparent limit (e.g. if the smallest       of this see Little Albert. See operant condi-
  unit of measurement is whole numbers             tioning.
  of degrees fahrenheit and the upper
                                                 classical migraine See migraine.
  apparent limit is 90 degrees, then the
  upper real limit is 90.5 degrees). Simi-       classical probability Theory of probabil-
  larly, the lower real limit (LRL) is half        ity which assumes that each possible
  the smallest unit of measurement below           outcome can occur with equal likeli-
  the lower apparent limit (e.g. lower             hood (e.g. a card drawn from a pack,
  apparent limit = 80 degrees, lower real          the outcome of tossing a coin, etc.).
  limit = 79.5 degrees). This is to allow        classical psychoanalysis psychoanalysis
  for the presumed inaccuracies in the             which follows fairly rigidly the pre-
  measuring instruments (e.g. if the               cepts of Freud’s psychoanalytic theory.
  measure is only accurate to the nearest
  degree, there there is a good chance           classificatory scale nominal scale.
  that any individual measure will be            claustrophobia A phobia of enclosed
  inaccurate by up to half a degree) – see         spaces.
  real limits. Class interval width (i) is the
  difference between the upper real limit        clerical aptitude test aptitude test of skills
  and the lower real limit. The middle             associated with clerical work.
  value of a class interval is called the        Clever Hans An example of the experi-
  midpoint (e.g. in a class interval of 1–7,       menter effect. Clever Hans was a nine-
  the midpoint is 4). See grouped frequency        teenth century circus horse who, given
  distribution.                                    a simple addition problem, could tap
classical conditioning A method of                 out the correct answer with his hoof.
  training subjects to make a response to          This was taken as evidence for equine
  a stimulus which in itself would not             arithmetic, until it was noted that the
  normally elicit the response, because            animal was responding to a slight re-
                                                   laxation in the features of the humans
                                                            CLOCK DRAWING TEST / 61

  watching him when he had tapped the            Clinical Dementia Rating (CDR) A
  correct number of times.                         checklist for assessing the level of func-
                                                   tioning of which a patient suspected of
client Term used by some therapists as a
                                                   dementia is capable on various tasks.
  synonym for ‘patient’.
                                                   From this, his/her level of impairment
client-centred therapy Therapeutic                 and hence the severity of the dementia
  technique (principally derived from              can be calculated.
  Roger’s self theory of personality) in which
                                                 clinical depression A rather nebulous
  it is assumed that the best person to
                                                   term for a state of depression felt to be
  resolve a patient’s internal conflict is
                                                   severe enough to merit professional
  the patient him/herself. Accordingly,
  the therapy principally consists of the
  patient talking to the therapist, with the     clinical interview An interview with a
  therapist making minimal interjections           patient to elicit details of his/her
  (e.g. to amplify discreetly a key point          illness. In addition to the description of
  by asking the patient to go into greater         the symptoms, the interviewer also
  detail). The therapist holds the client in       usually monitors the manner in which
  unconditional positive regard – i.e. the         the patient replies and his/her general
  client is always right – his/her beliefs         mannerisms.
  and emotions are uncritically accepted
                                                 clinical method (1) Any method of
  by the therapist. The technique can be
                                                   study based upon or around the treat-
  mimicked by a computer programme,
                                                   ment of illness (compare with clinical
  the best known example of which is
                                                   study). (2) The assessment of subjects in
  Eliza. See humanistic psychology.
                                                   a naturalistic setting.
client group (1) A group of patients with
                                                 clinical psychology The treatment and
  the same problem. (2) The group of
                                                   analysis of mental illness by purely psy-
  patients being treated by the same ther-
                                                   chological means (i.e. usually without
  apist or group of therapists.
                                                   drug therapies, unlike many branches
Clifton Assessment Procedure for the               of psychiatry). Clinical psychologists
  Elderly (CAPE) test battery consisting           have an initial training in general psy-
  of two ‘sub-batteries’ – the Cognitive           chology before taking a more special-
  Assessment Scale (CAS) and the Behav-            ized postgraduate qualification.
  iour Rating Scale (BRS), measuring
                                                 clinical study A study of the efficacy of a
  intellectual skills and personality
                                                   treatment. See clinical method (definition
  respectively in older subjects (particu-
  larly hospital patients and the institu-
  tionalized elderly).                           clinical theology Therapeutic regime
                                                   with a philosophical basis drawn from
climacteric menopause.
                                                   Christian belief.
Clinical Analysis Questionnaire (CAQ)
                                                 clinical trial A clinical study (often the
  Measure of personality, intended pri-
                                                   term is particularly applied to the study
  marily for clinical populations. Identi-
                                                   of a drug treatment).
  ties personality features akin to those
  of the 16PF, and also a further 12             clock drawing test A design copying test in
  features characteristic of particular            which the to-be-copied item is an an-
  types of mental illness.                         alogue clock face. The test is most often
                                                   used in assessing patients suffering
Clinical Anxiety Scale (CAS) Measure
                                                   from brain damage, and particularly,
  of level of anxiety and associated behav-
                                                   demented patients.

clonic convulsion See convulsion.                The results of the analysis are some-
                                                 times expressed as dendograms, which
clonus Rapid muscular contractions and
                                                 resemble ‘family trees’, and show the
  relaxations in reaction to sudden and
                                                 stages by which progressively smaller
  then sustained stretching. The condi-
                                                 and more defined groups are created.
  tion is indicative of neurological
  damage, and is most readily demon-           cluster sampling Taking a sample of
  strated by stretching the ankle, causing       subjects from a confined geographical
  a twitching of the calf muscle (ankle          area (e.g. school, area of a town etc.) as
  clonus).                                       representative of the general population.
                                                 In multistage cluster sampling only
closed question A question for which
                                                 a sub-group of the initial sample is
  there is a specific answer being looked
                                                 selected for analysis.
  for and where any extra information
  provided is treated as irrelevant. Com-      CMMS Columbia Mental Maturity Scale
  mon examples include requests for             (CMMS).
  basic factual information such as a per-
                                               CNS central nervous system.
  son’s name, their date of birth, where
  the answer required is a simple ‘yes’ or     coaction The joint working of two or
  ‘no’ etc. This is in contrast to an open       more items or subjects.
  question, in which all the information       cocaine Drug which stimulates the
  supplied in the answer may potentially         nervous system producing intense
  be of relevance. Thus, ‘do you agree           euphoria and heightened sensations. It
  with the Government’s policy on immi-          can be addictive. Like most drugs used
  gration – yes or no?’ is a closed              illegally, it was originally devised for
  question, but ‘please will you comment         legitimate medical reasons, as a pain-
  on the Government’s policy on immi-            killer and an antidepressant (an early
  gration?’ is an open question.                 enthusiast was Freud).
closed system A system unaffected by           coccygeal level (of spinal cord) Lowest
  external forces.                               level of the spinal cord. Consists of one
closure In some intelligence tests, the          segment (labelled CO1 – actually formed
  ability to perceive a whole shape when         from several [usually three] fused
  only some of its features are visible.         segments).
cloze procedure Reading test method –          Cochran Q test See McNemar test.
  participants have to insert appropriate      code test Measure of intellectual ability
  words into blanks in a passage of text         in which data must be receded accord-
  (e.g. fill in the blank in ‘the cat sat on     ing to a rule provided by the experi-
  __ mat’). The term is meant to indicate        menter.
  a link with the gestalt concept of
  ‘closure’ (the hypothesized drive to         codeine See opiates.
  mentally fill in missing gaps in an          Coding Test Sub-test of the Wechsler
  image).                                       intelligence tests, which is a digit-symbol
Cloze Reading Tests Set of reading tests        substitution task.
  for 8–12-year-olds, which (predict-          coefficient (1) Something which acts in
  ably) use the cloze procedure.                 conjunction with something else. (2) In
cluster analysis A statistical method of         statistics, an index of measurement. The
  grouping subjects or items according to        term is sometimes used as an abbrevia-
  their scores on a number of variables.         tion of correlation coefficient. (3) In math-
                                              COGNITIVE BIAS QUESTIONNAIRE (CBQ) / 63

  ematics, a constant value by which an            coefficient of variation Calculated as
  item in an equation must be multiplied.            the standard deviation of a sample,
                                                     divided by its mean and multiplied by
coefficient a coefficient alpha.
                                                     100 (e.g. a sample with a mean of 1 and
coefficient alpha coefficient of equiva-             a standard deviation of 0.2 has a coeffi-
  lence.                                             cient of variation of 20%). The figure
coefficient of alienation random vari-               can be used to compare the relative
  ance.                                              degree of variance in different samples
                                                     whose means vary in size, and accord-
coefficient of concordance Kendall’s                 ingly, where direct comparisons would
  coefficient of concordance.                        be difficult.
coefficient of determination (R2) The              coenaesthesia Awareness of one’s own
  square of a correlation coefficient. See           condition.
  correlation and multiple regression.
                                                   cognition The processing and acquisi-
coefficient of dispersion coefficient of             tion of knowledge.
                                                   cognitive Adjective from cognition.
coefficient of equivalence See reliabil-
  ity.                                             Cognitive Abilities Test (CAT) Intelli-
                                                    gence test battery, with a chief sub-
coefficient of internal consistency                 division into non-verbal and verbal
  See reliability.                                  measures.
coefficient of reproducibility The                 Cognitive Ability Battery (CAB) test
  proportion of consistent answers given            battery assessing 20 basic cognitive abili-
  by a subject on a test which has been             ties.
  scaled in difficulty/strength of opinion.
  E.g. a scholastic test beginning with            cognitive-analytic therapy (CAT)
  ‘what is 2+2?’ and ending with demands             Version of cognitive therapy drawing
  for the proof of the special theory of             upon an eclectic mix of other therapeu-
  relativity; or, a measure of opinions              tic methods. Places a strong emphasis
  beginning with statements such as ‘the             on the patient doing ‘homework’ to
  law has not always given women equal               identify needs and problems.
  rights’ and progressing to ‘a woman              Cognitive Assessment Scale (CAS) See
  should always be appointed instead of             Clifton Assessment Procedure for the Elderly.
  a man’. If the test is accurate, then the
                                                   cognitive behaviour assessment Any
  subject should always give the ‘right’
                                                     assessment method which concentrates
  answers up to the point where the test
                                                     on the expressed thoughts of the
  items get too hard for him/her, or
  express too extreme a view for his/her
  taste.                                           cognitive behaviour therapy Any ther-
                                                     apeutic technique combining features
coefficient of stability See reliability.
                                                     of behaviour therapy and cognitive therapy.
coefficient of total determination See
                                                   cognitive-behavioural therapy cogni-
  multiple regression.
                                                     tive behaviour therapy.
coefficient of validity General term for
                                                   Cognitive Bias Questionnaire (CBQ)
  a measure of validity.
                                                    Measure of the degree to which a
coefficient of variability coefficient of           subject misinterprets events in a mala-
  variation.                                        daptive fashion.

cognitive competence competency to                therapy attempts to make patients
  perform cognitive tasks.                        realize, through self-analysis and
                                                  various exercises, that the majority of
cognitive empiricism See cognitive
                                                  events can be explained in a rational
                                                  and non-negative manner (i.e. the
Cognitive Failures Questionnaire                  therapy tries to restore common sense
 (CFQ) A test which asks subjects to              to the patient). The process whereby
 report instances of memory failure in            the patient and therapist examine the
 recent everyday life (e.g. forgetting to         problems jointly is sometimes called
 buy items when shopping, etc.).                  cognitive empiricism.
 Assesses how forgetful people are in
                                                cognitive triad Term devised by Beck
 ‘real life’ (compared with more artifi-
                                                  (author of Beck Depression Inventory) to
 cial laboratory tasks).
                                                  denote the threefold maladaptive
cognitive intervention General term for           thought processes of a depressed
  providing training in intellectual skills       patient: that s/he is a failure, that the
  to people perceived as being intellectu-        future can only be viewed pessimisti-
  ally disadvantaged.                             cally, and that the world is a frustrating
Cognitive Participation Rating Scale              place.
 (CPRS) A measure of general intellec-          Cogrehab Computerized battery of
 tual functioning, designed to assess the        measures and therapeutic exercises
 changes in brain damaged and/or                 designed to identify and to help ame-
 mentally retarded subjects as they              liorate problems resulting from mental
 progress through therapy.                       handicap.
cognitive rehabilitation Therapeutic            Cohen’s d Measure of effect size.
  process of restoring (where possible)
                                                Cohen’s kappa Measure of inter-rater
  the intellectual skills lost as a result of
  brain damage.
                                                cohort A group of people raised in the
cognitive restructuring Replacing
                                                  same environment and/or period of
  ‘faulty’ ideas and concepts with new
                                                  time. Almost invariably refers to a
  and ‘better’ ones (e.g. replacing
                                                  group of people of similar age.
  arachnophobia with more rational ideas
  about spiders).                               cohort analysis Analysis of individuals
                                                  belonging to the same cohort, often for
cognitive strategy A strategy used to
                                                  the purpose of examining a unique
  cope with a particular situation. Can
                                                  characteristic of that cohort.
  refer to a maladaptive behaviour in the
  onset of a stressful situation.               cohort effect A difference between age
                                                  groups which is better attributed to dif-
cognitive style A problem-solving
                                                  ferences in the ways they were raised
  method/method of intellectual func-
                                                  and educated than to their ages per se.
  tioning consistently used by a subject.
                                                  See overlapping longitudinal study.
cognitive therapy It can be argued that
                                                cohort sequential design overlapping
  many mentally ill or behaviourally mal-
                                                  longitudinal study.
  adjusted patients misinterpret events so
  that they ‘feed’ the illness (e.g. a person   cohort study See panel study.
  afraid of rejection will take the slightest
                                                colinearity See multiple regression.
  negative comment as further ‘proof ’
  that they are unlovable). Cognitive
                                                                     COMMUNALITY / 65

collapsing In statistics, combining the            months and 10 years. Requires no
  results of a lot of groups and/or indi-          spoken answers and little movement,
  viduals into a single larger group or            and is particularly intended for children
  smaller number of larger groups in               with restricted movement and/or
  order to simplify the analysis. This is          speech impairment.
  usually only justifiable if there is a bona
                                                 column marginal See row marginal.
  fide reason for putting the groups/
  individuals together, and it makes             coma State of unconsciousness from
  logical sense to treat them as a coherent        which the patient cannot be roused.
  unit – it cannot simply be done to make          Some reflexes may or may not be
  calculations easier if there are real dif-       present, and the depth of the coma can
  ferences being covered over by this              be graded according to this.
  method. E.g. it may be reasonable to           combat fatigue combat stress.
  look at the performance of all the
  schoolchildren in a particular school by       combat stress Post-traumatic stress disorder
  classifying them into age groups.                specifically resulting from being
  However, it would not make much                  caught up in military combat.
  sense to collapse them into two groups         commissurotomy The surgical severing
  de pendent upon whether their                    of the corpus callosum (usually done to
  surnames began with A–M or N–Z,                  treat certain forms of epilepsy). The
  even though it would make the statisti-          patient thus has left and right hemispheres
  cal comparison of the groups much                which have lost their principal means of
  easier.                                          communicating with each other. These
collective unconscious See Jung’s psy-             split brain patients often complain that
  choanalytic theory.                              they simultaneously experience two dif-
                                                   ferent worlds.
collinearity A high level of correlation or
  relationship between independent vari-         common measure A measure used by
  ables in a regression calculation. This is a     more than one study, enabling direct
  problem because a high level of                  comparisons to be made between
  collinearity undermines the assump-              studies.
  tions the analysis is based on.                common metric common measure.
Colorado Childhood Temperament                   common migraine See migraine.
 Inventory Battery of scales of aspects
 of temperament/behaviour (e.g. ‘emo-            common trait trait possessed by all the
 tionality’, ‘reaction to foods’, etc.).           population.
colour agnosia A failure to recognize            commonality In multiple regression, the
  colours (although note that patients can         degree to which the variance of the crite-
  often match up colours – i.e. they can           rion variable is accounted for by each of
  ‘see’ them).                                     the predictor variables individually, and
                                                   how much is due to the combined
colour anomia A failure to name colours.           effects of two or more of the predictor
Coloured Progressive Matrices                      variables.
 (CPM) See Raven’s Progressive Matrices.         communality The amount of variance of
Columbia Mental Maturity Scale                     a measure which is accounted for by a
 (CMMS) Intelligence test battery for              factor or group of factors derived from
 children aged between 3 years 6                   factor analysis.

community care Generic phrase for any           completely randomized design Exper-
  system of maintaining mentally ill              imental design in which groups of
  people in the general community (even           entirely different subjects receive differ-
  if in sheltered housing) rather than            ent treatments. See randomized block
  keeping them in hospital (and hence             design and repeated measures design.
  divorced from everyday life).
                                                completion rate (1) The rate at which a
community psychiatry Psychiatry con-              task is completed. (2) The proportion
  cerned with the general issue of mental         of the total original sample which com-
  health in the community and community           pleted all the tests.
                                                completion test Any measure in which
community psychology Nebulous term                the subject must complete an item (e.g.
  for studies and therapies which                 an incomplete sentence, a shape with a
  measure/treat people in their homes,            section missing, etc.).
  workplaces, etc., rather than in a labora-
                                                complex Loose term for a group of traits
                                                  which together form a guiding behav-
comorbidity The simultaneous exis-                iour and/or set of beliefs (usually
  tence of two or more illnesses in the           maladaptive).
  same patient.
                                                compliance Obeying an order or request
compensable factors Factors of a job              without necessarily believing in its
  which determine the rate of compensa-           wisdom.
  tion (e.g. pay).
                                                component efficiency hypothesis
compensation (1) Compensating for a               Hypothesis that the decline in a skill is
  weakness in a limb, organ, etc. by              due to a decline in one or more of the
  greater reliance on another limb, organ,        ‘basic’ sub-skills governing it.
  etc. (2) defence mechanism.
                                                componential intelligence See triarchic
compensation therapy Any therapeutic              theory of intelligence.
  technique which trains patients to com-
                                                composite event In probability theory, a
  pensate for the absence or weakness of
                                                  sequence of simple events (e.g. in coin
  a skill by placing greater reliance on the
                                                  tossing, a sequence of four successive
  skills they do have.
compensatory striving See individual
                                                composite score The overall score on a
                                                  measure. Not necessarily synonymous
competence competency.                            with ‘total score’, because components
                                                  of the measure might be given different
competency (1) An ability to process
  information within a particular field.
  (2) An appropriate level of training,         comprehension test (1) A measure of
  skill, and experience in a practitioner.        ability to understand a passage of text.
  (3) An appropriate degree of ‘normal-           (2) A crystallized intelligence measure of
  ity’ in a patient (e.g. in deciding if s/he     knowing the correct things to do in
  can be held legally responsible for his/        particular circumstances (e.g. ‘what
  her actions).                                   should you do if you cut your finger?’).
competitive aggression aggression               Comprehensive Ability Battery
  directed at factors preventing the             (CAB) Intelligence test battery for par-
  achievement of a desired goal.
                                                        CONCRETE INTELLIGENCE / 67

  ticipants aged 15 years and over.              computer assisted observation (CAO)
  Assesses primary mental abilities.               Any system of recording behaviour in
                                                   which data are directly entered into a
Comprehensive Assessment of
                                                   computer database, and/or in which
 Spoken Language (CASL) Measure
                                                   the computer ‘prompts’ the experi-
 of principal aspect of spoken language
                                                   menter with instructions.
 skills for age range young child to
 young adult.                                    computer assisted telephone inter-
                                                   view (CATI) Telephone interviewing
Comprehensive Behaviour Rating
                                                   technique in which the responses are
 Scale For Children (CBRSC)
                                                   immediately keyed into a computer.
 Measure of behaviour of schoolchil-
                                                   The programme automatically prompts
 dren aged 6–14 years.
                                                   the interviewer with the next question
Comprehensive Test of Adaptive                     – this can be especially advantageous
 Behaviour (CTAB) Measure primar-                  where there are a number of alternate
 ily of coping and housekeeping skills             question routes.
 in subjects (5–60 years) with potential
                                                 Computer Generated H-T-P Clinical
                                                  Assessment Computerized version of
Comprehensive Test of Non-Verbal                  the House-Tree-Person Test.
 Intelligence (CTONI) Measure of
                                                 Computer Programmer Aptitude
 non-verbal intelligence, with no or
                                                  Battery (CRAB) aptitude test of ability
 minimal linguistic skills required.
                                                  to perform computer programming.
Comprehensive Test of Phonological
                                                 computerized adaptive test adaptive test
 Processing (CTOPP) Measure of
                                                   run by a computer programme.
 ability of process phonological infor-
 mation (loosely, ‘word sounds’).                computerized axial tomography
                                                   (CAT scan) A body scan by means of a
compulsion A drive to perform an act
                                                   sequence of highly sensitive X rays,
  (often with a ritualistic element), which
                                                   which display successive cross-sections
  the patient cannot keep under control.
                                                   of the body.
  Compulsions can be further classified
  into overt compulsions (where the acts         computerized transaxial tomography
  are external to the person and can be            (CT) computerized axial tomography.
  observed by others) and covert compul-
                                                 Comrey Personality Scales Measure
  sions (where the act is an internal, ritu-
                                                  yielding eight scales of personality
  alized thought process).
                                                  (e.g. ‘activity versus lack of energy’,
Compulsive Activity Checklist (CAC)               ‘empathy versus egocentrism’ etc.).
 Measure of degree and type of compul-
                                                 conative pertaining to intention.
 sive activities performed by a patient.
                                                 conceptual organization The ability to
compulsive personality disorder per-
                                                   treat items at an abstract level in order
  sonality disorder characterized by a
                                                   to uncover basic rules and principles.
  desire for perfection in everything
  done by the patient. Not to be confused        conceptual replication See replication.
  with obsessive-compulsive disorder, where      concomitant variable covariate.
  the tasks the patient wishes to perform
  perfectly are limited to a narrow range        concrete intelligence See abstract intelli-
  of often pointless, trivial, and ritualistic     gence.

concrete thought Immature or disor-               tionship between age and intelligence
  dered mental abilities, in which the            test score taking into account level of
  subject is incapable of abstract thought,       education is lower than the zero order
  and is constrained to thinking about            relationship when level of education is
  the ‘here and now’.                             not accounted for.
concurrent processing Any task which            conditioned aversion aversion therapy.
  requires the participant to perform two
                                                conditioned behaviour The behaviour
  or more separate tasks simultaneously.
                                                  produced by conditioning.
concurrent validity See predictive
                                                conditioned emotion An emotional
                                                  response created by conditioning (e.g.
concussion (1) A temporary confusion              Little Albert).
  and/or loss of memory resulting from a
                                                conditioned response (CR) The
  blow to the head. (2) Temporary un-
                                                  response to a stimulus created by condi-
  consciousness following a blow to the
                                                conditioned response learning classi-
condition The form or state of the inde-
                                                  cal conditioning.
  pendent variable being administered (e.g.
  a test would have two conditions if it        conditioning Process whereby a subject
  was available in two formats).                  is trained to respond to a stimulus which
                                                  previously did not elicit the reaction
condition of worth See Roger’s self theory
                                                  desired. Training a subject NOT to
  of personality.
                                                  respond to a stimulus in a particular way
conditional correlation The correlation           is called deconditioning, and the loss of
  between variables in a conditional cros-        the response itself is called extinction. See
  stabulation table.                              classical conditioning, counterconditioning,
                                                  operant conditioning, and token economy.
conditional crosstabulation See
  crosstabulation.                              conduct disorder (CD) Nebulous term
                                                  for serious misbehaviour by children.
conditional mean The mean of a variable
                                                  Can be divided into two sub-categories.
  when other variables assume particular
                                                  Socialized conduct disorder describes
                                                  breaches of social or moral codes (e.g.
conditional positive regard See Roger’s           truancy), whilst undersocialized
  self theory of personality.                     conduct disorder describes offences
conditional probability The situation             against other people or objects (e.g.
  in which the probability that one event         arson). The two sub-categories can be
  will occur is dependent upon another            further divided according to whether
  event also occurring (e.g. for there to be      the acts performed are violent or
  a chance of a rainbow, it must first rain).     non-violent.

conditional relationship A relation-            conduction aphasia Aphasia character-
  ship that is described in terms of the          ized by an inability to repeat words,
  influence of other variables. E.g. older        although other aspects of language are
  adults generally have lower intelligence        relatively normal.
  test scores than younger adults. But if       conductive hearing loss Hearing loss
  differences in level of education are           resulting from damage or obstruction
  accounted for the test score difference         to the outer or middle ear. This con-
  is lowered. Thus, the conditional rela-         trasts with sensorineural hearing loss,
                                                           CONGRUENT VALIDITY / 69

  which results from damage to the inner         3 degrees, it would be difficult to
  ear or nerves. Mixed hearing loss is           ascribe a subsequent increase in pro-
  attributable to a mixture of both of the       ductivity purely to the change in tem-
  above.                                         perature.
confabulation Condition in which the           confounding variable A variable which
  patient makes up stories or other              may distort the finding of primary
  implausible explanations to cover up           interest.
  gaps in his/her memory or other skills.
                                               congenital Born with. Strictly speaking,
  Generally, the term is reserved for situa-
                                                 the term applies to both geneti-
  tions where there is no conscious
                                                 cally-inherited effects and effects
  attempt to deceive.
                                                 resulting purely from changes in the
confidence interval (CI) A range of              womb (e.g. foetal alcohol syndrome).
  scores within which a certain percent-         However, several commentators restrict
  age of all possible observations of the        its use to the former category.
  same variable is predicted to occur. For
                                               congenital adrenal hyperplasia inher-
  example, a 95% confidence interval
                                                 ited (but treatable) malfunction in which
  describes the range of scores within
                                                 female sufferers are born with genitals
  which 95% of all observations are pre-
                                                 which look like those of a male. In rare
  dicted to occur. The values of the upper
                                                 cases this is undetected at birth, and the
  and lower limits of the confidence
                                                 patient is raised as a boy, the error not
  interval are called the confidence limits.
                                                 being discovered until puberty. Such
  The measure is of importance in, inter
                                                 cases are obviously of interest to sex
  alia, significance calculations.
                                                 difference researchers.
confidence limits See confidence interval.
                                               congenital hypothyroidism cretinism.
confirmatory factor analysis Form of
                                               congenital rubella syndrome Set of
  factor analysis designed to test a hypoth-
                                                 dysfunctional symptoms and behav-
  esis about the interrelationships within
                                                 iours induced by the mother of the indi-
  the data being analysed. In contrast,
                                                 vidual contracting rubella (German
  exploratory factor analysis attempts to
                                                 measles) during the first 4 months of
  find factors without prior assumptions
                                                 pregnancy. Symptoms vary, but in
  of what they will be.
                                                 a dd i t i o n t o n u m e ro u s p hy s i c a l
confluence A dysfunctional over-identifi-        symptoms, may include intellectual dys-
  cation with another person, idea or sit-       function and poor sight and hearing.
                                               congenital word blindness Old term
conforming personality An excessive              for developmental dyslexia.
  desire to behave according to the actual
                                               congruence Complete concord between
  or perceived wishes of other people.
                                                 self-image and the image projected to
confounding The simultaneous change              others. Hence, more loosely, appearing
  of two or more independent variables, so       and being completely genuine in
  that any subsequent changes in a               expression. See Roger’s self theory of per-
  dependent variable cannot be unambigu-         sonality.
  ously attributed to just one of the said
                                               congruent validity The degree to which
  independent variables. E.g. if wages are
                                                 the findings of a test concur with an
  increased by 100% at the same time as
                                                 established test of the same phenome-
  the workplace temperature is raised by

conjoint measure Measure of a variable        constraint seeking strategy In solving a
  which itself consists of two or more          problem (e.g. in a ‘20 questions’ game),
  sub-components.                               seeking answers which progressively
                                                reduce the set size of all possible
conjoint therapy Therapy administered
  to partners or to two or more patients
  simultaneously.                             constriction See personal construct theory.
conjoint variables A set of variables         construct (1) A method of interpretation.
  which all play a role in determining an       (2) A concept or set of concepts. See
  event (e.g. personality, age, wealth, and     personal construct theory.
  physical appearance are some of the
                                              construct theory personal construct theory.
  conjoint variables most people would
  consider in choosing a partner).            construct validity The degree to which
                                                a test measures or expresses a particular
Conners Parent Rating Scale A
                                                theoretical stance. See validity.
 measure of parental assessment of emo-
 tional and social development of             construction competence The ability
 children aged 3–7 years.                       to form concepts and thought pro-
Conners Teacher Rating Scale A 40
 item measure of a teacher’s assessment       constructional apraxia A profound
 of a pupil’s behaviour and abilities.          inability to construct objects from their
                                                component parts.
conscientiousness (C) Personality trait
  (one of the ‘Big Five’) measuring the       constructive alternativism See personal
  degree to which the subject is organized      construct theory.
  and reliable.                               constructivism The argument that
consequent See antecedent.                      learning is not objective and factual but
                                                is inevitably shaped and even biased by
consequent variable The results of an
                                                the learner’s prior experience, the
  action, often with the implication that
                                                context in which the learning takes
  the results reward or punish the subject
                                                place, etc.
  (thereby shaping future behaviour). See
  SORC.                                       constructs See personal construct theory.
conspecific Of the same species or            consumer psychology The study of
  group.                                        consumer behaviour (e.g. in choosing
                                                particular brands of washing powder,
constant A value in an equation which
  can only have one value (e.g. [XX] in
  the equation, circumference = 2[XX]r).      contagion (1) The transmission of ideas,
  See variable.                                 and, by extension, changes in behav-
                                                iour and attitudes resulting from this.
constant error A consistent direction of
                                                (2) The spread of disease, particularly
  error in performance.
                                                by physical contact.
constant variable control variable.
                                              contamination statistical contamination.
constellatory constructs See personal
                                              content analysis (1) The codification
  construct theory.
                                                and analysis of communicative acts. (2)
constitutional types Sheldon’s personality      Analysis of a test to assess its usefulness.
                                                CONTRA-INDICATION TO THERAPY / 71

content criterion The minimum mark a               parties x, y, or z at the last election;
  subject must attain on a test to be              dogs, cats, and monkeys, and their first
  deemed to know the topic being tested            choice of ice cream flavour from straw-
  in sufficient depth. See criterion-refer-        berry, vanilla, chocolate and kumquat,
  enced test.                                      etc.). The most common method of
                                                   assessment of the contingency table is
content validity The degree to which a
                                                   the chi squared statistic.
  test assesses skills encountered in
  ‘real life’ situations. Hence, it is also a    continuous biserial correlation coef-
  measure of (a) the degree to which the           ficient point biserial correlation coeffi-
  test adequately covers all aspects of the        cient.
  skill in question, and (b) how much it
                                                 continuous recording Recording all of
  does NOT rely upon extraneous skills
                                                   the available information within an
  (the commonly-given example is that a
                                                   observation period. See interval record-
  test of maths should not require an
  advanced knowledge of English to
  understand the questions). See validity.       continuous variable quantitative variable
                                                   for which (given sufficiently accurate
contextual intelligence See triarchic
                                                   measures) a theoretically infinite
  theory of intelligence.
                                                   number of scores is possible (e.g.
contingency (1) The degree to which                height). This is in contrast with a discrete
  the existence of an event or state is            variable, a quantitative variable for
  dependent upon the existence of an-              which only a limited number of scores is
  other event or state. (2) The conditions         possible (e.g. points in a snooker game).
  necessary for conditioning to occur.             In reality it is impossible to measure an
                                                   infinite number of different scores.
contingency coefficient (C) Correlation
                                                   Measuring instruments have a smallest
  between two variables, both of which
                                                   measure below which they cannot ‘see’,
  are divided into more than two catego-
                                                   and hence measures can only fall within
  ries (for analysis of correlations
                                                   the range provided by the smallest
  between two dichotomous variables, see
                                                   measure which can be taken. E.g.,
  tetrachoric correlation coefficient).
                                                   suppose that a rule can only accurately
contingency contracting Therapeutic                measure down to a thousandth of a
  method, akin to the token economy, in            metre, and everyone measured is
  which the patient agrees to behave in            between 0 and 2 metres in height. A
  a particular way (often signing a                subject can only fall into one of 2000
  doc-ument – a behavioural contract) in           height categories. It thus follows that a
  exchange for a series of rewards and/or          continuous variable is always, pedanti-
  avoidance of punishments adminis-                cally speaking, a discrete variable. In
  tered by the therapist. In self-manage-          most instances, however, this distinc-
  ment therapy, the patient administers            tion is treated as a mathematical nicety,
  the rewards/punishments him/herself.             and it is assumed that to all intents and
contingency management contingency                 purposes, a supposed continuous
  contracting.                                     variable measures with the accuracy it
contingency table Presentation of data
  in which two or more groups’ member-           contra-indication to therapy A
  ship of two or more mutually exclusive           symptom which indicates that the
  events are displayed (e.g. male and              patient’s illness is better treated using
  female, and whether they voted for               another therapy.

contracting behaviour contracting.           controlled association test Any test in
                                               which the subject must produce a word
contraction bias The tendency for
                                               associated with a given word in a
  people to rate subjects or events in the
                                               manner specified by the experimenter
  middle of the scale, when more extreme
                                               (e.g. antonym test).
  ratings might be justified. See error of
  central tendency.                          controlled drinking A therapeutic
                                               method in which alcoholics are trained
contralateral On the opposite side of the
                                               to keep their alcohol consumption
  midline from the section of the body in
                                               within prescribed limits.
  question. Compare with ipsilateral.
                                             controlling behaviour Behaviour
contrast pole See repertory grid test.
                                               which seeks to control or otherwise
contrast sensitivity function (CSF) A          limit the freedom of others.
  measure of the changing ability to
                                             controlling for General term for any
  focus clearly on a fine pattern of dark
                                               method of ensuring that a particular
  and light parallel lines when the
                                               variable does not interfere with the
  relative darkness and lightness of the
                                               running or interpretation of an experi-
  lines is altered.
                                               ment. At its simplest, this means e.g.
contre coup injury Injury which occurs         controlling for extraneous noise (i.e.
  on the opposite side of the body from        choosing a quiet test room), but can
  where the damaging blow was                  also mean more complex statistical
  received.                                    methods, such as the analysis of
control group Group of subjects who do         covariance.
  not receive a particular treatment, or     convergence analysis Complex statisti-
  possess a particular characteristic in       cal technique combining findings from
  which the experimenter is interested         a variety of different methods of study
  and who are measured as a comparison         (e.g. of longitudinal studies and cross-sec-
  with the experimental group, who             tional studies) to determine a general
  receive the treatment or possess a par-      rule.
  ticular characteristic. E.g. a control
                                             convergent research Different methods
  group might be a group of healthy
                                               of inquiry addressing the same problem
  people being compared with a group of
                                               and arriving at the same conclusions.
  patients suffering from a particular
  disease.                                   convergent thinking See divergent
control theory See reality therapy.
                                             convergent validity The degree to
control through fear The restraint upon
                                               which a test correlates highly with
  performing an act caused by fear of
                                               measures with which it is expected to
  punishment. Contrast with control
                                               correlate (e.g. a measure of mathemati-
  through guilt.
                                               cal ability should correlate highly with
control through guilt The restraint            scores on a trigonometry test). See
  upon performing an act caused by fear        discriminant validity.
  of the ensuing guilty feelings. Contrast
                                             converging operations Different
  with control through fear.
                                               methods of enquiry/experimental
control variable An experimental               methods, which all support the same
  variable which is held constant for all      conclusion/theoretical concept.
  subjects (e.g. the same test room might
                                             conversion disorder A somatoform
  be used).
                                               disorder, characterized by loss of control
                                            CORRECTION FOR RANGE RESTRICTION / 73

  over the muscles and/or senses. The            core construct See personal construct
  patient seems surprisingly unconcerned           theory.
  about their condition (la belle indiffer-
                                                 corneal reflection technique Method
  ence). The term hysteria is sometimes
                                                   of measuring eye movements by
  used synonymously – hence also hyster-
                                                   shining an (invisible) infra-red beam
  ical blindness, etc.
                                                   onto the participant’s eyeball, and by
conversion hysteria conversion disorder.           measuring the angle at which the beam
                                                   is reflected back, calculating where the
conversion neurosis conversion disorder.
                                                   participant’s eye is directed.
convulsion An involuntary muscular
                                                 corollary discharge Adjusting to
  contraction, which is either a pro-
                                                   changes in posture and orientation so
  longed contraction (a tonic convulsion)
                                                   that the environment appears stable
  or a series of contractions and relax-
                                                   (e.g. if one moves one’s head, what one
  ations (a clonic convulsion).
                                                   sees remains stable – it does not also
convulsion therapy General term for                appear to have moved).
  any therapeutic technique in which the
                                                 coronary prone behaviour (CPB) Any
  patient is deliberately given a convulsion.
                                                   pattern of behaviour which appreciably
  The most common version is electro-
                                                   raises the probability of suffering a
  convulsive therapy (ECT), although
                                                   stroke, heart attack, etc.
  insulin overdoses (insulin therapy) were
  used in the past.                              corpus callosum The principal anatomi-
                                                   cal link between the left and right hemi-
convulsive therapy convulsion therapy.
                                                   spheres of the brain.
Cook’s D Cook’s distance.
                                                 correction for attenuation A method
Cook’s distance (Cook’s D) A measure               of correcting for measurement error in
 of the extent to which an outlier is dis-         correlations.
 torting results and hence whether the
                                                 correction for chance correction for
 outlier should be removed from the cal-
                                                 correction for continuity A mathemat-
coping behaviour Any behaviour or act
                                                   ical adjustment to discontinuously-dis-
  which reduces or negates the deleteri-
                                                   tributed data so that they approximate
  ous effects of a harmful situation.
                                                   to a continuous distribution. This enables
coping skill coping behaviour.                     a potentially wider range of statistical
coping skills training Training in cop-            tests to be used on them.
  ing behaviour.                                 correction for guessing In a multiple
coprolagnia The feeling of excitement              choice test, or one requiring simple
  induced by coprophilia.                          ‘yes-no’ answers, it is possible to get a
                                                   certain percentage correct by guessing.
coprolalia Obsessive swearing.                     The correction for guessing formula
coprophagia Eating faeces.                         calculates how many correct answers
                                                   could have been guesses, and based on
coprophilia An atypical paraphilia in              this, the subject’s score is adjusted.
  which the patient obtains sexual grati-
  fication from faeces.                          correction for range restriction A
                                                   method of correcting correlations where
coprophobia A phobia of excrement.                 the range of scores on one or both of

  the variables is stunted (the limited range       variance). The value r2 is also known as
  distorts the size of the correlation).            the coefficient of determination. Correla-
                                                    tions can be measured in several ways,
correlated subjects design repeated
                                                    depending upon the nature of the data.
  measures design.
                                                    The most common is the correlation
correlation Technically speaking, a                 between two continuous variables. This is
  measure of how much of the variance               called the product-moment correlation
  in one variable can be predicted by               coefficient, and when ‘correlation’ is
  variance in another. In layperson’s               discussed without a further qualifying
  terms, a correlation describes the                statement, it should be assumed that the
  strength of the relationship between              product-moment correlation is being
  two variables, and the extent to which a          referred to. Also see e.g. alienation coeffi-
  change in one is met by a change in the           cient, contingency coefficient, correlation
  other. The symbol for a correlation is r,         matrix, Fisher’s z test, Kendall partial rank
  often suffixed with a letter or symbol,           correlation coefficient, Kendall rank corre-
  depending upon the formula used to                lation coefficient, linear correlation, Pearson
  calculate it. Correlations can be posi-           correlation coefficient, point biserial corre-
  tive (i.e. as one variable increases, so          lation coefficient, semi-partial correlation,
  does the other) or negative (i.e. as one          Spearman rank order correlation coefficient,
  variable increases, the other decreases).         and tetrachoric correlation coefficient.
  Correlations also vary in strength – a
                                                  correlation coefficient The mathemati-
  value of 0 means that no relationship
                                                    cal expression of a correlation (i.e. the
  exists between the variables, a value of
                                                    value of r).
  1 indicates a perfect positive correlation
  (i.e. for every increase in one variable,       correlation matrix Analysis of correla-
  there is proportionately the same in-             tions between three or more variables.
  crease in the other) and a value of -1            Usually displayed as a table (hence its
  indicates a perfect negative correlation          name) with the variables listed along
  (i.e. every rise in one variable is met           the top horizontal axis and also along
  with proportionately the same fall in             the left vertical axis – the correlations
  the other). In ‘real life’, correlations fall     between them are listed at the intersec-
  somewhere between these extremes.                 tions.
  The closer the figure is to 1 or -1
                                                  correlation ratio (N)A measure of corre-
  (known as the perfect correlation), the
                                                    lation for a non-linear relationship
  stronger the correlation (typically, a
                                                    between two variables.
  value of 0.3 or better is taken to be a
  good indicator). ‘Correlation’ is not           correlational research Any research
  synonmous with ‘causation’. There is              method whose basic measure is correla-
  no method of deciding from the sta-               tion. There is usually the implication
  tistic alone whether one variable is              that no experimental manipulation of
  causing the other to alter; in any case,          the subjects or test materials has taken
  both might be controlled by a third               place.
  party (see partial correlation). For the        Corsi blocks task A test of visuo-spatial
  mathematically minded: the percentage            memory. Subjects are shown an array of
  of the variance in one variable which            blocks positioned on a table. The experi-
  the other predicts can be easily calcu-          menter taps on some of these blocks in
  lated by squaring r and multiplying the          a sequence which the subject is asked
  result by 100 (e.g. variables A and B            to copy. The experimenter gradually
  correlate at 0.6; A predicts 36% of B’s
                                                       COUNTERCONDITIONING / 75

  increases the length of sequence until         practitioners, and implies that the treat-
  the subject’s memory span is discovered.       ment follows a systematic course.
                                                 However, ‘therapy’ can also cover
cortex cerebral cortex.
                                                 physical treatments with relatively little
cortical Pertaining to the cerebral cortex.      provision of advice and with no psy-
cortical atherosclerotic dementia                chological content (e.g. chemother-
  (CAD) vascular dementia whose primary          apy). Another difference between the
  damage occurs in the cortex.                   terms is that ‘therapy’ usually refers
                                                 specifically to the treatment of an
cortical dementias dementias in which the        illness, whilst ‘counselling’ can also
  principal damage occurs in the cortex          include the enhancement of a behav-
  (e.g. dementia of the Alzheimer type,          iour which is not necessarily causing
  multi-infarct dementia). Compare with          debilitating problems (e.g. leisure coun-
  sub-cortical dementias.                        selling). Generally, within specialist
cortical evoked potential evoked poten-          texts, the terms ‘counselling’ and ‘ther-
  tial.                                          apy’ are used interchangeably, and dif-
                                                 ferent individuals may call themselves
cortices Plural of cortex.                       ‘counsellors’ or ‘therapists’ whilst
cosmetic psychopharmacology The                  being identically qualified and offering
  use of drug treatments to enhance a            identical services. However, the reader
  personality or mood, when the patient          is advised to check for him/herself.
  is not mentally ill.                         counselling psychology The study and
cotherapy conjoint therapy.                      practice of counselling within a psycho-
                                                 logical framework.
counselling Nebulous term – it tradi-
  tionally means ‘formally giving              counter-transference See transference.
  advice’. Within psychology and related       counterbalancing Presenting different
  disciplines, the term refers more specif-      subjects with the same set of treat-
  ically to any method using a treatment         ments, tests, etc. in different orders, so
  regime whose principal component is            that any observed effects cannot be
  the provision of advice, be it tacit or        attributed to one particular order of
  explicit. The term can be misleading           presentation. Also, the order of pre-
  because, in addition to trained counsel-       sentation by design is such that each
  lors, the media have tended to apply the       treatment appears equally often in each
  phrase to relatively untrained individu-       place in the presentation order (e.g. if
  als who are described as offering ‘coun-       there are three treatments, the subject
  selling’, although their services are          has an equal chance of receiving one of
  more properly described as simply              these first, second, or third). See fixed
  offering advice without a systematic           order presentation, Latin square, and ran-
  rationale (although this does not mean         domization.
  that their services are necessarily poor).
  The term is often prefixed with a            countercathexis anticathexis.
  description of the area in which coun-       counterconditioning Removing an
  selling is offered – ‘careers counsel-         undesirable behaviour by associating it
  ling’, ‘feminist counselling’, etc. The        with aversive stimuli, and perhaps in
  term therapy is perhaps preferable,            addition conditioning the patient to
  because its general usage is largely           adopt a new one in response to the
  confined to trained (usually full-time)        same conditions. E.g. a patient with

  a fetish for women’s shoes might be         CPM Coloured Progressive Matrices.
  presented with pictures of shoes and
                                              CPP Wonderlic Comprehensive Personality
  simultaneously administered electric
  shocks. This makes the fetishistic
  object no longer desirable.                 CPRS Cognitive Participation Rating Scale.
counterphobic Condition of a patient          CR conditioned response.
  who deliberately encounters a phobia-       Cramer’s V Measure of correlation bet-
  producing event or item to ‘prove’ that       ween nominal variables.
  s/he can cope with it (although the
  anxiety caused by the phobia is undi-       cranial Anatomical term denoting the
  minished and may even be increased).          ‘head end’ or front section in a quad-
                                                ruped. However, in a bipedal animal
couple counselling/therapy General              (e.g. human) the term denotes the ‘top’
  term for any therapeutic method               of the head. See anterior, dorsal and
  treating both partners in a relationship.     superior.
covariance (1) The degree to which            cranial nerves nerves which enter and
  change in one variable is met by changes      leave the brain without the intermedi-
  in another. (2) The term is also used         ary of the spinal cord. The nerves are
  by some commentators to denote the            numbered (traditionally in Roman
  degree to which two or more variables         numerals) from 1 to 12: I Olfactory, II
  share variance in common because of           Optic, III Oculomotor, IV Trochlear, V
  a shared relationship with a third            Trigeminal; VI Abducens; VII Facial; VIII
  variable (see the ‘foot and maths             Auditory-vestibular, IX Glossopharyngeal;
  example’ in analysis of covariance).          X Vagus, XI Spinal Accessory, and XII
covariance matrix A matrix of covari-           Hypoglossal. Often the nerves are
  ances between variables arranged akin         referred to by their number (e.g. the
  to a correlation matrix.                      facial cranial nerve is the ‘seventh
                                                nerve’). Compare with spinal nerves.
covariate variable causing covariance.
                                              Crawford Small Parts Dexterity Test
covert compulsion See compulsion.
                                                Test of manual dexterity, involving tasks
covert modelling See modelling.                 similar to those of pegboard test, using
                                                tweezers or a screwdriver to insert pegs
covert sensitization covert therapy.
                                                into holes.
covert speech inner speech.
                                              creative aggression therapy (CAG)
covert therapy Any therapeutic tech-            Therapeutic technique in which patients
  nique in which a situation, stimulus,         are encouraged and trained to channel
  etc., is imagined and dealt with in the       aggressive thoughts and feelings into
  mind, rather than in reality. The tech-       more constructive acts.
  nique can be more efficacious than this
                                              creative arts therapy creative therapy.
  description at first appears to imply.
                                              creative therapy General term for any
CP cumulative proportion.
                                                therapeutic method using artistic
CPAB Computer Programmer Aptitude               expression and appreciation as a signif-
 Battery.                                       icant part of the process (e.g. art therapy,
CPB (1) Chronic Pain Battery. (2) coronary      music therapy).
 prone behaviour.                             creativity Largely synonymous with
CPI California Personality Inventory.           divergent thinking. The term generally
                                                            CRITERION RELEVANCE / 77

  refers to any ability to produce novel          crisis clinic A clinic or other therapeutic
  ideas. Note that the term has a less ‘dra-        group for the administration of crisis
  matic’ meaning than the layperson’s               intervention.
  use – i.e. it is not confined to great
                                                  crisis intervention Nebulous term for
  artists, writers, etc.
                                                    treatment of a patient’s reaction to a
creativity test Any measure of ability to           sudden catastrophic event, which the
  produce original ideas. Usually there             patient cannot adequately deal with on
  are caveats that the ideas should be              his/her own.
  plentiful and feasible. Frequently used
                                                  criterion (1) Level of ability. (2) The
  measures include the brick test, word
                                                    standard against which others must be
  fluency test, ability to create narratives on
  a given theme, etc. See divergent thinking.
                                                  criterion deficiency See criterion rele-
cretinism A congenital form of mental
  retardation caused by an underactive
  thyroid gland. If identified early              criterion group Group whose members
  (before 3 months of age) the illness can          possess a characteristic, or set of charac-
  be largely successfully treated.                  teristics, which separates them from the
                                                    rest of the population (e.g. patients suf-
Creutzfeldt–Jakob Disease (CJD) A
                                                    fering from a particular illness, Nobel
 very rare dementia (affecting circa 1
                                                    prizewinners, etc.). Other participants’
 person per million per year), possibly
                                                    performance may be compared with
 contracted through contact with
                                                    that of the members of this group.
 infected nervous tissue. In addition to
 archetypal demented symptoms of intel-           criterion-keyed test Test which can
 lectual and mnemonic impairment,                   identify members and non-members of
 there are severe disturbances of gait and          a criterion group.
 movement. CJD can strike at any age in           criterion prediction expectancy table.
 adulthood, but is typically found in
 middle aged and older people, pro-               criterion-referenced tests attainment
 bably because in most cases there is a             tests in which subjects’ scores can be
 long incubation period (e.g. decades).             compared to a particular standard or
 In recent times, CJD has been associ-              criterion. The nature of this criterion is
 ated with bovine spongiformence-                   an absolute value, independent of con-
 phalopathy (BSE).                                  siderations of e.g. age norms.
cri du chat inherited condition with              criterion-related validity See predictive
  physical and psychological handicaps,             validity.
  and characterized by the strange                criterion relevance The degree to
  cat-like sounds made by patients as               which the criteria for judging a
  babies.                                           person’s competence at their job are
Crichton Vocabulary Scale (CVS) A                   actually appropriate (e.g. judging a
 measure of vocabulary and crystallized             typist by his/her manual dexterity is a
 intelligence measure.                              reasonably good indicator, whilst
                                                    judging them by his/ her knowledge
criminal responsibility The degree to               of algebra is not). The degree to which
  which an individual can be held men-              the criteria fall short of ideal is called
  tally responsible for a criminal act.             criterion deficiency.

criterion score The minimum score nec-          cross-cultural treatment Any treatment
  essary to pass a test.                          in which the patient and those giving
                                                  the treatment are from different
criterion validity criterion-related
                                                cross-dressing transvestism.
criterion variable (1) The variable the
  value of which is to be predicted. (2)        cross-over interaction See interaction
  See multiple regression.                        (ANOVA).
critical flicker fusion (CFF) The               cross partition Creating a sub-group of
  slowest rate at which a flickering light        a sub-group (e.g. divide the sample into
  is perceived as a ‘continuous’ light. The       men and women, and then divide the
  rate decreases in old age (i.e. an older        men into those named ‘Brian’ and those
  person cannot perceive as fast a rate of        not).
                                                cross-sectional research/samples/
critical incident measurement Evalu-              study The experimental method of
  ating a subject by how well they                testing different groups (usually differ-
  perform during a key incident in which          ent age groups) in the same test period.
  certain skills are demanded, stretched          Contrast with longitudinal research/
  or called into question.                        samples/study. See overlapping longitu-
                                                  dinal study.
critical incident technique (CIT)
  critical incident measurement.                cross-sequential design overlapping lon-
                                                  gitudinal study.
critical loss Pertaining to the terminal
  drop model the theory that in old age,        cross-tolerance Being more resistant
  declines in some intellectual abilities         than average to the effects of a drug,
  can be endured, but falls in others con-        because of prior exposure to a related
  stitute a ‘critical loss’ which heralds         substance.
                                                cross-validation Checking that a test
Critical Reasoning Tests (CRT)                    performs in an identical manner with
 Measure of verbal and numerical skills,          separate samples of the same population.
 for assessing managerial level staff.
                                                crossed design factorial design in which
 Uses a mock-up of (fictional) company
                                                  the levels of one independent variable are
 documents as test materials.
                                                  the same for every level of the another
critical region The area of the sampling          independent variable. E.g. an analysis of
  distribution within which a result must         variance in which the subjects are given
  fall if it is to be significant.                temperature-controlling drug treat-
                                                  ments A and B (the independent vari-
critical value (CV) The value of a statis-
                                                  ables) and their effect on body temper-
  tic which marks the borderline between
                                                  ature (the dependent variable) is observed.
  a significant and a non-significant result.
                                                  Treatment A has three dosage levels (1,
CRMS Cambridge Research Mood Survey.              2 and 3) and treatment B has 2. Hence,
Cronbach’s a Cronbach’s Alpha.                    the subjects are assigned to six groups –
                                                  those receiving treatment A at dosage
Cronbach’s Alpha See reliability.                 level 1 and treatment B at dosage level
cross-cultural research Comparing the             1 (A1 and B1); those receiving treat-
  characteristics of people of more than          ment A at dosage level 1 and treatment
  one race/culture.                               B at dosage level 2 (Al and B1); A2 and
                                                                 CULTURAL NORM / 79

  B1, A2 and B2, A3 and B1, and A3 and            during a lifetime – roughly corresponds
  B2. The alternative method – the nested         to the lay term ‘general knowledge’.
  design – gives a different level of one
                                                CSA child sexual abuse.
  variable for every level of the other
  variable. Hence, if there are three levels    CSF(1) contrast sensitivity function. (2)
  of treatment A, each will receive a dif-       cerebrospinal fluid.
  ferent level of treatment B (e.g. A1B1,       CSI Caregiver Strain Index.
  A2B2, A3B3 or A1B1, A1B2, A2B3,
  A2B4, A3B5, A3B6 – further permuta-           CSRPI Children’s Self-Report and Projective
  tions are possible).                           Inventory.
crosstabulation Method of showing in a          CSTAI Children’s State-Trait Anxiety Inven-
  table how the same group of people,            tory.
  divided according to two independent          CT computerized transaxial tomography.
  categorization methods behave. E.g.
  the same group of people might be             CTAB Comprehensive Test of Adaptive
  divided into males and females in one          Behaviour.
  categorization and into whether they          CTONI Comprehensive Test of Non-Verbal
  voted for candidate A or B in an               Intelligence.
  election. The crosstabulation would
  reveal how many females voted for A or        CTOPP Comprehensive Test of Phonological
  B and how many males voted for A or            Processing.
  B. In a conditional crosstabulation, the      cuddliness The degree to which a baby
  figures show the relationship between           positively responds to being cuddled
  categories after a conditional relationship     by its mother/caregiver – some babies
  has been accounted for (e.g. males tend         repel cuddles, which may indicate
  to have higher incomes than females –           mental illness (e.g. autism).
  the data when examined in terms of
  income level may reveal that high             cued recall task See recall task.
  income earners, whether male or               cultural bias (1) A bias against subjects
  female, tend to prefer one candidate,           from certain sections of the population.
  and the gender difference is largely            (2) Using tests which presuppose a
  coincidental).                                  knowledge of a particular culture (typi-
Crown-Crisp Experiential Index                    cally, white middle class). Subjects from
 (CCEI) Measure of general neurotic               groups unfamiliar with this culture
 state, including sub-scales on level and         might perform badly on such tests,
 types of depression, anxiety etc.                simply because they do not have the
                                                  appropriate social background to
CRT (1) choice reaction time. (2) Critical        understand the questions (see example
 Reasoning Tests.                                 for picture completion task). See cultural
crucial experiment Experiment which               test bias.
  determines which of two or more               cultural drift Changes in societal values
  equally plausible theories is correct.          over time (usually decades at least).
crying cat syndrome cri du chat.                cultural norm That which is acceptable
crystallized intelligence The amount              or conventional within a particular
  of factual (as opposed to autobiograph-         culture. The issue becomes an issue in
  ical) knowledge a person has acquired           treatment of some dysfunctional
                                                  people when their ‘condition’ is

  considered normal in some cultures but           cumulative proportion (CP) cumulative
  not others. E.g. homosexuality is con-             frequency distribution.
  sidered a disease in some cultures (and
                                                   cumulative scaling Guttman scaling.
  in the past by many more – e.g. the
  DSM used to classify it as an illness) but       curvilinear correlation A non-linear cor-
  not others. The antipsychiatry movement            relation in which the line assumes a
  argues that many types of mental ‘ill-             curved shape.
  ness’ are nothing of the sort and are the        curvilinear regression A non-linear
  product of imposing outmoded cultural              regression in which the line assumes a
  norms on different but valid be-                   curved shape.
                                                   curvilinear relationship Relationship
cultural relativism The argument that                between two variables such that if a line
  behaviour (and by extension, research              graph is plotted to express it, the line is
  findings) must be judged against the               curved.
  society in which they are produced and
  judged relative to the requirements and          Cushing’s syndrome organic affective
  mores of that society.                            syndrome caused by an excess of corti-
                                                    sone, and characterized by a bloating of
cultural test bias The degree to which a            the body and severe mood swings. The
  test fails to be a culture-fair test.             disease is more common in women. See
culture-bound disorder Disorder (e.g.               Addison’s disease.
  koro) restricted to members of a particu-        cut-off score The minimum score which
  lar culture.                                       must be attained to qualify for inclusion
culture-fair test Test which is equally              in the group in question (usually used
  fair to all subjects, no matter what their         in connection with job and other selec-
  cultural background (e.g. Cattell                  tion tests).
  Culture-Fair Test). See culture-specific test.   CV (1) critical value. (2) cardiovascular (i.e.
Culture Free Self-Esteem Inventory                  pertaining to the heart and blood
 Measure of self-esteem, claiming to be a           vessels).
 culture-fair test. It exists in two formats:      CVA cerebrovascular accident.
 Form AD for adults, and Form A for
 children.                                         CVS Crichton Vocabulary Scale.
culture-free test culture-fair test.               cyclothymia Personality type character-
                                                     ized by pronounced swings of mood,
culture-specific test Test which is spe-             although not necessarily severe enough
  cifically targeted at individuals from             to merit treatment.
  one (usually minority) culture. See
  culture-fair test.                               cyclothymic disorder (1) See depression.
                                                     (2) cyclothymia.
cumulative density function (c.d.f.)
  cumulative frequency distribution.               cyclothymic personality cyclothymic
cumulative frequency distribution
  frequency distribution in which each             cyclozine A heroin antagonist.
  observation is given a ‘score’ indicating        cynophobia A phobia of dogs.
  the number of observations which have
  values equal to or below the observa-            cypridophoia A phobia of sex and/or
  tion in question. See percentage cumula-           venereal disease.
  tive frequency distribution.
                                                                      DATA POINT / 81

D                                                 socially embarrassing opinions, etc.).
                                                  Respondents are told to answer truth-
d difficulty index.                               fully, but to roll a die (or select a
                                                  number or value in a similarly random
D (1) deductive reasoning. (2) drive. (3)         manner) before answering. The respon-
 Measure of the number of standard devi-          dents are told that if they roll a certain
 ations by which the mean of one group            number (e.g. ‘3’), then they must tell a
 exceeds (or is less than) another if all         lie to the question asked. The experi-
 their scores are pooled together and an          menter does not know what the subject
 overall mean and standard deviation              has rolled, and hence cannot be certain
 are calculated (in effect, a kind of z score     if the subject’s answer is true or false.
 for groups).                                     Data on individual subjects is accord-
d-lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) A              ingly rather unreliable. However, if the
  psychedelic drug.                               average responses for a large number of
                                                  people are considered, then the experi-
d prime The pronunciation of d.                   menter can calculate fairly accurately
D scale See Minnesota Multiphasic Person-         the proportion of false answers (in the
 ality Inventory.                                 above example, one sixth will be lies),
                                                  and hence the number of people within
d’ See signal detection analysis.
                                                  a group who have committed the
DAF Draw a Family Test.                           various acts or hold the particular
                                                  beliefs in question. See direct pipeline
DAI Dissertation Abstracts International.
Dale Word list See Teachers’ Word Book of
                                                data dredging (1) data mining. (2) More
 30,000 Words.
                                                  specifically, a contemptuous term for a
dance therapy Disjunctive therapy tech-           method of last resort when an experi-
  nique in which the patients are encour-         ment has failed to prove the looked-for
  aged to use the postures and move-              outcome. Namely, looking through the
  ments of dance to explore expressions           data for anything that might be of
  and sensations, feelings and thoughts.          interest (and publishable).
Daniels and Diack reading tests                 data mining Searching through a set of
 Standard Reading Tests.                          data for a meaningful pattern. The term
DAP test draw-a-person test.                      is often applied to very large data sets
                                                  where statistical analysis is the only
DARD Durrell Analysis of Reading Diffi-           possible means of extracting informa-
 culty.                                           tion. The term is often used in a deroga-
DAS (1) Differential Ability Scales. (2) Dys-     tory sense to denote searching blindly
 functional Attitudes Scale.                      in the hope of finding at least some-
                                                  thing meaningful. Top down data
DAT (1) dementia of the Alzheimer type. (2)       mining involves examining the data
 Differential Aptitude Tests.                     with a preset idea of what is being
data contamination technique                      looked for, whilst bottom up data
 Method of eliciting group data on                mining involves analysing the data
 potentially embarrassing topics (e.g. we         using statistical measures with no pre-
 might want data on how many people               conceived idea of what the pattern will
 have committed undetected crimes,                look like. See data dredging.
 performed strange sexual acts, hold            data point datum.

datum A single piece of data.                    were misled) after the experiment is
                                                 usually a moral necessity.
DDST Denver Developmental Screening Test.
                                               decile A percentile for multiples of 10 (e.g.
de Clerembaut’s syndrome A persis-
                                                 10th percentile, 60th percentile, etc.).
  tent delusion that a completely unattain-
  able and famous person is in love with       decision rule See significance.
  the patient. The slightest actions by the
                                               decision threshold response criterion.
  famous person may be construed as a
  secret signal, but the patient may also      descision tree A graphical or visual
  eventually experience violent feelings         representation of a descision-making
  against the object of their affections for     process, in which the total range of
  his/her ‘failure’ to return their love.        options available is represented as akin
                                                 to a branching tree with the initial stage
de novo mutation A mutation in genetic
                                                 of the process as its root.
  structure that occurs in the sperm or
  egg (i.e. it is not a mutation already       Decisionbase A computerized psychiat-
  present in the parents’ genes).               ric diagnosis programme.
death instinct In some versions of             decompensation A failure of coping
  Freudian theory (particularly Freud’s          behaviour.
  own later work), a drive towards             deconditioning See conditioning.
                                               decortication The removal or decay of
death preparation Preparing for the psy-         all or part of the cerebral cortex or the
  chological and practical impact of the         outer layer of any organ.
  death of oneself or of a loved one.
  Usually helps to lessen the negative         deductive reasoning Using a rule or
  effects of the event. To some extent,          principle to explain a specific example.
  ‘passive’ death preparation increases          In contrast, inductive reasoning derives
  with age, as the probability of dying          a rule or principle based upon interpre-
  increases.                                     tation of a set of examples.
death wish death instinct.                     deep dysgraphia A profound writing
                                                 difficulty akin to deep dyslexia – patients
DEBQ Dutch Eating Behaviour Question-            have great difficulty in spelling new or
 naire.                                          nonsense words, and tend to write down
debriefing (research) Informing test             words which are synonyms of the
  subjects of the purpose of the study in        words they are supposed to be writing.
  which they have participated.                deep dyslexia An acquired dyslexia in
decatastrophizing The process of per-            which patients cannot read new or
  suading a patient that a situation s/he        nonsense words (see phonological dyslexia)
  is experiencing, although terrible, can        and also misread words for words of
  be coped with, and that ultimately, a          similar meaning.
  normal life is possible.                     deep reflex See reflex.
deception study Study in which subjects        defence mechanisms (1) See Freud’s psy-
  are deliberately misled by the experi-         choanalytic theory. (2) Generally, patterns
  menter in order to examine a hypothe-          of behaviour exhibited in times of
  sis. In such circumstances, dehoaxing          stress/perceived danger.
  (telling the subjects how and why they
                                                                      DELINQUENT / 83

Defence Mechanism Test (DMT)                     instead of being added, the numbers
 Measure of strength of defence mecha-           had to be multiplied or divided to
 nisms. The subject is shown a tachisto-         create a desired number, the same rule
 scopic presentation of a threatening image,     would apply – all but one of the
 and is asked to draw it. The length of          numbers in the group can have any
 exposure is progressively increased on          value at all – only one of them must
 successive trials, and the drawings             assume a particular value. If more
 produced are examined.                          sophisticated demands are made (e.g.
                                                 the final sum must equal a set target,
defensive style The characteristic
                                                 and one of the numbers must be a prime
  pattern of defence mechanisms exhibited
                                                 number), then this means that fewer
  by a patient.
                                                 numbers can have any value at all (e.g. 2
deferred gratification delay of gratifica-       numbers might have to assume particu-
  tion.                                          lar values in order to make the sum
Defining Issues Test Measure of moral            ‘work’). Therefore, the degrees of
 reasoning based on Kohlberg’s theory            freedom might have to be lowered to n
 of moral development.                           - 2, n - 3, etc. The degrees of freedom
                                                 thus represent the total number of
degrees of freedom (d.f.) At a general           observations made, minus the number
  level, degrees of freedom refers to the        of observations which must assume
  number of events which are free to vary        certain values if the requirements of the
  without the requirement that they              mathematical operations being used are
  assume particular values. For example,         to be fulfilled. In statistics, this is a very
  suppose that there is a requirement that       important concept, which underpins
  a group of 5 numbers must always add           many of the subject’s key formulae.
  up to 100. We can choose any values
  we want for the first 4 numbers, but the     dehoaxing See deception study.
  value of the 5th one is constrained – it     deindividuation Loss of personal
  must make the series add up to 100. For        identity.
  example, we might choose the numbers
                                               deinstitutionalization (-isation) (l)The
  1,5,78, and 24. The 5th number must
                                                 intellectual and emotional ‘recovery’
  take the value of -8 for all 5 numbers to
                                                 upon release from institutionalized care
  add up to 100. Similarly, if we had
                                                 (see institutionalization). (2) The recent/
  chosen 5,1,1, and 2, then the 5th
                                                 official policy of many countries of
  number would have to be 91. In this
                                                 allowing many patients, who would
  instance, the value of only one number
                                                 once have been institutionalized, to live
  is constrained – the remainder are free
                                                 in the general community.
  to assume any values. Therefore, there
  are said to be (5 – 1), or 4 degrees of      delay of gratification Restraining
  freedom. It logically follows that we          oneself from performing particular be-
  could take differently sized groups, and       haviour until the appropriate time (e.g.
  the same constraint would apply. If we         when it is socially appropriate).
  insist that a group must add up to a
                                               delayed echolalia See echolalia.
  fixed value, then all but one of the
  group can assume any value. Therefore,       delimiting observations Deciding
  we can generate the rule that for any          which phenomena are to be observed
  group of numbers which must add up             and which are to be ignored in a study.
  to a fixed value, the degrees of freedom     delinquent (Usually) under-age breaker
  = n - 1. It follows from this that if          of the law. See hebesphalmology.

delirium A major disturbance (usually          delusion of reference The delusion that
  temporary) in intellect and perception         (perfectly innocuous) statements and
  resulting from a general deleterious           events are directed against oneself.
  change in the central nervous system’s
                                               delusional jealousy A delusion that one’s
  metabolism (e.g. through fever, intoxi-
                                                 partner is being unfaithful.
  cation, drug overdose). Can be confused
  with dementia, but its very rapid onset is   Delusions-Symptoms-States Inven-
  in itself a sufficiently distinguishing       tory (DSSI) Measure of a wide range
  feature. Occurs in three basic forms:         of psychiatric symptoms. Produces
  hyperactive delirium is characterized         three sub-scales: anxiety and depression;
  by an agitated level of behaviour;            neurotic symptoms; and personality disor-
  hypoactive delirium by an unusually           ders.
  subdued level of behaviour; and mixed        demand characteristics The (usually)
  delirium by a mixture of hyperactive           implicit demands which the experi-
  and hypoactive symptoms. Delirium              ment places on the subject. Hence, the
  may also occur without any ‘obvious’           attributes, goals, etc., which the subject
  behavioural symptoms.                          thinks the experimenter is measuring in
Delirium, Dementia, Amnesia and                  an experiment, but which may not
 other Cognitive Disorders See                   concur with what the experimenter
 organic mental disorders.                       intended.
Delirium Rating Scale (DRS) A test             demented The adjective from dementia.
 assessing the likelihood that a patient’s     demented dyslexia A condition found
 symptoms indicate delirium (acute               in some demented patients, who can read
 confusional state) rather than an illness       aloud perfectly normally, and yet have
 with which it can be easily confused            no understanding of what they are
 (e.g. dementia).                                reading.
delirium tremens (DTs) See withdrawal.         dementia A global deterioration of intel-
delta waves A pattern of electrical              lectual function, resulting from atrophy
  activity in the brain detected by EEC          of the central nervous system. In some
  with a frequency between 0 and 4 Hz.           (older) textbooks, ‘dementia’ applies
                                                 purely to pre-senile dementia and senile
delusion A persistent misinterpretation
                                                 dementia to the over-60s. This distinc-
  of information, which need not neces-
                                                 tion is now largely disregarded. The
  sarily be a misperception of a real stim-
                                                 illness takes many forms (the most
  ulus (as in an illusion). Also not to be
                                                 common are dementia of the Alzheimer
  confused with hallucination. Often the
                                                 type and multi-infarct dementia), but in all
  delusion is identified by a suffix (e.g.
                                                 cases it kills the person before the body
  ‘delusion of grandeur’ has entered
                                                 (see ambiguous loss). Patients in the later
  everyday speech). Most are self-
                                                 stages of the disease lack any sign of
  evident. However, note that delusion of
                                                 memory (and hence recognition of
  control refers to the patient’s misinter-
                                                 friends and relatives), intellect, person-
  pretation that s/he is being controlled,
                                                 ality, and often language. Diagnosis of
  not that s/he is controlling.
                                                 the types of dementia is difficult, and
delusion of control See delusion.                post-mortem studies of patients have
                                                 found that up to 70% of them have
delusion of influence delusion of control.
                                                 been misdiagnosed during life (this is
                                                 currently only of academic interest,
                                                           DEPENDENT SAMPLE / 85

  because there are no cures for dementia     demonology The belief that a supernat-
  although recent drug trials look prom-        ural and malevolent spirit has invaded
  ising). See acute confusional state,          a person’s mind, causing him/her to
  Blessed Dementia Scale, bovine spongiform     become mentally ill. A commonly held
  encephalopathy (BSE), chronic brain           belief in many ‘primitive’ societies (e.g.
  disorder, chronic brain syndrome (CBS),       eighteenth century Britain).
  cortical dementias, Creutzfeldt-Jakob
                                              demonomania The delusion of being
  Disease (CJD), Pick’s Disease, pseudo-
                                                controlled or even possessed by the
  dementia, pre-senile dementia, pugilistic
                                                Devil or other evil forces.
  dementia, senile dementia, sub-cortical
  dementias, and Wernicke’s dementia.         demophobia A phobia of crowds/large
dementia of the Alzheimer type
  (DAT) The most common form of               dendograms See cluster analysis.
  dementia, first described by Alois          denial A defence mechanism for denying
  Alzheimer in the nineteenth century.          the existence of an anxiety-producing
  Typically, the first symptom is amnesia,      or otherwise painful truth about one-
  followed by aphasia, and a general loss       self or an event.
  of intellectual functioning. Distur-
  bance of language and visuo-spatial         denominator See numerator.
  skills also typically occur early in the    Denver Developmental Screening
  course of the disease. Senile dementia of    Test (DDST) test battery for detecting
  the Alzheimer type (held only to afflict     delayed development in infants. Based
  patients aged over 60 years) was at one      on the Gessell Developmental Schedules.
  time felt to be qualitatively different
  from the disease contracted by younger      dependence addiction.
  patients, but this distinction is now       dependent measures Measures of a de-
  largely ignored. See aluminium theory of      pendent variable obtained by experimen-
  dementia of the Alzheimer type.               tal observation (e.g. if the dependent
dementia praecox Obsolete term for the          variable is weight of newborn babies,
  illness now known as schizophrenia. The       then typical dependent measures might
  term literally means ‘pre-senile demen-       be 7 lbs, 9 lbs, 8.5 lbs, etc.).
  tia’, but should not be confused with       dependent personality personality type I
  the condition now graced with that            found in some older people – possess-
  name.                                         ors have some life satisfaction, but rely
dementia pugilistica pugilistic dementia.       on others to help them. Not to be
                                                confused with dependent personality
Dementia Rating Scale (DRS) test                disorder, which is a much more severe
 battery of a range of basic psychological      condition.
 skills, assessing the severity of the im-
 pairment of a patient suffering from         dependent personality disorder per-
 dementia. Items on the test are presented      sonality disorder characterized by an
 in descending order of difficulty – if         extreme and illogical willingness to let
 the first couple of items are correctly        other people make decisions on the
 answered, then the rest of that particu-       patient’s behalf.
 lar section is assumed to be correct.        dependent sample Sample, the selec-
dementia syndrome of depression                 tion of whose members is determined
  (DSD) pseudodementia.                         by who or what has been allocated to

  other groups (e.g. in a comparison of          sense). In unipolar disorder, the patient
  two groups trying different dieting            solely exhibits depression, which is
  methods, it would be a sound idea to           long-lasting (e.g. a minimum of two
  ensure that people of roughly equal            months), and severe enough to inter-
  weight were assigned to the two                f ere w i t h n o rm a l f u n c t i o n i n g.
  groups). Compare with independent              Dysthymic disorder resembles unipolar
  sample.                                        disorder, except that the episodes of
                                                 depression last a relatively short time
dependent samples t test paired t test.
                                                 period (a couple of months at max-
dependent variable (DV) variable which           imum), or last for a few days, but recur
  is expected to alter because of its treat-     at regular intervals. In bipolar disorder,
  ment (e.g. skin rash after application of      the patient swings between episodes of
  ointment, reaction time after dosage of        depression and mania, often with
  alcohol). This is contrasted with the          periods of relative normality in
  independent variable, which is the             between (the episodes can vary in
  means by which the treatment of the            length from days to months). In bipolar
  dependent variable takes place (e.g. in        II disorder, the patient swings between
  the above examples, the independent            depression and hypomania. Cyclothymic
  variables are the ointment and the             disorder resembles bipolar disorder, in
  alcohol). More loosely, a variable             that there are swings between
  measured in an experiment or study. See        depressed and manic states, but they are
  dependent measure.                             relatively mild in their impact. Some
depersonalization (-isation) A loss of           commentators distinguish between
  feeling of personal identity (usually          reactive depression (depression arising
  temporary).                                    after a distressing event) and endoge-
                                                 nous depression (depression which
depressant General term for any drug or          arises for no apparent reason), but this
  substance that decreases activity, par-        distinction is not now universally
  ticularly activity in all or part of the       accepted.
  nervous system. The psychological
  effect is typically to induce a feeling of   deprivation Removal of something or
  relaxation (typically pleasant) and often      someone – this contrasts with priva-
  (some or total) relief from feelings of        tion, which denotes never having had
  pain. Uses of depressants range from           contact with the thing or person. The
  medically legitimate (e.g. some pain-          terms are not often used accurately, and
  killers) through socially-acceptable           caution is therefore advised.
  drugs (e.g. alcohol) through to socially-    depth psychology General term for
  proscribed drugs (e.g. heroin).                areas of psychology or psychology
depression affective disorder characterized      related topics which emphasise the role
  by a profound feeling of sadness,              of the unconscious (e.g. Freudian
  usuall y ac c o mpanied by o ther              theories).
  symptoms. The commonest of these are         derealization (-isation) The mispercep-
  disorders of sleep, loss of energy, perse-     tion that the world is unreal.
  verance, and/or enthusiasm, poor
                                               derived score See raw score.
  self-image, and changes in appetite and
  weight. Also, the condition must not be      Derogatis Psychiatric Rating Scale
  transitory (i.e. someone having one ‘off      (DPRS) Measure of the symptoms, and
  day’ is not depressed in the clinical         in particular level of distress of a
                                             DETERIORATION QUOTIENT (DQ) / 87

  patient. The test may be given in con-       of the encounters are treated as an
  junction with a self-report question-        imaginary exercise (for which they
  naire to see the degree to which the         reserve the term ‘systematic desensiti-
  patient’s perceptions of their own           zation’) and treatment in which the
  symptoms tally with those of a clini-        patient is presented with the real
  cian.                                        phobic object or situation from the start
                                               (in vivo desensitization). Contrast with
Derogatis Sexual Functioning Index
 (DSFI) Measure of sexual dysfunction.
                                             design copying test A test of whether a
descending pathways nerves conducting
                                               participant can accurately copy a
  impulses along the spinal cord from the
                                               picture. The test is most often given to
  brain. Compare with ascending pathways.
                                               brain damaged patients, to test the
descriptive research Studies which seek        extent of their visuo-spatial skills. See
  simply to catalogue the features of an       clock drawing test.
  item or event, without necessarily
                                             Design Copying Test Commercial
  placing an evaluative judgement or
                                              version of a design copying test.
  linking the findings to a theoretical
  stance.                                    design matrix Generally, a matrix repre-
                                               senting an experimental design.
descriptive statistics Calculations sum-
                                               However, note that individual authors
  marizing and describing data (e.g.
                                               use this term with variations, so caution
  mean, standard deviation, etc.), rather
                                               in interpretation is advised.
  than describing relationships between
  them. See inferential statistics.          desipramine A tricydic drug used in the
                                               treatment of depression.
desensitization (-isation) The process
  of conditioning patients to become         detection theory signal detection theory.
  unafraid of a situation or object which
                                             deterioration index Any measure of
  previously gave cause for anxiety.
                                               declining ability (through ageing,
  Because this is usually done gradually,
                                               illness, etc.) – e.g. deterioration quotient.
  the process is often called systematic
  desensitization. The therapy presents      deterioration quotient (DQ) Measure
  the patient with very mild examples of       of rate of intellectual decline associated
  the threatening stimulus (e.g., in the       with ageing, first devised by Wechsler.
  case of an arachnophobic patient, a          Sections of the WAIS (and indeed many
  drawing of a spider in a case at the         other intelligence test batteries) can be
  other end of a room), and gradually          divided into those measuring crystal-
  exposes the patient to more ‘threaten-       lized intelligence (held to be unaffected
  ing’ examples of the phobic object (an       by ageing), and those measuring fluid
  anxiety hierarchy). At each stage, the       intelligence (held to decline with
  patient practises relaxing responses, so     ageing). These can also be referred to as
  that s/he comes to associate the situa-      hold tests and don’t hold tests respec-
  tion with neutral or even positive           tively. The DQ is calculated as {[(score
  feelings. In this manner, the subject        on hold tests) – (score on don’t hold
  gradually gains the confidence to            tests)]/ (score on hold tests)} x 100. A
  approach the feared item, until s/he         phenomenon of the WAIS is that hold
  can handle it (often literally). Some        and don’t hold scores are equal in early
  commentators distinguish between             adulthood. Hence, the bigger the gap
  desensitization in which the majority        in an older person ’s hold and
                                               don’t hold test scores, the greater the

  deterioration. The DQ expresses this          developmental dysgraphia A profound
  change as a percentage. The term may            difficulty in spelling and in learning to
  also refer to other forms of deteriora-         spell, with which the person appears to
  tion (e.g. through illness). See efficiency     have been born.
                                                developmental dyslexia A profound
determinism Philosophical argument                difficulty in reading and in learning to
  that everything has a cause, and that if        read, with which the person appears to
  all causes of a type of event are known,        have been born. Developmental dysgraphia
  then the nature of future events can be         almost always appears in conjunction
  precisely predicted. Taken to the ex-           with it. See dyseidetic dyslexia, dysphonetic
  treme, this argues against free will,           dyslexia, and developmental phonological
  since if everything is caused by some-          dyslexia. Contrast with acquired dyslexia.
  thing else, then one can never have a
                                                developmental dysphasia A profound
  genuinely spontaneous thought or
                                                  language difficulty, with which the
                                                  person appears to have been born.
detoxification The removal of toxins
                                                developmental history The ‘biogra-
  from the body. These include alcohol
                                                  phy’ of a patient or subject, usually
  and drugs.
                                                  paying special attention to facets of
Detroit Tests of Learning Aptitude                his/her life which are pertinent to the
 (DTLA) Measure of general intellec-              situation – e.g. in studying a person suf-
 tual abilities in children through to late       fering from dyslexia, his/her experi-
 teenagers. The DTLA can also produce             ences of education will be of central
 measures of more specific abilities. A           interest.
 ‘primary’ version for younger children
                                                developmental phonological dyslexia
 is also available.
                                                  developmental dyslexia in which the par-
developmental age Age at which a par-             ticipant has unusually limited phono-
  ticular set of characteristics normally         logical skills.
  first appears. Strictly speaking, mental
                                                developmental quotient (DQ) Calcu-
  age is a facet of this, but usually devel-
                                                  lated as for intelligence quotient, except
  opmental age refers to changes other
                                                  that general physical and mental devel-
  than those of the intellect.
                                                  opment, rather than purely intellectual
developmental aphasia A congenital                development, is calculated.
  failure of language. In its ‘pure’ form, it
                                                developmental reading disorder devel-
  refers to a condition in which the child
                                                  opmental dyslexia.
  suffers delayed speech and linguistic
  skills in general, which cannot be            Developmental Test of Visual-Motor
  attributed to e.g. hearing impairment,         Integration (VMI test) Measure of
  damaged vocal cords, mental retardation,       visual perceptual abilities in 3–13-
  autism, or environmental factors (e.g.         year-olds.
  having suffered extreme parental              Devereaux Elementary School
  neglect). However, the term is often           Behaviour Rating Scale Measure of
  used to denote congenital language             social and emotional development in
  failure, regardless of whether other           5–12-year-olds.
  symptoms are present or not.
                                                deviant case analysis The examination
developmental disorder Any disorder               of similar cases or studies which have
  present at birth or which first appears in      yielded radically different findings, in
  infancy, childhood or adolescence.
                                                  DIAGNOSTIC READING TESTS (DRT) / 89

  an attempt to find the source of the dis-          dition. Axis III describes all other
  crepancy.                                          physical conditions the patient may
                                                     suffer from, and Axis IV rates the
deviation The degree to which an score
                                                     severity of recent events in the life of
  differs from the mean.
                                                     the patient on a scale of one (none) to
deviation IQ The degree to which a                   six (‘catastrophic’). Axis V describes the
  person’s intelligence test score deviates          highest level at which the patient coped
  from the norm. See intelligence quotient.          in the past year, on a scale of one
Dexedrine Type of amphetamine.                       (serious danger of death/hurting self
                                                     or others) to 90 (practically normal
d.f. degrees of freedom.                             coping).
DGS DiGeorge syndrome.                             Diagnostic Interview for Children
diachronic Over a long period of time.              and Adolescents (DICA) structured
  This contrasts with synchronic, which             interview format, assessing the mental
  refers to a single instant in time.               status of child and adolescent psychiat-
                                                    ric patients.
diagnosis Evaluation of the current state
  (e.g. of the patient, what diseases s/he         Diagnostic Interview Schedule (DIS)
  is suffering from, etc.). Contrast with           structured interview format, assessing the
  prognosis.                                        current status and mental health of par-
                                                    ticipants. There is also a Diagnostic
Diagnostic and Statistical Manual                   Interview Schedule for Children
 (DSM) A system of classification of                (DISC), which divides into DISC-C,
 mental illness, devised by the American            which is administered to the child, and
 Psychiatric Association. The first DSM             DISC-P, which is administered to the
 (DSM-I) appeared in 1952, followed                 child’s parents.
 by DSM-II in 1968, and DSM-III in
 1980, later revised (DSM-III-R 1987).             Diagnostic Interview Schedule for
 The current version, DSM-IV, appeared              Children (DISC) See Diagnostic Inter-
 in 1994. The classification system is              view Schedule (DIS).
 not the only one in use (see e.g.WHO              Diagnostic Language Tests (DLT) test
 classification of diseases) but it is the most     battery of six language skills (including
 widely accepted, particularly in the               punctuation and written expression).
 USA, and other classificatory systems              Part of Metropolitan Diagnostic Tests
 are usually very similar in structure              series.
 (indeed, the DSM-IV has sought to
 increase its compatibility with the               Diagnostic Mathematics test battery of
 WHO system). The current version is                six mathematical skills (including com-
 divided into five axes. Axes I and II              putation, graph skills and statistics).
 describe the disease the patient is suf-           Part of Metropolitan Diagnostic Tests
 fering from. Axis II consists of two               series.
 types of mental disorder: problems in             Diagnostic Reading Tests (DRT)
 development (other than learning and               Reading test battery assessing 11
 and motor skills development disor-                aspects of formally taught reading
 ders, which are on Axis I) and all person-         skills (letter recognition, comprehen-
 ality disorders. Axis I consists of all other      sion, grapheme-phoneme conversion,
 mental disorders. Axes III and IV                  etc.). Part of Metropolitan Diagnostic Tests
 provide information on factors which               series.
 may exacerbate or ameliorate the con-

Diagnostic Screen Batteries Comput-            dichoptic stimulation Presenting dif-
 erized psychiatric assessment package.          ferent stimuli to the two eyes simulta-
 Generates diagnoses based upon the              neously.
                                               dichotic listening task An experimen-
Diagnostic Spelling Test Spelling test           tal method in which different messages
 battery for participants aged 7–11 years.       are presented (usually via stereo head-
 Tests a variety of spelling skills – pro-       phones) to the two ears. The subject
 ducing spellings, ‘proof reading’, dic-         may be required to follow the message
 tionary use, etc.                               to one ear only, to report what is fed to
                                                 both ears, or one of several other per-
Diagnostic Spelling Tests Spelling test
                                                 mutations. The method is extensively
 battery for participants aged 9 and over.
                                                 used in cognition, usually to assess how
 Consists of several ‘Levels’, which
                                                 well a subject can attend to one message
 assess increasingly complex spelling
                                                 and ignore the extraneous information
                                                 in the other, or how well s/he can inte-
diary study (1) Study of contents of a           grate information from two physically
  person’s diaries, for changes in writing       separate sources.
  style, topics of interest, etc., as the
                                               dichotomous variable An ‘either/or’
  person ages or otherwise changes. (2)
                                                 variable. I.e. it records whether some-
  Method of assessing autobiographical
                                                 thing is either in one category or
  memory. Participants complete a diary,
                                                 another (e.g. male or female, living or
  and they are subsequently asked what
                                                 dead etc.). An artificial dichotomy is a
  they can recall of particular events,
                                                 division of scores on a continuous
  days, etc., which can be checked against
                                                 variable into two categories (typically,
  diary entries. (3) Method used to assess
                                                 into those above and below the mean). A
  a particular aspect of a person’s activity
                                                 natural dichotomy is a ‘natural’ division
  for the purposes of research and/or
                                                 (e.g. male and female).
  therapy (e.g. recording how much and
  what type of food is eaten, etc.).           Dictionary of Occupational Titles
                                                (DOT) A compendium of over 40,000
diaschisis Alteration in psychological
                                                job descriptions classified into various
  functioning due to secondary effects of
                                                types according to their features and
  brain damage, rather than disruption at
  the principal point of injury.
                                               diencephalon A collective term for a
diastolic pressure See blood pressure.
                                                 number of key segments of the brain
diathesis innate trait.                          ‘sandwiched’ between the brain stem,
di at hesi s-st ress paradi gm The               cerebellum and cortex. More ‘important’
  argument that disease arises from an           areas include the basal ganglia, thalamus,
  interaction between the environment            hypothalamus and hippocampus.
  and the body’s predisposition to the         difference score The difference in a
  disease.                                       person’s score on the same measure on
diazepam (trade name – valium) A very            separate occasions.
  widely prescribed minor tranquillizer.       difference threshold See threshold.
DICA Diagnostic Interview for Children and     Differential Ability Scales (DAS) test
 Adolescents.                                   battery of intelligence and (in appropri-
                                                ately aged participants) educational
                                                                         DIMENSION / 91

  achievement. For children aged 2 years          phrenia). velocardiofacial syndrome
  6 months–18 years.                              (VCFS) is a very similar condition, and
                                                  commentators are undecided about the
Differential Aptitude Tests (DAT) test
                                                  degree of difference between DGS and
 battery of a variety of intellectual skills,
 including verbal and numerical abili-
 ties, mechanical reasoning and ‘clerical       digit span See span.
 perception’. The battery is primarily
                                                digit-symbol substitution task A
 intended to identify the careers a pupil
                                                  measure of fluid intelligence. The subject
 is best suited for.
                                                  is shown letters or numbers paired with
differential deficit Phenomenon where             patterns or shapes. Given a sequence of
  differences between groups/subjects             letters/numbers or patterns, the subject
  are bigger for some measures than for           must identify their matches as quickly
  others.                                         and accurately as possible.
differential diagnosis Distinguishing           dilation See personal construct theory.
  between two illnesses with the same
                                                dimension A trait which is viewed as
  basic symptoms.
                                                  qualitatively identical for everyone – it
differential preservation The theory              is simply the strength with which the
  that some intellectual skills may be pre-       trait is possessed which differs. In a
  served better than others in ageing and         unipolar dimension, possession ranges
  illness.                                        from simply lacking the trait to possess-
                                                  ing the trait in its strongest form (i.e. the
differential psychology individual dif-
                                                  extremes of the continuum represent 0
                                                  and 100%). E.g. everybody is likely to
differential validity The ability of a            be afraid of heights to some extent, but
  measure to predict differences in per-          some will only feel the merest frisson
  formance of two or more skills. See             when dangling by one hand from a
  validity.                                       cable car, others when on a ladder
difficulty index (d) Measure of diffi-            mending a loose roof tile, whilst others
  culty of test questions (often calculated       will be afraid if asked to stand on a
  as the proportion of subjects who cor-          house brick. In a bipolar dimension, the
  rectly answer the question).                    ends of the continuum represent
                                                  opposite traits, and in the middle of the
diffuse neurological disorder Disorder            continuum lies a point representing no
  of the nervous system in which the              possession. Bipolar dimensions are
  damage is relatively widespread. This           often named after their extremes, with a
  contrasts with a focal neurological             hyphen separating them. E.g. one
  disorder, where the damage is relatively        might construct a bipolar trait with
  localized.                                      extremes of niceness and nastiness,
DiGeorge syndrome (DGS) Congeni-                  which would be called the niceness –
 tal condition caused by a significant            nastiness dimension. Adolf Hitler
 loss of genetic material from chromo-            would score at the extreme of the nasti-
 some 22. Symptoms depend upon the                ness dimension, St Francis of Assisi at
 size of the loss, but typically include          the end of the niceness dimension, and
 cardiovascular and thymus gland                  we mere mortals somewhere between
 problems, intellectual dysfunction and           these two extremes (i.e. not very good,
 behavioural disturbances (there is a             but not very nasty either). Contrast
 strong probability of developing schizo-         with type, and see dimension versus type

dimension versus type debate The                 DIS Diagnostic Interview Schedule.
  argument as to whether certain person-
                                                 disaster syndrome Adverse reaction to
  ality traits and illnesses are dimensions or
                                                   experiencing a major catastrophe. Prin-
                                                   cipal symptoms are shock and anxiety.
dimensional trait dimension.
                                                 DISC Diagnostic Interview Schedule for
Diogenese syndrome A condition of                 Children.
 extreme self-neglect found in some
                                                 DISC-C See Diagnostic Interview Schedule.
 patients with dementia, characterized by
 a very pronounced lack of personal              DISC-P See Diagnostic Interview Schedule.
 hygiene, lack of awareness of the filthy        discourse analysis The analysis of
 and untidy state of their surroundings,           spoken and/or written communica-
 etc.                                              tions in terms of their underlying struc-
direct correlation positive correlation.           ture.
direct dyslexia demented dyslexia.               discrete variable See continuous variable.
Direct Oblimin See factor analysis.              discriminability discriminatory power.
direct pipeline technique Method of              discriminant analysis discriminant
  eliciting honest responses to questions          function analysis.
  where the subject might prefer to lie to       discriminant function analysis multiple
  save face, etc. The experimenter con-            regression technique in which the crite-
  vinces subjects that they are to be tested       rion variable is a dichotomous variable.
  using a very accurate lie detector, and
  that any prevarication will be detected.       discriminant validity The degree to
  The technique relies on the gullibility          which a test correlates poorly with
  of the subjects, and accordingly has             measures with which it should not be
  limited uses. The ethics of such a tech-         expected to correlate (e.g. a test of
  nique are also open to debate. See data          maths skills might be expected to cor-
  contamination technique.                         relate poorly with a test of ability at
                                                   foreign languages). See convergent
direct replication See replication.                validity.
direct scaling A measure of ability to           discrimination index Measure of how
  detect changes in the intensity of a             many subjects in different groups give
  stimulus. The subject assigns a value to         the correct answer to individual ques-
  each stimulus encountered. Compare               tions in a test (i.e. how well the items
  with indirect scaling.                           discriminate between them).
directional hypothesis alternative               discriminative facility The ability to
  hypothesis in which the direction of the         adjust to changing conditions.
  difference is predicted. Some commen-
  tators treat directional and alternative       discriminatory power The degree to
  hypotheses as synonyms.                          which a test can discriminate between
                                                   individual subjects’ abilities. E.g. if
directional test Test that only counts             everyone scores 50 on a test with
  results as statistically significant if they     potential scores ranging from 0 to 100,
  are in the predicted direction.                  and/or if the potential range of scores
directive therapy active therapy.                  is in any case small (e.g. subjects can
                                                   score l, 2, 3, 4, or 5), then the test has
‘dirty’ drug Drug which has serious or
                                                   low discriminatory power. Conversely
  unpleasant side-effects.
                      DISSOCIATIVE DISORDER NOT OTHERWISE SPECIFIED (NOS)              / 93

  if subjects’ scores are scattered more        disordinal interaction See ordinal inter-
  widely, and/or there is a wide potential        action.
  range of scores, then the test has high
                                                disorganized schizophrenia See
  discriminatory power. See Ferguson’s
                                                dispersion, measures of See measures of
disease cohort A group of people suffer-
  ing from the same disease. See cohort,
  patient cohort.                               displacement Performing an activity in
                                                  lieu of the desired, but socially less
disease model of mental illness The
                                                  acceptable one (e.g. the example given
  belief that mental illness has a physio-
                                                  in practically every textbook – kicking
  logical cause, and can be identified by
                                                  the cat instead of hitting one’s cantan-
  possession of a particular set of
                                                  kerous boss). The term originated in
  symptoms. The approach can be criti-
                                                  psychoanalysis, to denote performing an
  cised, because often the only method of
                                                  activity which was a sublimation of an
  identifying the illness is by its
                                                  unconscious desire, but the term has
  symptoms – no physical cause may
                                                  assumed a wider (and often milder)
  have been identified. This leads to the
  strange argument that because a person
  has the symptoms, s/he must have a            dissociation The phenomenon whereby
  particular disease, because people with         a brain-damaged patient has impaired
  these symptoms are always classified as         performance in one skill but not in
  having this disease. Some critics have          another. This probably indicates that
  argued that this is as sensible as arguing      the area of the brain which has been
  that because a dog has a spotted coat, it       damaged normally controls the
  must be a dalmatian, because all dalma-         damaged skill. However, it is possible
  tians have spotted coats. In addition to        that the skill is a difficult one, and that
  the logical problem, there is the added         the brain damage has simply caused a
  issue that by concentrating on the              general lowering of intellectual perfor-
  taxonomy, clinicians can be accused of          mance. Therefore, a more satisfactory
  concentrating on the disease and not            discovery is a double dissociation, in
  on the patient.                                 which patients with one type of brain
                                                  damage are found to perform skill A but
disguised test objective test (definition 2).
                                                  not skill B, whilst patients with a differ-
disillusionment (1) In some therapies,            ent form of damage can perform skill B
  the term means persuading a patient             but not skill A. This indicates that the
  that his/her harmf ul vie ws of                 damage is specifically related to a par-
  him/herself are unrealistic. (2) The            ticular skill, and is not due to a general
  term can also be used in its everyday           lowering of ability.
                                                dissociative amnesia psychogenic
disjunctive therapy General term for              amnesia. The DSM-IV prefers the term
  therapeutic techniques which use treat-         ‘dissociative amnesia’.
  ment of the body (e.g. posture, relax-
                                                dissociative disorder not otherwise
  ation etc.) as a key part of the process.
                                                  specified (dissociative disorder
dismantling treatment procedure                   NOS) In DSM-IV, a culture specific
  Comparing different aspects of a thera-         disorder characterized by a trance-like or
  peutic process to discover which are the        listless state.
  most efficacious.

dissociative disorder NOS dissociative         distributed practice See massed practice.
  disorder not otherwise specified.
                                               distribution curve A graph plotting
dissociative disorders General term for          scores against the proportion of the
  a group of mental illnesses whose prin-        sample attaining each score. Can be
  cipal symptom is a drastic (and unreal-        expressed as a histogram or a frequency
  istic) change in self-perception of            polygon. See kurtosis, negatively skewed dis-
  identity. See fugue, multiple personality,     tribution, positively skewed distribution,
  and psychogenic amnesia.                       skew (of distribution), symmetrical distribu-
                                                 tion, and tails (of distribution).
dissociative identity disorder multiple
  personality.                                 distribution-free statistics non-parametric
dissociative pattern Pattern of abnormal
  behaviour in which some mental func-         disulfiram (trade name – Antabuse) Drug
  tions operate independently of others.         used in the treatment of alcoholism – it
                                                 makes the patient nauseous every time
dissociative reaction somatoform
                                                 s/he has an alcoholic drink.
                                               divagation disordered speech.
distal Anatomical term. Further from a
  reference point on the body than             divergent thinking Ability to create
  another section of the body under con-         new ideas based upon a given topic.
  sideration. Compare with proximal.             The term is largely interchangeable
                                                 with creativity, and is assessed with the
distal effects Changes attributable to rel-
                                                 creativity test. Divergent thinking is con-
  atively distant events (e.g. poor self-
                                                 trasted with convergent thinking, which
  image in old age because of childhood
                                                 is the ability to find a single principle
  bullying) or events which are only felt
                                                 behind a collection of information (i.e.
  through intermediaries. See proximal
                                                 the former takes a single point of refer-
                                                 ence and diverges from it, whilst the
distal variable variable whose effect is         latter converges several strands of
  only experienced through a mediating           thought into a single premise).
                                               divided attention The ability to attend
distancing (1) Taking a decreasing               to and process information from more
  amount of responsibility for, and/or           than one source simultaneously. See
  involvement in, a particular situation.        attention.
  (2) Persuading a patient (usually a
                                               dizygotic (DZ) Of two eggs. Hence,
  depressed one) to perform (1), or, more
                                                 dizygotic twins are twins from separate
  generally, persuading him/her to stop
                                                 eggs (i.e. non-identical twins). See
  unrealistically attributing blame and
  faults to him or herself, and recogniz-
  ing that other factors may be involved.      DLT Diagnostic Language Tests.
  The process of more realistically appor-
                                               DMT (l) draw-a-man test. (2) Defence Mech-
  tioning blame and recognizing the
                                                anism Test. (3) An hallucinogenic drug.
  involvement of other causal factors is
  sometimes called re-attribution.             Dogmatism Scale Measure of inflexibil-
                                                ity of beliefs.
distractibility The ease with which a
  person is distracted from a task.            dolorology The study of pain.
                                                    DRAW A FAMILY TEST (DAF) / 95

domain referenced test Test in which            habitual use of the double bind situa-
  performance is gauged against a crite-        tion is held to be a feature of the
  rion of maximum performance on the            schizophrenogenicparent.
  skill being assessed. See norm referenced
                                              double blind study See blind study.
                                              double dissociation See dissociation.
don’t hold tests See deterioration quotient
  (DQ).                                       double-sided test two-tailed test.
Doors and People Test of long-term            double Y scatter plot A scatter plot in
 memory, divided into four sub-sections         which there are two vertical axes with
 (visual and verbal recall tasks and visual     different scales. This enables variables
 and verbal recognition tasks). The tests       with different ranges to be plotted
 involve remembering pictures of doors          against the same variable, aiding com-
 and names of people.                           parisons of trends, etc.
dopamine hypothesis (1) Hypothesis            Down’s Syndrome (DS) A congenital
  which states that schizophrenia is caused    condition, named after its nineteenth
  by a surfeit of dopamine (a neurotrans-      centur y discoverer, J.L. Down.
  mitter). (2) Hypothesis which states that    Symptoms include a characteristic flat-
  Parkinsonism is caused by a deficiency of    tened face, extra folds of skin on the
  dopamine.                                    eyelids, stubby fingers, unusual folds of
                                               skin on the soles and palms, and an
Doren Diagnostic Reading Test of
                                               overlarge tongue. Severe mental retarda-
 Word Recognition Skills test battery
                                               tion is a frequent but not inevitable
 of various reading-related skills, for
                                               symptom. Life expectancy is poor (a
 participants aged 6–9 years. Concen-
                                               maximum of 40–50 years) – in the
 trates particularly on phonological
                                               terminal stages, the Down’s Syndrome
 skills and word recognition.
                                               patient’s intellectual state may resemble
dorsal Anatomical term for the back of         that of a dementia of the Alzheimer type
  the body, towards the back of the body,      patient (there are suggestions that the
  or the section of an organ nearest the       two illnesses may be genetically
  back.                                        linked). Down’s Syndrome is caused by
                                               faulty cell division soon after fertiliza-
DOT Dictionary of Occupational Titles.
                                               tion – about 90% of patients have an
dot chart Essentially, a bar graph in which    extra chromosome 21 (trisomy 21).
  instead of bars, there is a thin line (or    The incidence of the disease rises with
  dotted line) terminating in a dot or         the age of the mother – there is a fairly
  spot.                                        high (but by no means overwhelming)
double ABCX model An attempt to                risk in mothers over 40.
  account for the stress induced in a         doxepin A tricyclic drug.
  family by a major crisis befalling one of
                                              DPI Dynamic Personality Inventory.
  its older members. The letters refer to
  variables expressing the seriousness of     DPRS Derogatis Psychiatric Rating Scale.
  the crisis, the amount of available help,
                                              DQ (1) developmental quotient. (2) deteriora-
                                               tion quotient.
double bind A situation in which the
                                              dramatherapy See psychodrama.
  subject is required to obey two
  opposing commands; hence, whatever          Draw a Family Test (DAF) projective test
  s/he does, s/he will be wrong. The           in which the participant draws a picture

  of his/her family. See Kinetic Family       DSD dementia Syndrome of depression.
                                              DSFI Derogatis Sexual Functioning Index.
draw-a-man test (DMT) Goodenough
                                              DSM Diagnostic and Statistical Manual.
  Draw-a-Man Test. Not to be confused
  with the draw-a-person test.                DSM-I See Diagnostic and Statistical
draw-a-person test (DAP test) Test
  requiring a subject to draw a person        DSM-II See Diagnostic and Statistical
  and create a story about their creation.     Manual.
  The test can be used to assess if unusual   DSM-III/DSM-III-R See Diagnostic and
  emphasis/lack of emphasis is placed on       Statistical Manual.
  certain features, and may be of use in
  assessing some mentally ill patients.       DSM-III-R On-Call Computerized
  Not to be confused with the draw-a-          version of the DSM-III-R.
  man test or the Goodenough Draw-a-          DSM-IV See Diagnostic and Statistical
  Person Test.                                 Manual.
dream analysis Therapeutic technique          DSM-IV-TR The DSM-IV with a revised
  in which the patient recalls his/her         text, produced in 2000. Otherwise, it is
  dreams, which are then analysed for          essentially the same as DSM-IV.
  their meanings by the therapist. The
  technique is virtually confined to psy-     DSSI Delusions-Symptoms-States Inventory.
  choanalysis, which believes that dreams     DTLA Detroit Tests of Learning Aptitude.
  are a method of expressing otherwise
  repressed beliefs and memories in           DTLA-P Detroit Tests of Learning Aptitude
  symbolic form.                               – Primary.

dream interpretation dream analysis.          DTREE Computerized version of the
drinamyl Type of amphetamine.
                                              DTs delirium tremens.
drive (D) The psychological ‘force’
  which motivates a subject to perform a      DTVP Marianne Frostig Developmental Test
  particular behaviour. Sometimes              of Visual Perception.
  further classified into primary drive       dual diagnosis Diagnosis of two or more
  (innate) and secondary drive (learnt).        illnesses simultaneously.
DRS (1) Dementia Rating Scale. (2) Delirium   dualism The belief that the mind and the
 Rating Scale.                                  body (including the brain) are com-
DRT Diagnostic Reading Tests.                   pletely distinct entities.

drug abuse substance abuse.                   dummy variable A recategorization of a
                                                set of categories reducing the data to
drug addiction See addiction.                   membership or non-membership of a
drug induced congenital disorder                single category within the set. Dummy
  created by drugs prescribed or illegal        variables are necessary in some types of
  taken by the mother during pregnancy          regression analysis. Usually, a set of cate-
  (e.g. foetal alcohol syndrome).               gories are reduced to a set of such
                                                ‘either/or’ categorzations. E.g. a group
drug tolerance pharmacodynamic toler-           of European people may have been
  ance.                                         originally categorized according to
DS Down’s Syndrome.                             their nationality. A set of dummy vari-
                                                                          DYSBULIA / 97

  ables would be e.g. re-categorizing into        background of differently-coloured
  ‘French’ or ‘Not French’, ‘German’ or           dots.
  ‘Not German’, etc.
                                                Dyadic Adjustment Scale Measure of
Duncan’s multiple range test A t test for        the state of the relationship between a
 multiple comparisons and post hoc test for      married or cohabiting couple.
 the analysis of variance. It is derived from
                                                dying trajectory (1) The speed with
 the Newman-Keuls test.
                                                  which a person is likely to die. (2) The
Dunnett t-test Post hoc test for the analysis     emotional and intellectual states associ-
 of variance.                                     ated with dying.
Durbin-Watson test Measure of auto-             Dynamic Personality Inventory
 correlation.                                    (DPI) Measure of 33 personality
                                                 attributes based on psychoanalytic
Durkheim’s taxonomy of suicide
                                                 theory. Subjects rate words and phrases
 Durkheim (nineteenth century sociolo-
                                                 into those they like and dislike.
 gist) identified three types of suicide:
 altruistic suicide – killing oneself           dynamic psychology A general term
 because the results of one’s death will          which has been claimed by several psy-
 benefit others; anomic suicide – killing         chological schools, including psycho-
 oneself because of a considerable                analysis. The phrase denotes a study of
 change in fortunes; and egoistic suicide         dynamically interacting thought
 – killing oneself because of a feeling of        processes.
 severe alienation from society. The tax-
                                                dynamic traits traits governing degree of
 onomy has been criticized.
                                                  activation, motivation, ‘personal
durophet Type of amphetamine.                     energy’, etc.
Durrell Analysis of Reading Diffi-              dynamic visual acuity acuity for moving
 culty (DARD) Reading test battery,               objects.
 designed to identify early and pre-
                                                dys- As a prefix in descriptions of disabil-
 readers’ areas of difficulty/ strength.
                                                  ity, the term denotes an impairment of
dustbowl empiricism Derogatory term               the skill in question, (e.g. dyslexia – an
  for a test which predicts or describes          impairment in reading). In contrast, the
  a phenomenon, but adds nothing to               prefix a- denotes a complete absence of
  theoretical insight.                            the skill (e.g. alexia – the complete
                                                  absence of reading). This useful dis-
Dutch Eating Behaviour Question-
                                                  tinction has been largely lost through
 naire (DEBQ) Measure of eating
                                                  inaccurate usage, and readers are
 habits, with three scales assessing
                                                  advised to interpret terms with a- and
 restrained eating, eating in response to
                                                  dys- prefixes cautiously.
 emotion and eating in response to
 external cues.                                 dysaesthesia An impaired sense of
DV dependent variable.
                                                dysarthria impaired speech.
Dvorine Colour Vision Test A measure
 of colour vision/colour blindness. Par-        dysbasia An impaired ability to walk.
 ticipants must identify numbers made
                                                dysbulia An impaired ability to maintain
 up of coloured dots printed against a
                                                  a course of action and/or line of

dyscalculia A profound difficulty with                        dyskinesia Impairment of voluntary
  arithmetical skills.                                          movement.
dyschiria An impaired ability to judge                        dyslalia An impairment of speech, for
  which side of the body is being stimu-                        reasons other than brain damage.
                                                              dyslexia A profound reading difficulty
dyschronaxis An impaired ability to                             (although note that there is evidence of
  judge what time it is (i.e. to the extent of                  some reading ability). The syndrome
  not being sure, in the absence of                             can be inherited (developmental dyslexia)
  obvious visual clues, if it is morning,                       or can be acquired through brain
  afternoon, night, etc.).                                      damage (acquired dyslexia). A child is
                                                                typically diagnosed as dyslexic if
dysdiadochokinesis See adiadocho-
                                                                his/her reading age is appreciably
                                                                below his/her mental age and chronologi-
dyseidetic dyslexia developmental                               cal age (usually this means by at least
 dyslexia in which there is a profound                          two years). Lay persons often confuse
 failure to recognize words by their                            the term with dysgraphia.
 visual appearance – every word has to
                                                              dyslogia (1) Poor spoken articulation. (2)
 be laboriously ‘sounded out’, and
                                                                Used (inaccurately) by some develop-
 irregular words (such as ‘quay’ and
                                                                mental psychologists as a synonym for
 ‘yacht ’) are consistently mispro-
                                                                developmental aphasia in general.
 nounced. Compare with dysphonetic
 dyslexia.                                                    dysmentia Poor performance due to lack
                                                                of motivation, rather than lack of
dysexecutive syndrome Impairment of
  the ability to organize cognitive func-
  tions (e.g. into appropriate sequences of                   dysmetria Disorder in which movements
  actions).                                                     can be initiated, but are poorly con-
                                                                trolled and executed.
dysfunctional Pertaining to a disadvan-
  tageous method (of thought, behav-                          dysmnesia Impairment of memory. The
  iour, etc.).                                                  term should often be used in lieu of
                                                                amnesia (which is, strictly speaking,
Dysfunctional Attitudes Scale (DAS)
                                                                total loss of memory).
 Measure of the degree to which a
 subject has certain inappropriate atti-                      dysmorphophobia Irrational belief that
 tudes held to underlie a dysfunctional                         one is abnormal (particularly physi-
 state of mind.                                                 cally).
dysgeusia An impaired sense of taste.                         dysosmia Impairment of sense of smell.
dysgraphia A profound spelling diffi-                         dyspareunia Painful sexual intercourse.
  culty (although note that there is
                                                              dysphagia An impairment of eating.
  evidence of some spelling ability). The
  syndrome can be inherited (developmental                    dysphasia (1) A partial failure of
  dysgraphia) or can be acquired through                       language (see aphasia). (2) Used by
  brain damage (acquired dysgraphia). See                      some commentators (inaccurately – see
  amnestic dysgraphia, deep dysgraphia,                        dysgraphia) to denote a profound
  l e x i c a l dy s g ra p h i a , p h o n o l o g i c a l    spelling difficulty (although note that
  dysgraphia, surface dysgraphia. Compare                      there is evidence of some spelling
  with aphasia and dyslexia.                                   ability).
                                                             ECLECTIC THERAPY / 99

dysphonetic dyslexia developmental             Early Screening Profiles (ESP) test
  dyslexia in which there is an almost total     battery assessing general behavioural
  failure of ability to use phonological         and intellectual development in young
  information – hence, recognizing               children.
  words by their visual shape is the only
                                               EASI Temperament Survey test battery
  feasible (if inaccurate) strategy. Com-
                                                of aspects of temperament/behaviour.
  pare with dyseidetic dyslexics.
                                                ‘EASI’ stands for emotionality (fear and
dysphonia Disorder of voice produc-             anger), activity, sociability, and impul-
  tion.                                         siveness.
dysphoria sadness.                             EAT Eating Attitudes Test.
dyspnoea Disorder of or difficulty in          Eating Attitudes Test (EAT) A self-
  breathing.                                     report questionnaire assessing the eating
                                                 habits of patients, particularly those
dyspraxia An impairment in the ability
                                                 suffering from anorexia nervosa and
  to perform movements.
dyssynchronous child Child with
                                               Eating Disorder Inventory (EDI)
  learning difficulties.
                                                Self-report questionnaire of eating
dystaxia An impairment in muscle                habits and abnormalities of eating.
                                               echolalia Condition in which the patient
dysthymic disorder See depression.               only responds to verbal statements by
DZ dizygotic.                                    repeating back what s/he has just
                                                 heard. In delayed echolalia, the repeti-
                                                 tion occurs hours or even weeks later.
                                               echolalic aphasia transcortical motor

E                                                aphasia.
                                               echopathy Imitating other people
early maladaptive schema See mal-                (verbally and posturally) to an ab-
  adaptive schema.                               normal degree.
early onset schizophrenia (EOS)                echophrasia echolalia.
  schizophrenia arising before middle age.
                                               echopraxia Imitating other people’s
Early School Inventory – Develop-                actions to an abnormal degree.
  mental (ESI-D) Test assessing general
  physical and psychological develop-          Eclectic Neuro Score (ENS) Computer-
  ment in 4–6-year-old children.                 ized package which converts scores
                                                 from a variety of tests of neuropsycho-
Early School Inventory – Preliteracy             logical dysfunction into T scores. This
  (ESI-P) Test assessing the reading             enables a profile of scores to be
  readiness of 4–6-year-old children.            produced.
Early Screening Inventory (ESI)                eclectic therapy Therapeutic regime
 Measure for administration to children          which adopts techniques from several
 aged 3–6 years to identify atypical             distinct schools of therapy. No assump-
 development requiring remedial inter-           tions about the theoretical stance of the
 vention.                                        therapist are necessarily inferred (e.g.
                                                 s/he could be an ardent cognitive thera-
                                                 pist but use some Freudian techniques

  because they are efficacious regardless        the age group under consideration.
  of his/her opinions of the theory              Stage 1: 7–9 years; Stage 2: 8.5–10.5
  which produced them). See multimodal           years; Stage 3: 10–12.5 years; Stage 4:
  therapy.                                       12–16 years. Each stage is a battery of
                                                 tests of different skills. These increase
ecological psychology The study of
                                                 in difficulty across the Stages, but they
  psychological acts in a natural or natu-
                                                 also assess increasingly complex and
  ralistic environment.
                                                 ‘mature’ reading skills (e.g. there is a
ecological validity Term describing a            greater emphasis on story comprehen-
  study which is a realistic simulation of a     sion and interpretation, rather than
  real life event, and/or which tests skills     simple word recognition).
  used in ‘real life’. This contrasts with a
                                               educable mentally retarded (EMR)
  laboratory study, in which the skills
                                                 American term for persons of low IQ (c.
  tested and the test surroundings are
                                                 50–60) but who can benefit from some
  artificial and without a direct or ‘obvi-
                                                 form of very simple academic educa-
  ous’ bearing on normal psychological
                                                 tion. Compare with trainable mentally
  activity. E.g. asking subjects to re-
                                                 retarded (TMR).
  member to buy items on a trip to the
  supermarket might be classed as having       education(al) age The average age at
  ecological validity. Conversely, remem-        which the skills a child possesses are
  bering a list of nonsense syllables whilst     usually learnt (i.e. measures how much
  seated in a testing room might be              more or less a child knows than his/her
  classed as a laboratory study.                 peers).
ecoutism paraphilia in which the               educational psychology The study of
  patient’s principal sexual satisfaction is     the psychology of education, and of
  derived from hearing the sounds of             general psychological development
  sexual activity.                               with regard to educational needs. The
                                                 profession can be loosely divided into
Ecstasy (E) Drug inducing feelings of
                                                 two camps – those who study the theo-
  intense warmth towards others, and of
                                                 retical aspects of these issues, and those
  extreme energy. Illegal, and with
                                                 who perform practical assessments of
  potentially lethal side-effects. See
                                                 pupils to determine their most appro-
                                                 priate schooling. In the UK, the
ECT electro-convulsive therapy.                  training for educational psychologists
ectomorph See Sheldon’s personality types.       is (some would argue, unnecessarily)
                                                 long. Practitioners must obtain a first
EDA exploratory data analysis.                   degree in psychology, undertake a
EDI Eating Disorder Inventory.                   year’s teacher training, have two years’
                                                 teaching experience, and then a further
Edinburgh Picture Test (EPT) Test of             year’s specialist training, before they
 reasoning skills using pictorial                are qualified.
 material, for children aged 6–8 years.
                                               education(al) quotient Akin to intelli-
Edinburgh Questionnaire Set of                   gence quotient, save that education age,
 measures of job descriptions, satisfac-         rather than intelligence test score is
 tion with working environment, etc.             entered into the equation. In effect, it
Edinburgh Reading Test Reading test              measures how much a child has learnt
 with four ‘Stages’ commensurate with            in comparison with his/her peers.
                                                                      EGO STATE / 101

educationally subnormal (ESN) UK              efficiency quotient (EQ) Measure of an
  term for persons of low IQ who require        older person’s intellectual abilities
  a simpler than normal education if they       relative to the performance of young
  are to benefit at all from schooling.         adults, who are assumed to be at the
                                                peak of their abilities. In basic terms, it
Edward s Per so n al Preferen ce
                                                is the IQ which the young adult would
 Schedule (EPPS) Personality test
                                                be recorded as possessing if s/he had
 measuring in terms of 15 ‘needs’ (for
                                                the same raw score as an older subject.
 autonomy, etc).
                                                E.g. an older man has a raw test score of
Edward’s syndrome Genetic disorder              95, which is good for his age group,
 characterized by stunted growth,               and gives him an IQ of 130. However, a
 numerous physical dysfunctions and             score of 95 would be a poor score for a
 intellectual dysfunction. The severity         young adult, and would give him/her
 of the symptoms appears related to the         an IQ of 70. The older person’s EQ’s
 level of genetic malfunction caused by         therefore classed as 70. By comparing
 trisomy of chromosome 18. In the full          EQ with IQ a measure of the extent of a
 form, all cells have an extra chromo-          person’s age-related decline in intelli-
 some; in mosaic form, some cells have          gence can be calculated. However, a
 an extra chromosome and in partial             more useful single measure is probably
 form, some cells have an extra segment         the deterioration quotient.
 of the chromosome. Life expectancy is
                                              ego See Freud’s psychoanalytic theory.
 low varying from early childhood in
 the most severe cases to early adult-        ego-alien An action or belief which the
 hood in the less severe.                       participant feels is not part of his/her
                                                ‘real’ self.
EE expressed emotion.
                                              ego analysis ego psychology.
EEC electroencephalograph.
                                              ego control The degree to which urges
effect size (ES) (1) The difference
                                                and compulsions are controlled.
  between the mean dependent variable
  scores of a control and an experimental     ego-dystonic That which is anathema to
  group, divided by the control group’s         the ego. See ego-syntonic.
  standard deviation. (2) The value of the
                                              ego-dystonic homosexuality paraphilia
  ‘size’ of the difference found by a test.
                                                in which the patient has homosexual
  E.g. although Group A has significantly
                                                proclivities, which s/he finds distress-
  higher scores than Group B, this differ-
                                                ing to the extent that s/he wishes to be
  ence may be only 5%, so although the
                                                ‘cured’. A homosexual who is content
  difference is reliably found, it is
                                                with his/her orientation is said to exhi-
  perhaps not of any great importance.
                                                bit ego-syntonic homosexuality.
  The effect size can be expressed as a
  correlation. (3) The level of probability   ego integrity versus despair See
  of a significant result. See power (of a      Erikson’s theory of development.
  statistical test).                          ego psychology See neo-Freudian
efferent (neurons) Carrying signals             movement.
  from the central nervous system to the      ego resiliency The ability to adapt to
  peripheral nervous system. See afferent.      different situations.
efficacy expectation How well a subject       ego state (1) A characteristic pattern of
  expects to do at a task.                      behaviour. (2) See transactional analysis.

ego-syntonic That which is acceptable            rate of activity and where on the scalp it
  to the ego. See ego-dystonic.                  occurs can give some insight into how
                                                 active and healthy an individual’s brain
ego-syntonic homosexuality See ego-
                                                 is, and which parts of the cortex are
  dystonic homosexuality.
                                                 most heavily used in different mental
egoistic suicide See Durkheim’s taxonomy         tasks.
  of suicide.
                                               electronarcosis The induction of relax-
eigenvalue See factor analysis.                  ation or sleep through the administra-
eigenvector See factor analysis.                 tion of a (low) electrical charge to the
Eight State Questionnaire (8SQ) A
  measure of eight moods and aspects of        electroretinograph (ERG) A device
  personality (e.g. anxiety, extraversion,       which measures eye movements from
  level of arousal).                             electrical activity around the eyes. Has
                                                 been superseded in many instances by
8SQ Eight State Questionnaire.                   the corneal reflection technique.
ELA expressive language age.                   electroshock therapy electro-convulsive
elder abuse Abuse of the elderly, particu-       therapy.
  larly those who are mentally enfeebled.      electrosleep therapy electronarcosis.
  The abuse can be physical, but also psy-
  chological or financial (e.g. extorting      Eliza See client-centred therapy.
  money).                                      embedded figures test A measure of
elderspeak The use of patronizing ‘baby          field dependence – subjects must find
  talk’ in talking to older people.              shapes hidden as part of the design of
                                                 larger shapes.
elective mutism Deliberately choosing
  not to speak (usually short-lived – i.e. a   embolism Caused by a blood clot
  few weeks maximum), without any clear         becoming detached and being sent
  physiological cause (e.g. sore throat).       around the blood vessels until it
  Most often found in children, usually         becomes ‘stuck’, causing a blockage.
  with another underlying psychological        EMDR eye movement desensitization and
  problem.                                      reprocessing.
electro-convulsive therapy (ECT) A             emitted behaviour Behaviour which
  form of convulsion therapy, in which           cannot be attributed to a reaction to
  electric shocks are administered to the        external stimulation.
  brain (the patient is usually sedated
                                               emotional continuity, lack of See lack
  whilst this is done). The technique –
                                                 of emotional continuity.
  used less in recent years than in the past
  – may be beneficial for some forms of        emotional control The degree to which
  mental illness, such as severe depression.     emotional expression is controlled.
electrodermal response galvanic skin           emotional deprivation Any depriva-
  response.                                      tion of emotional expressiveness
                                                 towards the subject. The term is gener-
electroencephalograph (EEG) A
                                                 ally reserved for ‘cold’, emotionally
  device which measures the pattern of
                                                 constipated parenting methods or
  electrical activity (the evoked potential
                                                 other relationships which should be
  (EP)) on the scalp and by extrapola-
                                                 emotionally ‘warm’.
  tion, of the cerebral cortex beneath. The
                                  ENGINEERING TEST SELECTION BATTERY (ETSB) / 103

emotional inoculation Preparing for            encephalomyelopathy General term for
  an anticipated stressful or otherwise          a widespread infection of the central
  emotionally unpleasant event.                  nervous system.
emotional maturity The degree to               encopresis Faecal incontinence. See
 which emotional expression is appro-            enuresis.
 priate to the participant’s age.
                                               encounter group Generic term for a
emotional stability See five factor model        range of therapeutic techniques in
  of personality.                                which a group of (usually unrelated)
                                                 patients encounter each other in a
empathic understanding See Roger’s self
                                                 variety of situations contrived by the
  theory of personality.
                                                 therapist. These can be collective activi-
empathy The ability to experience and            ties (such as touching and even
  understand the feelings and needs of           fighting), role plays, etc. The aim of the
  others (as opposed to ‘sympathy’ which         process is to increase self-awareness, to
  is a feeling of sorrow but without nec-        air and solve problems, etc. Some
  essarily an understanding of others).          versions of the therapy use the basic
empiricism (1) The belief that all knowl-        techniques described, but have more
  edge is based upon experience gained           specific aims. See human relations training
  through the senses. (2) More generally,        group,personal growth group, and sensitivity
  beliefs based upon observation and ex-         training.
  perimentation (as opposed to armchair        end spurt The improvement in perfor-
  theorizing).                                   mance which is sometimes observed as
empowering Restoring or enhancing                a participant realizes that s/he is near
  the behavioural or other psychological         the end of a task.
  attributes of an individual.                 endocathection endocathexis.
empty chair technique Therapeutic              endocathexis A psychological with-
 method in which the patient is encour-          drawal within oneself. The opposite (a
 aged to talk to an empty chair, imagin-         move to be more concerned with one’s
 ing that a particular person is sitting in      surroundings than with oneself ) is
 it.                                             exocathexis.
empty nest syndrome Feeling of severe          endogenous Derived from internal
  loss experienced by some parents               causes. Contrast with exogenous. See
  (usually mothers) upon their children          intrapersonal.
  leaving home.
                                               endogenous depression See depression.
EMR educable mentally retarded.
                                               endomorph See Sheldon’s personality types.
enabling empowering.
                                               endorphin An opioid peptide.
encephalitis Inflammation of the brain,
                                               engineering psychology General term
  caused by infection.
                                                 for the study of psychological aspects
encephalomyelitis Inflammation of the            of the interaction between humans and
  brain and spinal cord. Caused by infec-        machines.
  tion or an abnormal reaction to a mild
                                               Engineering Test Selection Battery
  infection or vaccination.
                                                (ETSB) Measure of skills pertinent to

English Picture Vocabulary Test                 the name implies, originates in the
 (EPVT) See British Picture Vocabulary          temporal lobes.
 Scale (BPVS).
                                              epileptic equivalent masked epilepsy.
enkephalin An opioid peptide.
                                              epiloia tuberous sclerosis.
ENS Eclectic Neuro Score.
                                              epinosic gain An indirect benefit from
ensophobia A phobia of sin.                     being ill (e.g. generally greater levels of
                                                sympathy). See paranosic gain (and note
entomophobia A phobia of insects.
                                                that the two terms are often confused).
enuresis Urinary incontinence. See
                                              epinosis epinosic gain.
  encopresis and nocturnal enuresis.
                                              episodic amnesia An abnormally poor
environmental psychology The study
                                                ability to recall information from
  of the effects of the environment (in all
                                                certain periods of one’s past.
  senses) on psychological states.
                                              EPPS Edwards Personal Preference Schedule.
environmental stress stress induced by
  the environment.                            EPQ Eysenck Personality Questionnaire.
EOS early onset schizophrenia.                EPT Edinburgh Picture Test.
EP evoked potential.                          EPVT English Picture Vocabulary Test.
epidemiology The study of (strictly           EQ efficiency quotient.
  speaking, epidemic) diseases, particu-
                                              equal interval scale Scale in which the
  larly their causes and predisposing
                                                interval between any two adjacent
                                                points on the scale is the same (e.g. on a
epilepsy Periodic uncontrollable loss or        metre rule, the distance between the 1
  severe disturbance of consciousness. In       and 2 cm marks is the same as that
  petit mal epilepsy the patient simply         between the 98 and 99 cm marks).
  loses consciousness, for a few seconds
                                              equally weighted means In some types
  up to several minutes. In grand mal
                                                of analysis of variance where the number
  epilepsy there is a loss of consciousness
                                                of items in each group is unequal, each
  accompanied by a fit, with uncontrolla-
                                                group carries the same ‘importance’ in
  ble thrashing of the limbs. In masked
                                                determining row and column means
  epilepsy, the patient may not lose con-
                                                (used in calculating the final results)
  sciousness but may experience a feeling
                                                regardless of how many items there are
  of unreality. In psychomotor epilepsy the
                                                in each group.
  patient may not lose consciousness but
  performs motor activities (including in     equamax See factor analysis.
  some instances assaulting people) and       equimax equamax.
  has no memory of the attack. Jackso-
  nian epilepsy is characterized by           equivalent forms Two or more versions
  muscular spasms which begin in one            of the same test which have the same
  part of the body; the spasms then             levels of reliability. Measured by the
  remain confined to that area, or spread.      coefficient of equivalence.
  In centrencephalic epilepsy the             equivalent forms reliability A measure
  abnormal electrical activity is spread        of the degree to which two or more
  across the brain, and is synchronous. It      forms of the same test are equivalent
  can be attributed to a disturbance in the     forms.
  mid-brain. Temporal lobe epilepsy, as
                                               ERIKSON’S THEORY OF DEVELOPMENT / 105

erectile dysfunction Failure of a man to              months). A baby learns that parents/
  achieve or to maintain a penile erection.           caregivers will reliably feed, comfort,
                                                      change nappies, etc., and hence can be
ERG electroretinograph.
                                                      trusted. However, the baby also learns
erg (1) A unit of energy. (2) In some                 that sometimes his/her needs are not
  theories, the biological energy which               met, leading to mistrust. Accordingly,
  drives behaviour.                                   the baby learns trust and also recog-
ergasiophobia A phobia of work and/or                 nizes that all needs are not automati-
  of taking responsibility for one’s                  cally met, (ii) autonomy versus shame
  actions.                                            and doubt (18 months–3 years). The
                                                      child wishes to acquire independence,
ergonomics The study of the efficiency                and to do things for him/herself. This
  with which machines (or other inani-                is set against the realization that these
  mate objects) and their human users                 actions may look ridiculous to others,
  ‘interact’. Hence, ergonomics includes              and that they might perform the same
  e.g. design of control panels, ‘time and            acts better, (iii) initiative versus guilt
  motion’ studies, design of furniture, etc.          (3–6 years). The child begins to make
  See occupational psychology.                        plans and generally takes initiatives.
ergot poisoning Ergot is a fungus found               However, this is offset against the
  in mouldy flour and other poorly-kept               awareness that some plans are doomed
  cereal products. It is also a psychedelic           to failure (e.g. in boys, the famous
  drug, causing a variety of physical sym-            Oedipus complex). Thus, the child must
  ptoms, such as digestive disorders, and             learn to curb his/her ambitions to take
  a number of psychological sym- ptoms,               account of reality, (iv) industry versus
  including hallucinations.                           inferiority (6–11 years). The child must
                                                      acquire skills by dint of working hard,
Erikson’s theory of development                       although this can be marred if s/he is
  Erik Erikson, psychoanalyst (see neo-               made to feel inferior to other, brighter,
  Freudian movement), and humanistic psy-             children or adults, (v) identity versus
  chologist. A psychoanalytical theory of             role confusion (adolescence). Attempts
  development, based upon Freud’s psy-                to create one’s own personality and
  choanalytic theory. Central to the model            behavioural standards and to identify
  is Erikson’s concept of eight ‘general              one’s aspirations are set against the
  stages’ which are conflicts between two             knowledge that one is rejecting some
  opposing beliefs (one positive, one                 of the values of one’s upbringing (and
  negative) which have to be resolved at              hence of family/caregivers). This
  different stages of development. These              general process can lead some adoles-
  are also known as nuclear conflicts. The            cents (such as Erikson himself ) to take a
  resolution is not simply a matter of the            psychological moratorium. This is a
  positive and beneficial belief overcom-             process of temporarily ‘dropping out’
  ing the other, but rather of the individ-           of society in order to ‘find’ oneself. A
  ual coming to appreciate the uses of                connected issue is the fear of identity
  both; ultimately, however, the more                 foreclosure, or accepting/creating an
  positive belief must be dominant,                   identity too soon, (vi) intimacy versus
  giving the individual the drive to                  isolation (early adulthood). Assuming
  advance, with the darker, more negative             that marriage is the prime desirable
  value adding a degree of necessary cyn-             state, intimacy is a prime consideration.
  icism and caution. The eight stages are:            However, this cannot be developed
  (i) basic trust versus mistrust (0–18               until the partners ‘know themselves’ –

  marrying before this state is achieved        ES effect size.
  means that they will be absorbed in dis-
                                                escape conditioning See avoidance con-
  covering themselves rather than their
  partners, and this, according to
  Erikson, is a recipe for disaster, (vii)      escape hatch Any means by which a
  generativity versus stagnation (adult-          patient can escape from commitments
  hood). There is a need for individuals          (including therapy) – e.g. illness,
  to be productive – producing and suc-           suicide.
  cessfully raising children and/or             ESI Early Screening Inventory.
  creating a better world for the next
  generation to live in. A failure to do this   ESI-D Early School Inventory – Developmen-
  results in a feeling of stagnation, (viii)      tal.
  ego integrity versus despair (old age).       ESI-P Early School Inventory – Preliteracy.
  The conflict between whether to come
  to terms with one’s past, or to feel that     ESN educationally subnormal.
  past events cannot be amended.                ESP (1) extrasensory perception (2) Early
  Erikson’s theory has fallen victim to the       Screening Profiles.
  usual criticisms of psychoanalysis, and
  also of the vague arguments sometimes         essential hypertension See blood
  used.                                           pressure.

erogenous zone See Freud’s psychoana-           eta (n) correlation ratio.
  lytic theory.                                 eta squared (n2) A post hoc measure of an
eros In later works of Freud, the concept         analysis of variance, which assesses the
  which occupied the same slot as libido          percentage of the total variance of a
  in earlier versions of his work.                sample which can be attributed to a
                                                  particular between groups measure. It is
error bars In presenting mean results on a        computed as
  graph, displaying the size of the
  standard deviation or standard error by              S.S. for the between groups
  thin T-shaped lines extending above                         total S.S. × 100
  and below the mean (this is in the case
  of a line graph; for a frequency polygon        (see ANOVA table). E.g. suppose that an
  and histogram, the magnitude of the             ANOVA compared two groups on a
  standard deviation/error is shown as a          test, and the S.S. for the groups was
  T-shaped line extending from the top            200, whilst the total S.S. was 400. This
  of the bar). Whether a standard devia-          means that 50% of the variance is
  tion or error is signified should be indi-      attributable to the differences between
  cated in the rubric accompanying the            the groups.
                                                ethnocentricity A bias (conscious or
error of central tendency contraction             otherwise) towards adopting a view-
  bias.                                           point and values based on one’s own
error of measurement measurement error.           cultural and ethnic background.

error score Measure of deviation.               ethnographic research Research whose
                                                  principal focus is on societal culture.
error variance The proportion of
  variance in a measure attributable to         ethnospecific disorder Illness princi-
  chance error.                                   pally or solely confined to a particular
                                                  cultural or geographical group.
erythrophobia A phobia of blushing
  and/or of red things.                         ethogram A record of behaviour (usually
                                                  of animals in their natural habitat).
                                                        EXISTENTIAL NEUROSIS / 107

ethology The study of animals in their           a range a leniency set, and too central a
  natural habitat, as opposed to in the ‘ar-     range a central tendency set.
  tificial’ confines of a laboratory. Study
                                               ‘Eve White’ Pseudonym of a patient in a
  may be by observation alone, or the
                                                 classic account of multiple personality
  experimenters may introduce ‘artificial’
                                                 (made into the film ‘The Three Faces of
  stimuli (e.g. playing a tape recording of
  a mating call) to see how the animals
  react. Typically (although by no means       event recording Recording the state of
  exclusively), study has been of                the person and/or situation when a
  non-human animals.                             particular event (e.g. a target behaviour)
etiological validity aetiological validity.
                                               evoked potential (EP) See electroenceph-
etiology aetiology.
ETSB Engineering Test Selection Battery.
                                               evoked response evoked potential.
eugenics The study of selective breeding
                                               EVT Expressive Vocabulary Test.
  to improve the health or particular
  characteristics of a population. The         ex post facto test post hoc test.
  area is relatively uncontentious when        exceptional children Collective term
  concerned with animal breeding, but            for any children who are out-of-the-
  has raised considerable ire when               ordinary (principally gifted children and
  humans have been the target of ‘im-            children with mental retardation). As there
  provement’. E.g. in the first half of the      is little in common between many of the
  twentieth century, some of the more            sub-groups, the term provides only a
  vociferous supporters of eugenics were         specious unity.
  responsible for the passing of laws per-
  mitting the compulsory sterilization of      excitatory (neurons) An excitatory
  thousands of ‘mentally defective’ indi-        neuron. (1) Causes (almost invariably in
  viduals lest they ‘contaminate’ the pop-       combination with other excitatory
  ulation by having children (not just in        neurons) another neuron to become
  Nazi Germany, but also in the USA and          active and/or (2) makes a neuron which
  other western nations).                        is already active send signals at a faster
                                                 rate. Compare with inhibitory (neurons).
evaluation apprehension ‘Exam
  nerves’. More generally, a layperson’s       executive functions General term for
  nervousness about being tested and             mental processes involved in planning
  measured by a doctor, psychologist, etc.       and organizing behaviour and intellec-
  (see subject role).                            tual tasks.
evaluation research Assessing a system         exhibitionism paraphilia in which the
  or practice to determine its efficacy          patient’s principal form of sexual grati-
  and/or efficency.                              fication is exhibiting him/herself
                                                 sexually in an unsolicited manner to
evaluative dimension See semantic dif-           (usually) strangers.
  ferential technique.
                                               existential anxiety The anxiety felt due
evaluative set A bias towards evaluating         to the perception that one is answerable
  subjects or items using a band of scores       for one’s actions. See existential neurosis.
  which is too narrow. Using too low a
  range is termed a strictness set, too high   existential neurosis Rather nebulous
                                                 term indicating gross dissatisfaction

  and malaise created by an inability to       experiential intelligence See triarchic
  experience free will, the realization that     theory of intelligence.
  ultimately one has no choice but to die,
                                               experiential therapy General term for
  etc. Contrast with existential anxiety.
                                                 therapeutic methods which treat the
existential psychology (1) Title                 recounting and exploration of the
  bestowed on the work of some of the            patient’s experiences as the focal point
  early experimental psychologists               of the treatment.
  (Titchener et al.), which concentrated
                                               experimental epilepsy epilepsy-like
  on introspective examination of
                                                 attack deliberately induced by drugs,
  thought processes. (2) More recently, a
                                                 electrical stimulation, etc.
  school of psychology loosely based on
  existentialism – the philosophical           experimental group See control group.
  doctrine that, when confronted with          experimental neurosis (1) neurotic state
  choices, the individual is free to choose,     induced by being given a series of tasks
  and need not let the past determine the        which are impossible to solve or are
  future (very loosely, ‘life is what you        beyond the skill of the subject. (2)
  make it’). It follows that therapists of       Neurosis-like symptoms deliberately
  this school stress the importance of           induced by drugs, etc.
  treating the symptoms of mental illness
  (i.e. what is), and place less emphasis on   experimental psychosis Deliberate
  what caused the problem in the first           creation of a psychosis-like state by the
  place (i.e. what was).                         administration of drugs or other treat-
existential therapy General term for
  therapeutic methods based upon exis-         experimental realism Used as a loose
  tential psychology (definition 2).             synonym of ecological validity, the term
                                                 also refers to efforts to ensure that a
exocathection exocathexis.                       participant’s performance is true to life,
exocathexis See endocathexis.                    even if the experimental surroundings
                                                 are not.
exogenous Derived from external causes.
  Contrast with endogenous.                    experimental research Studies which
                                                 assess the effects of different treatments
exogenous depression reactive depres-
                                                 on the same group or on matched
                                                 groups. Usually there is the implication
expectancies anticipated outcomes.               that the experimenter has a high level
                                                 of control over the whole of the test sit-
expectancy table A calculation of the
                                                 uation, and that the situation is fairly
  probability of subjects reaching a par-
                                                 unrealistic. See ecological validity and
  ticular criterion at the end of an assess-
                                                 correlational research.
  ment, given their current scores. The
  margin of error in this prediction is        experimenter bias experimenter effect.
  measured by the standard error of the
                                               experimenter effect A (conscious or
  estimate of the predicted scores (approxi-
                                                 unconscious) manipulation of partici-
  mately 95% of actual scores will fall
                                                 pants’ performance by the expectations
  with 2 standard errors).
                                                 of the experimenter. See Clever Hans.
expected value (p,) See sampling distribu-
                                               experimenter expectancy effect exper-
                                                 imenter effect.
experiencing ego See observing ego.
                                               experimentum crucis crucial experiment.
                                                              EXTRAVERSION (E) / 109

explained variance variance accounted          extension of the median test See
  for by a particular statistical technique.     median test.
explanatory research Research which            external control (1) The degree to
  seeks to explain why something                 which events are beyond the control of
  occurred. This contrasts with predictive       the participant. (2) The participant’s
  research, in which the researcher              perception of the same. See internal
  attempts to create a formula or other          control.
  method of predicting the value of one
                                               external locus of control external
  variable given the value of another (or
  others) or to predict when a particular
  event is likely to occur.                    external reward extrinsic reward.
exploratory data analysis (EDA) Set of         external speech See inner speech.
  methods for presenting data in visual        external validity The degree to which
  form so that the researcher can gain           findings from a study can be applied to
  insights into the data’s structure (e.g.       the general population.
  box and whisker plot).
                                               exteroceptors Sensory receptors located
exploratory factor analysis See confir-          in the skin.
  matory factor analysis.
                                               extinction Loss of a previously learnt
explosive disorder Personality disorder          response because it is no longer
  in which the patient is subject to             rewarded.
  sporadic acts of intense destructiveness
  and violence.                                extradural Pertaining to the area lying
                                                 between the interior of the skull and
explosive personality explosive disorder.        the dura (the protective layer surround-
expressed emotion (EE) Label given to            ing the brain).
  the level of criticism and statements of     extrasensory perception (ESP) The
  emotional state uttered by a person or         ability to perceive beyond the bounds
  group (often a family). A high level of        accepted as feasible by conventional
  expressed emotion within a family has          science (e.g. clairvoyance).
  been cited as a cause of schizophrenia.
                                               extraversion (E) A trait expressing the
expressional fluency A nebulous term             degree to which a person is outgoing,
  for the ability to produce a lengthy,          sociable, etc. This contrasts with intro-
  coherent argument and/or description.          version, which is the degree to which a
expressive aphasia See aphasia.                  person is shy and retiring. I.e., the terms
                                                 have the same meanings as in general
expressive language age age norm for
                                                 parlance (although not quite the same
  which the level of expressive language
                                                 spellings). The area between the
  would be appropriate.
                                                 extremes is known as ambiversion. The
Expressive Vocabulary Test (EVT)                 terms were first used by Jung (see Jung’s
 Measure of expressive vocabulary in             psychoanalytic theory), who conceived
 young children.                                 them as personality types. Subsequently,
                                                 Hans Eysenck, amongst others, has
extendure A period in one’s life defined
                                                 argued that they are personality dimen-
  by a particular fact (e.g. schooldays,
                                                 sions (see Eysenck’s model of personality).
  time spent in a particular job).
                                                 See Myers-Briggs Type Indicator.

extraversion-introversion scale See               sion simply describes the degree to
  Eysenck’s model of personality.                 which a person is extroverted or intro-
                                                  verted. Most people have a score around
extrinsic motivation See intrinsic moti-
                                                  the midpoint of the scale (i.e. either
                                                  mildly introverted or mildly extra-
extrinsic reward In conditioning, a               verted). The neuroticism scale measures
  reward which does not relate to the             level of emotional stability. Scores in
  behaviour being shaped (e.g. being              one direction indicate a person who is
  given sweets for not wetting the bed).          completely emotionally stable, easygo-
  This contrasts with an intrinsic reward,        ing, etc., whilst a score at the opposite
  which is related (e.g. feeling pleasantly       end of the dimension indicates
  dry). By extension, an extrinsic reward         someone who is very ‘touchy’, easily
  is a tangible gain, whilst an intrinsic         worried, etc. (again, most people score
  reward purely creates a positive psy-           in between). The psychoticism scale
  chological response.                            measures the degree to which a person
extrinsic test bias Discriminating                is emotionally cold and divorced from
  between subjects on the basis of their          everyday proprieties. By testing
  scores on unbiased tests. See bias.             subjects on the three measures (using
                                                  the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire),
extroversion extroversion.                        their scores on the three dimensions
eye movement desensitization and                  can be calculated and combined to
  reprocessing (EMDR) Therapeutic                 form an overall profile. Dealing only
  technique in which the patient is               with the extraversion and neuroticism
  trained in eye movement exercises               scales, Eysenck has argued that combi-
  whilst thinking about items presented           nations on these scales reproduce the
  by the therapist.                               ancient concept of the four ‘humours’ –
                                                  choleric (neurotic and extraverted);
Eysenck Personality Questionnaire                 melancholic (neurotic and introverted);
  (EPQ) Personality test, named after its         phlegmatic (introverted and emotion-
  inventor, Hans Eysenck. The EPQ                 ally stable); and sanguine (emotionally
  consists of four measures: extrover-            stable and extraverted). The three
  sion-introversion, psychoticism, neuroticism,   dimensions are held to be underpinned
  and lying (L). The final scale is used to       by physiological factors. E.g. Eysenck
  identify certain pathological condi-            has argued that differently ‘tuned’
  tions, and to adjust over-rosy reports by       nervous systems make extraverts hard
  subjects anxious to impress on the              and introverts easy to condition under
  other three scales. The test is also avail-     most circumstances. The neuroticism
  able in a children’s version. See Eysenck’s     scale measures the ease with which a
  model of personality.                           person can become aroused, very
Eysenck’s model of personality Hans               neurotic people being the easiest to
  Eysenck (1916– ), psychologist, for             arouse. It was originally proposed that
  many years Professor of Psychology at           the three dimensions were independent
  the Maudsley Hospital (the Institute of         of each other, but subsequent research
  Psychiatry), London. Eysenck argues             has argued that there is some correla-
  that personality can be ‘mapped out’            tion between them.
  using three bipolar dimensions. These are
  extraversion-introversion, neuroticism-
  emotional stability, and psychoticism.
  The extraversion—introversion dimen-
                                                               FACTOR ANALYSIS / 111

F                                                 and second, s/he becomes more aware
                                                  of methods of communication.
F (1) F ratio. (2) Feeling.                     facial cranial nerve cranial nerve number
F1 See F ratio.                                   VII. Concerned with facial muscles and
                                                  taste (along with glossopharyngeal cranial
F2 See F ratio.                                   nerve).
F’ See F ratio.                                 facility value The proportion of partici-
F distribution A sampling distribution for        pants who responded to a particular
  the F ratio. Used to decide if the differ-      item in the desired manner.
  ence in the variance of two measures is       factitious disorder Feigning an illness
  significant.                                    or other problem in order to elicit
F-R Friedman-Ranks ANOVA.                         sympathy. Unlike straightforward
                                                  malingering, however, the desire to
F-R ANOVA Friedman-Ranks ANOVA.                   feign the illness is beyond the control
F ratio (F) parametric measure determin-          of the patient, and may not confer an
  ing if the populations from which two           obvious advantage.
  samples are drawn have the same               factor A variable directly manipulated by
  variance. The measure plays an impor-           the experimenter.
  tant role in assessing significance in
  many statistical tests (e.g. analysis of      factor analysis (i) Broad definition:
  variance). The F1 ratio measures between        general term for a set of statistical tech-
  groups, F2 ratio measures within groups,        niques for determining if the correla-
  and F’ measures interactions.                   tions between a large number of vari-
                                                  ables can be attributed to a simpler trend
F scale (1) California F Scale. (2) A             or small set of trends. A correlation
  sub-scale of the Minnesota Multiphasic          matrix of the variables is created. It is
  Personality Inventory.                          then calculated whether some of the
F-to-enter test See multiple regression.          variables correlate more strongly with
                                                  each other than with the other vari-
F-to-remove test See multiple regression.         ables. Such groupings are called ‘fac-
face validity The degree to which a test          tors’. The analysis can take two major
  subjectively appears to measure the             forms (known as methods of factor
  skill, knowledge, attitudes, etc. it claims     rotation). In orthogonal factor analysis,
  to assess (e.g. a test of psychotic tenden-     each factor calculated has no shared
  cies which measured colour preferences          variance (i.e. each factor is independent
  would have a low face validity). Note           of the others). In oblique factor analysis,
  that a low face validity does not auto-         the factors can have shared variance
  matically mean that the test does not           (i.e. the factors correlate with each
  measure what it claims. See validity.           other). Factor analysis is extensively
                                                  used in studies of personality and intel-
facial affect therapy Therapeutic tech-
                                                  ligence (e.g. g was discovered using it).
  nique in which patients are trained to
                                                  It is very complex, and although some
  be aware of their facial expressions and
                                                  basic ‘user friendly ’ computing
  to alter them to more appropriate ones.
                                                  packages are available, the mathematics
  The therapeutic effects are in two prin-
                                                  bar all but a few specialist psychologists
  cipal domains – first, the patient sends
                                                  from using it effectively. Some types of
  out more appropriate signals to others,
                                                  factor analysis can be criticized because

 they produce a range of equally valid         researchers seek a simple structure, in
 solutions, and it is up to the researcher     which variables only correlate with one
 to subjectively decide which one s/he         factor (the general factor), and always
 will select as the ‘right’ answer. (ii)       positively (i.e. each variable is ‘ex-
 Specific notes: different stages in the       plained’ by only one factor, and that
 factor analysis can be performed in a         factor always has a positive influence).
 variety of ways. The method of creating       A factor which only correlates with one
 factors is called the initial factoring       variable is known as a specific factor. A
 procedure, or factor extraction method.       factor which correlates with several
 There are a variety of these. The most        variables is called a group factor. A
 commonly used is the principal compo-         guide to the simplicity of the structure
 nents analysis, which is also a statistical   is the variable complexity measure. If a
 procedure in its own right. If this           variable is only loaded on one factor,
 method is employed, then the proce-           then it will have a variable complexity
 dure is sometimes called principal com-       value of 1. The further it is from 1, the
 ponent factor analysis. This works from       less simple the structure. Individual
 the original correlation matrix. Other        subjects can be given a factor score –
 methods manipulate the matrix before          that is, the level to which they ‘possess’
 performing their analyses. These              each factor. The basic factor matrix is
 include Bartlett’s method, Direct             known as the unrotated factor matrix,
 Oblimin, Harris image analysis, iterated      which some researchers elect as the fin-
 principal axis, Kaiser image analysis,        ishing point of their analysis. Others
 Little Jiffy, maximum likelihood              perform an orthogonal or oblique
 analysis, principal factor analysis, and      factor analysis (known collectively as
 Procrustes rotation. In calculating the       transformation methods) as described
 initial factors, eigenvalues (or character-   above (the factors at this stage are also
 istic roots), and eigenvectors are            known as factor axes). The factors so
 produced. These are mathematical              calculated are known as primary factors
 expressions of properties of mathemati-       (first-order factors). These in turn can
 cal matrices which are created during         be analysed, to find secondary factors
 the calculations. They are important in       (second-order factors). The second-
 determining how many factors will be          order factors are factors derived from
 extracted from the equation. There are        the correlations between the primary
 several ways of doing this – e.g. the         factors (i.e. a ‘factor analysis’ on the
 experimenter determines whether               factors). It is possible to find tertiary
 factors will be extracted if their corre-     factors (third-order factors), and further
 sponding eigenvalues are less than 1          levels of factors by performing a similar
 (the Kaiser criterion), calculations are      analysis on second order factors, etc.
 stopped when the eigenvalues account          There are a number of ways of perform-
 for > x% of the variance, when the            ing the orthogonal analysis. The com-
 graphical plot of factor number against       monest is the varimax solution, with
 eigenvalues begins to show a character-       equamax and quartamax also being
 istic slope (scree analysis), etc. The        frequent options in computer packages.
 degrees to which the original test            Equamax attempts to make the amount
 scores correlate with the factors are         of variance ‘explained’ by each factor
 called factor loadings, and these can be      roughly equal, whilst quartamax places
 shown in tabular form as a factor             as much of the accountable variance as
 matrix. This gives an indication of           possible onto the first factor extracted
 what each factor represents. Many             (in most analyses, the first factor
                                                                  FALSIFIABILITY / 113

  extracted has the biggest factor             Fake Bad Scale (FBS) Addition to the
  loadings). Varimax is a ‘compromise’           revised Minnesota Multiphasic Personality
  between equamax and quartamax, and             Inventory which detects reporting of
  whilst giving greater weight to the first      implausible symptoms.
  factor, attempts a reasonable share of
                                               fallible score The score a participant
  the variance between the other factors.
                                                 obtains on a test. It is deemed to be ‘fal-
  Kaiser’s normalization manipulates the
                                                 lible’ because it contains a margin of
  factor loadings by normalizing them
                                                 measurement error which makes it
  before they are further processed. This
                                                 deviate from his/her true score.
  often improves the predictability of the
  procedure. See Q factor analysis.            false alarm false positive.
factor axes See factor analysis.               false memory A ‘memory’ of an event
                                                 which never occurred. May be symp-
factor extraction method See factor
                                                 tomatic of a serious problem (such as a
                                                 delusion) or may be an erroneous recon-
factor loading See factor analysis.              struction of faint real memories taken
                                                 out of context. See false memory
factor matrix See factor analysis.
factor rotation See factor analysis.
                                               false memory syndrome (FMS) See
factor score See factor analysis.                recovered memory.
factorial (!) The instruction in a formula     false negative (1) See true positive. (2)
  to multiply the number preceding it by         Inaccurately discounting the presence
  every whole number down to and                 of an illness.
  including 1. E.g. 5! = 5x4x3x2x1. 0! is
                                               false positive (1) See true positive. (2)
  defined as equalling 1.
                                                 Inaccurately diagnosing the presence
factorial design Experimental/statisti-          of an illness.
  cal design in which all levels of variable
                                               falsifiability A concept which has
  of all independent variables have been
                                                 gained popularity through the work of
  examined in all possible combinations.
                                                 Karl Popper (twentieth century philos-
  Often the number of independent vari-
                                                 opher), which argues that a theory or
  ables and their levels are denoted by a
                                                 finding cannot satisfactorily prove
  ‘y x y’ shorthand. Thus, a ‘2 x 3 facto-
                                                 anything unless it can potentially be
  rial design’ has two independent vari-
                                                 falsified. E.g. one could make the state-
  ables, one with 2 and one with 3 levels,
                                                 ment that the world was spontaneously
  a ‘2 x 3 x 5 factorial design’ has three
                                                 created three seconds ago. This theory
  independent variables, with 2, 3, and 5
                                                 cannot be disproved (since any
                                                 measures one might make to ‘prove’ it
factorial validity The correlation               would be part of the process of sponta-
  between scores on different tests              neous creation). Accordingly, the
  claiming to measure the same thing. At         theory is untestable, since it can neither
  a more complex level, the term refers to       be proved nor disproved. On the other
  correlations between items within tests        hand, a theory that china vases break if
  which represent particular factors (see        dropped from 100 ft buildings onto
  factor analysis).                              concrete pavements could potentially
FAD familial Alzheimer’s disease.                be falsified – if an ample proportion of
                                                 the vases bounced, then the theory
                                                 would be falsified.

familial Alzheimer’s disease (FAD)              those names which they can remember
  Relatively rare form of dementia of the       being in the news at some point in the
  Alzheimer type which invariably has its       past. Included in the list are some ficti-
  onset before old age, and where the           tious names, to prevent participants
  patient has close older relatives who         confabulating and saying ‘yes’ to every
  also had the condition. Children of a         name on the list. The test also includes a
  FAD patient usually have a 50 % chance        set of very famous names (Margaret
  of contracting the disease themselves.        Thatcher, Winston Churchill, etc.) who
  See sporadic Alzheimer’s disease.             have been famous for appreciable
                                                periods of time. These names are
family-centred therapy Any therapeu-
                                                always recognized by normal individu-
  tic technique in which the whole of a
                                                als, but may cause problems for some
  family, or at least its key members, are
                                                patients suffering from certain types of
  treated. This can be because the
                                                amnesia or dementia.
  problem lies within the family as a
  whole (e.g. members have difficulty         Fan’s tables item analysis method.
  coping with each other), or because
                                              FAS foetal alcohol syndrome.
  one or a few members are experiencing
  problems, about which the rest of the       FAS test A word fluency test – the subject is
  family must be counselled.                    required to produce words beginning
                                                with F, A, and S in turn.
family history See history.
                                              FAST model Model by Reisberg et al.
family method Method used in aetiology
                                                which describes seven stages of pro-
  – members of the patient’s family are
                                                gressively worsening intellectual dete-
  examined to see how many of the
                                                rioration found in patients suffering
  symptoms they share in common with
                                                from dementia of the Alzheimer type.
  him/her, and the extent to which the
  illness can be attributed to genetic        faulty information processing In some
  factors.                                      therapies (particularly cognitive therapy),
                                                a distortion or misinterpretation of
Family Relations Test (FRT) projective
                                                events due to faulty logical processes.
  test using a set of model figures of
  members of a family. The test is avail-     FBS Fake Bad Scale.
  able in different formats for younger       FCC Functional Capacities Checklist.
  children (3–7 years), older children
  (7–15 years) and adults.                    Fear of Negative Evaluation (FNE)
                                                Measure of the degree to which a
family therapy family-centred therapy.          person fears being perceived negatively
familywise error rate The probability           by other people.
  of making a Type I error in a set of com-   fear of success Hypothesized drive to
  parisons (this contrasts with a per-com-      ‘explain’ why people (and women in
  parison error rate, which is the proba-       particular) shun chances to advance up
  bility of making a Type I error in an         the career ladder, attain further educa-
  individual comparison). See Bonferroni        tional qualifications, etc.
                                              Fear Survey Schedule (FSS) Measure of
Famous Names Test (FNT) A measure               types and range of events which create
  of remote memory. Participants are pre-       fear in a subject. There is a version for
  sented with a list of names of people         children (FSS-C).
  famous for brief periods of time since
  the 1920s, and are asked to identify        febriphobia phobia of having a fever.
                                               FIRST ORDER REGRESSION LINE / 115

feeble-minded See mental retardation.            which can have a recognizable sexual
                                                 element (e.g. lingerie, stockings, etc.),
Feeling (F) See Myers-Briggs Type Indica-
                                                 but can also be non-sexual by societal
                                                 standards (e.g. prams and car exhaust
feeling personality See Jung’s psychoana-        pipes).
  lytic theory.
                                               fetus foetus.
feeling therapy Therapeutic technique
                                               field dependence A measure of how far
  in which the patient is taught to recog-
                                                 a person can analyse a visual item in
  nize and fully express his/her feelings,
                                                 isolation from its surroundings. A
  which are motivated by true wishes,
                                                 common measure requires a participant
  and not arising from past problems.
                                                 to align a rod perpendicular to the
Feldenkrais Procedure Therapeutic                ground, the rod being surrounded by a
  technique, the principal features of           slanted frame (the rod and frame test).
  which are bodily manipulation and              Persons who align correctly are said to
  breathing exercises.                           be field independent, those who align to
feline spongiform encephalopathy                 match the frame are field dependent.
  (FSE) See bovine spongiform encephalo-         Most people fall between these
  pathy.                                         extremes. See also embedded figures test
                                                 and rotating room test.
feminine identity The degree to which
  an individual identifies with femininity     field dependent See field dependence.
  traits.                                      field independent See field dependence.
femininity See masculinity.                    field study naturalistic research (definition
feminist therapy General term for any            2).
  therapeutic method which is shaped           50th percentile median. Also, see percen-
  and guided by principles of feminist           tile.
                                               fifty minute hour The time allocated to
Ferguson’s delta A measure of discrimi-           teaching, therapy, etc., within an hour’s
  natory power (a score of 1 indicates            timetabled slot. The remaining ten
  maximum discriminatory power).                  minutes allows for introductory con-
Ferguson’s 5 Ferguson’s delta.                    versation, time to prepare for the next
                                                  class, patient, etc.
fetish That which is possessed in fetishism.
                                               filial regression See regression towards the
fetishism Type of paraphilia in which the         mean.
  patient has profound difficulty in
  attaining sexual gratification other         fine motor skills See motor skills.
  than from an inanimate object or             f i n ge r ag n o s i a A f a i l u re    to
  specific bodily area (some patients can          name/identify the fingers.
  have sexual relations with a partner, but
                                               finite population See population.
  only provided s/he wears the fetishistic
  item, or it is present in the room; or,      FIRO-B Fundamental Interpersonal Rela-
  if the fetishistic item is a part of the       tions Orientation-Behavior.
  body, grossly unnatural and prolonged
                                               first-order factor See factor analysis.
  attention is paid to it or to pictures
  of it). Typically the patient is sexually    first order regression line See polyno-
  attracted to only one type of item,             mial regression.

first rank symptoms Symptoms which                ‘neuroticism’ as emotional stability and
   are particularly indicative of schizophre-     ‘openness’ as intellect.
                                                fixation In Freudian theory, the ‘freezing’
FISH test fluorescent in situ hybridization       of psychosexual development at an ‘im-
  test.                                           mature’ stage.
Fisher exact probability test non-para-         fixation hysteria somatoform disorder in
  metric measure of whether the propor-           which the afflicted area has suffered
  tion of members of two groups who               genuine injury in the past.
  belong to two mutually exclusive events
                                                fixed effects See fixed factor.
  are significantly different. E.g. whether
  different proportions of men and              fixed effects factor fixed factor.
  women are for or against capital pun-         f ixed effects fallacy Mistakenly
  ishment. In certain calculations, the            assuming that the results of a narrow
  probability calculated may not reach             range of observations are applicable to
  significance, but more extreme variants          the population as a whole.
  of the same data, with the same sum
  totals, do reach significance. In these       fixed factor A variable which can only
  instances, Tocher’s modification is             assume a limited range of values (e.g.
  employed.                                       12 months of the year, seven days of
                                                  the week, etc.). Measures of the effects
Fisher’s PLSD test post hoc test for the          of fixed factors are called fixed effects.
  analysis of variance. ‘PLSD’ stands for
  ‘Protected Least Significant Differ-          fixed order presentation Presenting
  ence’.                                          different treatments, tests, etc., in the
                                                  same order to every subject. This is
Fisher’s z test A test of significance for        done because the order of presentation
  product-moment correlation coefficients.        is in itself designed to have an effect.
Fisher’s z transformation A method of             See counterbalancing.
  transforming product-moment correlation       fixed role therapy Therapeutic tech-
  coefficients into z scores. This in turn        nique in which the patient assumes the
  enables one to judge if the measure is          role of a person other than him/herself,
  statistically significant.                      to give him/her insight into other (and
fishing trip research shotgun research –          better) behavioural options.
   curious how researchers choose images        FJA functional job analysis.
   of killing things for such terms.
                                                flashback Involuntary recurrence of a
fissure A fold or crease in the wrinkled           (usually vivid and unpleasant) memory.
   surface of the cortex. See also sulcus.         Encountered in post-traumatic stress
five factor model of personality A                 disorder and use of psychedelic drugs.
  model which argues that personality is        flat affect Showing little or no emotion.
  composed of five traits – openness, con-
  scientiousness, extroversion, agreeableness   flexibilitas cerea catatoma.
  and neuroticism. The model is some-           flight into health The spontaneous
  times referred to by the acronym                 recovery from mental illness. In psy-
  OCEAN (after the initial letters of the          choanalytic theory, this recovery is held
  traits). Note that not all commentators          to be illusory and an elaborate scheme
  agree on these label names – some                to avoid deeper and more threatening
  describe ‘extraversion’ as surgency,             analysis.
                                               FORCED CHOICE RECOGNITION TASK / 117

flight of ideas In conversation, the rapid         fluoxetine (brand name: Prozac) An
   switching between different concepts,             antidepressant drug (member of the selec-
   which are often only tangentially                 tive serotonin re-uptake inhibitors group)
   linked at best. Can be symptomatic of             which has gained considerable media
   mania and other disorders.                        attention. The drug appears to be
                                                     highly effective for many patients, but
flooding A therapeutic technique in
                                                     for a (relatively small) proportion it is
  which the patient is exposed and
                                                     alleged that the drug makes the patients
  immersed in exposure to a phobic object
                                                     feel worse.
  or other anxiety-producing event. The
  exposure continues until the anxiety is          fmri Functional magnetic resonance imaging
  reduced (loosely, until the patient                – scanning technique that assesses
  realises that the event is not harmful).           structure and activity within the body
  This is a traumatic experience, but it             simultaneously.
  can be effective in some circumstances.
                                                   FMS false memory syndrome.
  A variant of the technique is implosion,
  in which the patient is made to imagine          FNE Fear of Negative Evaluation.
  the event or object. Contrast with               FNT Famous Names Test.
                                                   focal epilepsy Jacksonian epilepsy.
floor effect Effect achieved by giving a
  group a test which is too difficult – an         focal neurological disorder See diffuse
  undesirably large proportion of the                neurological disorder.
  group members score zero or nearly               focal therapy Therapy which treats the
  zero marks, making discrimination                  symptoms rather than the underlying
  between them impossible. See ceiling               cause.
                                                   foetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) mental
fluency The ease with which information              retardation (and often slight physical
  can be produced. Nearly always short-              deformity, particularly of the face)
  hand for verbal fluency.                           resulting from the mother’s alcohol
fluent aphasia Synonym for Wernicke’s                abuse during her pregnancy.
  aphasia, and more generally, of any              foetus Unborn infant. Usually refers to
  receptive aphasia.                                 infant 12 weeks after conception up to
fluid intelligence The ability to solve              birth.
  problems for which there are no solu-            folie a deux Condition in which two
  tions derivable from formal training or            patients hold the same paranoia and its
  cultural practices. There is usually an            attendant beliefs. Cases of more than
  added assumption that to have a high               two patients sharing the same delusion
  level of fluid intelligence, a person must         have been recorded (folie a trois, etc.).
  solve the said problems quickly. Fluid
  intelligence roughly corresponds to a            follow-up session booster session.
  layperson’s concept of ‘wit’.                    FOME Fuld Object Memory Evaluation.
fluorescent in situ hybridization test             footcandle A measure of lighting inten-
  (FISH test) Test for detecting genetic             sity.
  abnormalities. The test is commonly
  used to identify several types of geneti-        forced choice recognition task See rec-
  cally-inherited illnesses.                         ognition task.

forced choice scale Rating scale in             FPR Functional Performance Record.
  which a series of questions require the
                                                Fraboni Scale of Ageism (FSA) Scale
  respondent to choose between two or
                                                  measuring attitudes to ageing, and
  more answers.
                                                  yielding three measures: antilocution
forced choice test Multiple choice test           (speaking negatively about older
  with no option of a ‘don’t know’                adults), avoidance (avoiding contact
  answer.                                         with older people), and discrimination
                                                  (feeling that older adults are inferior).
forced distribution ranking See
                                                  The FSA consists of a set of 29 state-
                                                  ments – for each one the respondent
forced multiple regression See multiple           indicates his or her strength of agree-
  regression.                                     ment/disagreement.
forensic psychiatry Branch of psychiatry        fractile General term for a fraction on a
  concerned with the study and treat-             scale using equally-sized divisions of
  ment of criminal behaviour.                     measurements (e.g. decile, percentile).
forensic psychology The study of psy-           fragile person A person who is signifi-
  chological aspects of criminal behav-           cantly more vulnerable than a typical
  iour, and, more generally, the workings         adult. The phrase is often used in con-
  of the legal system.                            nection with the ethical problems of
forensic psychotherapy Branch of psy-             testing or treating children, older people
  chotherapy concerned with the study             and people with intellectual and/or
  and treatment of criminal behaviour.            behavioural problems.

formboard test General term for any test        fragile X syndrome Genetic disorder
  in which the participant is required            with physical characteristics including
  to insert shapes into holes in a board          atypically large ears and jaw. Psycho-
  with the same outline. The test assesses        logical symptoms include autistic type
  visuo-spatial and psychomotor skills.           behaviour and hyperactivity.

formication The illusion of ants or other       free association Therapeutic technique
  small insects crawling over one’s skin.         in which the patient lets his/her
  The sensation can be experienced as             thoughts wander, without attempting
  threatening in several mental illnesses         to control them. This is believed to help
  and forms of drug addiction.                    the patient release thoughts and
                                                  feelings which are otherwise sup-
47,XXY Klinefelter’s syndrome.                    pressed. The technique is most often
foster child fantasy The mistaken belief          used in some forms of psychoanalysis.
  that one is adopted.                          free child See transactional analysis.
Foundation Skills Assessment (FSA)              free entry multiple regression See multi-
  test battery for participants aged 16 years     ple regression.
  and over. Assesses basic literacy,
  numeracy and problem-solving skills.          free-floating anxiety generalized anxiety.

fourfold-point correlation phi correla-         free recall A memory task in which items
  tion coefficient.                               can be recalled in any order (i.e. the
                                                  order in which they were originally
fourth force psychology transpersonal             presented does not have to be repro-
  psychology.                                     duced). Compare with ordered recall.
                                               FREUD’S PSYCHOANALYTIC THEORY / 119

free response question Question where               has to be released in the form of an
  the participant is free to provide any            appropriate action (e.g. if the drive is to
  answer s/he wishes. See limited response          eat, then eating is an appropriate
  question.                                         release). The pleasure principle states
                                                    that there will be an attempt to do this
frequency The number of occasions the
                                                    as soon as possible, but the reality prin-
  same score is found in the same sample.
                                                    ciple attempts to ensure that the release
frequency distribution A measure                    only occurs in a socially appropriate
  (usually plotted as a graph) of how often         form (e.g. a frustrated employee may
  each value of a measure has occurred              have an urge to hit his/her boss, but the
  (e.g. how many of the sample scored 0,            drive may be channelled into being
  how many 1, how many 2, etc.). See                nasty to an office junior – not com-
  cumulative frequency distribution, grouped        mendable, but preferable in terms of
  frequency distrib ution, percentage               social survival). The psychic energy
  cumulative frequency distribution and             drives three forces. The id is a primitive
  relative frequency distribution.                  collection of urges with which a baby
frequency polygon See histogram.                    begins life. It is capable of projecting
                                                    some basic thoughts of desirable goals
frequency table Table expressing the                (primary process thought). In order to
  frequency with which something or a               cope more efficiently, the ego develops.
  set of things has occurred. E.g. a table          This loosely corresponds to rational
  showing a list of football teams and the          thought (secondary process thought); it
  number of times each team has won                 decides on appropriate goals, and
  each of several competitions.                     attempts to keep a check on the id and
Freudian Pertaining to Freud’s psychoana-           the superego. The latter arises in later
  lytic theory. The term is also often used         childhood, and is a collection of (often
  to denote ideas arising from the                  over-harsh) ideals. It acts like an inter-
  neo-Freudian movement.                            nalized set of moralistic parents. If the
                                                    ego feels threatened by the id and the
Freudian slip ‘Slip of the tongue’ or               superego, then various defence mecha-
  other unintentional action held to                nisms are available. E.g. the famous
  reveal an unconscious wish or thought             repression, where an unpleasant
  which the participant was trying to               thought is blocked by the unconscious
  conceal (deliberately or otherwise).              (in extreme cases by e.g. hysterical
  The term is often used (not entirely              deafness – see also suppression). Freud
  accurately) in lay parlance for an unwit-         argued that the id, ego, and superego
  ting double entendre.                             develop as a consequence of several
Freud’s psychoanalytic theory                       psychosexual stages of development.
 Sigmund Freud (1856–1939), the                     Each is centred on an erogenous zone –
 founder of psychoanalysis, created a very          an area of the body providing sensual
 rich theory of human psychological                 (and not necessarily exclusively sexual)
 behaviour, which, although not part of             satisfaction. Oral stage (0–l year) –
 mains t ream ps ych ology, ha d a                  sensual satisfaction primarily through
 profound influence on its early devel-             the mouth. Anal stage (1–3 years) –
 opment (even if only in the formation              sensual satisfaction primarily through
 of theories opposed to it, as in behaviour         the retention and expulsion of faeces.
 therapy). At the heart of the theory is the        Phallic stage (3–5 years) – according to
 belief that the human personality is               Freud, a boy in this stage realizes that
 empowered with psychic energy, which               he has a penis, and desires his mother

 (the Oedipus complex). However, he            Friedman analysis of variance
 fears that this desire will cause his          Friedman-Ranks ANOVA.
 father to punish him by castration. This
                                               Friedman-Ranks ANOVA (F-R
 leads him to cease desiring his mother,
                                                ANOVA) A non-parametric test of the
 and to identify more with his father. A
                                                same group’s differences on 3 or more
 girl at this stage discovers that she lacks
                                                measures. The test bases its calculations
 a penis, but desires one (penis envy). She
                                                on the order in which the scores on the
 feels that she once had one, but that it
                                                different tests are ranked within each
 has been cut off as a punishment. She
                                                subject. The test can be regarded as the
 blames her mother for this loss, weak-
                                                non-parametric equivalent of a within
 ening her identification with her, and
                                                groups ANOVA. See Kruskal-Wallis one
 increasing her liking for her father.
                                                way ANOVA by ranks.
 Latency period (5 years – adolescence)
 – energy is channelled into non-sexual        frigidity Outmoded (and possibly offen-
 development of intellectual and social           sive) term for female inhibited sexual
 skills. Genital stage (adolescence               excitement.
 onwards) – the individual now aims for        frontal eye field Eye movements (con-
 ‘mature’ sexual satisfaction with a per-        trolled by the frontal lobes) involved in
 manent partner of the opposite sex.             scanning.
 However, ‘faulty’ development prior to
 this stage will lead an individual to         frontal leucotomy A leucotomy to the
 choose a particular type of partner (e.g.       frontal lobes. A controversial psycho-
 the archetypal case of the man with the         surgical technique, designed to alleviate
 unresolved Oedipus complex who                  some of the more disruptive symptoms
 chooses a partner just like his mother).        of a number of serious mental illnesses.
 ‘Faulty’ development affects more than          It was popular in the 1940s and 1950s
 choice of partner, however. For                 (with surgeons – patients’ views were
 example, a baby in the oral stage who           often different), but has since fallen out
 bites at the nipple will develop a              of favour.
 ‘biting’ and sarcastic sense of humour        frontal lobe dementia dementia whose
 in later life. The above is a very simplis-     origin and primary focus is the frontal
 tic account of a very rich theory, which        lobes. The principal form is Pick’s Disease.
 has influenced a large number of
 researchers as well as other fields           frontal lobes The front section of the
 (notably surrealist artists and stream of       cerebral cortex extending back to the
 consciousness novelists). Freud ’s              temples. Primaril y involved in
 theories have been very heavily criti-          planning and controlling actions and
 cized for, amongst other things, being          thoughts (e.g. by getting words in the
 post hoc and untestable explanations,           right order when speaking, producing
 as well as being sexist (e.g. women are         socially appropriate behaviour).
 portrayed as having ‘naturally’ weaker        frontal lobotomy Severance of (some or
 personalities). Freud’s place in the            all) neural connections to the frontal
 history of psychology is assured, but           lobes (typically, the prefrontal section).
 whether he will be ultimately remem-            The surgical procedure was frequently
 bered as more than a founding father            used in the past as a treatment for
 (in the same manner as alchemists are           various psychiatric conditions, with
 honoured in chemistry) is open to               varying degrees of success.
                                        FUNCTIONAL PERFORMANCE RECORD (FPR) / 121

fronto-temporal dementia dementia                  be expressed in terms of another vari-
  originating in the frontal lobes and/or          able or variables.
  the temporal lobes. In practice, the term is
                                                 functional analysis In conditioning
  used interchangeably with frontal lobe
                                                   studies, examining the relationship
                                                   between the treatment regime and the
Frostig Developmental Test of Visual               corresponding changes in behaviour.
  Perception Marianne Frostig Develop-
                                                 functional autonomy See Allport’s
  mental Test of Visual Perception.
                                                   theory of personality development.
frottage The act of committing frotteurism.
                                                 Functional Capacities Checklist
frotteurism atypical paraphilia in which          (FCC) Self-report questionnaire on
  the patient gains his/her principal             how patients view their physical capac-
  sexual gratification solely from rubbing        ities.
  him/herself against another person
                                                 functional disorder A disorder with no
  (who may not even be aware of this
                                                   apparent physical cause. See functional
  occurring – e.g. in a packed bus).
                                                   mental disorder.
FRT Family Relations Test.
                                                 functional fixedness Having a limited
FSA (1) Foundation Skills Assessment (2)           (and usually highly conventional) per-
  Fraboni Scale of Ageism.                         ception of the uses to which an item or
                                                   situation can be put (e.g. only seeing a
FSE feline spongiform encephalopathy.
                                                   house brick in terms of a building
FSS Fear Survey Schedule.                          material, rather than e.g. as a source of
FSS-C See Fear Survey Schedule.                    rouge). The concept is of considerable
                                                   importance in creativity research.
fugue dissociative disorder which, in the
  most extreme state, involves the patient       functional imaging See neuroimaging.
  assuming a totally new identity, even to       functional job analysis (FJA) A method
  the extent of moving to a new area of            of job analysis.
  the country. In less extreme cases, the
                                                 functional literacy The basic level of
  patient takes a shorter journey away
                                                   reading skills required for a particular
  from familiar surroundings, before
                                                   occupation or lifestyle. E.g. for most
  returning, often with limited or no
                                                   unskilled jobs, a reading age of 11 is the
  memory of the episode.
                                                   maximum required. See functional reading.
Fuld Object Memory Evaluation
                                                 functional mental disorder Any
 (FOME) Memory and naming test for
                                                   mental disorder for which a physical
 older participants, who are given
                                                   cause cannot be identified. See organic
 objects to recognize, first by touch, and
                                                   mental disorders.
 then by sight. Participants must then
 recall the items several times over, inter-     Functional Performance Record (FPR)
 spersed with a verbal fluency task.               Wide-ranging measure of 26 different
                                                   behavioural, physical and psychological
fully-loaded cost The total cost of an
                                                   skills. The test is intended for parti-
  action, including all incidental effects.
                                                   cipants with mental and/or physical
function variable whose value is depend-           handicap, to determine their functional
  ent upon that of another variable or             abilities.
  variables, and/or a variable which can

functional reading The ability to read            galactosaemia Genetic disorder
  basic instructional materials at the              characterized by a failure to metabolize
  barest level of proficiency expected by           galactose (a sugar found in milk).
  the society in which the participant is           Failure to treat the condition results in
  living. See functional literacy.                  severe intellectual dysfunction, but
                                                    earl y intervention (principall y,
functional relationship Relationship
                                                    adopting a rigidly lactose-free diet)
  between two or more variables, such
                                                    should avoid this.
  that a change in one affects the other(s).
                                                  galeophobia A phobia of cats.
Fundamental Interpersonal Rela-
 t i o n s Or i e n t at i o n - B e h av i o r   galvanic skin response (GSR) The ease
 (FIRO-B) Measure of participants’                  with which the skin conducts an elec-
 levels of behaviour in the context of              trical current. As people become
 belonging to a group, and the degree to            aroused, they sweat, and this changes
 which they expect the same behaviours              the GSR. This phenomenon can be
 in others.                                         used to test people’s level of arousal
                                                    when confronted with stimuli (it
fundamental lexical hypothesis The
                                                    should be noted that both the degree of
  belief that the key facets of human
                                                    sweating and the electrical currents
  behaviour have been encapsulated in
                                                    used are very slight, and unnoticed by
  single terms in language.
                                                    the participant). Since people can also
fundamental symptoms primary symp-                  become aroused when they are lying,
  toms.                                             the GSR has been used (not without
future shock Anxiety induced by living              controversy) as a lie detector test,
  in a modern, rapidly changing indus-              although usually in conjunction with
  trial society.                                    other physical measures (see polygraph).
                                                  GAMA General Ability Measure for Adults.
                                                  gambler’s fallacy The mistaken belief
                                                    that because there has been a long
G                                                   string of one type of mutually exclusive
                                                    event, another type of event ‘must’ occur
g General intellectual capacity – a term            soon. E.g. because there have been 10
  devised by Charles Spearman (early                ‘heads’ tossed in a row, ‘tails’ must come
  twentieth century) to describe an                 up next. This is fallacious, because on
  ability he felt underpinned all intellec-         each toss of the coin, the odds of
  tual skills. Today often used more                ‘heads’ and ‘tails’ are even – the coin is
  loosely to denote participants’ general           not influenced by what has gone
  level of intelligence. See G g.                   before. The debunking of the gambler’s
G g American writers tend to use the                fallacy often leaves people with the
 upper case letter, British writers the             equally erroneous impression that a
 lower case.                                        long sequence of one type of event (e.g.
                                                    tossing ‘heads’ 10 times in a row) is not
G index Specialized correlation measure             unusual; it is unusual, in that a mixture
 used in some forms of factor analysis.             of heads and tails is far more probable.
GAF Global Assessment of Functioning.               This does not contradict the argument
                                                    that ‘tails’ can just as easily be thrown
gain score difference score.                        after a sequence of TTTTTTTTTT as
                                                    after HTTHTTHTHH.
                                   GENDER IDENTITY DISORDER OF CHILDHOOD / 123

game (1) In transactional analysis, the          exception of ‘R’, which also measures
  maladaptive situation of being in an           letter recognition and ability to recog-
  inappropriate ego state and therefore          nize letter sounds).
  acting out an encounter as if it were a
                                               gateway drugs ‘Soft’ illegal drugs (mari-
  game rather than expressing one’s true
                                                 juana, etc.) which are often the first
  intentions. (2) Generally, in therapies,
                                                 illegal substances used by drug users
  playing a set role rather than listening
                                                 who subsequently ‘graduate’ to taking
  to one’s real wishes.
                                                 ‘hard’ drugs (heroin, etc.). The general
‘Games People Play’ See transactional            theory of this progression is also
  analysis.                                      known as the stepping stone theory. It
                                                 should be noted that the majority of
gamma (1) effect size. (2) Measure of corre-
                                                 ‘soft’ drug users do not follow this
  lation between ordinal variables.
gamophobia A phobia of marriage.
                                               gatophobia ailurophobia.
GAMT Graded Arithmetic-Mathematics Test
                                               Gaussian curve bell-shaped curve.
ganglia Plural of ganglion.
                                               Gaussian distribution normal distribu-
ganglion A group of neurons.                    tion.
ganglioside Drug whose ef fects                gc/Gc Symbol for crystallized intelligence.
  included the enhanced release of acetyl-
                                               GCS Glasgow Coma Scale.
  choline (see cholinergic hypothesis). Has
  been cited as a possible treatment for       GDS (1) Gessell Development Schedules. (2)
  patients suffering from dementia. See         Geriatric Depression Scale.
  ondansetron and tacrine.
                                               gedanken experiment thought experi-
Ganser syndrome A factitious disorder in         ment.
 which the ‘illness’ is a psychological
                                               gegenhalten An involuntary resistance
                                                 by the limbs to being moved by
GAP Reading Comprehension Test                   another. Symptomatic of damage to the
 Reading test for 7–12-year-olds. Uses           motor cortex.
 cloze procedure.
                                               gender dysphoria transsexualism.
GAPADOL Reading Comprehension
                                               gender identity disorder Group term
 Test Reading test for 7–16-year-olds.
                                                 for psychosexual disorders whose princi-
 Uses cloze procedure.
                                                 pal characteristic is that the patient feels
GARS Gilliam Autism Rating Scale.                that s/he is the wrong gender. See
                                                 gender identity disorder of childhood,
GAS general adaptation syndrome.
                                                 gynemimesis, and transsexualism. Also see
GAT General Abilities Test.                      transvestism.
GATB General Aptitude Test Battery.            gender identity disorder of child-
Gates-Macginitie Reading Test                    hood gender identity disorder exhibited
 Reading test consisting of several              in childhood, in which the patient
 ‘Levels’, commensurate with the age of          behaves like a highly stereotypical
 the subjects: R: 5–7 years; A: 5–7; B:          example of the opposite gender (e.g. a
 7–8; C: 8–9; D: 9–12; E: 13–16; F:              girl who is very ‘tomboyish’). Given
 16–18. All measure size of vocabulary           that the diagnosis relies on accepting
 and comprehension abilities, (with the          societal sex stereotypes, it is not
                                                 without its limitations.

General Abilities Test (GAT) Battery of         general trait trait which occurs in many
 measures of verbal, non-verbal, numer-           aspects of the person’s life. Contrast
 ical and spatial abilities, intended to          with specific trait.
 evaluate and help in selection proce-
                                                generality of results The degree to
 dures of staff ‘below’ the level of
                                                  which the findings of a study are likely
 middle management.
                                                  to be replicable when different subjects,
General Ability Measure for Adults                situations, etc. are used.
 (GAMA) Measure of general intellec-
                                                generalizability theory Complex
 tual abilities in adults.
                                                  theory, devised by Cronbach and col-
general adaptation syndrome (GAS)                 leagues, exploring the relationship
  Hypothesized sequence of reactions to           between reliability and validity and the
  prolonged stress. The participant’s body        application to test design and evalua-
  initially enters into a shock phase,            tion.
  which is counteracted by increased
                                                generalization (-isation) The degree to
  hormonal activity. If the stress contin-
                                                  which a conditioned response to one
  ues too long, the protective system
                                                  stimulus is given to similar responses.
  deteriorates, making the participant
                                                  Accordingly, a measure of the success
  more prone to illness.
                                                  of transfer.
General Aptitude Test Battery (GATE)
                                                generalized anxiety One of the anxiety
 test battery (devised by American
                                                  states. A chronic state of feeling anxious
 Employment Service) assessing basic
                                                  for no logical reason. The patient often
 intellectual and motor skills.
                                                  has physical symptoms, such as persis-
general factor See factor analysis.               tent minor physical ailments, the sensa-
                                                  tion of a pounding heart, tightness in
General Health Questionnaire
                                                  the chest, etc.
 (GHQ) A quickly-administered check-
 list of recent symptoms and behaviour          generalized mental ability g.
 designed to elicit the general psychiat-
                                                generational effect cohort effect.
 ric state of a patient. Available in 3
 forms, containing 60, 30, or 28 ques-          generationally biased stimuli Stimuli
 tions (GHQ60, GHQ30 and GHQ28                    (or other test materials) which will only
 respectively).                                   be recognized by, or be most familiar
                                                  to, a particular age cohort.
general intelligence g.
                                                generativity versus stagnation See
general learning skill General ability to
                                                  Erikson’s theory of development.
  learn skills. The concept can be used to
  compare individuals or species.               genital stage See Freud’s psychoanalytic
  Compare with specific learning skill.           theory.
general linear model (GLM) Term for             genuineness congruence.
  statistical methods such as analysis of       geometric mean Calculated as the nth
  variance, correlation and regression, which     root of all the scores multiplied
  in essence assume that one or more vari-        together (or alternatively, the mean of all
  ables can be used to predict the value of       their logarithms added together),
  another variable.                               where n = the total number of scores.
general paralysis of the insane (GPI)             The geometric mean is rarely used in
  syphilitic dementia.                            psychology.
general paresis See paresis.
                                                             GLOBAL APHASIA / 125

geotaxis Making a movement in response          feelings of euphoria. Accordingly, it
  to gravitational forces.                      has found popularity as an ‘illegal
geotropism geotaxis.
                                              GHQ General Health Questionnaire.
Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS) A
 ‘yes/no’ questionnaire measuring the         Gibson Spiral Maze A test of psycho-
 level of depression in the respondent.        motor skill, in which the participant
 The questions are geared to match the         is required to trace a pencil line around
 symptoms and lifestyles typically             a spiral shaped path as quickly as
 found in depressed older people.              possible.
Geriatric Mental State (GMS) A stan-          gifted children Children with excep-
 dardized interview package for assess-         tional talents. Often used ‘merely’ to
 ing the mental state of older patients.        denote children with high IQs, rather
                                                than the truly exceptionally gifted.
geriatrics Medical treatment and study
  of ageing. See gerontology.                 Gilles de la Tourette disorder Tourette’s
gerontology The study of old age. The
  term is usually restricted to psychologi-   Gilliam Autism Rating Scale (GARS)
  cal and sociological aspects of ageing.      Test assessing the presence of autism
                                               and its severity in children.
Gerstmann syndrome A simultaneous
 affliction of acalculia, agraphia, finger    Gilmore Oral Reading Test Reading
 agnosia, and confusion of left and right.     test for 6–14-year-olds.
 Whether the syndrome (when found)
                                              GLA Group Literacy Assessment.
 has a single root cause, is debatable.
                                              Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) A measure
                                               of the depth of unconsciousness dis-
 syndrome (GSS) (Rare) degenerative
                                               played by a patient after brain injury.
 brain disease.
                                              Glasgow Outcome Scale (GOS) A
Gessell Development Schedules
                                               measure of the degree of recovery made
 (GDS) test battery measuring develop-
                                               by a patient after brain injury.
 ment in infancy and early childhood –
 largely requires observation of child’s      glass ceiling Metaphor to describe the
 behaviour and physical measurement,            unacknowledged barrier blocking the
 rather than more conventional psycho-          job promotion and advancement of
 logical tests.                                 women. The term is likely to spread to
                                                describing the blocking of minority
Gessell Preschool Schedules (GPS)
                                                groups in general.
 Gessell Development Schedules.
                                              glial cells Supporting cells, supplying
Gestalt psychology A humanistic psychol-
                                                nutrients and ‘building materials’ to
 ogy which stresses the ‘whole’ of the
 patient, and encourages him/her to
 reclaim suppressed aspects of his/her        GLM general linear model.
 psyche, and hence his/her suppressed         global In reference to brain damage – an
 creative potential.                            impairment across all aspects of the
Gf/gf Symbol for fluid intelligence.            skill affected.
GHB Gamma hydroxy butyrate – a legal          global aphasia See aphasia.
 sedative which, if misused, can produce

Global Assessment of Functioning                GNT Graded Naming Test.
 (GAF) Scale from 0–100 indicating
                                                goal The target/end result of an action,
 level of functioning (the higher the
                                                  and hence, by implication, something
 score, the better the function). A low
                                                  which is desired.
 score indicates a need for treatment
 and/or specialist care.                        goal setting Establishing behavioural or
                                                  other targets for a patient undergoing
Global         Gordon’s          Personal
 Profile-Inventory (Global GPP-I)
 Measure of nine aspects of personality         Goldman-Fristoe Test of Articulation
 (e.g. self-esteem, sociability) pertinent to    Measure of ability in children and
 the business environment.                       young adults to articulate consonants.
Global GPP-I Global Gordon’s Personal           Goldstein-Scheerer tests Neurological
 Profile-Inventory.                              measures of the degree of impairment
                                                 in abstract thought and concept forma-
globus hystericus A somatoform disorder
  in which the patient is convinced there
  is a lump in his/her throat.                  Gollin Incomplete Figures Test A test
                                                 of memory/visuo-spatial skills. The
glossolalia Unintelligible or garbled
                                                 participant is shown an incomplete line
  speech – usually refers particularly to
                                                 drawing of a figure, and then gradually
  speech of people in a trance (e.g. reli-
                                                 more complete drawings of the same
  gious ‘speaking in tongues’) and suffer-
                                                 object, until s/he can identify it. The
  ing from some mental disorders (e.g.
                                                 participant is shown the figures on sub-
                                                 sequent occasions, and the process is
glossopharyngeal cranial nerve cranial           repeated. With the repeated exposures,
  nerve number IX. Concerned with                the participant should require progres-
  throat and taste (along with facial            sively fewer complete drawings before
  cranial nerve).                                s/he successfully identifies the object.
glove anaesthesia The phenomenon                Golombok Rust Inventory of Marital
  whereby the patient complains that             State (GRIMS) Measure of the state of
  his/her hands feel numb, but not               the relationship between a married/
  his/her arms. This is anatomically             cohabiting couple.
  impossible – the nerves concerned
                                                Golombok Rust Inventory of Sexual
  supply the hands and also the arms, and
                                                 Satisfaction (GRISS) A measure of
  dysfunction in one should cause dys-
                                                 satisfaction in sexual activity, and
  function in the other. This indicates
                                                 sexual dysfunction.
  that glove anaesthesia must be a psycho-
  somatic complaint. A similar phenome-         good breast-bad breast See Kleinian
  non is stocking anaesthesia, where the          theory.
  patient complains of numbness in the          Goodenough Draw-a-Man Test Test
  whole of the foot and the leg.                 for children aged up to 12 years. The
glue sniffing solvent abuse.                     subject is required to draw a picture of a
                                                 man or woman, which is marked for
GMA Graduate and Managerial Assessment.
                                                 detail, accuracy, etc. The measure gives
GMS Geriatric Mental State.                      a rough indication of IQ . See
                                                 Goodenough Draw-a-Person Test.
GMT Group Mathematics Test.
GNS growth need strength.
                                                              GRANDIOSE SELF / 127

Goodenough Draw-a-Person Test                 GPS Gessell Preschool Schedules.
 Goodenough Draw-a-Man Test with a
                                              GRA Group Reading Assessment.
 non-sexist title. Do not confuse with
 the draw-a-person test.                      graceful degradation The phenomenon
                                                whereby the cell loss which accompa-
Goodenough-Harris Drawing Test
                                                nies ageing is reflected in a gentle loss
 Goodenough Draw-a-Man Test.
                                                of memories and level of skill (rather
Goodman and Kruskall’s tau Meaure               than a wholesale and absolute loss).
 of correlation between nominal variables.
                                              grade equivalent score American
goodness of fit test Any test which             measure expressing the school grade
  measures how well a sample’s variance         level at which an average pupil can
  corresponds to that of a particular popu-     perform the task in question.
  lation. Hence, the degree to which data
                                              Graded Arithmetic-Mathematics Test
  fulfil expectations.
                                               (GAMT) Standardized test of mathe-
Gordon Musical Aptitude Profile A              matical and arithmetical skills for
 measure of basic musical skills (e.g.         subjects aged 6–18 years. Has two
 ability to spot similarities and differ-      forms – Junior (6–12) and Senior
 ences in pieces of music).                    (11–18).
Gordon Personal Inventory self-report         Graded Naming Test (GNT) Standard-
 questionnaire yielding measures of            ized test of ability to name a series of
 dynamism of thought and outlook.              objects, which become increasingly
                                               harder to name as the test progresses.
Gordon Personal Profile self-report
                                               The test is used in the diagnosis of
 questionnaire yielding measures of emo-
                                               certain forms of brain damage.
 tional and social skills.
                                              graded task (1) Task which is broken
Gordon’s Survey of Interpersonal
                                                down into components because it is too
 Values (SIV) See Gordon’s Survey of
                                                difficult for the person to grasp in its
 Personal Values (SIV).
                                                entirety at the first attempt. (2) graded
Gordon’s Survey of Personal Values              test.
 (SPY) Measure of how the participant
                                              graded test Test which consists of several
 deals with situations. This contrasts
                                                progressively more difficult levels.
 with Gordon’s Survey of Interpersonal
 Values (SIV), which is a measure of the      Graded Word Spelling Test (GWST)
 participant’s style of interaction with       Standardized spelling test for subjects
 other people.                                 aged 6–16 years.
Gorham test A test of knowledge of            Graduate and Managerial Assessment
 meanings of well-known proverbs.              (GMA) Battery of tests of verbal,
                                               numerical and abstract reasoning,
GORT Gray Oral Reading Test.
                                               intended to aid the selection of mana-
GOS Glasgow Outcome Scale.                     gerial staff.
Gottschaldt figures Simple figures            gramophone syndrome stereotypy of
 embedded in more complex figures.              speech.
 Used in tests of visuo-spatial ability –
                                              grand mal epilepsy See epilepsy.
 the subject must locate the simple
 figures.                                     grandiose self An unrealistic and
                                                inflated idea of one’s self-worth.
GPI general paralysis of the insane.

grandiosity An exaggerated view of              GRISS Golombok Rust Inventory of Sexual
  one’s own worth.                               Satisfaction.
granulovacuolar degenerations Mal-              gross motor skills See motor skills.
  formed and usually dead neurons which
                                                grounded theory A qualitative research
  (under a microscope) look like dense
                                                  method for the generation of a theoret-
                                                  ical model from data. The researcher
graphic rating Any method in which the            begins as a blank slate – e.g. prior
  participant rates an item in a diagram-         expectations of how the data may fit a
  matic form without recourse to a                pre-conceived model are prohibited. A
  numbered scale (e.g. shading in a box           key feature of grounded theory is that
  to the extent with which they agree             the conclusions drawn should be true
  with a statement).                              to the data collected (i.e. ‘grounded’ in
                                                  the data), rather than be a general idea
graphology The study of handwriting.
                                                  applied to a specific local situation.
  The term has become increasingly
                                                  Note that grounded theory tends to
  applied to a (controversial) specializa-
                                                  arouse polarized opinions amongst
  tion within this general field – namely,
  the calculation of a person’s personality
  from a sample of their handwriting.           group cohesiveness The degree to
                                                  which members of a group feel that
graphomania An obsessive urge to
                                                  they have a common bond.
                                                group factor See factor analysis.
graphophobia A phobia of writing.
                                                group interval class interval.
graphorrhea Lengthy and completely
  meaningless pieces of writing.                Group Literacy Assessment (GLA)
                                                 Reading and spelling test for partici-
Graves’ disease hyperthyroidism.
                                                 pants aged 7–14 years. Requires partic-
Gray Oral Reading Test (GORT)                    ipant to identify misspellings in a prose
 achievement test, using oral reading            passage and to provide the correct
 measures.                                       spelling. Also contains a cloze procedure
Greenhouse-Geisser correction See                test, in which the first letter of the
 sphericity test.                                to-be-found word is provided.

grey matter The cell bodies, synapses,          Group Mathematics Test (GMT) Test
  etc., of nerve cells of the central nervous    of mathematical abilities (divided into
  system, responsible for neural process-        orally presented and computational
  ing. Contrast with white matter, which         sub-sections) for participants aged 6–7
  is principally composed of the parts of        years (and also for less able older
  the cells responsible for transmitting         children).
  the information.                              Group Reading Assessment (GRA)
Griffith Scale of Mental Develop-                Reading test for participants aged 7–9
 ment (GSMD) Invented by Griffith,               years (specifically, children in their first
 this is a test battery, primarily of motor,     year at UK junior school). Requires par-
 social, auditory and aural abilities in         ticipant to identify a word spoken by
 infants and young children.                     the tester, to find the word best suited
                                                 to a given sentence, and to find homo-
GRIMS Golombok Rust Inventory of                 phones (same sounding but differently
 Marital State.                                  spelt words) of a given word.
                                                                               GZTS / 129

Group Reading Test (GRT) Reading                 GSR galvanic skin response.
 test for participants aged 6–12 years.
                                                 GSS Gerstmann-Straussler-Scheinker
 Requires participant to choose a word
 from various alternatives to match a
 picture, and to complete sentences,             guessing bias Habitually answering in a
 given a list of alternatives.                     particular manner if the true answer is
                                                   not known.
group test Test which can be adminis-
  tered to a group of people simulta-            guidance A rather nebulous term – some
  neously.                                         commentators treat it as synonymous
                                                   with counselling, whilst others reserve it
group therapy General name for any
                                                   for counselling in which the participant
  therapeutic method in which several
                                                   is presented with options for future
  patients meet together for simultaneous
                                                   action and advice, without the implica-
  treatment by the same therapist. Much
                                                   tion that the participant needs to be
  of the therapeutic effect is derived from
  the patients’ interactions with each
  other – the therapist’s role after the         guided discovery The process of
  initial stages is often to guide rather         guiding (although not leading or
  than to order directly.                         shaping) a patient towards discovering
                                                  things about events in his/her life
grouped frequency distribution A
                                                  which have significantly influenced
  measure (usually plotted as a graph) of
                                                  his/her behaviour.
  how often different ranges of values of
  a measure have occurred (e.g. what per-        guided participation modelling (particu-
  centage of the sample scored between 0           larly treatment of phobias).
  and 5, how many scored between 6 and           guiding fiction An idealized self-concept,
  10, how many scored between 11 and               which can cause problems if it strays
  15, etc.). This grouping of scores, such         too far from reality.
  that a score can only fall within one
  group, is called the class intervals system.   Guilford Zimmerman Temperament
  The number of class intervals within a          Survey (GZTS) Measure of ten per-
  grouped frequency distribution is given         sonality attributes (e.g. sociability, emo-
  the symbol k. See frequency distribution.       tional stability).
grouping error (1) Generally, the                Guttman scaling Method of construct-
  innacurate categorization of subjects,          ing an attitude scale, in which statements
  data, etc. (2) Grouping data so that the        are ranked in order of ‘strength’. It is
  data within an individual group are             assumed that if a subject agrees with a
  abnormally distributed given the                strong statement, then weaker expres-
  assumptions of the analysis (typically,         sions of the same arguments would also
  the data within a group are not                 be agreed with.
  normally distributed, and a parametric         GWST Graded Word Spelling Test.
  test is being used).
                                                 gynemimesis gender identity disorder, akin
growth need strength (GNS) The level               to transsexualism in its symptoms, but
  of need a person feels for growth,               without the desire to be surgically
  personal fulfilment, etc.                        changed to the opposite sex.
GRT Group Reading Test.                          gynophobia A phobia of women.
GSMD Griffith Scale of Mental Develop-           GZTS Guilford Zimmerman Temperament
 ment.                                            Survey.

H                                               enough to merit full hospitalization.
                                                The institution attempts to replicate
h precision. (2) leverage statistic.            normal community living, whilst under
                                                professional supervision.
H2 heritability ratio.
                                              hallucination A severe misperception
H heritability ratio.                           (rather than a mistaken belief, as in a
Hi alternative hypothesis.                      delusion), to the extent of perceiving
                                                stimuli which cannot possibly be there
Ho null hypothesis.                             (e.g. hearing entire conversations from
habit regression Replacing a new habit          ‘voices in the head’ in schizophrenia).
  with an old one.                              See illusion.
habitual response Response/type of            hallucinogen Any drug capable of pro-
  behaviour which is characteristically         ducing hallucinations. Largely synony-
  used by a participant, and is a typical       mous with psychedelic drug.
  exemplar of a particular trait.             hallucinosis Mental illness in which the
habituation (1) Becoming used to a form         patient, whilst fully conscious, suffers
  of stimulation (e.g. a drug or a signal),     frequent hallucinations.
  often with the added implication that it    halo effect The tendency to allow early
  no longer has the power it initially had.     (and possibly inaccurate) judgements of
  (2) The process of becoming addicted.         a person or event to shape later evalua-
habituation training Training a patient         tions. Alternatively, to allow one ‘good’
  to bring a thought or idea to mind and        feature of a person to cloud judgement
  to keep it there by concentrating on it.      of the rest of his/her character or abili-
  The aim is to make the patient concen-        ties.
  trate upon thoughts of a situation          halo error halo effect.
  which produces maladaptive or
  abnormal responses so that they             haloperidol Form of antipsychotic drug.
  become habituated to it, thereby            Halsted–Reitan Neuropsychological
  robbing it of its potency for provoking      Battery (HRNB) A battery of
  responses.                                   neuropsychological tests, assessing
Hachinski Ischaemic Score (IS) A               abstract reasoning and linguistic,
 diagnostic technique for distinguishing       sensory, visuo-spatial and motor skills.
 dementias of cardiovascular origin, and      Hamilton Rating Scale (HRS) observer
 specifically, multi-infarct dementia.         scale for rating the severity of depres-
 Patients are scored on the number of          sion.
 symptoms they display (and some more
 indicative symptoms are weighted).           Hand test protective personality test for
                                               participants aged 6 years and over.
HADS Hospital Anxiety and Depression
 Scale.                                       Hand-Tool Dexterity Test Test of
                                               manual dexterity and tool use. Primar-
haematophobia A phobia of blood.               ily designed as a personnel screening test
half-way house An institution for              for mechanical/engineering jobs.
  patients who are too mentally ill for       handedness The hand which is predom-
  complete integration into ‘normal             inantly used.
  society’, but who are not disturbed
                                                                      HELP-ASSERT / 131

handicap An impairment sufficiently             Harrington-O’Shea Career Decision-
  pronounced to create an atypical state.        Making System (CDM) Measure of
  The DSM-IV grades mental dysfunc-              interests and skills to assist school pupils
  tion according to level of IQ: 0–19            in choosing a career.
  (profound handicap); 20–34 (severe);
                                                Harris image analysis See factor analysis.
  35–49 (moderate); and 50–70 (mild).
                                                Harrison-Stroud Reading Readiness
Hanfmann-Kasanin Concept Forma-
                                                 Test Test of how much a child already
 tion Test A measure of concept forma-
                                                 knows about reading (what it is, what it
 tion abilities (or of handicap of same).
                                                 is used for, etc.) and hence how
 The test requires subjects to arrange
                                                 prepared s/he is for learning to read.
 blocks of different colours, shapes and
 sizes into categories.                         hashish See cannabis.
haphalgesia An abnormal perception of           Hassles and Uplifts Scale Therapeutic
  pain on being touched.                         questionnaire identifying sources of
                                                 stress and their possible solutions.
haphephobia A phobia of being touched.
                                                hat value leverage statistic.
haptephobia haphephobia.
                                                Hawthorne effect The phenomenon
haptic Pertaining to touch.
                                                 whereby there is likely to be an
Haptic Visual Matching Test (HVM                 improvement in performance if there is
 Test) Assesses children’s ability to            any change in the workplace, school, or
 match visual and haptic (touch) percep-         other institution, whether the change is
 tions, and the degree of impulsiveness          deliberately designed to be beneficial
 with which this is done. The child feels        or not.
 (but cannot see) a shape, and is then
                                                Hd scale See Minnesota Multiphasic Per-
 asked to pick the target by sight from a
                                                 sonality Inventory.
 range of alternatives. The time taken to
 make the response, as well as accuracy,        hebephrenia disorganized schizophrenia.
 is recorded.                                   hebephrenic schizophrenia disorga-
haptometer Any device for measuring               nized schizophrenia.
  sensitivity of touch.                         hebesphalmology The study of delin-
hard data Data based on objective obser-          quency.
  vations.                                      hedonic calculus In some forms of
hardiness Ability to withstand stress.            therapy, judging the pros and cons of
                                                  an action.
Hare Psychopathy Test (PCL) Measure
 of presence and strength of psychopathy.       heliophobia A phobia of light or of the
harmonic mean Calculated by convert-
  ing scores into their reciprocals (i.e.       ‘Hello-Goodbye’ effect Phenomenon
  divided into 1 – the reciprocal of 2 is         whereby patients may exaggerate the
  0.5, of 10 is 0.1, etc.), finding their         severity of symptoms at the start of
  mean, and then finding the reciprocal of        treatment and play down their extent at
  this mean. The measure is rarely used in        the end of treatment.
  psychology.                                   Help-Assert Computerized assertiveness
harria Cattell’s term for a personality trait    training programme.
  corresponding to tough-mindedness.

Help-Esteem Computerized programme            heroin See opiates.
 intended to boost self-esteem in people
                                              heroin antagonist Drug which prevents
 lacking it.
                                                a feeling of euphoria upon taking heroin
Help-Stress Computerized programme              (thereby reducing the drive to take it).
 intended to reduce stress levels of
                                              heroin substitute A drug used to treat
                                                heroin addiction. It stimulates the same
helplessness learned helplessness.              opiate receptors as heroin (hence
                                                blocking the physical craving for it),
hemi-inattention See sensory neglect.
                                                but produces less euphoria.
h e m i b al l i smus An invo luntar y
                                              heterogeneous group Group whose
  movement of the limbs.
                                                members have nothing in common. See
hemiparesis hemiplegia.                         homogeneous group.
hemiplegia Paralysis of one side of the       heteroscedacity See scedacity.
  body. In contrast, paraplegia is paraly-
                                              heuristic Problem-solving method.
  sis of the legs, and is paralysis of the
                                                Often applied to a method which
  legs and arms. These are produced by
                                                might not be entirely accurate, but will
  damage to the spinal cord (the higher
                                                be ‘close enough’ and will save mental
  ‘up’ the spine the damage occurs, the
                                                effort (e.g. treating pi as 22/7).
  greater the paralysis).
                                              Hicomp Preschool Curriculum Com-
hemispheres (cortex) The cerebral cortex
                                               mercial education curriculum planner.
  is divided into two equally sized halves
  along a vertical axis running from the      hidden observer Rather nebulous term
  front to the back of the head. These two      for the experience of monitoring one’s
  halves are known as the hemispheres,          own behaviour and thoughts.
  and are called the right hemisphere and
                                              hierarchical multiple regression
  the left hemisphere. In most individu-
                                                ordered multiple regression.
  als, the left hemisphere is principally
  responsible for linguistic skills and the   hierarchical sums of squares Type I
  right for visuo-spatial skills (although      sums of squares.
  in some individuals, particularly left      hierarchy of needs Maslow’s hierarchy of
  handers, this is reversed, and other,         needs.
  rarer, people have no simple left–right
  distinction). The hemispheres are           high frequency words Words which
  linked by several pathways, of which          occur very often in common usage.
  the most important is the corpus            high functioning When the term
  callosum.                                     precedes the name of a condition (e.g.
hemispheric differences Differences             ‘high functioning autism’) it means that
  between the functions of the right and        the patient concerned performs atypi-
  left hemispheres.                             cally well on psychological and/or
                                                physical tasks for someone with their
hemophobia haematophohia.                       condition. The term can be misleading
hemp Plant, one form of which is                – it may additionally imply that the
  cannabis.                                     patient performs well when compared
                                                with someone without the condition,
heritability ratio (H, h2)The proportion
                                                or it may not. Accordingly, caution in
  of variance in behaviour attributable to
                                                interpretation is advised. Low function-
  innate factors.
                                                                     HISTORY / 133

  ing indicates that the patient performs   Hirano body A crystalline structure
  atypically badly for someone with their    found in some brain cells in older
  condition.                                 people. The incidence of these
                                             increases greatly in some demented
high risk students Students whose
  (mis)perception of previous academic
  failings may lower their motivation,      Hiskey-Nebraska Test of Learning
  and increase the probability that they     Aptitude Non-verbal intelligence test
  will ‘drop out’.                           battery designed for deaf or
                                             hard-of-hearing children.
high-risk subjects at-risk subjects.
                                            histogram A graph for visually express-
higher brain centres Nebulous term for
                                              ing frequency distributions. The X axis
  areas of the brain responsible for the
                                              expresses the class intervals the data are
  (also nebulously defined) higher mental
                                              divided into, and the Y axis the fre-
                                              quency of each category’s occurrence.
higher functions In neurology, gait,          The data are expressed as a series of
  speech and cognitive processes.             bars of equal width, with no space
higher mental processes Nebulous              between adjoining bars. The height of
  term for mental operations which are        the bar indicates the frequency with
  regarded as ‘intellectual’ (i.e. which      which a particular class interval has
  require conscious attention to operate      occurred. The histogram is, strictly
  efficiently, and which can be signifi-      speaking, not synonymous with the bar
  cantly improved through practice,           graph (which is used for discrete vari-
  learning, etc.).                            ables), although the two terms are often
                                              interchanged. The frequency polygon is
higher order factor primary factor.           plotted in a similar manner to the histo-
higher order interaction An interaction       gram, save that a continuous line is
  with more than two variables.               plotted instead of a series of bars.
                                              Where the class interval represents
higher-order motive Motive whose ful-         more than one number per interval, the
  filment does not involve physiological      line is plotted against the midpoint of
  drives.                                     the interval. The frequency polygon
hindsight bias In recalling a memory,         should not be confused with the line
  exaggerating the prevalence and/or          graph. See distribution curve.
  magnitude of a particular event,          history The factors that have led to the
  because it subsequently proved to be        current state of affairs and which illus-
  more important than it appeared at the      trate the nature of the problems faced.
  time.                                       Thus, patient history is a collection of
hippocampus sub-cortical section of the       information about the patient’s life
  brain whose principal function is in        which may be relevant to the case (e.g.
  memory, and particularly in transfer-       previous symptoms, behavioural
  ring information from short- to             problems, etc). Psychiatric history and
  long-term memory. Damage to the hip-        psychological history refer respectively
  pocampus leads to an extremely debili-      to specific psychiatric and psychologi-
  tating amnesia, with patients unable to     cal factors in the patient’s life. Family
  remember practically all new informa-       history is information on the family life
  tion.                                       of the patient relevant to the case and
                                              usually includes information on any

  genetic relatives with similar symptoms        Home Observation for Measurement
  (thus indicating a genetic link).               of the Environment (HOME) Mea-
                                                  surement scale of influences likely to
histrionic personality disorder person-
                                                  influence mental development. Uses a
  ality disorder characterized by extreme
                                                  combination of tester observation and
  and over-dramatic expressions of mood
  and reactions to events.
                                                 homeostasis The maintenance of an
hit true positive.
                                                   equilibrium (often used of physiologi-
HIT Holtzman Inkblot Technique.                    cal functions – e.g. regulating the
HIV-associated dementia AIDS dementia              body’s temperature).
 complex.                                        homogeneity of variance Identical or
Holborn Reading Scale Reading test                 nearly identical patterns of variance in
 for participants aged 5–13 years. Con-            two or more sets of data.
 sists of sentences which increase in dif-       homogeneous group Group of individ-
 ficulty as the test progresses. The test          uals with an attribute or attributes in
 terminates when the participant has               common. See heterogeneous group.
 made a set number of errors. The Salford
                                                 homophobia A phobia of homosexuals
 Sentence Reading Test has a similar format.
                                                   and homosexuality.
hold tests See deterioration quotient (DQ).
                                                 homoscedacity See scedacity.
holding Term sometimes used in therapy
                                                 honesty test integrity test.
  to denote the therapist’s aid to the
  patient whilst the patient comes to            Hopelessness Scale Beck Hopelessness
  terms with his/her problem.                     Scale (BHS).
holergasia An illness which affects all          hormone therapy Therapeutic method
  aspects of psychological functioning.            in which the patient is administered
                                                   extra hormones (e.g. in older women to
holistic research Research which attempts
                                                   replace those lost during the meno-
  to measure all aspects of a phenomenon,
  rather than concentrating on isolated
  aspects.                                       Hospital Anxiety and Depression
                                                  Scale (HADS) A questionnaire provid-
holistic therapy General term for thera-
                                                  ing a measure of levels of anxiety and
  peutic techniques which consider the
  whole person rather than just one
  aspect of his/her psychological profile.       hospitalism (1) reactive attachment disorder
                                                   of infancy. (2) The term has been used
Holtzman Inkblot Technique (HIT)
                                                   (not entirely accurately) by some authors
 projective personality test in which partici-
                                                   as a synonym for institutionalization.
 pants (age 5 years and over) describe
 impressions formed by a series of ink-          hostility personality Personality type
 blots. Has a tighter construction and             found in some older people – those
 constraints on administration than the            possessing it (illogically) blame others
 Rorschach Inkblot Test (e.g. set number of        for their present misfortunes.
 answers permitted for each inkblot).
                                                 hot-seat technique Therapeutic tech-
HOME Home Observation for Measurement              nique in which other members of a
 of the Environment.                               therapy group tell an individual patient
                                                   exactly what they think of him/her.
                                                             HYGIENE FACTORS / 135

Hotelling-Lawley trace Significance               recognize the growth of the individual,
 test for multivariate analysis of variance.      rather than seeking to make everyone
                                                  develop in one ‘correct’ manner, as in
Hotelling’s T2 test A refinement of the
                                                  some of the more rigid forms of psycho-
 test, in which two groups are compared
                                                  analysis. Most popular manifestation is
 on several variables, and assessed on
                                                  probably Maslow’s hierarchy of needs.
 whether there is a significant difference
 in the overall trend of scores, regardless     Hunter-Grundin Literacy Profiles
 of differences/similarities on individ-         Reading test, which assesses several
 ual variables.                                  related reading and linguistic skills,
                                                 including: cloze procedure; spelling;
House-Tree-Person Test (H-T-P) A
                                                 creative writing; ability verbally to
 projective personality test – the subject is
                                                 describe a pictorial scene; and motiva-
 asked to draw the three objects of the
                                                 tion to read. Consists of four ‘Levels’,
 title and then talk about them.
                                                 commensurate with the age of the
‘How I Feel’ Test Children’s State-Trait         subjects: Level 1: 6–8 years; Level 2:
  Anxiety Inventory.                             7–9 years; Level 3: 8–10 years; and
Hoyt’s analysis of variance Statistical          Level 4: 10 years and over.
 assessment of reliability, utilizing the       Huntington’s Chorea Older term for
 analysis of variance formulae.                  Huntington’s Disease.
HRNB Halsted–Reitan Neuropsychological          Huntington’s Disease An illness of
 Battery.                                        neural decay with the principal charac-
HRS Hamilton Rating Scale.                       teristics of disturbed gait and move-
                                                 ments. Some patients develop demented
H-T-P House-Tree-Person Test.                    symptoms. Ultimately fatal, the illness
human engineering (1) ergonomics, with           can strike at any age, from childhood
  particular emphasis on the design of           through to old age. Strong genetic
  machine controls. (2) Any method of            component.
  attempting to manipulate learning and         Hutchison-Gilford syndrome progeria.
  attitudes using psychological tech-
  niques.                                       Huynh-Feldt correction See sphericity
human factors American term for ergo-
  nomics.                                       HVM Test Haptic Visual Matching Test.

human potential movement General                Hy scale See Minnesota Multiphasic Person-
  term for a wide range of theories              ality Inventory.
  (perhaps most notably Roger’s self theory     hydrocephalus Accumulation of fluid in
  of personality) which have the growth of        the skull, causing damaging pressure
  the self as a prime objective.                  on the brain, which, if not treated, can
human relations training group (T                 lead to serious and permanent damage,
  group) encounter group whose primary            or even death. Symptoms may include
  aim is usually to increase awareness of         dementia-like behaviour.
  the self and others in social interaction.    hydrophobia A phobia of water.
humanistic psychology General term              hygiene factors In occupational psychol-
  for therapies (particularly client-centred      ogy, the physical and contractual
  therapy and Gestalt psychology) and             working conditions of an employee.
  theories of human development which

hyp- As a prefix, it conveys the same           hyperlexia (1) Reading accurately but
  meanings as hypo-.                              with no evidence of comprehension of
                                                  what is being read. See demented
hypacusia Poor hearing – not to be con-
                                                  dyslexia. (2) Reading at a precociously
  fused with hyperacusia.
                                                  early age.
hypalgesia Abnormally high pain
                                                hyperlogia hyperphasia.
 threshold. The reverse (an abnormally
 low pain threshold) is hyperalgesia.           hypermania Abnormally high levels of
hyper- As a prefix: good, above, or exces-
  sive. Compare with hypo-.                     hypermetamorphosis The compulsive
                                                  urge to touch everything.
hyperactive delirium See delirium.
                                                hypermnesia Abnormally good memory.
hyperactivity An inappropriately high
  level of activity, which cannot be vol-       hypermotility hyperkinesis.
  untarily controlled. Many adults with
                                                hyperorality The urge to put everything
  the condition are better at covering up
                                                  seen into the mouth.
  their problem than are children, who
  are the most conspicuous sufferers. The       hyperorexia over-eating.
  definition of hyperactivity is rather         hyperosmia An abnormally good sense
  over-inclusive, and covers a variety of         of smell.
  conditions from ‘spoilt brat’ through to
  individuals with genuinely serious            hyperparaesthesia Abnormally sensi-
  problems. See attentional deficit disorder.     tive touch/sense of being touched on
                                                  the skin.
hyperacusia Abnormally good hearing.
  Not to be confused with hypacusia.            hyperphagia over-eating.
hyperaesthesia (1) extreme sensitivity to       hyperphasia Talking incoherently and
  sensory stimulation (if it is one sense in      quickly.
  particular, this is indicated in a prefix –   hyperphrasia hyperphasia.
  e.g. visual hyperaesthesia). (2)
  hyperparaesthesia.                            hyperphrenia Excessive (and usually
                                                  incoherent) thinking/mental activity.
hyperalgesia See hypalgesia.
                                                hyperpiesia hypertension.
hyperalgia hyperalgesia.
                                                hyperprosessis hyperprosexia.
hypergasia manic activity.
                                                hyperprosexia compulsively paying atten-
hypergeusia Abnormally good taste (re:            tion to an item or train of thought,
  eating and drinking).                           usually for an excessively long time.
hypergraphia Excessive writing.                 hyperRESEARCH A commercial
hyperkinesia (1) attentional deficit             computer programme used for a variety
 disorder. (2) Generally, excessive activity     of qualitative research techniques.
 and restlessness.                              hypersomnia Sleeping for abnormally
hyperkinesis Over-activity reaching               long periods.
  manic/hyperactive levels.                     hypertension See blood pressure.
hyperkinesthesia Abnormally high sen-           hyperthymia Abnormally grandiose
  sitivity to movement.                           expressions of emotion.
hyperkinetic syndrome attentional
  deficit disorder.
                                                               HYPOCHONDRIA / 137

hyperthyroidism (Graves’ disease)               that they will feel sick if they put a ciga-
  organic affective syndrome caused by an       rette in their mouth. The technique is
  over-active thyroid gland, and resulting      also open to potential abuse – e.g. by
  in extremely energetic behaviour, bor-        persuading a patient to do something
  dering on mania. Hallucinations are           ethically wrong. Hypnosis, by blocking
  sometimes present.                            out normally present ‘filters’, may also
                                                help a participant recall a memory more
hyperventilation Very rapid breathing,
                                                clearly – the technique has been used
  usually triggered by an attack of
                                                by e.g. police forces to see if it improves
  anxiety. The condition can cause the
                                                a witness’s recall of an event. However,
  subject to faint.
                                                because a hypnotized person is prone
hypnagogic Pertaining to sleep.                 to suggestion, the questions must be
hypnagogic hallucination hypnagogic             carefully posed by the therapist to
  image.                                        avoid the danger of leading the witness.
                                                Another use of hypnosis is to enable
hypnagogic image A ‘dream’ had whilst           patients with repressed memories and
  drowsy, rather than when fully asleep.        emotions to ‘liberate’ them under the
  A phenomenon which seems only to be           loosened constraints of the hypnotic
  experienced by a fraction of the popu-        state. This is efficacious, because it
  lation. The experience can be a strange       enables the patient to confront the
  one, in that often one is simultaneously      problem. An early example of this was
  aware that one is dreaming.                   the patient Anna O, treated by the nine-
hypnogenic sleep-inducing.                      teenth century physician Josef Breuer.
                                                It should be noted that all aspects of
hypnosis The induction of a deeply              hypnosis have been criticized – the
  relaxed state. This is usually done by        technique is open to abuse (although
  encouraging the patient to relax, whilst      responsible therapists are at pains to
  aiding him/her in this process with e.g.      avoid this, and have a self-imposed
  a series of relaxing verbal images,           code of conduct). In addition, although
  asking him/her to concentrate on a            the majority of people can be hypno-
  repetitive and calming movement, etc.         tized, the depth of a hypnotic state
  The state is unlike normal relaxation, in     varies considerably between individu-
  that the patient is willing to lower (but     als. See mesmerism.
  rarely completely abandon) normal
  levels of disbelief, and accept what the    hypnotic susceptibility The ease with
  hypnotist suggests. In some cases,            which an individual succumbs to
  patients can be persuaded to ‘shut out’       hypnosis.
  feelings of pain, and major surgery has     hypo- As a prefix: below, lesser, smaller.
  been successfully carried out on some         Compare with hyper-.
  hypnotized patients. Because of the
  lowering of reality control, some           hypoactive delirium See delirium.
  patients can be persuaded to accept         hypoacusia hypacusia.
  commands to perform certain deeds
                                              hypobulia abulia.
  when they are awoken from their trance
  (post-hypnotic suggestion) – commands       hypochondria A somatoform disorder,
  which they would, if conscious,               characterized by the erroneous and
  probably resist. This can be used as a        persistent belief that one is ill, and/or
  therapy – e.g. to persuade people to          that mild symptoms are indicative of a
  stop smoking by implanting the idea           serious illness. Note that the term in its

  lay use refers to a milder form which        drawn, and tested. E.g. one might
  would probably not merit professional        develop the hypothesis that all children
  treatment.                                   called Alistair will prefer chocolate
                                               from a range of flavoured ice creams.
hypochondriasis hypochondria.
                                               The hypothesis can be easily tested by
hypoergasia An abnormally low level of         getting a group of Alistairs and giving
  activity, as found in many patients suf-     them a choice of ice creams.
  fering from depression.
                                             hypothesis testing The process of estab-
hypogeusia Impaired sense of taste (re:        lishing whether the null hypothesis or the
  eating and drinking).                        alternative hypothesis is to be accepted.
hypoglossal cranial nerve cranial nerve      hypothetical construct construct.
  number XII. Concerned with muscular
                                             hypothymia Abnormally low level of
  control of the tongue.
                                               emotional expression.
hypokinaesthesia An abnormally low
                                             hypothyroidism (myxoedema) Illness
  awareness of/sensitivity to movement.
                                               caused by an under-active thyroid
hypokinesis Abnormally low level of            gland, resulting in ‘sluggish’ thought
  movement.                                    and behaviour.
hypolexia dyslexia.                          hypotrophy atrophy.
hypologia Abnormally poor linguistic         hypoxaemia Abnormally low levels of
  ability. Usually the term refers to dis-     oxygen in the blood.
  ability resulting from general mental
                                             hysteria Older term for conversion
  impairment, rather than to specific
  brain damage. See aphasia.
                                             hysterical When the term prefixes the
hypomania See mania.
                                               name of an illness, the term denotes
hypomnesia An abnormally poor                  that the illness is not due to physical
 memory.                                       causes, but to a somatoform disorder. See
hypophagia under-eating.                       e.g. hysterical blindness.

hypophrasia bradylalia.                      hysterical ataxia Somatoform disorder in
                                               which the principal symptom is ataxia.
hypophrenia mental retardation.
                                             hysterical blindness somatoform disorder
hypoprosessis hypoprosexia.                    in which the patient claims to be blind,
hypoprosexia Abnormally poor atten-            although there is no physical damage
  tion.                                        to the eyes or visual pathways.
hyposmia Abnormally poor sense of            hysterical deafness somatoform disorder
  smell.                                       in which the patient claims to be deaf,
                                               though there is no physical damage to
hyposomnia Sleeping abnormally little.         the ears or auditory pathways.
hyposthenia physical weakness.               hysterical neurosis Old term for
hypothalamus sub-cortical section of the      somatoform disorder.
  brain, whose primary task is to control    hysterical personality histrionic personal-
  bodily drives (e.g. hunger and satiety,      ity disorder.
  sex, anger).
                                             hysteriform Pertaining to, or resem-
hypothesis A model of a phenomenon             bling, hysteria.
  from which predictions about it can be
                                                                                   IDS / 139

I                                               identification The acquisition of per-
                                                  sonality and behavioural characteristics
i class interval width.                           which are seen as ‘copying’ from other
                                                  people (e.g. parents, teachers etc.).
I (1) inductive reasoning. (2) Introversion.
                                                identity crisis (1) identity disorder. (2) The
I-E measure internal-external measure.            process of deciding what one’s adult
IARS Intellectual Achievement Responsibility      persona will be.
  Scale.                                        identity disorder Profound distress and
iatrogenic Prescribed by a doctor.                loss of function created by a feeling of a
                                                  lack of personal identity, of having
iatrogenic poisoning Illness arising              chosen the wrong lifestyle, career, etc.
  from an adverse reaction to legally-pre-        See depersonalizdtion and dissociative dis-
  scribed drugs.                                  orders.
Ibogaine A hallucinogen.                        identity foreclosure See Erikson’s theory
IBR Infant Behaviour Record.                      of development.
ICC item characteristic curve.                  identity versus role confusion See
                                                  Erikson’s theory of development.
ICD WHO classification of diseases.
                                                ideokinetic apraxia An inability to
ICL Occupational Interest Checklist.
                                                  perform sequences of actions (although
ictal emotion A sudden feeling of                 individual actions within a sequence
  emotion without apparent cause.                 can be adequately performed).
icthyophobia A phobia of fish.                  ideomotor apraxia Inability to perform
                                                  a complex movement on command.
ictus stroke.
                                                ideophobia A phobia of ideas.
id See Freud’s psychoanalytic theory.
                                                ideoplasty Thought control by means of
ideal self The self the patient would most
  like to be. See e.g. Roger’s self theory of
  personality.                                  idiographic That which is unique to the
                                                  individual. See nomothetic.
ideas of influence delusion of control.
                                                idiographic research Research based
ideas of reference delusion of reference.
                                                  upon individual case studies.
ideation Formation of ideas.
                                                idiot See mental retardation.
ideational agnosia An agnosia for
                                                idiots savants (from the French) Individ-
                                                  uals with severe mental retardation who
ideational apraxia An inability to perform        are surprisingly adept at an isolated
  the correct functions associated with an        intellectual skill (an islet of intelligence).
  object.                                         E.g. there are some autistic children who
ideational fluency Fluency at produc-             are (by any standards) extraordinarily
  ing names of items belonging to a               talented at a facet of arithmetic or draw-
  given category (e.g. types of neurologi-        ing, yet who otherwise have a very low
  cal disease, animals, etc.).                    IQ.

idée fixe A pathological obsession with         IDPS Irlen Differential Perceptual Scale.
  an idea or concept.                           IDS Inventory for Depressive Symptoma-

IIP Inventory of Interpersonal Problems.       impulsivity impulse disorder.
illusion The misidentification of a            in-basket exercise situational exercise in
   stimulus. Compare with delusion.              which the participant (a white collar
                                                 worker) is presented with a workload
imaginal exposure Imagining encoun-
                                                 (in the ‘in basket’) which s/he must
  tering a particular situation or stimulus.
                                                 work through. Typically, the prime
  The technique is used in some forms of
                                                 areas of interest are in what and how
  therapy to train patients to cope with
                                                 much the participant delegates to
  situations which have produced
                                                 others and how much time s/he allo-
  maladaptive or abnormal responses.
                                                 cates to each job.
  See imaginal flooding.
                                               in vitro study laboratory study.
imaginal flooding implosion.
                                               in vivo desensitization (-isation) See
imbecile See mental retardation.
imipramine Form of antidepressant.
                                               in vivo study naturalistic research (defini-
impermeable constructs See personal              tion 2).
  construct theory.
                                               inappropriate affect Having an inap-
implicit personality An extrapolation            propriate emotional reaction to a piece
  of what a person’s total personality           of information.
  ‘must’ be like, from a brief sample of it.
                                               incomplete case Subject who has not
imploding implosion.                             been tested on all the measures which
implosion See flooding.                          the rest of his/her group has received.

implosive therapy Therapeutic tech-            incomplete pictures test Any test
  nique using implosion as its principal         which follows the same general proce-
  tool.                                          dure as the Gollin Incomplete Figures Test.

impotence A man’s inability to produce         incomplete sentence test sentence com-
  an erection in the appropriate circum-         pletion test.
  stances. In primary impotence, the           incremental validity The degree to
  patient has never produced an erection.        which the predictive power of a test is
  In secondary impotence, the patient has        improved by removing certain items
  produced erections intermittently, or          from the test.
  has produced them consistently in the
                                               independent sample Sample, the selec-
  past. Some commentators have
                                                 tion of whose members does not influ-
  replaced the terms with the general
                                                 ence the selection of members of other
  description of male inhibited sexual
                                                 samples within the same study (e.g. as
                                                 in the random allocation of subjects to
impression management Shaping                    two or more groups). Compare with
  one’s image to improve other people’s          dependent sample.
  perceptions of oneself.
                                               independent variable See dependent
impulse control disorder impulse                 variable.
                                               index case proband.
impulse disorder A failure to control an
                                               index of variability measures of disper-
  activity. The commonest examples are
  kleptomania, pathological gambling, and
  pyromania.                                   indirect correlation negative correlation.
                                                                               INFARCT / 141

indirect scaling A measure of ability to            induced schizophrenia Copying
  detect changes in the intensity of a                schizophrenic symptoms from a genu-
  stimulus by ranking the size of stimula-            inely schizophrenic patient.
  tions necessary to produce just noticeable
                                                    inductive reasoning (I) See deductive
  differences. See direct scaling.
individual coping strategies A thera-
                                                    inductive statistics inferential statistics.
  peutic regime tailored to the needs of
  an individual person. Often produced              industrial psychology occupational psy-
  to cope with stress. See organizational             chology.
  coping strategy.                                  industry versus inferiority See Erikson’s
individual differences The study of                   theory of development.
  how and why people differ psychologi-             Infant Behaviour Record (IBR) Scale
  cally (particularly in intelligence and             within the Bayley Scales of Infant Devel-
  personality).                                       opment, which measures the infant’s
individual psychology Theory and                      temperament.
  resultant therapeutic method devel-               infant intelligence tests Misleading
  oped by Alfred Adler (1870–1937). At                shorthand for tests assessing mental
  its heart is the theory of the inferiority          development in babies. Such tests can
  complex – i.e. people usually feel                  only detect fairly gross levels of func-
  inferior in some respect and so develop             tioning, and beyond very broad gener-
  strategies and behaviour to compensate              alizations (e.g. there is evidence of
  for this (compensatory strivings). E.g. at          mental retardation or there is not), it is
  the most literal, a person with a weak              impossible to give a precise indication
  voice may take vocal training and                   of future IQ. Indeed, many authors of
  become a singer. The root of inferiority            these measures explicitly reject the idea
  feelings lies in childhood, and the                 that they have produced intelligence
  theory emphasized how upbringing                    tests.
  can create feelings of being on the
  wrong end of a power relationship or              infantile autism autism (definition 2).
  of having weaknesses (Adler rejected              infantile neurosis The theory (princi-
  the prevailing Freudian notion of sexual            pally in psychoanalysis) that adult
  drive as the root cause of problems).               neuroses are attributable to maladaptive
  The general striving for superiority can            practices in infancy.
  be healthy if properly channelled, but
  can become maladaptive if directed                infantile perversion The theory (prin-
  towards inappropriate goals (e.g. a                 cipally in psychoanalysis) that oddities in
  too-great attempt to compensate,                    adult sexual behaviour are attributable
  resulting in only superficial feelings of           to maladaptive practices in infancy.
  power and control is known as a supe-             infantilism Using behaviours more
  riority complex).                                   appropriate for someone far younger.
individual test Test which must be                  infarct A ‘miniature stroke’, causing the
  a d m i n i s t e re d t o o n e p a r t i c i-     death of a tiny proportion of brain
  pant/patient at a time.                             tissue. Infarcts occur in most older
individual therapy Therapy which must                 people’s brains, but on too small a scale
  be administered to one patient at a time.           to cause serious damage. However, in
                                                      multi-infarct dementia, the number of
induced psychotic disorder folie a deux.              infarcts is considerably greater than
                                                      normal. See stroke.

inferential statistics Calculations of         inhibited sexual excitement Inability
  how representative a sample is of the          to produce a physical sexual response.
  population from which it is drawn (e.g.
                                               inhibition deficit A failure to inhibit
  gauging the likely efficacy of a ’flu
                                                 unwanted thoughts or items from
  vaccine from how it affects a group of
  volunteers). Typically, assesses the sta-
  tistical significance of differences and     inhibitory (neurons) An inhibitory
  relationships. See descriptive statistics.     neuron (in combination with many
                                                 other inhibitory neurons) which (i)
inferior In anatomy, a body section is
                                                 stops a previously active neuron from
  inferior if it is located below another
                                                 transmitting signals and/or (ii) slows
  section (which is termed the superior).
                                                 the rate of transmission. Compare with
  There is no implication that the inferior
                                                 excitatory (neurons).
  section has a less important function.
                                               initial factoring procedure See factor
inferiority complex (1) See individual
  psychology. (2) Dependent personality
  disorder.                                    initial letter priming Providing partici-
                                                 pants with the initial letters of words in
inferred number right (INR) score
                                                 a list the participant is trying to recall.
  Traditional scoring system for a
  multiple choice test, in which the first     initiative versus guilt See Erikson’s
  answer given is the only one accepted.         theory of development.
  See answer until correct (AUC) score.        injunction In some therapeutic theories,
infinite population See population.              a commandment (usually following the
                                                 general command ‘do not do x because
informal reading inventory Reading
                                                 x is wrong’) acquired in childhood
  measure in which the child reads from a
                                                 which may cause sub sequent
  variety of books (rather than taking a
                                                 maladaptive behaviour.
  more formal reading test).
                                               innate inherited.
informed consent Ethical principle that
  a participant/patient is aware of the        inner dialogue A conversation ‘in the
  purpose of all tests/therapies s/he            head’ which most individuals can sub-
  takes part in, and has given his/her           jectively report.
  consent to their administration. See         inner speech The inner thoughts – e.g.
  blind study and placebo study.                 internal monologues, or the ‘voice in
Inglis Paired Associate Learning                 the head’ which most people experi-
  (IPAL) Test Test assessing paired asso-        ence when reading. This contrasts with
  ciate learning (and hence mnemonic             external speech, which is speech for
  /cognitive efficiency) in older psychi-        communicating with other people.
  atric patients.                              INR score inferred number right (INR)
inherited Characteristics which are the          score.
  result of genetic transmission. Compare      insectophobia entomophobia.
  with congenital.
                                               insight therapy Any therapeutic tech-
inhibited orgasm Condition in which              nique in which the patient is encour-
  the person feels sexual excitement and         age d t o at t a i n i n s i g h t s ab o u t
  can produce all appropriate responses          him/herself.
  except orgasm itself.
                                                    INTELLIGENCE QUOTIENT (IQ) / 143

insomnia A profound inability to sleep.           intellectualization (-isation) (1)
  Types of insomnia include sleep onset             Talking about a problem as a means of
  insomnia (problems with falling                   avoiding tackling it. (2) Treating a
  asleep), sleep maintenance insomnia               problem in a detached manner as an
  (being incapable of staying asleep for            intellectual puzzle.
  satisfactorily lengthy periods) and
                                                  intelligence The level of ease with
  terminal insomnia (waking up too
                                                    which a subject can accurately respond
                                                    to intellectual tasks. Since the range of
instantia crucis crucial experiment.                tasks which have an intellectual com-
                                                    ponent is vast, it is unlikely that pre-
instigation therapy Any therapeutic
                                                    cisely the same skill underlies all of
  technique in which the patient is
                                                    them. Equally, it is unlikely that a dif-
  encouraged to adopt certain behav-
                                                    ferent type of skill is required for each
  iours/attitudes at the behest of the
                                                    and every different task. However,
                                                    researchers have made claims for both
institutionalized behaviour institutiona-           these extremes and practically every
  lization.                                         permutation in between. See fluid intelli-
institutionalization (-isation) The                 gence and crystallized intelligence.
  general intellectual and emotional deg-         intelligence quotient (IQ) Often (erro-
  radation experienced by man y                     neously) used as a synonym for ‘intelli-
  long-term patients in institutions such           gence’. The intelligence quotient is
  as hospitals, retirement homes, etc. See          used to denote how intelligent a person
  deinstitutionalization.                           is, in comparison with the rest of his or
instrumental learning operant condition-            her age cohort (also known as the devia-
  ing.                                              tion IQ). Traditionally, a score of 100
                                                    has denoted a person of average intelli-
instrumental value See terminal value.              gence for his/her age cohort – i.e. 50%
instrumentation errors Errors in mea-               of the group are cleverer, 50% are less
  surement due to faults in the test equip-         clever then this person. A score of more
  ment (NB in this instance, some com-              than 130 indicates someone who is
  mentators classify human experiment-              exceptionally bright for the group (i.e.
  ers as ‘equipment’).                              there are few people in the age group
                                                    with better scores) and a score of 70 or
insulin therapy See convulsion therapy.             below indicates someone who is unusu-
insult injury.                                      ally intellectually disadvantaged. The
                                                    older method of measuring IQ in
integer A whole number.                             children was by the formula of mental
integrity test Measure of honesty/trust-            age divided by chronological age, multi-
  worthiness.                                       plied by 100. (The problem with this
                                                    method is that it is useless for partici-
intellect See five factor model of personality.     pants aged over 18 years, because
Intellectual Achievement Responsi-                  mental age is relatively stable in adult-
  bility Scale (IARS) Questionnaire                 hood up to about 60 years of age. This
  examining the degree to which a pupil             means that the formula will cause their
  attributes his/her academic achieve-              IQs to decrease as they age.) See educa-
  ments to him/herself, and how much                tional quotient.
  s/he attributes to parents, teachers, etc.

intelligence test Any test which claims           B), only what is relatively harder within
  to measure intelligence. Typically, the         a group. Interactions larger than
  test will yield a single measure of general     two-way are hard to interpret. E.g. a
  intelligence, which is usually expressed        three-way interaction might be found
  in terms of an IQ score.                        between measures of time of day when
                                                  tested, membership of group A or B,
intention tremor A trembling of the
                                                  and a test with two formats X and Y. It
  muscles, which occurs when the subject
                                                  might show that for group A, scores are
  is making a movement s/he intends,
                                                  higher in the morning for format X,
  but not during involuntary movements.
                                                  and higher in the afternoon for format
  Generally, the trembling worsens the
                                                  Y, but overall, group A performs better
  closer the patient is to his/her goal (e.g.
                                                  in the afternoon; whilst group B find Y
  reaching for and picking up an object).
                                                  easier in the morning and X easier in
  It is often associated with damage to
                                                  the afternoon, but overall, group B
  the cerebellum.
                                                  performs better in the morning.
inter-rater reliability The degree to             Four-way interactions and beyond are
  which two or more observers agree in            virtually impossible to understand in
  their ratings of a subject or event (often      one conceptual unit. An absence of an
  expressed as a correlation between their        interaction (also called an additive
  scores).                                        interaction) indicates that all groups are
inter-stimulus interval (ISI) The time            responding in a qualitatively identical
  interval between one test item appear-          fashion. A significant interaction is
  ing and the next one appearing (or,             sometimes called a non-additive inter-
  between the first disappearing and the          action. A two-way interaction, in which
  next appearing – other definitions are          group A is better than group B on
  also possible).                                 measure x, but is worse on measure y, is
                                                  called a cross-over interaction (because
interaction (ANOVA) In an analysis of             the graph of the results looks like
  variance, a measure of how different            cross).
  groups may perform in a qualitatively
  different manner on the same measures.        interaction variance The proportion of
  The analysis indicates only whether an          the total variance attributable to interac-
  interaction is significant or not – the         tions.
  pattern of the interaction has to be          interactional psychology interactionism.
  gleaned by looking at the data them-
                                                interactionism The view that psycho-
  selves. The interaction is normally
                                                  logical growth is attained through the
  prefixed with the phrase ‘x-way’,
                                                  interaction between the environment
  where x is the number of measures
                                                  and an individual’s innate characteris-
  involved. E.g., a two-way interaction
  might describe how two groups
  perform qualitatively differently on a        interbrain diencephalon.
  measure with two levels (e.g. group A
                                                intercept of the regression line See
  may be comparatively better on test X
  than on test Y, whilst the reverse pattern
  may hold for group B). Note that the          interest inventory A catalogue of a par-
  interaction does not state which group          ticipant’s hobbies, likings, etc. The
  has the higher scores (e.g. in the              measure has obvious uses in careers
  previous example, group A might be              guidance, therapy, etc., but may also be
  significantly better at test Y than group       used as a general measure of lifestyle.
                                                       INTERVENING VARIABLE / 145

interference task Task which is                interpolated task interference task.
  designed to interfere with the process-
                                               interpretative phenomenological
  ing/memory of information (e.g. as in
                                                 analysis (IPA) A qualitative research
  the Brown–Peterson task). Performance
                                                 method concerned with the analysis of
  on the interference task itself is usually
                                                 people’s understanding and response
  not of central importance.
                                                 to events or states, rather than an objec-
interictal Between seizures.                     tive account of the events or states
                                                 themselves. A key consideration is the
internal consistency See reliability.
                                                 input of the researcher in their interpre-
internal control (1) The degree to               tation of the data.
  which a participant’s own behaviour
                                               interquartile range (IQR) See range.
  can shape events. (2) The participant’s
  perception of the same. See external         interrupted time series study See time
  control.                                       series study.
internal-external measure (I-E                 interval censoring See left censoring.
  measure) Any measure of the degree
                                               interval estimate Given the mean or
  to which a person feels s/he is con-
                                                 other measure of a sample, the range of
  trolled by external circumstances,
                                                 values within which the population
  versus internal motivations and wishes.
                                                 mean or other measure is likely to lie.
  For a more specific definition, see
  internal-external scale.                     interval of uncertainty See threshold.
internal-external scale See causal attri-      interval recording Recording a
  bution theory.                                 participant’s behaviour at set time
                                                 intervals. This is usually done because
internal locus of control internal
                                                 recording all of the participant’s behav-
                                                 iour would create an unmanageably
internal reward intrinsic reward.                large amount of data. See continuous
                                                 recording and time sampling.
internal validity The degree to which
  findings from a study have been sub-         interval scale Scale in which units of
  jected to unplanned contamination by           measurement are spaced apart equally,
  external factors.                              and in which the value of zero is arbi-
                                                 trary (e.g. temperature measured on the
internalization (-isation) The assimila-
                                                 Fahrenheit scale – the value of zero
  tion of ideas and opinions into one’s
                                                 degrees does not mean that there is no
  own set of values. See introjection.
                                                 temperature). See nominal scale, ordinal
International Classif ication of                 scale and, especially, the ratio scale.
  Diseases WHO classification of diseases
                                               interval schedule The timing schedule
                                                 of rewards/punishments to be admin-
interpersonal Between people – see               istered in a conditioning study.
                                               intervening variable An experimental
Interpersonal Styles Inventory (ISI) A           variable which is not directly measured,
  measure of how well a participant              but which is presumed to intervene
  interacts with others. The test consists       between an independent variable and a
  of a set of statements with which the          dependent variable. E.g. if the independ-
  participant indicates agreement/dis-           ent variable is number of hours of food
  agreement.                                     deprivation, and the dependent

  variable is the amount eaten when food              (2) In reading, inserting a word which
  is presented, then the intervening                  is not in the to-be-read material.
  variable is hunger.
                                                    Intuition (N) See Myers-Brings Type Indi-
intimacy versus isolation See Erikson’s               cator.
  theory of development.
                                                    intuitive personality see Jung’s psychoan-
intraclass correlation The strength of                alytic theory.
  relationship between two variables.
                                                    inventory In the context of psychologi-
intrapersonal Within a person. See                    cal testing, a ‘checklist’ of attributes
  endogenous, and interpersonal.                      against which the participant is
                                                      measured (e.g. how often they cry, how
intrapsychic Within the mind.
                                                      often they lose their car keys, etc.). The
intrapsychic ataxia mental ataxia.                    inventory is either completed by the
intrapsychic conflict A hypothesized                  experimenter interviewing the partici-
  conflict between different parts or                 pant, by people who know the partici-
  aspects of the mind.                                pant well, or by the participant filling
                                                      in the inventory him/herself (often
intrapsychic disease model Any model                  known as the self-report questionnaire).
  which concentrates upon a mental
  illness as an endogenous process,                 Inventory for Depressive Symptom-
  largely to the exclusion of exogenous               atology (IDS) A measure of the
  factors.                                            severity of depressive symptoms.

intrauterine experience The experi-                 Inventory of Interpersonal Problems
  ence of the foetus. Some psychoanalytic             (IIP) Measure of the degree to which a
  theories argue that this shapes subse-              patient can (or cannot) interact with
  quent personality.                                  other people (e.g. form friendships,
                                                      assert him/herself, etc.).
intrinsic drive Being impelled to do
  something for its own sake.                       Inventory of Suicide Orientation-30
                                                      (ISO-30) Thirty item questionnaire
intrinsic motivation A drive to perform               designed for teenagers assessing their
  an act because of an internal need,                 level of suicidal behaviour.
  without any material reward. This con-
  trasts with extrinsic motivation, where           inverse correlation negative correlation.
  there is a tangible goal.                         inverse factor analysis Q factor analysis.
intrinsic reward see extrinsic reward.              inverse J curve See J curve.
intrinsic test bias test bias: see extrinsic test   inverse J distribution inverse J curve.
                                                    inverted-U curve A curve which looks
intrinsic validity a priori validity.                 like an upside-down ‘U’. Such curves
introjection Term used in psychoanalysis              are often found when e.g. plotting per-
  to denote internalization, particularly of          formance ability on the Y axis against
  deeply-held moral values (e.g. those of             arousal level of the X axis. As arousal
  parents).                                           increases, performance at first improves,
                                                      but above a certain level of arousal, per-
introversion (I) See extraversion.                    formance declines.
intrusion error (1) In memory tasks, ‘re-           involutional depression involutional
  calling’ an item which was not present.             psychotic reaction.
                                                                ISOCARBOXAZID / 147

involutional melancholia involutional           Irlen Differential Perceptual Scale
  psychotic reaction.                             (IDPS) Measure of various visual per-
                                                  ceptual abilities designed to identify
involutional psychotic reaction A
                                                  the presence or absence of scotopic
  profoundly negative reaction to the
                                                  sensitivity, a perceptual problem result-
  onset of middle age. See mid-life crisis.
                                                  ing from an unbalanced perception of
I/O Psychology Industrial/occupa-                 the spectrum. It is argued by some that
  tional psychology –s synonym of occu-           this is a cause of developmental dyslexia,
  pational psychology.                            and that dyslexic readers should wear
iophobia A phobia of poisoning.                   tinted spectacles to redress the spectral
                                                  balance and so remove scotopic sensi-
IPA interpretative phenomenological analysis.     tivity. Some also advocate their use in
IPAL Test Inglis Paired Associate Learning        managing autistic sensory problems.
  (IPAL) Test.                                    The efficacy of these Irlen lenses has
                                                  been disputed.
ipsative Measured against the self.
                                                Irlen lenses See Irlen Differential Percep-
ipsative behaviour Behaviour judged               tual Scale.
  against the participant’s normal stan-
  dards.                                        irregular spelling A word whose logical
                                                   pronunciation differs from the way it is
ipsative questionnaire Any question-               supposed to be pronounced. Examples
  naire in which the participant makes             of irregular spelling abound in English
  judgements gauged against his/her                – ‘quay’, ‘misled’, etc.
  own values.
                                                irrelevant variable See relevant variable.
ipsative scale (1) Any scale of measure-
  ment in which the participant bases           irresistible impulse criterion The
  his/her judgements against his/her              (now largely outmoded) American
  own values. (2) A scale on which items          legal principal that a person cannot be
  must be put in order and no items may           judged guilty of an offence committed
  share a ‘joint equal’ ranking.                  because of an irresistible impulse forced
                                                  on him/her through mental illness.
ipsative score Score relative to the par-
  ticipant’s own mean.                          IRT item response theory.
ipsative test Measure of an individual’s        IS Hachinski Ischaemic Score.
  abilities in which their strengths and        ischaemic cascade Series of events
  weaknesses are compared with each               leading to cell death after cessation of
  other (i.e. as opposed to being                 blood supply (e.g. in a stroke).
  compared with other people’s).
                                                Ischaemic Rating Scale Hachinski
ipsatization (-isation) The creation of           Ischaemic Score.
  ipsative scores.
                                                ISI (1) Interpersonal Styles Inventory. (2)
ipsilateral On the same side of the body          inter-stimulus interval.
  (see midline) as the section of the body
  in question. Compare with contralateral.      islets of intelligence See idiots savants.

IQ intelligence quotient.                       ISO-30 Inventory of Suicide Orientation.

IQR interquartile range.                        isocarboxazid Type of monoamine oxidase

isokurtic lacking skew.                            this would appear much steeper. See
                                                   Rasch scaling.
isolation The removal or suppression of
  the association of a negative emotion          item difficulty The proportion of parti-
  with a particular memory or action.               cipants correctly answering a question
                                                    on a test.
isolation syndrome transcortical sensory
  aphasia.                                       item discrimination item reliability.
It Scale for Children Test in which              item facility The proportion of partici-
  child expresses preferences for toys and          pants who get a particular test item
  objects with a strong ‘sex bias’ (e.g.            wrong (a score of 1 = everyone gets it
  dolls, prams, etc.). Designed to test             wrong, and 0 = everyone gets it right).
  strength and direction of stereotypical
                                                 item reliability The correlation between
  sex roles in children.
                                                    scores on items within a test and the
item (tests) a question.                            total test score.
item analysis Assessing whether indi-            item-remainder reliability item reliabil-
   vidual items in a test are worthy of inclu-      ity.
   sion. There are a number of methods of
                                                 item response theory (IRT) Theory of
   assessing this, the best known of which
                                                    test performance based on the item char-
   are the Kuder-Richardson formulae.
                                                    acteristic curve.
item bias Test item which favours some
                                                 item universe All the questions devised
   groups of subjects more than others
                                                    for a test or series of tests.
   (e.g. in the UK, a question requiring
   calculations in pre-decimal money             item validity The degree to which per-
   would be unfair to any participant aged          formance on items from a test predicts
   under 30).                                       performance on another measure.
item characteristic curve (ICC) A                iterated principal axis see factor analysis.
  mathematical function describing how           iterative Repeating.
  the probability of answering a test
  question in a particular manner is             IV independent variable.
  related to the strength with which a
  participant possesses a particular trait.
  E.g. the probability of correctly an-
  swering an easy question on an intelli-
  gence test might be 70% for a not very         J
  bright participant. This probability           J Judging.
  figure might gradually increase, the
  brighter the participant being consid-         J coefficient The correlation between a
  ered, until a top value of 99% might be          test predicting ability at a particular
  reached for a very bright participant. If        task or job, and actual performance of
  a curve was drawn of this, it would              the job.
  appear relatively flat. However, suppose       J curve A curve shaped approximately
  we consider a very difficult question            like a ‘J’. Low values on the X axis are
  from the same test. Here, there might            met with low values on the Y axis, but a
  be only a 5% probability that a dull par-        slight further increase in the value of x
  ticipant will get it right, and this figure      is met with a meteoric increase in the
  might rise to e.g. 80% for the very              value of y. The inverse J curve has the
  brightest participant. A curve drawn of          inverted shape – low values of x are
                                                 JUNG’S PSYCHOANALYTIC THEORY / 149

  matched by high values of y, but a               job families Occupations and tasks
  further increase in x creates a drastic fall       which demand similar skills and tasks.
  in the value of y.
                                                   job satisfaction The degree to which a
J distribution J curve.                              job is found to be emotionally reward-
jacksonian epilepsy See epilepsy.
                                                   John Henry effect In some experimental
jamais vu A feeling that a familiar place
                                                     designs, an experimental group may
  or event is entirely novel.
                                                     receive treatment which the control
JAQ Job Analysis Questionnaire.                      group may see as being preferential.
jargon aphasia Syntactically garbled                 Accordingly, the control group
  speech (often containing parapbasias               members may work ‘artificially’ harder
  and neologisms) which is characteristic            at the tasks set them to demonstrate
  of many aphasias.                                  that they can do just as well without
                                                     receiving beneficial treatment. This
JAS Jenkins Activity Survey.                         mars the accuracy of the study.
Jenkins Activity Survey (JAS) Ques-                joint probability probability of two or
  tionnaire which assesses the degree to             more events occurring simultaneously.
  which a subject has a Type A personality.
                                                   Judging (J) See Myers-Briggs Type Indica-
Jesness Behaviour Checklist Test for                 tor.
  adolescents, measuring 14 bipolar
  dimensions of personality. Assessment            Jungian archetype See Jung’s psychoana-
  can be by self-report or by the partici-           lytic theory.
  pants’ teachers.                                 Jungian theory See Jung’s psychoanalytic
JIIG-CAL A computerized career                       theory.
  guidance package. The acronym stands             Jung’s psychoanalytic theory Carl
  for Job Ideas and Information Genera-              Jung (1875–1961), initially a disciple
  tor-Computer Assisted Learning.                    of Freud, who later founded his own,
JND just noticeable difference.                      highly influential theory ( Jungian
                                                     theory) of psychoanalysis. Although
JNND just not noticeable difference.                 based on Freud’s psychoanalytic theory,
job analysis The analysis of a job or task           Jung believed that several drives for
  into the component skills required to              self-fulfilment motivated people, and
  execute it effectively, the equipment              de-emphasized the role of psychosexual
  used, etc.                                         development. Also, Jung argued that in
                                                     addition to the unconscious as con-
Job Analysis Questionnaire (JAQ)                     ceived by Freud, there is a collective
  Questionnaire designed to perform job              unconscious. This is a set of inherited
  analysis by asking participants how                images (archetypes) of God, of heroes,
  often they perform a range of activities           etc., which have the power to shape
  as part of their work routine.                     development, but of which the person
job characteristics The tasks and                    is not consciously aware (although they
  responsibilities required of the holder            may appear in the guise of art, folk
  of a particular job.                               tales, etc.). Jung identified four methods
                                                     of perceiving the world: the feeling per-
job evaluation The calculation of the                sonality (the emotional impact is of
  financial worth of a job to the organiza-          principal importance); the intuitive
  tion.                                              personality (the world is judged on

  hunches and intuitions); the sensing          K-SNAP Kaufman Short Neuropsychological
  personality (the direct perception of the      Assessment Procedure.
  world as it appears through the senses);
                                                K-TEA Kaufman Test of Educational
  and the thinking personality (the
  primary emphasis is on abstract
  thought). Jung also conceived of indi-        K-W test Kruskal-Wallis one-way ANOVA
  viduals being primarily extraverted or         by ranks.
  introverted, and being a mixture of           KAI Kirton Adaptation-Innovation Inven-
  active and ‘masculine ’ elements               tory.
  (animus), and passive and ‘feminine’
  elements (anima). Jung’s theory appear        Kaiser criterion factor analysis.
  gentler and more spiritual than Freud’s,      Kaiser image analysis See factor analysis.
  and his concept of the collective
  unconscious attracted the attention of a      Kaiser–Meyer–Olkin value (KMO
  wide audience. However, the general            value) In conducting a factor analysis,
  criticisms which can be levelled against       variables being considered for entry
  Freud’s theories can just as heavily be        into the equation can be assessed for
  laid against Jung’s. See neo-Freudian          suitability and given a KMO value. A
  movement.                                      value of < 0.50 is deemed unacceptable
                                                 (i.e. the variable should not be entered).
just noticeable difference (JND) See             KMO values > 0.50 are graded into
  threshold.                                     increasingly more ‘acceptable’ groups
just not noticeable difference (JNND)            up to a top group with values > 0.90.
  See threshold.                                Kaiser’s normalization (-isation) See
juvenile delinquency delinquency.                factor analysis.
                                                KAIT Kaufman Adolescent and Adult Intelli-
                                                 gence Test.
                                                Kanner’s syndrome autism – some com-
K                                                mentators particularly apply the phrase
                                                 to cases of the illness in which the
k (1) See grouped frequency distribution. (2)    symptoms clearly display themselves
  In some theories, spatial ability.             early in infancy.
K coefficient of alienation.                    kappa Cohen’s kappa.
K-ABC Kaufman Assessment Battery for            Kaufman Adolescent and Adult
 Children.                                       Intelligence Test (KAIT) Intelligence
K-BIT Kaufman Brief Intelligence Test.           test based on measures of fluid and
                                                 crystallized intelligence.
K-FAST Kaufman Functional Academic
 Skills Test.                                   Kaufman Assessment Battery for
                                                 Children (K-ABC) test battery for
K-R formula See reliability.
                                                 children aged 2–12 years. The battery
K-R 20 See reliability.                          is heavily influenced by the theories of
K-R 21 See reliability.                          the Russian neuropsychologist Luria,
                                                 and, under his categorization scheme,
K-SADS-P See Schedule of Affective Disor-        measures the ability to perform sequen-
 ders and Schizophrenia.                         tial tasks and successive tasks. The
K scale See Minnesota Multiphasic Person-        measures are heavily biased towards
 ality Inventory.                                non-verbal skills.
                                                KINETIC FAMILY DRAWING (KFD) / 151

Kaufman Brief Intelligence Test                   version (1972) of the Kendrick Cognitive
 (K-BIT) Intelligence test measuring              Tests for the Elderly.
 both fluid intelligence and crystallized
                                                Kendrick Cognitive Tests for the
                                                 Elderly test battery for identifying
Kaufman Functional Academic Skills               dementia in participants aged 55 years
 Test (K-FAST) Measure of reading                and over. Consists of two tests. The
 and mathematical skills in adults.              Kendrick Object Learning Test (KOLT)
                                                 is a memory test for arrays of pictures in
Kaufman Short Neuropsychological
                                                 varying numbers, and the time over
 Assessment Procedure (K-SNAP)
                                                 which the memories must be retained.
 Measure of basic memory, perceptual
                                                 The Kendrick Digit Copying Test
 and intellectual skills in older children
                                                 (KDCT) measures the speed at which
 and adults.
                                                 the participant copies a set of 100
Kaufman Test o f Educational                     numbers.
 Achievement (K-TEA) A battery of
                                                Ken d r i c k D i g i t Co p y i n g Tes t
 achievement tests, assessing mathematical,
                                                 (KDCT) See Kendrick Cognitive Tests for
 reading and spelling skills.
                                                 the Elderly.
KDCT Kendrick Digit Copying Test.
                                                Kendrick Object Learning Test
Kelly’s personal construct theory                (KOLT) See Kendrick Cognitive Tests for
 personal construct theory.                      the Elderly.
Kendall coefficient of concordance              keraunophobia A phobia of lightning.
 (W) A non-parametric measure of the
                                                Kernicterus Brain damage induced by
 degree to which two or more sets of
                                                 excessive jaundice.
 ranks are in agreement. Scores vary
 between 1 (full agreement) and 0 (no           key informant In interview studies, an
 agreement).                                      interviewee who provides information
                                                  of a significantly higher than average
Kendall partial rank correlation coef-
 ficient (TXYS) See Kendall rank corre-
 lation coefficient.                            KeyMath test achievement test of mathe-
                                                 matical skills.
Kendall rank correlation coefficient
 (t) Like the Spearman rank order correla-      KFD Kinetic Family Drawing.
 tion coefficient, a measure of correlation     KGIS Kuder General Interest Survey.
 between two variables measured on
 ordinal scales. Unlike the Spearman            khat Fibrous tropical plant – chewing it
 measure, however, the Kendall method             induces (relatively mild) feelings of
 can calculate a partial correlations, in the     euphoria. At the time of writing, it is
 form of the Kendall partial rank correla-        still legal in Britain.
 tion coefficient. See Kendall coefficient of   kindling The increased susceptibility of
 concordance.                                     neurons to activation resulting from
Kendall’s tau Kendall rank correlation coef-      repeated stimulation. The phenomenon
 ficient.                                         is often linked to epilepsy-like attacks.
Kendall’s I Kendall rank correlation coeffi-    Kinetic Family Drawing (KFD) projec-
 cient.                                          tive test in which the participant draws a
                                                 picture of his/her family ‘doing some-
Kendrick Battery for the Detection               thing’.
 of Dementia in the Elderly Early

Kinetic School Drawing (KSD) projec-             hyperorality, bulimia, visual agnosia,
 tive test in which the child participant        hypermetamorphosis, and loss of affect.
 draws a picture of him/herself per-             There may also be a grossly heightened
 forming an act at school.                       sexual appetite, particularly in younger
kinetic tremor action tremor.
                                               KMO value See Kaiser–Meyer–Olkin
Kirton Adaptation-Innovation
 Inventory (KAI) Measure of creativity
 and problem-solving, which also               knowledge-based test Measure of how
 assesses the style in which these skills        much a participant knows or what s/he
 are executed.                                   has an aptitude for. By contrast, a
                                                 person-based test is a measure of the par-
Kleinian theory neo-Freudian model
                                                 ticipant him/herself (e.g. their person-
 devised by Melanie Klein, which
                                                 ality, emotional state, etc.).
 emphasizes the importance of early
 infancy. The theory is complex, but an        Knox Cubes Test A measure of
 often cited tenet of the theory is the         visuo-spatial memory – the subject is
 internal conflict the infant has to            required to tap cubes in a pattern
 resolve between perceived good and             provided by the experimenter.
 bad attributes of the same object. E.g.
                                               Kohn Problem Checklist (KPC)
 the breast can be seen separately as
                                                Measure of social and emotional func-
 good breast-bad breast because it
                                                tioning/dysfunctioning in children
 provides sustenance but is not always
                                                aged 3–5 years.
 available immediately on demand. The
 infant has to learn that these attributes     Kohn Social Competence Scale (KSC)
 belong to the same object. Resolving           Measure of social skills and emotional
 the conflict leads into a more mature          expression in children aged 3–6 years.
 state in which hostile feelings towards       Kohs block design test block design test.
 the bad aspects of things are restrained.
 Failure adequately to resolve these           KOIS Kuder Occupational Interest Survey.
 stages is alleged to lead to problems in      Kolmogrov-Smirnov one sample test
 later life. As with other psychoanalytic       A non-parametric measure of whether the
 models, it is ingenious but untestable.        cumulative frequency distribution of a
kleptolagnia Pleasure from theft.               sample significantly differs from a
                                                hypothesized population distribution
kleptomania An impulse disorder – the           (i.e. whether the distribution might be
  patient has an irresistible urge to steal,    expected by chance). Thus it is a
  even though the stolen items may be of        goodness of fit test. The test has greater
  no value to him/her.                          power than the chi squared one sample test.
kleptophobia A phobia of crime (either         Kolmogrov-Smirnov two sample test
  suffering it or of being accused of           non-parametric measure of whether two
  being a criminal).                            groups are derived from populations
Klinefelter’s syndrome Possession of            with the same cumulative frequency distri-
 two X chromosomes and one Y, result-           bution (and hence, it is assumed, the
 ing in incomplete sexual development           same population). Cumulative fre-
 and mental retardation.                        quency distributions of the two groups
                                                are compared to see if they have the
Kluver-Bucy syndrome A collection of
                                                same pattern. Sufficiently similar
 abnormal behaviours, including
                                                patterns indicate a non-significant differ-
                                                                         L SCALE / 153

  ence. Different formulae are employed        group B the middle ranks and group C
  for small and large samples, and also        the low ranks) is calculated. The K-W
  depending upon whether a one-tailed          test is thus the non-parametric equiva-
  test or a two-tailed test is desired.        lent of the one-way between groups
                                               analysis of variance.
KOLT Kendrick Object Learning Test.
                                             Kruskal-Wallis test Kruskal-Wallis
koro A mental illness peculiar to those
                                              one-way ANOVA by ranks.
  raised in a Chinese culture – the belief
  (particularly among males) that one’s      KSC Kohn Social Competence Scale.
  genitals will be absorbed into the body,
                                             KSD Kinetic School Drawing.
  leading to death.
                                             Kucera and Francis word list Teachers’
Korsakoff ’s amnestic syndrome
                                              Word Book of 30,000 Words.
 Korsakoff ’s syndrome.
                                             Kuder General Interest Survey (KGIS)
Korsakoff ’s psychosis Korsakoff ’s
                                              American test of general areas of
                                              interest (e.g. outdoor, scientific, etc.) for
Korsakoff ’s syndrome Profound                use in preliminary careers counselling
 anterograde amnesia, usually coupled         in children in grades 6–12.
 with confabulation. Results from
                                             Kuder Occupational Interest Survey
 long-term vitamin deficiency, and is
                                              (KOIS) American measure of careers
 most often encountered in alcoholic
                                              interests for use in careers counselling
 patients. The condition is often found
                                              for pupils and participants in grades 10
 in patients with Wernicke’s dementia
                                              to adult.
 (Wernicke–Korsakoff syndrome).
                                             Kuder-Richardson formula See reli-
KPC Kohn Problem Checklist.
Krathwohl’s chain of reasoning
                                             Kuhlman-Anderson Tests test battery of
 model Model of reasoning/research
                                              scholastic aptitude tests.
 design by Krathwohl. The model
 emphasizes that the design and execu-       kurtosis The ‘pointedness’ of the shape
 tion of research or other forms of            of a frequency distribution. Gives an indi-
 enquiry is essentially linear, and that       cation of how widely spread the results
 any stage in its execution is only as         are around the mean.
 sound as the stages which preceded it.      kymograph Any mechanical method of
Kreutzfeldt-Jakob Disease Creutzfeldt-         recording performance as a graph.
 Jakob Disease.
Kruskal-Shepard scaling test A multidi-
 mensional scaling technique for use on
 subjects’ ratings of similarities between
                                             L data Data from naturalistic research (defi-
Kruskal-Wallis one-way ANOVA by                nition 2).
 ranks (K-W test) non-parametric test for
 comparing three or more groups of           LAC Lindamood Auditory Conceptualization
 subjects on the same measure. Scores          Test.
 for all groups are pooled and ranked,       L scale (1) See Minnesota Multiphasic Per-
 and whether different groups tend to          sonality Inventory. (2) See Eysenck Person-
 possess different ranks (e.g. group A         ality Questionnaire (EPQ).
 has most of the high ranked scores,

L1 first language.                               lambda Measure of correlation between
                                                   dichotomous and/or nominal variables.
L2 second language.
                                                 Landolt C A measure of acuity – the par-
la belle indifference See conversion
                                                   ticipant is shown upper case ‘C’s in
                                                   which the ‘arms’ of the letter are very
labile variable.                                   close together (i.e. nearly forming an
laboratory study See ecological validity.          ‘O’). The participant must judge if
                                                   he/she can see a gap.
labyrinth Pertaining to the structure of
  the inner ear.                                 language centres Areas of the brain
                                                   responsible for language comprehen-
lack of emotional continuity See                   sion and production.
  Allport’s theory of personality development.
                                                 language delay In children, a delay in
lacunar amnesia episodic amnesia.                  acquiring language or in progressing to
lacunar deficits The phenomenon,                   an age-appropriate stage of linguistic
  sometimes          en count e re d   in          development.
  brain-damaged patients, whereby some           large n design A study with many par-
  intellectual functions are almost com-           ticipants (usually this means thou-
  pletely destroyed, whilst others remain          sands). There is also the implication
  relatively intact.                               that some of the more complex statisti-
lacunar dementia (LD) Some (although               cal tests will be used to analyse the data.
  not all) commentators argue that               LARR Test Linguistic Awareness in Reading
  patients suffering from multi-infarct           Readiness Test.
  dementia, and who exhibit lacunar
  deficits, should be reclassified as suffer-    latah Mental illness, principally found in
  ing from lacunar dementia.                       the Far East, characterized by echolalia
                                                   and complete subservience.
laddering In personal construct therapy, a
  technique of getting the patient to            late adult transition The period around
  provide basic constructs which are               retirement.
  explored to encourage the patient to           late life psychosis Any psychosis (any
  produce more general constructs, etc,            mental illness characterized by a severe
  until the superordinate constructs under-        loss of contact with reality in the
  l ying the other constructs are                  absence of dementia or delirium; princi-
  produced. In pyramiding, the opposite            pally the term describes schizophrenia)
  technique is used – the patient begins           which manifests itself in later life. The
  with a superordinate construct, and              condition can appear in tandem with
  then ‘works down’ until s/he has iden-           dementing symptoms, but need not do.
  tified the basic constructs s/he uses in
                                                 late onset schizophrenia (LOS) schizo-
  everyday life.
                                                   phrenia arising in middle age or later
lalling infantilism of speech.                     life. Whether the illness spontaneously
lalopathy Any disorder of speech.                  develops at this age is debatable. LOS
                                                   patients may have atypical behav-
lalophobia A phobia of speaking.                   iours/lifestyles prior to onset, typically
laloplegia Paralysis of the vocal chords.          protected either consciously or tacitly
                                                   by p a ren t s o r f r i e n d s. O f t e n ,
lalorrhea hyperphasia.                             death/incapacitation of a caregiver
                                                              LEARNING CURVE / 155

  precipitates more pronounced schizo-          ments. A y x y matrix is drawn (where y
  phrenic symptoms.                             is the number of treatments) and where
                                                each treatment appears once in each
late paraphrenia Mental disorder of
                                                column. For example, in the case of
  later life, characterized by symptoms of
                                                three treatments, the Latin square
  feelings of persecution and elaborate
                                                might look like:
  fantasies of the same. Commoner in
  women. Can have a variety of causes,          1st   2nd 3rd
  including cardiovascular problems and
                                                 A     B     C
  previous episodes of mental illness.
                                                 C     A     B
latency period See Freud’s psychoanalytic
  theory.                                        B     C     A
latent See manifest.                            Some experimenters elect to give the
                                                first participant the treatments in the
latent schizophrenia schizotypal person-        order specified in row 1, subject 2 row
  ality disorder.                               2, subject 3 row 3, subject 4 row 1,
latent trait modelling item response            subject 5, row 2, etc. Others would
  theory.                                       devise a new set of permutations for the
                                                each block of three subjects. In a
latent variable See structural equation         balanced Latin square, each treatment
  modelling.                                    equally often precedes and follows the
latent variable structural modelling            other treatments.
  structural equation modelling.              law of averages The belief that unusu-
lateral Anatomical term. Further away           ally extreme measures will tend to
  from the midline than another section of      cancel each other out in an analysis,
  the body under consideration. Compare         because unusually large measures will
  with medial.                                  be compensated for by unusually small
lateral fissure A fissure which marks the
  boundary between the frontal lobe and       law of filial regression filial regression.
  the temporal lobe.                          law of large numbers (1) See signifi-
lateral hypothalamic syndrome                   cance. (2) The larger the sample, the
  Combined adipsia and aphagia, caused          more likely it is to be an accurate repre-
  by damage to the lateral area of the          sentation of the population from which
  hypothalamus.                                 it is derived.
laterality The degree to which one side       LAWSEQ Questionnaire measuring
  of the body/brain is favoured over the       self-esteem.
  other in performing a task.                 LCU life change unit.
lateralization (-isation) In neuropsycho-     LD (1) learning disabilities. (2) lacunar
  logy, the term is used to describe the       dementia.
  extent to which the left and right hemi-
  spheres share control of certain skills.    learned helplessness Theory that some
  Typically, the left controls most verbal      mental illnesses (e.g. anxiety disorders,
  skills, and the right, most visuo-spatial     depression) result from the patient’s erro-
  skills.                                       neous belief that s/he cannot control
                                                his/her own fate.
Latin square design A method of coun-
  terbalancing the presentation of treat-     learning curve The rate at which infor-
                                                mation about a topic is learnt. Typically

  (although not universally), this is a case      sented for treatment by a doctor can be
  of diminishing returns – a lot is learnt        easily determined, it is notoriously dif-
  early in the study period, but progres-         ficult to determine when the first
  sively less new information is acquired         symptoms of the illness began, since
  the longer the person studies.                  they may have been too subtle to be
                                                  noticed. Right censoring refers to lack
learning disabilities (LD) specific
                                                  of information about a feature of
  learning difficulties.
                                                  interest after the study has ended. E.g. a
Learning Potential Assessment                     study of recurrence of symptoms of
 Device (LPAD) Intelligence test in               mental illness over the period of a study
 which the child performs a culture-fair          is uninformative about what happened
 test, followed by training on problem-           in the years following the study’s end.
 -solving methods relevant to the test,           Interval censoring refers to a lack of
 followed by retesting.                           information before and after a period of
Learning Process Questionnaire                    observation (i.e. both left and right cen-
  (LPQ) Questionnaire measuring study             soring). See censored observations.
  skills and motivation in secondary            left dominant thinking left brain skills.
  school pupils. See Study Process Question-
                                                legasthenia A profound inability to join
                                                  letters into words (reading and
learning theory General term for any              writing).
  theory which argues that people are
                                                leisure counselling Advising people on
  best taught by conditioning or which
                                                  how to spend their free time.
  assesses learning in terms of condition-
  ing. See behaviourism.                        Leiter International Performance
                                                  Scale Non-verbal intelligence measure
least significant difference test Fisher’s
                                                  for children.
  PLSD test.
                                                leniency error leniency set.
least squares regression A common
  method of calculating regression. The         leniency set See evaluative set.
  regression line is constructed so that the
                                                leptokurtic distribution frequency distri-
  squares of the distances between the
                                                  bution with a very peaked shape. See
  points of the graph and the line are
                                                  mesokurtic distribution, and platykurtic
left (anatomy) The ‘left’ refers to what
                                                lesion Damage to a defined area of the
  the patient would describe as the left
                                                  body (as opposed to widespread
  hand side of their body.
                                                  general decay).
left brain skills Loose term for skills
                                                letter strings Groups of letters which
  associated with the left hemisphere –
                                                  may or may not form real words.
  chiefly linguistic and logical skills. This
  contrasts with right brain skills, which      leucotomy lobotomy.
  are said to be concerned with artistic        leukotomy leucotomy.
  and creative matters.
                                                level of measurement The level of
left censoring Lack of information                information contained in the measure-
  about a feature of interest to an experi-       ment scale (i.e. whether interval scale,
  menter that occurred before the study           nominal scale, ordinal scale, or ratio scale).
  began. E.g. in cases of dementia,
  although the date a patient first pre-        level of significance significance level.
                                                         LIKELIHOOD RATIO (LR) / 157

level (of spinal cord) See spinal cord.           subjects do not have to judge what a
                                                  discovered real word ‘says’.
levelling cognitive style in which there is a
  tendency to assimilate new information        lexical dysgraphia surface dysgraphia.
  into existing patterns of knowledge.
                                                Leyton Obsessional Inventory
  This contrasts with sharpening, in
                                                 Measure of obsessional behaviour and
  which there is a tendency to see new
                                                 obsessive-compulsive disorder.
  information as being distinct from the
  old.                                          libido In Freudian theory, the energy
                                                   fuelling sexual drive. See Eros.
levels (of variable) The number of
  values the variable has in a particular       lie scale A set of questions interspersed
  experiment (e.g. if the variable is a drug,      within some forms of personality test,
  it might have three levels, correspond-          which measure the degree to which a
  ing to three intensities of dosages, such        subject is lying, or is ‘guilty’ of social
  as one, three, or 10 mgs). Typically, the        desirability responding. Questions on a lie
  experimenter chooses how many levels             scale typically ask the subject if s/he is
  a variable can have.                             impossibly virtuous (e.g. ‘have you
                                                   never told a lie?’). The lie scale score
leverage statistic (h) A measure of in
                                                   can be used to reject extreme subjects,
  effect the distorting effect of individual
                                                   or to weight their scores appropriately.
  cases in a regression equation. Generally,
                                                   In some tests, the lie scale score can in
  a case with a leverage > 0.5 is removed
                                                   itself form part of the personality
  from the calculation.
levophobia A phobia of anything on
                                                life change unit (LCU) A measure of the
  one’s left hand side.
                                                   extent to which life events affect a
Lewis Counselling Inventory Test                   person’s lifestyle.
  assessing the kind of therapy/counsel-
                                                life event Any event which is likely to
  ling the (adolescent) participant
                                                   have long-term influences on a person’s
                                                   behaviour and lifestyle (e.g. getting
Lewy body A form of damage found in                married, death of a parent, etc.). The
  the brain cells of some demented patients        term is often used purely to refer to
  (particularly those suffering from Par-          negative influences.
  kinson’s disease). Under a microscope, the
                                                life review Process of reviewing one’s
  Lewy body is a round body comprised
                                                   past. Usually the term refers to planned
  of a dense packet surrounded by looser
                                                   part of a therapeutic process.
                                                life space Concept invented by Kurt
lewy body disease A proposed (but not
                                                   Lewin (1890-1947), that a person’s
  as yet universally accepted) category of
                                                   behaviour is determined by a combina-
  dementia attributable to the presence of
                                                   tion of environmental and internal
  Lewy bodies.
                                                   factors which are immediately ‘at hand’
lexical decision task A very heavily               and noticed by the person, and are
  used cognitive psychological experi-             known collectively as the life space.
  mental method. Subjects are shown
                                                likelihood ratio (LR) (1) The ratio of
  letter strings and asked to judge as
                                                   the probability of something occurring
  quickly as possible whether or not the
                                                   under one condition against the proba-
  strings form real words. Note that the
                                                   bility of the same thing occurring
                                                   under another condition. (2) Hence, by

  extension from (1), in signal detection        linear regression regression calculation
  analysis, the ratio of hits to false alarms.      which produces a straight regression line.
  (3) Hence, also by extension from (1), a          See non-linear regression.
  concept used in statistics when
                                                 linear relationship A relationship
  deciding whether a sample is derived
                                                   between two or more variables, in
  from a particular population.
                                                   which, if the scores on one variable are
likelihood ratio chi square Alternative            plotted on a graph against the scores on
   method of calculating the chi squared           the other variable(s), a straight line is
   test.                                           found (or at least, a straight line will fit
                                                   the data best). In a non-linear relation-
Likert scale attitude scale in which
                                                   ship, the line is anything other than
  subjects respond on a five point scale
                                                   straight (e.g. a curve). A special version
  (strongly agree, agree, neutral, disagree,
                                                   of this is the step function. Here, a
  strongly disagree). See Thurstone scale.
                                                   variable does not change gradually, but
limbic lobe Section of brain at the                in ‘jumps’ with little or no change
  junction of the hemispheres and the brain        between them (e.g. when y = any value
  stem. Involved in sexual behaviour,              between 0 and 10, x=l; y=11–20,
  emotion and memory.                              x=2; y=21–30, x=3, etc.). The rela-
limited response question Question                 tionship, if shown on a graph, looks
  where the participant provides his/her           like a side view of some steps.
  own answer, within limitations                 linear systematic sampling Selecting
  provided by the experimenter. See free            every nth member of a larger sample to
  response question.                                act as an experimental subject.
Lindamood Auditory Conceptualiza-                linear transformation Mathematically
  tion Test (LAC) Measure of ability of             adjusting data so that, when the
  chi l d ren an d a d o l e s c e n t s t o        original and the transformed data are
  conceptualize word sounds in a visual             plotted against each other as a graph,
  format. The measure assessed the devel-           they take the form of a straight line.
  opment of linguistic skills.                      The transformation also retains the
line graph A graph in which the X axis              features of the original distribution,
   represents an independent variable and           barring a change in the values of the
   the Y axis the dependent variable. The           mean and the standard deviation. By
   data plotted by a line drawn between             extension, a non-linear transformation
   the points. The line graph should not            alters the data so that an old-trans-
   be confused with the frequency polygon           formed data plot forms a curved line.
   (which is a measure of frequency occur-       linguistic awareness The conscious
   rence of a single variable).                    awareness of one’s linguistic skills, and
linear combination Creating a new                  of how language is structured.
  variable by adding together several            Linguistic Awareness in Reading
  other variables. The variables being             Readiness Test (LARR Test) Test of
  added up can be weighted.                        linguistic awareness, for beginning
linear correlation correlation whose               readers (i.e. tests ability to recognize
  graphical expression is a straight line          what reading looks like, what it is used
  (this is the ‘conventional’ correlation).        for, and awareness of the structure of
  In contrast, a non-linear correlation            language). Held by the test’s authors
  assumes a shape other than a straight            to be a crucial determinant of whether
                                                        LONDON READING TEST / 159

  the participant is ready to be taught to      lobotomy Severance of (some or all)
  read.                                           neural connections to a lobe. Often used
                                                  as shorthand for frontal lobotomy.
linguistic bias test bias in which some
   participants are unfairly discriminated      localization (-isation) See neuro-
   against because of linguistic problems         psychology.
   rather than through substance of the
                                                Locke-Wallace Marital Adjustment
   test itself (e.g. participants from immi-
                                                  Scale Measure of the state of the rela-
   grant groups, culturally deprived back-
                                                  tionship between a married or cohabit-
   grounds, etc., may fail test questions
                                                  ing couple.
   not because of the problem itself, but
   because they cannot understand the           locomotor ataxia tabes dorsalis.
   instructions).                               locomotor map following task
Liquid Ecstasy GHB.                               Weinstein maps.
LISREL Form of structural equation model-       locus of control The degree to which a
  ling. The name is a rather contrived            participant feels in control of his/her
  acronym of ‘Analysis Of Linear Struc-           own life.
  tural Relationships’.                         locus of evaluation The point(s) of ref-
lithium carbonate Drug used in the                erence an individual uses in making a
   treatment of bipolar disorders.                judgement.
Little Albert John Watson (1878–                log-linear analysis Method of compar-
  1958), psychologist, applied classical          ing three or more categorical variables. In
  conditioning techniques to a child –            essence, it is the multivariate version of
  ‘Little Albert’ – who was conditioned           the chi squared test.
  into fearing a white rat by a loud fright-    log(arithm) transformation See nor-
  ening noise being sounded every time            malization.
  he was shown the rat. Albert subse-
  quently feared not only the rat but           logistic regression regression calculation
  many other white furry things. Albert           where the predicted variable is a dichoto-
  was an orphan, and was adopted and              mous variable.
  moved away before deconditioning could        logoclonia Persistent repetition of a
  take place. Not one of behaviour therapy’s      syllable or other word segment.
  greater achievements.
                                                logorrhea hyperphasia.
Little Jiffy see factor analysis.
                                                logotherapy form of existential therapy
living will Signed and witnessed decla-           devised by Viktor Frankl. A central
   ration by a person that in the event of        feature of the method is the use of para-
   their becoming severely mentally               doxical intention. Like other existential
   and/or physically incapacitated, no            therapies, it encourages the patient to
   effort will be made to prolong survival        come to terms with the demands and
   artificially.                                  choices placed on him/her by their
lobe A segment of the cortex. The four            existence.
  lobes are the frontal lobe, occipital lobe,   London Reading Test Reading test for
  parietal lobe and temporal lobe.                participants aged 10–12 years. Consists
lobectomy Removal of a lobe (note that            of cloze procedure and comprehension
  the term may refer to removal of a              tests.
  section of lung, also called a lobe).

l o n g - t e rm p s yc h o t h e rap y See          thoracic level. Has five segments, labelled
   short-term psychotherapy.                         LI to L5 (LI being the highest).
long-term span See span.                           Luria-Nebraska test battery Battery of
                                                     neuropsychological tests, assessing 11
longitudinal fissure The fissure running
                                                     major aspects of functioning (e.g. lin-
  between the left and right hemispheres.
                                                     guistic skills, motor skills, etc.). Discov-
longitudinal research/samples/                       eries of dysfunction can help identify
  study The experimental method of                   which part of the patient’s brain is
  testing the same group of people at dif-           damaged.
  ferent ages. Contrast with cross-sectional
                                                   Luscher colour test Personality test
  research/samples/study. See overlapping
                                                     based upon the person’s order of pref-
  longitudinal study, sequential research design
                                                     erence for a group of colours.
  and time-lag comparison.
                                                   lying (L) scale lie scale.
loose association In communicating,
  veering off the point and starting
  another topic, either tangentially asso-
  ciated with the previous one, or recall-
  ing a completely different earlier topic.
  The phenomenon can be indicative of a
  thought disorder.                                M-MAC McDermott Multidimensional
                                                    Assessment of Children.
LOS late onset schizophrenia.
                                                   MA mental age.
loudness recruitment A physical com-
  plaint in which sounds in a particular           Ma scale See Minnesota Multiphasic Per-
  frequency band (usually high) are                 sonality Inventory.
  (mis)interpreted as being louder than            machiavellianism The degree to which
  usual, sometimes to the point of being            an individual feels that the end justifies
  painful.                                          the means (regardless of the moral
low frequency words Words which                     worth of the latter). Named after
  occur very rarely in common usage.                Niccolo di Bernardo dei Machiavelli
                                                    (1469–1527), statesman and author,
low functioning See high functioning.               who advocated an often extreme
lower apparent limit See class intervals.           version of such an approach, and set the
                                                    tone for the British stereotype of conti-
lower real limit (LRL) See class intervals.
                                                    nental politics.
loxapine Form of antipsychotic drug.
                                                   machismo The stereotypical masculine
LPAD Learning Potential Assessment Device.          attributes of being tough, resourceful,
LPQ Learning Process Questionnaire.                 etc. With changing attitudes to gender
                                                    roles, the term has become somewhat
LR likelihood ratio.                                derogatory, denoting the stereotypical
LRL lower real limit.                               accompaniments of lack of sensitivity,
                                                    pig-headedness, etc.
LSD d-lysergic acid diethylamide.
                                                   macho The adjective derived from
LSD test Fisher’s PLSD test.                        machismo.
lumbar level (spinal cord) level of the            MACI Millon Adolescent Clinical Inventory.
  spinal cord, below the cervical level and
                                                         MALADAPTIVE SCHEMA / 161

macro (research) Pertaining to the              maieusiphobia A phobia of childbirth.
 whole or the combined effects of
                                                main effects (ANOVA) See analysis of
 several smaller systems. Hence, the
 study of a whole system. By contrast,
 micro refers to the study of parts of the      mainstreaming (1) American term for
 system in greater detail.                       placement of children with physical
                                                 handicaps and/or mental retardation in
macropsia A disorder of visual percep-
                                                 normal schools. (2) Generally, the
 tion, in which items are seen as too
                                                 placing of patients from institutions or
                                                 with appreciable psychological or
mad cow disease bovine spongiform                physical problems in the community.
                                                maintainance variables Behaviours
magical thinking Mistaken belief that            and aspects of the person’s environ-
 one’s thoughts alone can have a                 ment which help maintain him/her in a
 physical effect.                                particular state.
magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) A              maintaining cause An item, event,
 method of scanning an organ (e.g. the           person, etc., which causes one to
 brain) to produce three-dimensional             maintain a particular form of behav-
 images. It involves placing the body in         iour.
 a strong magnetic field, then switching
                                                major affective disorder A nebulous
 the field off. This causes the cells to
                                                 term describing any disorder of affect
 release radio waves which can be read
                                                 which is severely incapacitating.
 and interpreted by the MRI scanner.
                                                major depression unipolar disorder.
magnification In therapeutic situations,
 the patient’s maladaptive exaggeration         major depressive episode Period of
 of what they perceive to be the signifi-        depression which lasts for an appreciable,
 cance of events (e.g. claiming that             uninterrupted period.
 non-threatening events are dangerous           major tranquillizer Drug which
 or that dangerous events are harmless           removes or reduces the severity of
 or even beneficial).                            many symptoms in psychotic and partic-
magnitude estimation A form of direct            ularly schizophrenic patients. It effec-
 scaling. A stimulus is given an arbitrary       tively calms the patient, without
 value (typically, 100), and the partici-        inducing feelings of drowsiness. There
 pant is asked to grade other stimuli            a re o f t en un p l easan t p hy si c al
 relative to this value (e.g. if the partici-    side-effects, however (e.g. see lardive
 pant perceives a light to be half as            dyskinesia).
 bright as the reference stimulus, then         Make A Picture Story Test (MAPS
 s/he grades it as ‘50’). See method of          test) projective personality test, in which
 halving.                                        the participant creates a story from a set
Mahalanobis D Mahalanobis distance.              of pictures.
Mahalanobis distance A measure of the           maladaptive schema A maladaptive
 degree to which an individual value in a        pattern of thought habitually (and erro-
 regression calculation is aberrant and          neously) applied in a situation so that
 should thus be excluded from the cal-           the patient gains an inaccurate and
 culation because, in effect, it is distort-     damaging self-perception. E.g. a
 ing results.                                    person may seek proof that another

  person s/he meets finds him or her            Mann-Whitney U test non-parametric
  boring. An early maladaptive schema is         test of two unmatched groups’ differ-
  one which has been present since child-        ences on the same dependent variable
  hood.                                          (which must be on an ordinal scale). The
                                                 test can be regarded as the non-para-
mandrax Type of barbiturate.
                                                 metric equivalent of the unpaired t test.
mania affective disorder in which the
                                                MANOVA multivariate analysis of variance.
 patient experiences an extremely elated
 mood, usually coupled with extreme             MAOI monoamine oxidase inhibitor.
 levels of activity and energy. The
                                                MAP test Miller Assessment for Preschoolers.
 patient often has unrealistically opti-
 mistic thoughts and grandiose                  MAPI Millon Adolescent Personality Inven-
 schemes. The condition can be found in          tory.
 isolation, but is more often encoun-           MAPS test Make A Picture Story Test.
 tered as a symptom of bipolar disorder.
 The same symptoms, in a relatively             marathon therapy Intensive therapeutic
 mild form, are classified as hypomania.         session (usually group therapy) lasting
                                                 for 24 hours or more (usually, therapeu-
manic-depression bipolar disorder.               tic sessions last 1-2 hours).
manic-depressive psychosis bipolar              marche a petit pas ‘Walking with little
 disorder.                                       steps’ – a rapid shuffling movement,
Manic State Scale (MSS) observer scale of        sometimes encountered in patients
 level of manic behaviour in patients.           with damage to the motor area.
manifest That which is presented, as            Marfan syndrome Genetic disorder
 opposed to latent (that which is                characterized by atypical tallness and
 hidden). The terms are used in many             thin, ‘spidery’ build. In some instances,
 therapies to denote what the patient            hyperactivity is reported.
 says, as opposed to the underlying             marginal mean Where there are two
 motives for saying it, which are held to        factors in an analysis, the mean of one
 be consciously or unconsciously sup-            factor averaged across all levels of the
 pressed.                                        other factor.
Manifest Anxiety Scale (MAS) Measure            marginal significance borderline signifi-
 of anxiety, formed from test items from         cance.
 the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality
 Inventory.                                     Marianne Frostig Developmental
                                                 Test of Visual Perception Test of per-
manifest variable See structural equation        ceptual skills presumed to underlie
 modelling.                                      reading (e.g. hand-eye coordination,
manifestation A way in which a particu-          geometric figure identification, etc.).
 lar psychological characteristic can            Designed for participants aged 3–10
 m a ke i t s e l f ap p a ren t t h ro u g h    years. Can be used as part of reading
 behaviour.                                      readiness measures or as a diagnostic
                                                 tool in assessing poor readers.
manikin test Any test in which the par-
 ticipant must fit together the pieces of a     marijuana See cannabis.
 model of a human body.                         Marital Interaction Coding System
manipulated variable independent                 Measure (by therapist or other
 variable.                                       observer) of the quality of interaction
                                                              MASS HYSTERIA / 163

  between married or cohabiting couples        about sexist stereotyping. See androgy-
  as they discuss a problem set for them.      nous personality.
Marital Satisfaction Inventory (MSI)         masculinity-femininity scale See mas-
 A measure of marital satisfaction, and       culinity.
 causes of dissatisfaction. The scale can
                                             MASI Multilevel Academic Skills Inventory.
 be used to identify potential problems
 for either spouse separately.               masked epilepsy See epilepsy.
marital therapy Any therapeutic              Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI) A
 method in which partners (usually            measure of the degree of actual or
 married, or otherwise long-term              potential burnout experienced by indi-
 cohabiters) are aided in resolving           viduals.
 problems in their relationship.             Maslow’s hierarchy of needs Theory
Markov chain A representation of a            by Maslow that humans have a hierar-
 sequence of events in which there are        chy of needs, which can be symboli-
 alternative pathways at each stage of        cally represented as a pyramid. At the
 the sequence, and the probability of         ‘base’ are physiological needs for food,
 taking each pathway is calculated. The       shelter, etc. Above these are safety
 key feature is that the probability of a     needs, followed by social needs (e.g. to
 particular choice being taken is held to     form friendships, to fit into the social
 be dependent only upon the preceding         world, etc.). Above these are self-esteem,
 event – how that event was reached will      and at the top of the pyramid lies
 not influence the subsequent choice.         self-actualization (i.e. searching for and
 E.g., in a chain of 99 events, the choice    achieving ‘higher’ goals and fulfilling
 of event number 99 is only dependent         one’s potential). Maslow argues that
 upon what choice number 98 was –             these stages are acquired through
 choices 0–97 have no influence.              development, and the complete struc-
                                              ture will take 30 years or more to
marriage guidance marital therapy.
                                              complete. Therapies based on the
MAS Manifest Anxiety Scale.                   theory attempt to lead participants
                                              through the various stages, and to put
masculine identity The degree to which
                                              them back ‘on course’ if they have
 an individual identifies with masculinity
                                              strayed. Commonly this occurs when a
                                              participant attempts to follow other
masculinity Nebulous term for a collec-       people’s self-actualization plans rather
 tion of traits epitomizing aggression,       than his/her own. See humanistic psy-
 forthrightness, etc., and everything         chology.
 which belongs to the stereotypical
                                             masochism paraphilia in which the
 man. More generally, a collection of
                                              patient’s principal source of sexual
 assertive and competitive attributes.
                                              gratification is in being physically hurt
 This is contrasted with femininity, a
                                              or otherwise punished. See sadism.
 collection of more passive, nurturing
 (traditional ‘motherly’) qualities. Often   mass behaviour mass contagion.
 the traits are presented together as a
                                             mass contagion The spread of an idea,
 bipolar dimension (i.e. masculinity-femi-
                                              behaviour, etc., through a group or
 ninity scale) as if they are opposites.
 Although the descriptions might be
 descriptive rather than prescriptive, the   mass hysteria Form of mass contagion, in
 issue can very easily slide into a debate    which an irrational belief or behaviour

  grips a group or community (e.g.              caregiver goes to work) or occasional
  tarantism).                                   (e.g. hospital visits). If adequate substi-
                                                tute care is given, it is not usually
massed practice Training session in
                                                serious. The latter is where the
 which repetitions of the same act are
                                                mother/caregiver is present all the
 placed closely together. This contrasts
                                                time, but inadequately looks after the
 with distributed practice, in which the
 repetitions are relatively further apart.
                                              mathematics anxiety (Irrational) anxiety
MAST Multilevel Academic Survey Tests.
                                               created by fear of studying or working
MAT Motivation Analysis Test.                  on mathematical or arithmetical topics.
matched subjects See matching.                matrilineal Inherited through females.
matching Experimental procedure by            Matrix Analogies Test A measure of
 which participants in one group are           non-verbal intelligence for 5–17-
 chosen so that they share the same            year-olds.
 characteristic(s) as participants in other
                                              maturation Physical ageing changes,
 groups (e.g. they have all had the same
                                               coupled with acquisition of knowl-
 level of education). Such participants
                                               edge, experiences, etc.
 are called matched subjects. In this
 manner, any differences found between        maturational crisis Severe negative sen-
 the groups cannot be attributed to the        sations produced by ‘moving’ from one
 matching factors (e.g. the superiority of     developmental stage to another (e.g.
 group A over group B on a maths test          mid-life crisis).
 cannot be due to superior education
                                              Mauchly’s test of sphericity A
 levels if the two groups are matched for
                                               commonly-used sphericity test. If the test
 educational levels). A further refine-
                                               results are not significant then the data
 ment of this is the paired samples
                                               are acceptable as they stand.
                                              Maudsley Obsessional-Compulsive
Matching Familiar Figures Test (MFF
                                               Inventory Measure of the level of
 Test) Assesses children’s visual skills
                                               obsessive-compulsive behaviour exhibited
 and the degree of their impulsiveness in
                                               by a patient.
 making responses. The child has to find
 the drawing identical to the target from     Maudsley Personality Questionnaire
 a range of very similar alternatives. The     Older version of the Eysenck Personality
 accuracy and speed of response are            Questionnaire.
 both recorded.                               maximum likelihood analysis See
matching questions Questions in which          factor analysis.
 the participant is required to identify      MBD minimal brain dysfunction.
 which items in one list match up with
 items in other lists.                        MBI Maslach Burnout Inventory.
maternal deprivation Lack of adequate         MBMD Millon Behavioral Medicine Diag-
 care by the mother or other caregiver.        nostic.
 Can be considered in terms of ‘separa-       MBTI Myers-Briggs Type Indicator.
 tion’ and ‘deprivation of maternal care’.
 The former is any separation of              McCall-Crabbs Standard Test Lessons
 mother/caregiver and child whether            in Reading Standard Test Lessons in
 on a regular basis (e.g. the mother/          Reading.
                                                                 MECHANOPHOBIA / 165

McCarthy Scales of Children’s Abili-                who said they would vote for party X
 ties (MSCA) test battery of motor and              before the debate, now say they will
 intellectual development in children               vote for party Y. Similarly, a proportion
 aged 3 years 6 months – 8 years 6                  of erstwhile party Y supporters now
 months. Comprises 18 subtests,                     back party X. Is this change signifi-
 yielding five scales of verbal, percep-            cant? The Cochran Q test is essentially
 tual-performance, quantitative,                    the McNemar test applied to three or
 memory, and motor skills.                          more groups.
McCarthy Screening Test Measures of               MCT Minnesota Clerical Test.
 potential learning difficulties, drawn
                                                  MDI (1) MultiscoreDepression Inventory. (2)
 from McCarthy Scales of Children’s Abili-
                                                   Mental Development Index.
                                                  MDMA Acronym of the chemical combi-
M c D e rm o t t M u l t i d i m e n s i o n al
                                                   n at i o n o f Ecstasy. S t a n d s f o r
 Assessment of Children (M-MAC)
 Computerized assessment programme.
 Comprises: Classification (interpreta-           Mdn median.
 tion of intellectual and academic abili-         MDQ Menstrual Distress Questionnaire.
 ties, and social skills and milieu); and
 Programme Design (creation of appro-             MDS multi-dimensional scaling.
 priate remedial regimes/goal setting).           mean Arithmetical average – a measure
McGill Pain Questionnaire (MPQ)                    of central tendency. See geometric mean and
 Measure of perception of pain resulting           harmonic mean.
 from illness – its location, nature,             mean deviation average deviation.
 severity, etc.
                                                  mean square (1) See ANOVA table. (2)
McGill Picture Anomalies Test A                    variance.
 measure of ability to attend carefully to
 a visual stimulus/basic visual percep-           measurement error Errors in measure-
 tion. The participant is shown a picture          ment created by chance variability.
 in which a detail is wrong. The partici-         measures of central tendency summary
 pant’s task is to identify the anomaly.           statistics which divide the data into two
MCI mild cognitive impairment.                     halves (i.e. half of the data fall below
                                                   the figure produced, half above). This is
MCMI Millon Clinical Multiaxial Inven-             an exact division in the case of the
 tory.                                             median, but can be more approximate
McNaghten rule Nineteenth century                  for the mean and mode.
 UK legal ruling that a person was                measures of dispersion summary statis-
 insane at the time of the illegal act, if         tics which measure how spread out the
 they did not know what they were                  distribution of the variable in question
 doing, or they did not know that it was           is. Measures include range and variance.
                                                  Mechanical Ability Test aptitude test
McNemar test non-parametric measure of             used in personnel screening for mechani-
 the extent to which two groups change             cal/engineering jobs.
 category membership after treatment.
 The test might be applied to a problem           mechanophobia A phobia of anything
 such as the following. After attending a          mechanical.
 political debate, a proportion of those

medial Anatomical term. Closer to the         megavitamin therapy orthomolecular
 midline than another section of the           psychiatry.
 body under consideration. Compare
                                              melodic intonation therapy Many
 with lateral.
                                               patients suffering from aphasia retain
median A measure of central tendency – half    the ability to sing. It is therefore
 the values in the distribution are greater    possible to train them to ‘sing’ (intone)
 than the median, half are less.               words, and hence allow a modicum of
                                               communicative skill.
median test non-parametric measure of
 whether two groups are derived from a        memoing The process of working
 population with the same median. If the       through the possible structures a theo-
 test demonstrates that they are, then it      retical model might assume.
 is assumed that the samples are from the
                                              memory span span.
 same population, and hence, there is no
 significant difference, between them.        meningitis Inflammation of the meninges
 The extension of the median test is a         (the tissue surrounding the brain and
 similar measure for comparing three or        spinal cord). The illness can cause per-
 more groups.                                  manent brain damage.
mediating variable intervening variable.      Menstrual Distress Questionnaire
                                               (MDQ) Self-report questionnaire of
Medicaid American health care scheme
                                               negative symptoms attributable to the
 for the poor.
                                               menstrual cycle.
medical model of mental illness disease
                                              mental age (MA) The level of mental
 model of mental illness.
                                               skills which is average for a particular
medical psychology The study of any            age group. The measure is only reveal-
 psychological aspect of medicine,             ing when other age measures are taken
 although the term is usually restricted       into consideration (e.g. a 12–year-old
 to the study of psychological changes         with a mental age of 12 is average,
 produced by illness, and the doctor –         whereas one with a mental age of 16 is
 patient relationship.                         advanced). See dyslexia and intelligence
Medicare American health care scheme
 for older people.                            mental ataxia An incongruity between
                                               expressed emotions and genuine
meditation A prolonged and deliberate
                                               internal state.
 period of relaxation, aided and abetted
 by concentration on a specific thought       mental deficiency mental retardation.
 or mind exercise (i.e. not simply day
                                              Mental Development Index (MDI)
 dreaming). The technique is an integral
                                               Measure of mental development derived
 part of some types of religious worship
                                               from the Bayley Scales of Infant Develop-
 (and is central to transcendental medita-
                                               ment. Mental age can be extrapolated
 tion) and is also used in several forms of
                                               from it, if so desired.
 therapy. Relaxation therapy produces
 similar results, but requires the partici-   Mental Measurement Yearbook
 pant to concentrate on the responses of       (MMY) Publication listing details of
 the body, rather than those of the mind.      the principal psychological tests cur-
                                               rently available.
medulla oblongata Area of brain stem –
 the junction of the brain and the spinal     mental retardation Intelligence level
 cord.                                         well below normal, which is congenital,
                                                         METHOD OF HALVING / 167

  or becomes apparent in childhood/              is most often used synonymously with
  adolescence. Definitions vary, but most        mental retardation.
  refer to IQs of 80 or less at maximum.
                                               Merrill Palmer Test Intelligence test
  The DSM classifies it as occurring
                                                battery for pre-school children.
  when IQ is less than 70 (i.e. more than
  two standard deviations below average        mescaline A psychedelic drug.
  on most IQ tests). According to the          mesmerism/Mesmerism Old-fash-
  AAMD classification, there are several        ioned term for hypnosis. The term
  grades of retardation – profound mental       derives from one of its early practitio-
  retardation (IQ 25 or less), severe           ners – the eighteenth century physi-
  mental retardation (25–39), moderate          cian, Anton Mesmer. Mesmer used the
  mental retardation (40–54), and mild          technique as part of a general therapy
  mental retardation (55–69). The DSM           deriving from the belief that mental
  has the same terms, and similar IQ            illness was due to an imbalance in the
  values (less than 20, 20–34, 35–49,           body’s magnetic field (hence the term
  and 50–70 respectively). An earlier           ‘animal magnetism’).
  (and now offensive) terminology classi-
  fied retarded people into idiots (less       mesokurtic distribution A frequency dis-
  than 30), imbeciles (30–50), and              tribution with moderate shape, between
  morons (American) or feeble-minded            the extremes of the leptokurtic distribu-
  (UK) persons (50–70).                         tion and the platykurtic distribution.
                                                Accordingly, sometimes used to
mental rotation task Any task in which          describe the shape of the normal
 the participant must judge whether a           distribution.
 figure shown in an unusual orientation
 represents a particular target (e.g.          mesomorph See Sheldon’s personality types.
 whether an ‘A’ printed upside down is         meta-analysis (1) Method of assessing a
 really an ‘A’). To do this, the participant    trend in a corpus of studies. The mean
 must mentally rotate the image.                effect size of the studies in question is
Mental Status Examination (MSE) A               calculated. (2) More generally, any
 test battery assessing the patient’s           overview of a body of research.
 general mental and physical state upon        metamorphosia A disorder of visual
 first presentation.                            perception, in which items are seen as
Mental Status Questionnaire (MSQ) A             undulating in shape.
 simple assessment of a (usually               metathesis The transposition of
 demented) patient’s intellectual status        phonemes or syllables within a word.
 and degree of functional independ-
 ence. See Blessed Dementia Scale.             methadone A heroin substitute.
mentally gifted Nebulous definition,           methadyl acetate A heroin substitute.
 but typically refers to individuals with      methedrine Type of amphetamine.
 IQs of at least 125 (many commenta-
 tors would place a higher figure of 140       method of bisection See method of
 and over).                                     halving.

mentally handicapped Nebulous term             method of halving Experimental
 denoting appreciably lowered psycho-           method used in perception studies. The
 logical abilities in some or many fields,      participant is told to alter a stimulus so
 resulting from brain damage. The term          that it appears half as intense. This
                                                yields a measure of perception of

  magnitude. This contrasts with the             microcephaly Atypically small head and
  method of bisection, in which the partic-       brain. People with the condition can
  ipant must adjust the intensity so that it      have a wide range of symptoms,
  falls half-way between two other                ranging from relatively mild learning
  stimuli. See magnitude estimation.              difficulties to severe intellectual retar-
                                                  dation and impairment of movement.
method of limits Technique for discov-
 ering a participant’s perceptual thresh-        Microcog – Assessment of Cognitive
 old. A stimulus or difference is pre-            Functioning (ACF) Computerized
 sented at increasingly strong or weak            adult test battery assessing severity of
 intensities until the participant per-           cases of relatively mild cognitive
 ceives it/can no longer perceive it. A           impairment. Test include measures of
 variant of this is the staircase method, in      reactivity, memory, perception, atten-
 which the participant is presented with          tion, abstract reasoning and mental
 a weaker intensity if s/he can perceive          calculation.
 the stimulus or difference, and a
                                                 microphobia A phobia of small things.
 stronger one if s/he cannot. This is a
 faster method.                                  micropsia A disorder of visual percep-
                                                  tion, in which items are seen as too
method of minimal change method of
                                                 microsomatognosia The misperception
metonymy Using a word which is incor-
                                                  that all or part of one’s body is abnor-
 rect, but which is related to the word
                                                  mally small.
 which should have been used (e.g. ‘biro’
 instead of ‘pencil’).                           microtome A device for producing thin
                                                  slices from a tissue sample (e.g. a brain).
Metropolitan Diagnostic Tests Series
                                                  The slices are so thin that they are
 of tests of scholastic attainment. See
                                                  semi-transparent, enabling them to be
 Diagnostic Language Tests, Diagnostic
                                                  examined under a microscope.
 Mathematics and Diagnostic Reading Tests.
                                                 M.I.D. multi-infarct dementia.
Mf scale See Minnesota Multiphasic Person-
 ality Inventory.                                middle category responding Habitu-
                                                  ally choosing a moderate opinion
MFF Test Matching Familiar Figures Test.
                                                  (‘sitting on the fence’).
MHV Test Mill Hill Vocabulary Test.
                                                 mid-life crisis Loose term for a set of
Michigan Picture Test – Revised                   negative feelings in some middle-aged
 (MPT-R) projective personality test for          people, stemming from the realization
 participants aged 7–15 years.                    that they are at the peak of their careers
                                                  and affluence, and that ageing will
micro (research) See macro.
                                                  result (in their eyes) in a decline. See
microanalytic research (1) Research               involutional psychotic reaction.
 which concentrates on specific inci-
                                                 mid-life transitions Changes occurring
 dents, rather than generalizations of
                                                  in middle age (e.g. children leaving
 sets of occurrences. (2) In Bandura’s
                                                  home, preparing for retirement, etc.).
 theory of social learning, the term refers to
                                                  Negative changes can in some instances
 participants’ ratings of how well they
                                                  create a mid-life crisis. See empty nest
 think they can perform in specific situa-

midline Anatomical term. An imaginary        milieu therapy A deliberate alteration of
 vertical line which runs through the         the patient’s environment (e.g. sur-
 body, dividing it in half.                   roundings, lifestyle, etc.) for therapeu-
                                              tic reasons.
midpoint See class intervals.
                                             Mill Hill Vocabulary Test (MHV Test)
midrange The value which is halfway
                                              A measure of vocabulary, the test
 between the lowest and highest values
                                              requires participants to provide defini-
 for the variable in question.
                                              tions of words, whose obscurity
Mignon delusion A version of the foster       increases as the test progresses (there is
 child fantasy, in which the child is also    no time limit). Commonly used crystal-
 convinced that his/her ‘real’ parents        lized intelligence measure. Available in 2
 are wealthy, famous, etc.                    formats: Junior (for children over 6
migraine An extremely severe headache,        years and adults) and Senior (for
 which begins on one side of the head         children over 14 years and adults; espe-
 (and may remain solely on one side). It      cially individuals and groups likely to
 is accompanied by other complaints.          be of above-average ability).
 The commonest are: a severe lowering        Miller Analogies Test Intelligence test
 of cognitive and/or linguistic function-     using analogy test measures.
 ing, a sensation of flashing lights or
                                             Miller Assessment for Preschoolers
 other forms of visual disturbance, and
                                              (MAP) test battery for children aged 2–6
 nausea (see aura). Migraine attacks in
                                              years. Primarily intended to identify
 which there are disturbances of vision
 are sometimes called classical migraine,
 and attacks without these are termed        Miller Behavioral Style Scale Test of
 common migraine.                             personality, in which participants are
                                              measured on which of a range of
mild cognitive impairment (MCI)
                                              options they would adopt in stressful
 Currently rather nebulous term for
 intellectual impairment associated with
 ageing, less than that experienced in       Millon Adolescent Clinical Inventory
 dementia, though of greater severity         (MACI) Measure of psychological dys-
 than the relatively gentle intellectual      function in adolescents.
 loss normally found in old age (normal
                                             Millon Adolescent Personality
 cognitive ageing (NCA)). Some com-
                                              Inventory (MAPI) Measure of per-
 mentators include impairment which
                                              sonality and behaviour patterns in ado-
 others would classify as early stages of
                                             Millon Behavioral Medicine Diag-
mild learning difficulty (MLD)
                                              nostic (MBMD) Measure of psycho-
 Nebulous term for a condition whose
                                              logical factors impinging on a chroni-
 possessors usually have an IQ level
                                              cally ill patient’s treatment.
 commensurate with mild mental retarda-
 tion, who are unlikely to thrive by con-    Millon Clinical Multiaxial Inventory
 ventional academic standards, but who        (MCMI) Measure of personality disor-
 are at the same time not completely          ders.
 ineducable.                                 Millon Pre-Adolescent Clinical
mild mental retardation See mental            Inventory (MPACI) Measure of psy-
 retardation.                                 chological dysfunction in children
                                              aged 9–12 years.

Mind Prober Computerized personality               paranoia (Pa), psychasthenia (Pt), psycho-
 assessment programme.                             pathic deviate (Pd), schizophrenia (Sc),
                                                   and social introversion (Si). The test also
mind, theory of (autism) Theory that
                                                   has three further scales. The F scale
 the principal deficit of autistic patients is
                                                   checks against social desirability respond-
 a lack of a concept of mind. This in turn
                                                   ing. The K scale checks against subjects
 leads to a failure to perceive the inde-
                                                   responding sloppily and carelessly (i.e.
 pendence of other people’s minds and
                                                   not bothering to give an accurate
 thoughts. See autism.
                                                   picture of themselves). The L scale is a
mindblindness Failure to perceive that             lie scale. The test is primarily aimed at a
 others may think differently from                 clinical population, though it is appli-
 oneself. The term is often used to                cable to normal subjects. See California
 describe one of the principal cognitive           Personality Inventory and Fake Bad Scale
 dysfunctions in autism and Asperger’s             (FBS).
                                                 Minnesota Satisfaction Question-
Mini Mental State Examination                     naire (MSQ) A measure of job satisfac-
 (MMS) Quickly-administered test of               tion.
 intellectual abilities of older subjects
                                                 Minnesota Test for the Differential
 (particularly those suspected of being
                                                  Diagnosis of Aphasia (MTDDA)
 in the early stages of dementia).
                                                  Test of major aspects of aphasia
 Measures basic competence at everyday
                                                  (includes disorders of writing and
 skills, level of wakefulness, ability to
                                                  reading as well as speech and speech
 follow and remember simple instruc-
 tions, perform elementary calculations,
 etc.                                            minor tranquillizer Drug with a mildly
                                                  sedating effect. Most often used in
minimal brain damage Old term for
                                                  treating anxiety.
 minimal brain dysfunction.
                                                 mirror drawing task Task in which a
minimal brain dysfunction (MBD)
                                                  participant must draw a design whilst
 Old term for attentional deficit disorder.
                                                  only able to see the results of his/her
minimal competence criterion.                     efforts through a mirror.
minimization (-isation) Unrealistically          miscue An error (particularly applied to
 playing down the implications of                 children’s reading errors).
 (usually) positive information.
                                                 misologia Avoiding speaking.
Minnesota Clerical Test (MCT)
                                                 missing data The term can simply mean
 Measure of skill associated with clerical
                                                  data of any description that are missing.
 work (checking that word and number
                                                  However, it often specifically means
 pairs are identical).
                                                  where only some data are missing
Minnesota method Therapeutic                      resulting in an incomplete record (e.g. a
 method for treating alcoholism.                  participant answers some but not all
Minnesota Multiphasic Personality                 questions).
 Inventory (MMPI) Personality test,              mixed ANOVA analysis of variance in
 yielding scores on ten scales, which are         which the measures are a mixture of
 indices of: depression (D), hypochon-            within groups and between groups measures.
 driasis (Hd), hypomania (Ma), hysteria
                                                 mixed delirium See delirium.
 (Hy), masculinity-femininity (Mf ),
                                                                 MONOTONIC / 171

mixed design An experiment in which          modelling (1) Training a patient to
 both between-subjects and within subjects    change an aspect of their behaviour by
 measures have been used.                     copying the desired behaviour from
                                              someone else (e.g. in the case of a
mixed hearing loss See conductive
                                              arachnophobic patient, making them
 hearing loss.
                                              watch a film of someone handling a
mixed schizophrenia undifferentiated          spider). In covert modelling, the patient
 schizophrenia.                               imagines someone performing the
mixed transcortical aphasia aphasia in        behaviour. (2) The learning of behav-
 which virtually all linguistic abilities     iour by copying others – see Bandura’s
 have been lost, barring the ability to       theory of social learning.
 repeat single words.                        moderate mental retardation See
MLD mild learning difficulty.                 mental retardation.

MMPI Minnesota Multiphasic Personality       moderator variable variable which
 Inventory.                                   exerts a greater influence in some
                                              sections (e.g. sub-groups) of a sample
MMR vaccine A single-shot vaccine             than in others. If the moderator variable
 given to young children to inoculate         is statistically controlled for, then this
 against measles, mumps and rubella. Its      may create a more accurate picture of
 use was linked to an increase in cases of    the situation under review.
 autistic spectrum disorder but subsequent
 research has largely rejected this          Modern Occupational Skills Test
 theory.                                      (MOST) Battery of tests of basic
                                              administrative and clerical skills.
MMS Mini Mental State Examination.
                                             molar (research) macro.
MMTIC Murphy-Meisgeier Type Indicator
 for Children.                               molecular (research) micro.

MMY Mental Measurements Yearbook.            molysmophobia A phobia of infection.

Mobility Inventory for Agoraphobia           Mongolism Outmoded and racist term
 Measure of the degree to which               for Down’s Syndrome (Down felt that
 patients suffering from agoraphobia are      European Down’s Syndrome patients
 able to move about, and their strategies     were ‘arrested’ at a ‘Mongolic’ stage of
 for avoiding open spaces.                    development because of a supposed
                                              physical resemblance).
modal Pertaining to the mode.
                                             monitoring See blunting.
mode A measure of central tendency. The
 mode is the value within a sample for       monoamine oxidase inhibitors
 which there are the highest number of        (MAOI) General term for a group of
 observations (i.e. it is the most popular    antidepressant drugs.
 score within the sample). In a              monoideism An abnormal preoccupa-
 multimodal distribution, there are two       tion with an idea.
 or more modes (i.e. there is no one
                                             monophobia autophobia.
 score which is the most popular).
                                             monotonic Always going in the same
model A representation of a thought
                                              direction. Hence, a monotonic relation-
 process and/or behaviour, usually in
                                              ship is one between two variables in
 symbolic terms.
                                              which an increase in one is always met

  by an increase OR a decrease in the         morbidity risk The probability that a
  other (i.e. the direction of the change      person will develop an illness.
  must be constant).
                                              Morgan Russell Assessment Schedule
monotonic relationship See monotonic.          (MRAS) Measure of the symptoms of
                                               anorexia nervosa.
monozygotic (MZ) Of one egg. Hence,
 monozygotic twins are twins from the         moron See mental retardation.
 same egg (i.e. identical twins). See
                                              morphine See opiates.
                                              Morrisby Profile (MP) A test which
monozygotic twins See monozygotic.
                                               assesses a person’s personality and
Monte Carlo method (1) Any statistical         work-related abilities within the same
 method which employs the generation           overall profile.
 of random numbers. E.g. in considering
                                              Mosaic Test A projective personality test –
 a set of data, it may be desirable to
                                               the participant is required to make
 generate random numbers to see how
                                               patterns out of wooden shapes.
 often a more extreme set of data is
 produced by chance. (2) Method of            Moses test of extreme reactions
 simulating a model based on a stochastic      non-parametric measure which measures
 sequence.                                     whether one group has more extreme
                                               scores than another. This contrasts with
Montgomery-Asberg Scale Measure of
                                               most other tests of differences, which
 the effectiveness of treatment for depres-
                                               simply examine if there is a difference
                                               between groups.
mood measure A measure of imperma-
                                              MOST Modern Occupational Skills Test.
 nent but appreciable feeling (e.g. grief
 upon bereavement). See state measure.        motherese Term for the language used
                                               by a parent in talking to pre-talking
mood stabilizer Drug which attempts to
                                               infants. Characterized by its simple
 remove extremes of mood (as in e.g.
                                               structure, high pitched delivery, repeti-
 bipolar disorder).
                                               tion, and exaggerated intonation.
Mooney Problem Check List Test for
                                              motivated forgetting Depending upon
 participants aged 12 years and over
                                               which commentator one is reading –
 (there are different forms for different
                                               either suppression or repression.
 age groups). Presents participants with
 a list of problems, and asks them to         motivation A drive to sustain a particular
 identify which they suffer from.              behaviour and/or aim for a particular
 Measures problems with social life,           goal.
 relationship formation, etc.                 Motivation Analysis Test (MAT)
Moray House Tests Battery of tests             Measure of motivation: the participant is
 assessing English, mathematical and           given a variety of measures (e.g. forced
 verbal reasoning skills (for age ranges       choice test) to select the more preferable
 10–12 years, 10–12 years and 8–18             of two actions.
 years respectively).                         motor (neurons) Carrying signals from
morbid Pertaining to disease.                  the central nervous system to skeletal
                                               muscle, and hence movement-related.
morbidity (1) The presence of an illness.
                                               Sometimes inaccurately used to denote
 (2) Preoccupation with thoughts of
                                               all signals emanating from the central
 illness and/or death.
                                                            MULTIDIMENSIONAL / 173

  nervous system (however, see autonomic       MPT-R Michigan Picture Test – Revised.
  nervous system).
                                               MRAS Morgan Russell Assessment Schedule.
motor amusia A profound inability to
                                               MRI magnetic resonance imaging.
 play even the simplest tune, beat the
 simplest rhythms, etc.                        M.S. mean square.
motor aphasia (1) ataxic aphasia. (2)          MSCA McCarthy Scales of Children’s Abili-
 Broca’s aphasia.                               ties.
motor apraxia Inability to perform             MSE Mental Status Examination.
 planned actions (as opposed to sponta-        MSI Marital Satisfactory Inventory.
 neous ones).
                                               MSQ (1) Mental Status Questionnaire. (2)
motor area An area of the frontal lobe          Minnesota Satisfaction Questionnaire.
 (lying in a thin strip immediately
 adjacent to the central sulcus) involved in   MSS Manic State Scale.
 movement control.                             MTDDA Minnesota Test for the Differential
motor cortex motor area.                        Diagnosis of Aphasia.
motor neurosis Any mental illness in           multi-axial classification Classification
 which the principal (or at least, most         of an item, illness, etc., on the basis of
 noticeable) symptom is an abnormal             several distinct scales of measurement.
 pattern of movement, ranging from              The Cattell Sixteen Personality Factor
 mania through to a nervous tic.                Questionnaire and the DSM are
                                                examples of this.
motor skills General term for any skills
 which involve movement and muscular           multi-dimensional scaling (MDS) ( 1 )
 action. Often divided into fine motor          Name for a range of statistical tech-
 skills (relatively delicate movements,         niques for converting a large quantity
 such as finger movements, writing, etc.)       of data (often ratings) into a small set of
 and gross motor skills (relatively ‘big’       scales. (2) In graphical representations,
 movements such as walking, jumping,            using the physical space between
 etc.).                                         points to denote the strength of the sta-
                                                tistical relationship between the vari-
Movement ABC Movement Assessment                ables represented.
 Battery for Children.
                                               multi-infarct dementia (MID) A form
Movement Assessment Battery for                 of dementia, caused by the brain suffer-
 Children (ABC) test battery assessing          ing a large number of infants (‘miniature
 movement problems in children. Incor-          strokes’). Patients typically suffer a
 porates a revised version of the Test of       step-wise rather than gradual pattern of
 Motor Impairment.                              decline, and often have a history of car-
movement therapy Often a synonym                diovascular problems.
 for dance therapy – may refer more gen-       multicollinearity collinearity.
 erally to disjunctive therapy.
                                               multidimensional Consisting of many
MP Morrisby Profile.                            dimensions. The term is sometimes
MPACI Millon Pre-Adolescent Clinical            applied to complex statistical analyses
 Inventory.                                     (e.g. factor analysis) and to psychological
                                                tests (e.g. personality measures) where
MPQ McGill Pain Questionnaire.
                                                the results are expressed as a pattern of

  scores on several subtests, rather than a     score above a minimum criterion on all
  single test score (the latter being           the scales. In a similar technique – the
  referred to as unidimensional).               multiple hurdle model – the candidates
                                                are evaluated on a sequence of measures,
Multidimensional Personality Evalu-
                                                with those failing to reach criterion at
 ation Test of personality, consisting of
                                                each ‘hurdle’ being eliminated.
 200 multiple choice question, yielding
 measures on 18 scales. Primarily             multiple discriminant analysis multiple
 intended for the layperson.                   regression technique in which the crite-
                                               rion variable is a categorical variable with
mul t i d i m e n si o n al   scal e   See
                                               more than two categories.
 unidimensional scale.
                                              multiple hurdle model See multiple
Multilevel Academic Skills Inventory
                                               cutoff model.
 (MASI) Measure of performance.
                                              multiple personality Ver y rare
Multilevel Academic Survey Tests
                                               dissociative disorder in which the patient
 (MAST) Measure of the performance
                                               can assume several, often radically dif-
 of pupils with specific educational
                                               ferent, personalities and identities, and
                                               may only be aware of whichever
multimodal distribution See mode.              persona s/he is at the particular time
multimodal therapy Therapeutic tech-           (i.e. when s/he thinks s/he is person X,
 nique in which the different problems         s/he has no memory of being person Y,
 of the patient are treated with different     etc.). Where there are only two person-
 methods (following the argument that          alities, then the term alternating person-
 different techniques may be optimal in        ality is also used. Often confused (par-
 solving different problems). Compare          ticularly by the popular media) with
 with eclectic therapy.                        schizophrenia.

multiple act criterion Combination of         multiple regression A regression tech-
 behaviours related to a single trait.         nique which calculates how much of
                                               the performance of one variable (the cri-
multiple baseline technique Experi-            terion variable) is predicted by perfor-
 mental method in which participants;          mance on other variables (the predictor
 are measured on two or more variables.        variables). The technique can be used to
 before treatment, where the variables:        gain a better prediction of the criterion
 are known to be closely linked to a           variable than is afforded by a ‘conven-
 common cause (e.g. swearing and               tional’ regression, where only one pre-
 muscular tics in Tourette’s syndrome). One    dictor variable is used. The technique is
 or more variables are treated, but it is      also used to compare the relative pre-
 the effect on the untreated variables         dictive powers of the predictor vari-
 which is of primary interest.                 ables in question. In a free entry
multiple censoring See single censoring.       multiple regression (step-wise regres-
                                               sion) the analysis calculates which pre-
multiple correlation coefficient See           dictor variable has the strongest rela-
 multiple regression.                          tionship with the criterion variable.
multiple cutoff model Method of per-           The ‘second best’ predictor is selected
 sonnel screening in which applicants are      because it, in tandem with the
 scored on a variety of scales pertaining      first-entered variable, increases the
 to different aspects of the job. In order     ability to predict the criterion variable
 to be accepted, the candidate must            by the greatest amount. This procedure
                                                   MULTIVARIATE NORMALITY / 175

is repeated for all the other predictor          another predictor variable into the
variables being considered. The                  equation is called the R2 increment. The
purpose of the analysis is to see not            total variance accounted for by all of
only how well the predictor variables            the predictor variables is known as the
acting together can predict the crite-           coefficient of total determination. The
rion variable, but also if some of the           relationship between the predictor
predictor variables are significantly            variables and the criterion variable can
better predictors than others, once              be expressed as an equation: Y= a +
mutually shared variance has been taken          b1x1+ b2x2.-.bnxn; where Y is the cri-
into consideration. Usually, the analysis        terion variable, x the predictor vari-
is stopped when the entry of the next            ables, a is a constant, and b is known as
predictor variable does not signifi-             the regression weight. The formula is
cantly improve the predictive power of           essentially the same as the regression
the regression equation (this is                 equation, but with more values of x.
measured using the F-to-enter test). In          Regression weights are sometimes con-
some versions of the procedure, predic-          verted to beta weights, which are the
tor variables are entered into the               weights expressed as standard scores.
equation, and then later removed, if             The multiple regression technique
other combinations of predictor vari-            shares a lot in common with the analysis
ables prove to be better predictors, and         of variance (including the measure of
m a ke t h e c o n t r i but i o n o f t h e     significance). See canonical regression,
variable-to-be-removed unnecessary               discriminant function analysis, polynomial
(removal is determined by the                    regression, and residuals.
F-to-remove test). In an ordered multiple
                                               Multiscore Depression Inventory
regression (forced multiple regression) a
                                                (MDI) A measure of level of depression.
predictor variable is deliberately
                                                The ‘score’ can be divided into 10
entered at a particular-position into the
equation. Usually it is entered last, to
see if it is still significantly related to    multistage cluster sampling See cluster
the criterion variable, even after all the      sampling.
shared variance from the other predic-         multivariate analysis of variance
tor variables has been taken care of.           (MA-NOVA) analysis of variance for
This seems a rather odd technique, but          which there are two or more dependent
it can be impressive if a predictor             variables. Several significance tests are
variable can still uniquely account for         available – the Hotelling-Lawley trace,
some of the variance even after other           the Pillai-Bartlett trace and Wilk’s lambda.
predictor variables have taken their            Which test is best depends heavily
share. The degree to which two predic-          upon very specific requirements (con-
tor variables correlate with each other         sultation with an advanced textbook is
is known as collinearity. The correla-          strongly advised), although with large
tion of the predictor variable(s) with          samples, there is probably little differ-
the criterion variable is called the            ence between them.
multiple correlation coefficient (R). By
squaring the value of R, the proportion        multivariate correlation correlation
of the criterion variable’s variance            between more than two variables.
which has been accounted for can be            multivariate normality A situation in
calculated. This is known as the coeffi-        which all the variables and all combina-
cient of determination (R 2 ). The              tions of variables are normally distrib-
increase in R 2 created by adding               uted.

multivariate statistics Analysis of more        psychoanalytic theory. Participants are
 than two dependent variables. Often the        classified on four ‘either/or’ scales. E.g.
 term is confined to mathematically             in the first of these, a participant is clas-
 complex analyses, such as factor analysis,     sified as possessing either extraversion
 structural equation modelling, etc. See        (E) or introversion (I). The second
 univariate statistics.                         measure is of Sensing (S) versus Intu-
                                                ition (N). The former is characterized
Munchausen syndrome The feigning
                                                by a predominant interest in the present
 of medical illnesses in order to gain the
                                                situation, the latter by a predominant
 attention of medical personnel.
                                                interest in more abstract concepts and
Munchausen syndrome by proxy A                  the potential of the situation. The third
 rare permutation of Munchausen                 measure is of Thinking (T) versus
 syndrome, in which the patient feigns ill-     Feeling (F), which measures the relative
 nesses in another person (or even              reliance on objective, logical thought
 inflicts injury to the extent of murder-       versus a more subjective, emotional
 ing his/her victim) in order to gain the       approach. The final distinction is
 attention of medical personnel. Usually        between Judging (J) and Perception
 the patient and victim are a mother and        (P). This is essentially a contrast
 her young child, although in one noto-         between a wish to organize and a wish
 rious case in Britain, the patient (a          to observe events. Participants can be
 nurse) murdered and permanently                classified into 16 types according to
 maimed babies in her care.                     their predominant scores on each scale
Murphy-Meisgeier Type Indicator                 (e.g. 1STJ, ENTJ, etc.), and each
 for Children (MMTIC) Version of                grouping is provided with a descrip-
 the Myers-Bnggs Type Indicator for             tion of likely strengths and weaknesses.
 children.                                    myotatic reflex spinal reflex – if a tendon
music therapy Any therapeutic tech-            is briefly stretched, the muscles con-
 nique in which listening to music forms       nected to it briefly contract. The most
 part of the treatment. The term has           familiar demonstration of this is the
 been particularly applied to the use of       knee jerk reflex. The purpose of the
 music to stimulate people suffering           reflex in everyday life is to maintain
 from severe mental retardation, who may       balance. Usually sudden tendon
 be incapable of comprehending con-            stretching indicates that there is a
 ventional language.                           potential imbalance, and the muscle
                                               contraction rectifies this.
mutation analysis targeted mutation
 analysis.                                    mysophobia A phobia of dirt.

mutually exclusive event Event whose          myxedema myxoedema.
 outcome excludes the occurrence of           myxoedema bypothyroidism.
 another event (e.g. if a coin lands
                                              MZ monozygotic.
 ‘heads’, then this excludes ‘tails’ –
 hence ‘heads’ and ‘tails’ are mutually       MZ twins monozygotic twins.
 exclusive events).
                                              MZa twins monozygotic twins who were
mutually independent event mutually            brought up independently of each
 exclusive event.                              other.
Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI)            MZt twins monozygotic twins who were
 A personality measure, based on Jung’s        brought up in the same household.
                                              NEALE ANALYSIS OF READING ABILITY / 177

N                                                    nounce). The more words correctly
                                                     pronounced, the higher the test score.
n Number of members of a sample.                   national competency tests Tests
N (1) neuroticism. (2) Intuition.                   (usually government-run) used to assess
                                                    academic achievement across the
n-Ach need for achievement.                         country.
NA negative ajfectivity.                           natural category See category.
NABC Normative Adaptive Behaviour                  natural dichotomy See dichotomous
 Checklist.                                          variable.
nAff affiliation need.                             natural experiment An event or series of
naive subject Test participant who has               events which occur in ‘the real world’
  no knowledge of the devices used by                (as opposed to a contrived laboratory
  an experimenter. Compare with test wise            environment) without the experi-
  subject.                                           menter’s actions, but which in effect act
                                                     as an experiment which can be studied
naloxone A heroin antagonist.                        and analysed. E.g. the classic study of
NAPI test Neurobehavioural Assessment of             people’s reactions in the USA to Orson
 the Preterm Infant.                                 Welle’s famous radio dramatization of
                                                     ‘War of the Worlds’.
narcissistic personality disorder per-
  sonality disorder characterized by               naturalistic research (1) A rather
  extreme levels of self-interest and                nebulous term, describing research
  self-preoccupation.                                which emphasizes the study of the
                                                     individual as a whole. This is in contrast
narcissistic rage aggression directed at
                                                     to the ‘traditional’ scientific viewpoint
  factors affecting self-esteem.
                                                     of analysing a group of individuals to
narcoanalysis Any therapeutic method                 extract a common formula usually con-
  in which the patient is sedated prior to           cerning a specific attribute. (2) More
  treatment.                                         generally and usually, a study of partici-
                                                     pants in their natural surroundings. See
narrative recording Noting events of
                                                     participant observation.
  apparent importance (e.g. in an inter-
  view or therapeutic session).                    NBAS Neonatal Behavioural Assessment
narratophilia A paraphilia characterized
  by an abnormal reliance on porno-                NBAS-K Neonatal Behavioural Assessment
  graphic stories for sexual gratification.         Scale with Kansas Supplements.
narremic substitution Misreading a                 NCA normal cognitive ageing.
  word but maintaining the narrative
                                                   Neale Analysis of Reading Ability
  thread of the text.
                                                    Reading test for participants aged
narrow categorizing See broad categoriz-            7–11 years. Consists of passages of
  ing.                                              text which the participant reads
                                                    aloud. S/he is marked for number of
NART National Adult Reading Test.
                                                    mistakes, reading speed and compre-
National Adult Reading Test (NART)                  hension of the passage. Additional
 A list of words, most with very irregular          diagnostic tests can be used to assess
 spellings, which the participant is                knowledge of grapheme-to-phoneme
 required to read out loud (i.e. to pro-

  correspondence rules, ability to distin-         negative affectivity (NA) An emotional
  guish different word sounds, etc.                  state in which one’s perceptions and
                                                     thoughts (often unrealistically) take a
necessary condition A factor which
                                                     gloomy/negative view of events.
  must be present for a particular state to
  exist. This contrasts with a sufficient          negative correlation See correlation.
  condition, which is in itself enough for
                                                   negative goal gradient The phenome-
  a particular state to exist, but is not nec-
                                                     non whereby the further one is from an
  essarily the only condition which can
                                                     aversive stimulus, the weaker the drive
  cause the state. E.g. a necessary condi-
                                                     to increase the distance still further.
  tion for ice to form is that the tempera-
  ture must be low enough. However this            negative reinforcement Learning to
  is not a sufficient condition – water              perform an action because it removes
  must also be present. Shooting                     an aversive stimulus.
  someone in the heart is a sufficient con-        negative relationship A relationship in
  dition to kill them, but it is not a neces-        which the rise in size of one variable is
  sary condition (e.g. strangling, poison-           met with a decrease in size of another
  ing, etc., would be just as effective). It is      variable.
  possible to have permutations of the
  two conditions (e.g. necessary but not           negative result Result which fails to find
  sufficient, sufficient but not necessary,          evidence for the hypothesis in
  etc.).                                             question. Depending upon the circum-
                                                     stances, this can be good (e.g. negative
necraudia The sound of death.                        results of a test for a deadly disease) or
necromania An abnormal interest in                   bad (a lengthy and expensive experi-
  death.                                             ment not finding any statistically signifi-
                                                     cant results). A positive result indicates
necrophilia atypical paraphilia in which
                                                     the opposite – namely, evidence that
  the patient gains principal sexual grati-
                                                     the hypothesis is correct.
  fication from sexual activity with a
  corpse.                                          negative symptom A profound lack of a
                                                     normal behaviour (e.g. flat affect). This
necrophobia A phobia of death or dying.
                                                     contrasts with a positive symptom,
necrosmia The smell of death.                        which is an over-exaggerated behav-
                                                     iour (e.g. a delusion).
need A drive to fulfil a particular want,
  because the participant perceives that           negatively skewed distribution distri-
  s/he has a lack of the desired object in           bution curve in which there is a long ‘tail’
  question.                                          on the left (i.e. nearer to the junction of
                                                     the X axis and Y axis), rising to a pro-
need for achievement (n-Ach) A need
                                                     nounced ‘hump’ to the right. A posi-
  to succeed.
                                                     tively skewed distribution is the
need for affiliation A need to be                    opposite (i.e. the ‘hump’ is on the left,
  accepted and liked by others.                      the ‘tail’ on the right).
need for positive regard According to              neglect (1) Failure to attend. (2) The
  Roger’s self theory of personality, a person’s     abnegation of care (e.g. child neglect
  drive for unconditional positive regard.           etc.). (3) A literal inability to detect
need for power A need for power, and to              what would be very obvious to a
  attain control over others.                        normal individual, usually resulting
                                                     from brain damage (e.g. sensory neglect,
                                                     spatial neglect).
                                                                 NEUROIMAGING / 179

neo-Freudian movement Psychoana-                neoplasm A new growth/tumour.
  lysts, who, whilst accepting some of
                                                neopsychoanalytic neo-Freudian
  Freud’s psychoanalytic theory, have
  amended it in significant areas. One of
  the principal characteristics has been a      nerve Strictly speaking, a pathway and
  lessening of the emphasis on the id, and        collection of neurons in the peripheral
  a greater concentration on the ego              nervous system, all with the same
  (hence the movement is often known as           function, and bonded together by con-
  ego psychology). The most often cited           nective tissue. However, the terms
  examples of psychoanalysis after Freud          ‘neuron’ and ‘nerve’ are often used syn-
  are Erikson’s theory of development and         onymously by psychologists. Compare
  Jung’s psychoanalytic theory.                   with tract.
NEO Personality Inventory Personal-             nervous breakdown A nebulous,
 ity measure yielding five principal scales      layperson’s term for any mental illness
 of measurement (agreeableness, ‘consci-         severe enough to incapacitate. Usually
 entiousness’, extroversion, neuroticism,        it is reserved for cases of neurosis.
 and ‘openness to experience’), and a           nested design See crossed design.
 further 23 sub-scales.
                                                neural Adjective derived from neuron,
n e o b e h av i o u r i sm Rev i s i o n o f     hence a term describing anything per-
  behaviourism which acknowledges the             taining to the nervous system.
  need to include considerations of
  mental processes.                             neuritic plaques senile plaques.
neolalia Language containing an abnor-          Neurobehavioural Assessment of the
  mally high proportion of neologisms.           Preterm Infant (NAPI) test battery
                                                 measuring the developmental maturity
neologism A made-up word. Character-             of preterm (premature) infants.
  istic of some children learning to speak,
  some mentally ill patients (particularly      neurodermatitis psychophysiological
  schizophrenics) and most cognitive psy-         disorder – the physical symptom is a
  chologists.                                     skin rash.
Neonatal Behavioural Assessment                 neurofibrillary tangles (NFT) Clumps
 Scale (NBAS) Brazelton Scale.                    of dead central nervous system neurons
                                                  which (under a microscope) look like
Neonatal Behavioural Assessment                   knotted string. Caused by abnormal
 Scale with Kansas Supplements                    protein metabolism.
 (NBAS-K) See Brazelton Scale.
                                                neurof ibromatosis (Nf ) Genetic
neonate Infant aged between 0 and 1              disorder causing growths or tumours
  month.                                         on nerves. Symptoms are variable, but
neophasia A language composed of                 in some instances may result in short
  words and even grammar invented by             attention span and hyperactivity.
  the speaker. The phenomenon is                neuroglia glial cells.
  encountered (in a pronounced form,
  very rarely) in some children learning        neuroimaging Any method of provid-
  to speak, and in some types of schizo-          ing information on the structure
  phrenia.                                        and/or functions of the nervous
                                                  system. structual imaging provides
neophobia A phobia of new things.                 information on the physical structure of

  the nervous system (particularly the         neuropsychiatry Branch of medicine
  brain) and functional imaging provides         concerned with the effects of nervous
  information on its activities.                 system (dys)function and structure on
                                                 mental health.
neuroleptic drug major tranquillizer.
                                               neuropsychological testing Testing
neurolinguistic programming (NLP)
                                                 brain-damaged patients to assess the
  Therapeutic method which is a combi-
                                                 degree to which the physical damage
  nation of several disparate strands of
                                                 has affected psychological functioning.
  thought, including linguistic research,
                                                 Also, calculating from measures of psy-
  information processing and main-
                                                 chological dysfunction which areas of
  stream therapeutic techniques. In
                                                 the brain have been damaged.
  essence, NLP seeks to train people to
  ‘reprogramme’ their brains to remove         neuropsychology The study of psycho-
  maladaptive behaviours. NLP has been           logical processes in direct relationship
  heavily criticized by some researchers         to the workings of the nervous system
  and therapists for what they claim is a        (e.g. how physical brain damage affects
  lack of verifiable support and vague           psychological performance). This is
  theoretical stance, whilst it is supported     sometimes expressed in the concept of
  vociferously by others.                        localization – the theory that psycho-
                                                 logical functions can be attributed to
neurolinguistics The study of the rela-
                                                 specific areas of the brain.
  tionship between neural functioning
  and linguistic skills.                       neurosciences General term for any
                                                 branch of study concerned with the sci-
neurological correlation A link
                                                 entific examination of the structure and
 between damage to a specific area of
                                                 function of the nervous system.
 the brain and a specific change in
 behaviour.                                    neurosis Nebulous term for any mental
                                                 illness in which the patient still has a
Neurological Impairment Scale (NIS)
                                                 grasp of all or most of reality (unlike
 A measure of symptoms of neurological
                                                 psychosis), but whose behaviour/beliefs
                                                 are sufficiently abnormal to merit treat-
neurology The study of the structure,            ment. In addition, the complaint
  function and diseases of the nervous           cannot be attributed solely to mental
  system.                                        retardation, and probably causes serious
neuron/neurone An individual compo-              negative emotions, in the patient
  nent of a nerve or (very loosely) ‘nerve       and/or people who come into contact
  cell’. Used by many psychologists as a         with him/her. A large collection of
  synonym for ‘nerve’. The basic unit of         fairly disparate illnesses (i.e. practically
  transmission in the nervous system.            all, the major exceptions being mental
                                                 retardation, schizophrenia, and bipolar
neuronal neural.                                 disorder) have been classified as ‘neuro-
neuropathology The study of disorders            ses’ (principally for the historical
  of structure and functioning of the            reason that psychoanalysis classified
  nervous system.                                them all as stemming from anxiety,
                                                 although note that this theory is now
neurophysiology The study of the                 largely discredited). It should be noted
  physiology of the nervous system. The          that some classification systems (e.g.
  term is often used synonymously with           some earlier versions of the DSM) do
  neurology.                                     not recognize ‘neurosis’ as a valid cate-
                                                                    NICTOPHILIA / 181

  gorization. In the DSM-HI the majority       neutral stimulus Any stimulus which is
  of what used to be termed ‘neuroses’           intrinsically unlikely to either attract or
  were re-classified as types of anxiety         repel the subject.
                                               New Adult Reading Test Name given
neurosurgery Any surgical procedure             to an early version of the National Adult
  intended to treat a dysfunction of the        Reading Test.
  nervous system (including the brain).
                                               new learning deficit Relative difficulty
neurosyphilis A degeneration of the              in learning new information, in com-
  nervous system due to the syphilis             parison with older information and/or
  virus. Syphilis is a venereal disease          another group of people. Used by some
  which passes through two relatively            commentators to describe the relative
  innocuous phases, before lying appar-          weakness of older people in learning a
  ently dormant for several months or            new piece of information and/or task.
  (more usually) years. The disease then
                                               New Sucher-Allred Reading Place-
  enters a third and final stage (tertiary
                                                ment Inventory Reading test for
  syphilis), in which there is damage to the
  cardiovascular system and/or the
  nervous system (neurosyphilis). The          New Technology Tests (NTT) aptitude
  symptoms include blindness, syphilitic        test of ability to work with computers.
  dementia, and tabes dosalis.                 Newman-Keuls test A t test for multiple
neurotic The adjective derived from             comparisons and post hoc test for the
  neurosis.                                     analysis of variance.
neurotic disorder neurosis.                    Nf neurofibromatosis.
neurotic process (1) In some theories,         NFER Reading Tests A, AD and BD
  the conflict between the (impossibly          Reading tests which require partici-
  perfect) self-image and the real self,        pants to complete unfinished sentences.
  which is held to cause neurosis. (2)          ‘A’ is designed for participants aged
  neurosis.                                     6–8 years, ‘AD’, 8–10 years, ‘BD’,
                                                7–10 years.
neurotic solution Removing a neurosis
  by suppressing it from one’s conscious-      NFER Reading Tests EH A battery of
  ness.                                         three reading tests for participants aged
                                                11–16: EH 1 measures sentence comple-
neuroticism (N) See Eysenck’s model of
                                                tion, EH2 comprehension and EH3
                                                reading rate.
neuroticism-emotional stability scale
                                               NFER Reading Tests SR-A and SR-B
  See Eysenck’s model of personality.
                                                Reading tests, designed for participants
neurotoxin Any substance or infection           aged 7–12. Both consist of sentence com-
  which is capable of damaging nerves           pletion problems.
  and/or their functioning.
                                               NFT, neurofibrillary tangles.
neurotransmitters Chemicals transmit-
                                               nicotine The active constituent in
  ted between neurons – the method by
                                                 tobacco. Produces feelings of relax-
  which neurons communicate with each
                                                 ation and mild euphoria, and is addic-
  other. The chemicals can also be
  released from neurons onto muscles or
  glands, affecting their functioning.         nictophilia An abnormal preference for

nictophobia achluophobia.                         2 = female). See interval scale, ordinal
                                                  scale, and ratio scale.
Niemann-Pick disease Inherited failure
 to metabolize fat. Symptoms include            nominal variable Variable measured on a
 mental retardation.                              nominal scale.
nihilism The belief that there is no            nomological validity construct validity,
  meaning to life. This can be either a           although note that some commentators
  philosophical creed or a symptom of             use the phrase to denote how well the
  mental illness. In more severe manifes-         test corresponds to wider theoretical
  tations of the latter, the patient believes     considerations, rather than those
  that s/he and/or others have no real            purely assessed within the test.
                                                nomothetic That which individuals
NINCDS-ADRDA criteria A set of                   have in common. Compare with
 criteria for evaluating the probability         idiographic.
 that a patient is suffering from dementia
                                                non-additive interaction See interac-
 of the Alzheimer type. The initials refer to
 the ‘National Institute of Neurological
 and Communicative Disorders and                non-directional hypothesis Any
 Stroke’ and the ‘Alzheimer’s Disease            hypothesis in which a difference is pre-
 and Related Disorders Association of            dicted, but not the direction in which it
 America’, the two bodies who jointly            will fall. See two-tailed test.
 devised the scheme. It provides a diag-        non-directional significance A signifi-
 nosis of ‘probable’, ‘possible’ or               cant effect where its direction is unim-
 ‘definite’.                                      portant (e.g. group A can have an
NIS Neurological Impairment Scale.                average score which is significantly
                                                  lower or higher than group B, provided
NLP neurolinguistic programming.
                                                  that the difference is significant).
NMR nuclear magnetic resonance.
                                                non-directive therapy client-centred
no-trial learning See Bandura’s theory of        therapy.
  social learning.
                                                non-equivalent control group control
nocebo A placebo which, the recipient is          group of participants who are selected
  informed, has negative effects or side-         completely separately from the experi-
  effects. This can result in the recipient       mental group. Because the two groups
  reporting unpleasant sensations.                were not assigned randomly from the
                                                  same population, this makes inferences
nocturnal enuresis bed-wetting. See
                                                  about their performance difficult to
                                                  make (e.g. differences between them
noise (1) Unwanted sound. (2) Random              could be due to factors beyond the
  neural activity which can be confused           experimenter’s control, such as differ-
  with a genuine signal (see signal detection     ences in upbringing).
                                                non-fluent aphasia Broca’s aphasia, or
nominal aphasia anomic aphasia.                   more generally, any expressive aphasia.
nominal scale Scale in which each value         non-linear correlation See linear corre-
  represents a category, rather than a pro-       lation.
  gression of values changing in size (e.g.
                                                non-linear regression regression in
  an arbitrary grading in which 1 = male,
                                                 which there is a non-linear relationship
                                                                  NORM GROUP / 183

  between two variables. Calculations           language, but extends further to deliber-
  usually assume that the relationship          ate acts of communication (e.g. physical
  will instead be a curved one. See polyno-     gestures).
  mial regression.
                                              non-verbal intelligence Any aspect of
non-linear relationship See linear rela-        intelligence that does not overtly
  tionship.                                     require linguistic skills in its perfor-
non-linear transformation See linear
  transformation.                             non-zero sum game A game in which
                                                the gains of one player are not necessar-
non-parametric statistics Statistical
                                                ily reflected in a loss by the other player
 techniques which make no presump-
                                                (e.g. golfers can play together and get
 tions about the nature of the distribu-
                                                the same score). This contrasts with a
 tions of the populations from which the
                                                zero sum game, in which the gain of one
 data are derived. Contrast with paramet-
                                                player means a loss for the other.
 ric statistics.
                                              nonsense syllable Any syllable which
non-projective personality test
                                                does not form a real word. Memorizing
 Measure of personality in which the
                                                lists of nonsense syllables is sometimes
 participant answers a set of limited
                                                (somewhat erroneously) used as a test
 response questions which are scored using
                                                of ‘pure’ memory, because the syllables
 a standardized scale. Compare with pro-
                                                supposedly have no associations which
 jective personality test.
                                                could be used as ‘aides memoires’.
nonrandom measurement error See
                                              nonsense words Words which either are
  random measurement error.
                                                not recognizably part of the language
non-reactive measure See reactive               when spoken or written, or are not rec-
 measure.                                       ognizable when written, but when
Non-Reading Intelligence Tests                  spoken aloud, sound like a real word
 (NRIT) Set of three standardized tests         (e.g. ‘phrock’). Such words can only be
 (Level 1 for ages 6:4 months–8:3               read by ‘sounding them out’.
 months, Level 2, 7:4–9:3; Level 3,           Noonan syndrome Genetic disorder
 8:4–10.11) presented orally, and              characterized by stunted stature,
 assessing linguistic and cognitive abili-     widely spaced, sloping eyes, and atypi-
 ties.                                         cally low ears. There may be numerous
non-recursive mode See path analysis.          other atypical physical features. Indi-
                                               viduals with the syndrome typically
non-response (NR) Simply, not                  have relatively mild intellectual impair-
 responding to a stimulus. The term is         ments and problems with hearing and
 sometimes used of an (allegedly) char-        speech.
 acteristic phase of children’s reading
 skills, in which the majority of errors      noradrenergic system Network of
 take the form of non-responses, rather        neurons using noradrenaline as their
 than misreadings of words, etc.               neurotransmitter. Primarily used in the
                                               control of smooth muscle.
non-verbal behaviour non-verbal com-
  munication.                                 norm The typical standard(s) of a group
                                                or population.
non-verbal communication (NVC)
 Information conveyed by means other          norm group standardization sample.
 than language. The term includes body

norm referenced test Test for which the          data so that it assumes a normal distribu-
  average scores for the population are          tion (and hence can be analysed by
  known (and hence which may serve as a          parametric tests). Common methods
  guide to the quality of the participants’      include taking the logarithms of the
  performance). See domain referenced test.      data (log transformation), the recipro-
                                                 cals (reciprocal transformation), the
normal (1) State of being considered
                                                 square (square transformation) and the
  unexceptional on any attribute when
                                                 square roots (square roots transformation).
  compared with the standard of the
                                                 Which procedure is adopted very much
  population. (2) Not possessing the
                                                 depends on the nature of the individual
  problem faced by a patient group being
                                                 data set. E.g. severe positive skew is cor-
  cited as a comparison (e.g. in observing
                                                 rected using a negative reciprocal root,
  patients with schizophrenia, a control
                                                 a moderate positive skew using a log
  group may be a collection of individuals
                                                 transformation or the square root,
  who are not diagnosed as mentally ill).
                                                 moderate negative skew by squaring the
  The term is a convenient shorthand, but
                                                 values and severe negative skew by
  should not be taken as a value judge-
                                                 cubing the values.
                                               normative (1) That which defines what
normal cognitive ageing (NCA) See
                                                 is normal. E.g. ‘normative data’ describe
  mild cognitive impairment.
                                                 the types of data readings one would
normal curve The shape of the normal             normally expect to find. (2) That which
  distribution when plotted as a graph.          determines the correct or appropriate
normal curve equivalent Expression of            standards.
  a test score in terms of its position on a   Normative Adaptive Behaviour
  distribution curve of standardized test       Checklist (NABC) Measure of
  scores (i.e. where the scorer is placed       adaptive skills, both intellectual and
  relative to the rest of the population).      housekeeping, for subjects aged 0–21
normal distribution A frequency distribu-       years.
  tion with the following characteristics:     normative test Any measure that enables
  (1) it is symmetrical and bell-shaped,         the scores of different individuals to be
  with its ‘peak’ pointing away from the         compared.
  X axis; (2) the mean, median, and mode are
                                               NOS not otherwise specified.
  equal. Because the frequency distribu-
  tion of a great many continuous variables    nosological Pertaining to the classifica-
  (e.g. height, weight, IQ , etc.) assume        tion of disease.
  this pattern, it has been accepted as the
                                               nosology The classification of diseases.
  norm (hence its name). However, this
  does not mean that other shapes of dis-      nosophobia pathophobia.
  tributions are somehow ‘aberrant’. See       not otherwise specified (NOS) As a
  standard deviation.                            suffix to a description of a disorder or
normal pressure hydrocephalus                    an illness – a condition in which the
 Caused by the failure of cerebrospinal          patient’s symptoms identify his/her
 fluid to drain away, leading to a destruc-      illness as belonging within a general
 tive pressure on brain tissue. The com-         category but not as matching named
 plaint can lead to demented symptoms.           diseases within that category.
normalization (-isation) In statistics,        N ow i c ki - S t r i c kl a n d L o c u s o f
  mathematically manipulating a set of           Control Scale Measure of concept of
                                                   OBLIQUE FACTOR ANALYSIS / 185

  self-assurance, designed for children
  and young adults.                            O
NR non-response.                               O openness.
NRIT Non-Reading Intelligence Tests.           object assembly test A sub-test of the
                                                 Wechsler intelligence tests, and a generic
NTT New Technology Tests.                        name for similar measures. The partici-
nuchal rigidity Unnaturally tense neck           pant is given ‘jigsaw’-like pieces which
  muscles. It can be a symptom of menin-         have to be assembled to form a picture.
  gitis.                                       object blindness agnosia.
nuclear conflict See Erikson’s theory of       Object Memory Evaluation (OME)
  development.                                  Measure of memory for objects. The
nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) A              participant is presented with a set of
  method of scanning an organ (e.g. the         everyday objects, and is asked to recall
  brain), producing three-dimensional           them at short (30 or 60 seconds) and
  images. The section of the body in            long (5 minutes) intervals. Five learning
  question is stimulated with a magnetic        trials are given, and measures are taken
  field, and the resultant changes in the       of which items are recalled on which
  magnetic orientation of the cells are         trial (and which are not).
  recorded.                                    object relations The relationship
nuclear schizophrenia process schizo-           between the internal mental world and
  phrenia.                                      external reality, how significant others
                                                have shaped the formation of this
null hypothesis (Ho) The assumption             internal world, and how this in turn
  that there will be no difference and/or       affects relationships with the real
  relationship discovered in the statistical    (external) world. The theory has been
  test which is to be conducted. See alter-     developed particularly in psychoanalysis.
  native hypothesis and significance.
                                               Object Relations Technique (ORT)
number completion test A completion             protective test in which the participant
  test in which the subject must supply the     interprets a series of ambiguous
  number missing from a numerical               pictures.
  sequence. The test is a measure of
  numerical and logical abilities, and         objective test (1) Test whose questions
  more generally, fluid intelligence.            have definite right and wrong answers.
                                                 (2) Test which, in its marking, is not
numerator In a fraction, the numerator is        reliant on subjective interpretation.
  the number above the line, and the             Some commentators add the additional
  denominator is the one below it. E.g. in       caveat that the participants must not be
  the fraction 1/2 – ‘1’ is the numerator,       able to discern the purpose of the test
  and ‘2’ the denominator.                       (hence preventing biased responses, in
NVC non-verbal communication.                    an attempt to create a favourable
                                                 impression). See open-ended test.
nymphomania A grossly excessive
  desire by a woman for sexual activity.       objectivity (of test) The degree to
  Despite the sexist jokes on the subject,       which a test is immune to the subjective
  the condition is not a happy one, not          biases of the person administering it.
  least because, by implication, the           oblique factor analysis See factor
  patient is never fulfilled by her encoun-     analysis.
  ters. See satyriasis.

oblique solution The solution derived           severe form, the term is synonymous
  from an oblique factor analysis.              with obsessive-compulsive disorder.
observational learning modelling.             obsessive-compulsive disorder One of
                                                the anxiety states. The patient is ‘cap-
observational research Research in
                                                tured’ by recurrent thoughts s/he
  which participants or items are
                                                cannot ‘get out of his/her head’ and/or
  observed without any attempt to
                                                feels compelled constantly to repeat the
  interact with and/or alter the behav-
                                                same act (e.g. repeatedly washing one’s
  iour of the participants/items.
                                                hands, having to go through a set
observed score raw score.                       routine before going out of the house).
observed variable dependent variable.         obtained score raw score.
observer bias The tendency of observers       obtrusive observation Study in which
  to make judgements (usually uncon-            the participants are aware that they are
  sciously) in favour of a preferred            being observed. This contrasts with
  outcome.                                      unobtrusive observation, in which they
observer drift The tendency of two or           are unaware.
  more observers to become more in            O’Connor Finger Dexterity Test See
  agreement in subjective judgements the       pegboard task.
  longer they work together.
                                              Occam’s razor parsimony principle.
observer scale Any measure which is
                                              occipital lobes The region of the cerebral
  formed from observations by a person
                                                cortex roughly in the region of the
  of someone else (e.g. by a doctor of a
                                                ‘back of the head’. Their principal
  patient). The term often carries the
                                                function is in visual perception.
  implication that a behaviour checklist is
  involved.                                   occupational drinking The ‘require-
                                                ment’ to drink large quantities of alco-
observing ego In some psychoanalytic
                                                holic beverages as part of one’s job (e.g.
  theories, the aspect of the ego involved
                                                a business person entertaining clients).
  in rationally interpreting the therapeu-
  tic process, whilst the experiencing ego    Occupational Interest Checklist
  is the ‘part’ of the ego which undergoes     (ICL) Questionnaire used in careers
  the therapeutic transformation.              guidance. The participants list their
                                               interests and general ambitions, which
Observing Pupils and Teachers in
                                               are matched against the typical profiles
 Classrooms (OPTIC) An observation
                                               of members of various occupational
 schedule for assessing the positivity
 and/or negativity of teachers’
 responses to pupils (Section A), and the     occupational neurosis neurosis induced
 degree to which pupils are attending to        by the patient ’s occupation (e.g.
 the lesson’s set tasks (Section B).            because it is stressful, or because the
                                                person is not suited to the job, etc.).
obsession A recurrent set of ideas which
  the patient cannot ‘get out of his/her      Occupational Personality Question-
  head’, and which are often irrational.       naires (OPQ). Measure of a person’s
                                               skills and personality used to assess
obsessional personality A rather
                                               suitability for a variety of occupations.
 nebulous term for a character type
 prone to obsessions, and pedantry. In a      occupational psychology The study of
                                                psychology of the workplace, and the
                                                        ONE SAMPLE RUNS TEST / 187

  use of psychological methods to               odd man out test See Assessing Reading
  change the workplace (e.g. selection of         Difficulties.
  personnel through psychological tests,
                                                oddity task odd man out question.
  and the use of ergonomics to improve
  working practices). The related disci-        oedema The excessive accumulation of
  pline of the examination and improve-           fluid in tissues. Following a stroke, such
  ments of relationships within a                 accumulation in the brain can occur,
  working environment (e.g. methods of            causing death of brain cells in the
  communication between management                afflicted area with a concomitant loss of
  and workers) is sometimes called ‘occu-         psychological functioning.
  pational psychology’, but is better clas-     Oedipus complex See Freud’s psychoana-
  sified as organizational psychology.           lytic theory.
Occupational Stress Indicator (OSI)             offloading (Mis)using therapeutic situa-
 Measure of level of stress being experi-         tions as an excuse simply to talk to
 enced by an employee, and its likely             relieve tension.
 effects on the employee and the organi-
 zation.                                        olfactory cranial nerve cranial nerve
                                                  number I, primarily concerned with
occupational therapy The use of practi-           smell.
  cal or creative tasks for a therapeutic
  purpose. E.g. to provide long-term            olfactory evoked potential evoked
  patients with tangible goals (thereby           potential created by administering a
  providing a sense of purpose and coun-          smell to the subject.
  teracting boredom) and to help injured        oligoencephaly mental retardation result-
  patients learn to recover function in           ing from an abnormally small brain.
  injured limbs, etc.
                                                ombrophobia A phobia of rain.
OCEAN five factor model of personality.
                                                OME Object Memory Evaluation.
ochlophobia demophobia.
                                                omission training The removal of a
Ockham’s razor Occam’s razor.                    reward if an undesirable behaviour is
oculomotor cranial nerve cranial nerve           exhibited (i.e. the participant does not
  number III. Concerned, along with the          have to do anything to get the reward,
  abducens cranial nerve and the trochlear       other than simply not do a particular
  cranial nerve with the muscular move-          act).
  ments of the eye (compare with optic          ondansetron Drug whose effects
  cranial nerve).                                include the enhanced release of acetyl-
ODD oppositional defiant disorder.               choline (see cholinergic hypothesis) and
                                                 thus a potentially beneficial treatment
odd-even technique split-half correla-           of some forms of dementia. See
  tion, in which the odd-numbered items          ganglioside and tacrine.
  on a test are correlated with the
  even-numbered items.                          one sample runs test non-parametric
                                                  measure of whether a sequence of
odd man out question Common                       events with onl y two possible
 question in intelligence (particularly           outcomes significantly deviates from
 fluid intelligence) tests. Participants must     chance. The test is used on mutually
 select an item which does not belong to          exclusive events with only two possible
 the same category as the rest of the             outcomes (e.g. coin tosses, possession
 items displayed.

  or lack of a particular attribute, etc.).   open question See closed question.
  Different formulae and tables are used
                                              open system Any system which is
  depending on whether the size of the
                                               affected by external forces.
  run is greater or lower than 20 events.
                                              openness (O) Personality trait (one of the
one sample t statistic parametric test
                                                ‘Big Five’) measuring the degree to
  estimating the mean and parameters of
                                                which the participant is prepared to
  the population from which a sample is
                                                seek out and cope with the unfamiliar.
                                              operant behaviour (1) Voluntary
one sample t test A measure to deter-
                                               behaviour performed in order to attain
  mine if a sample of normally distributed
                                               a reward. (2) emitted behaviour.
  data is drawn from a particular popula-
  tion.                                       operant conditioning Broadly, the
                                                training of a participant to perform a
one sample test Statistical measure to
                                                particular act by rewarding him/her
  determine whether a sample is derived
                                                for doing it or to stop an act by punish-
  from a particular population.
                                                ing him/her. The basis of much of
one-tailed test See two-tailed test.            behaviour therapy.
onomatomania Disorder in which the            operational definition A description of
  patient is unable to stop thinking about      a process, providing details of materials
  a particular word or set of words.            and how they must be used (i.e. a
onomatophobia A phobia of a particular
  word or phrase.                             o p e rat o r-m a c h i n e sy st e m An y
                                                working process in which a human
onset The time or time period when an
                                                operator uses a machine.
  illness first manifested itself.
                                              opiate receptors See opiates.
ontogenesis Can be synonym for
 ontogeny, but can also refer to growth of    opiates Group of drugs derived from or
 a particular aspect or part of the indi-       similar in structure to opium. Principal
 vidual.                                        amongst these are opium (extracted
                                                from the juice of the opium poppy);
ontogeny The growth of the individual.
                                                morphine (synthesized from opium),
  See ontogenesis and phylogeny.
                                                codeine and heroin (both synthesized
open coding Coding data without                 from morphine). All are taken up by
 restricting coding to a limited set (e.g.      opiate receptors in the brain. The drugs
 not just paying attention to data that         have excellent pain-killing properties
 are instances of a specific concept).          and induce euphoria (hence their legal
open-ended test Test whose answers              use for patients in extremes of pain), but
  cannot be totally objectively classified      they are also addictive. The body also
  as definitely right, or definitely wrong.     produces its own opiates (though their
  E.g. a question such as ‘what is the          effects are milder) called opioid
  capital of the United Kingdom?’ has           peptides.
  only one correct answer. However, a         opioid peptides See opiates.
  question such as ‘how can one solve the
                                              opium See opiates.
  ills of the British economy?’ is
  open-ended, because there is a practi-      opportunistic sampling Gathering a
  cally infinite range of answers. Contrast     sample of participants from a particular
  with objective test.                          population by taking whoever is avail-
                                                  ORGANIC DELUSIONAL STATE / 189

  able at the time. This does not necessar-       may be lowered because of fatigue. (3)
  ily result in a biased sample, but in most      Practice effect.
  student reports, the term is a euphe-
                                                order of magnitude (1) An arrangement
  mism for ‘I got my friends to act as
                                                  of values in order of their size. (2) Ten
                                                  times bigger or smaller.
opposites test Any measure in which the
                                                order statistics Any statistical method
  participant must either supply the
                                                  which analyses data arranged on an
  opposite of a word presented by the
                                                  ordinal scale.
  experimenter, or must identify pairs of
  opposites from a list of alternatives.        ordered multiple regression See
                                                  multiple regression.
oppositional defiant disorder (ODD)
  Atypically pronounced defiant and             ordered recall A memory task in which
  aggressive behaviour.                           items have to be recalled in exactly the
                                                  order in which they were originally
OPQ Occupational Personality Question-
                                                  presented. Compare with free recall.
                                                ordinal interaction Form of interaction
OPTIC Observing Pupils and Teachers in
                                                  in which a graph of the results displays
                                                  lines which do not cross over. In a
optic aphasia A profound difficulty in            disordinal interaction, the lines cross
  naming objects which have only been             over.
                                                ordinal scale Scale in which items are
optic cranial nerve cranial nerve number          ranked according to a characteristic
  II. Concerned with vision, particularly         (e.g. order of finishing in a race), but in
  information from the retina.                    which the magnitude of the difference
                                                  between the items is not recorded (e.g.
oral fluency The ability to speak fluently
                                                  the gap between first and second place
  on a given topic.
                                                  could just as easily be two seconds as
oral personality According to Freud’s             two hours). See interval scale, nominal
  psychoanalytic theory, personality type         scale, and ratio scale.
  caused by a fixation at the oral stage.
                                                ordinal variable Variable measured on an
oral reading Reading aloud (e.g. pupil            ordinal scale.
  reading to the teacher, experimenter,
                                                ordinate Y axis.
                                                orectic Pertaining to emotion.
oral stage See Freud’s psychoanalytic theory.
                                                organic affective syndrome organic
orbital cortex Area of frontal lobe respon-
                                                  mental disorder (or, by the DSM’s
  sible for controlling social behaviour,
                                                  criteria, an organic brain syndrome) char-
  observing proprieties, etc.
                                                  acterized by a profound alteration of
order (of regression) See first order             mood.
  regression, second order regression etc.
                                                organic brain syndrome See organic
order effect (1) A biasing of results             mental disorder.
  resulting from a particular order of pre-
                                                organic delusional state Organic mental
  sentation of test items. See counterbal-
                                                  disorder (or, by the DSM’s criteria, an
  ancing and fixed order presentation. (2)
                                                  organic brain syndrome) characterized by
  The phenomenon whereby in a long
                                                  delusions resulting from brain damage.
  test session performance of later tests

organic hallucinosis Organic mental               organism In some therapies, the word
  disorder (or, by the DSM’s criteria, an           has a special meaning. See Roger’s self
  organic brain syndrome) characterized by          theory of personality.
  hallucinations resulting from brain
                                                  organismic endogenous.
                                                  organizational coping strategy A ther-
organic mental disorders (1) General
                                                    apeutic regime designed to reduce stress
  term for a group of mental illnesses
                                                    or other deleterious psychological
  whose cause can be linked to physical
                                                    effects in groups (usually of employ-
  damage or impairment to the brain (see
                                                    ees). See individual coping strategy.
  functional mental disorder). The damage
  can be of any nature – common sources           organizational psychology See occupa-
  are physical blows to the head,                   tional psychology.
  tumours, and poisoning by an excess of          orgone therapy Therapeutic technique
  hormones or drugs. (2) The DSM                    devised by Wilhelm Reich (psychother-
  system uses a rather tighter definition           apist). The methodology revolved
  of organic mental disorders (NB in                around the theory of the ‘orgone’, a
  DSM-IV they are given the unwieldy                particle of ‘life force’, which was accu-
  title of Delirium, Dementia, Amnesia              mulated and then released through sex.
  and other Cognitive Disorders), reserv-           Mental health problems were held to
  ing the term for illnesses which can be           occur because not enough orgones
  linked to a specific cause, and contrasts         were accumulated, and/or they weren’t
  this with organic brain syndrome,                 released properly. The therapy con-
  where the illness can be linked to brain          sisted of various rituals of massage, etc.,
  damage, although using existing tech-             and of the ‘orgone accumulator’ – a
  nology, measures record, at the most,             metal lined box which supposedly
  only slight physical damage. By the               accumulated orgones, and in which the
  DSM-III’s criteria, organic mental dis-           orgone-deprived patient sat. The
  orders include most of the dementias              therapy is reminiscent of some of the
  (notably dementia of the Alzheimer type           wilder excesses of the South Sea Bubble
  and multi-infarct dementia), and disorders        (although in fairness, some successes
  resulting from substance abuse; whilst            were claimed for the technique) and
  organic brain syndrome encompasses                since Reich’s death in the 1950s, has
  e.g. acute confusional state, Addison’s           been largely abandoned.
  disease, amnestic syndrome, Cushing’s
  syndrome, hyperthyroidism, hypothyroid-         orgonomy orgone therapy.
  ism, Korsakoff ’s syndrome, organic affective   Orleans-Hanna test Test of potential
  syndrome, organic delusional syndrome,           ability at algebra – the test measures
  organic hallucinosis, organic personality        ability to process symbolic representa-
  syndrome, and Wernicke’s dementia.               tions.
organic personality syndrome organic              ORT Object Relations Technique.
  mental disorder (or, by the DSM’s
  criteria, an organic brain syndrome) char-      orthogonal Unrelated.
  acterized by a severe personality               orthogonal factor analysis See factor
  change, resulting from brain damage.              analysis.
organic therapy Any physical method               orthogonal solution The solution
  of treatment.                                     derived from an orthogonal factor
                                                 OVERLAPPING LONGITUDINAL STUDY / 191

orthomolecular psychiatry The school                 overanxious disorder An anxiety
  of thought, founded by Linus Pauling,               disorder restricted to children. Principal
  that mental illness can be attributed to            symptoms include generalized anxiety
  problems in the chemical balance of the             (the DSM-IV classifies overanxious
  body and the brain. Therapy includes                disorder as a sub-set of generalized
  taking enormous quantities of vitamins              anxiety), and an abnormal concern
  (hence its other, less serious, name of             about scholastic performance and the
  megavitamin therapy). In spite of the late          future in general.
  Professor Pauling’s undoubted abilities
                                                     Overcoming Depression Computer-
  (he was twice a Nobel Prize-winner),
                                                      ized programme designed to help
  the theory has not met with universal
                                                      lower depression levels in patients using
orthopsychiatry The study of preven-
                                                     overcontrolled behaviour Behavioural
  tion of mental illness.
                                                       problem (particularly in children), in
OSI Occupational Stress Indicator.                     which apprehension about an event,
                                                       person, etc., controls their lives to the
osmophobia A phobia of smells.
                                                       point of creating anxiety and/or depres-
Othello syndrome delusional jealousy.                  sion.
outcome research Assessing the effec-                overcorrection Therapeutic method of
  tiveness of a treatment.                             counteracting the wrong behaviour
outlier Participant whose scores differ                pattern by following it with intensive
  appreciably from those of the rest of                practice of the correct method.
  his/her group. This may indicate that              overinclusive language Using too wide
  something went wrong with his/her                    a range of references in speech, rather
  testing and/or the scoring procedure.                than sticking to the main point. The
  Accordingly, there may be grounds for                disorder is found in schizophrenia.
  excluding the participant from the
                                                     overlapping longitudinal study An
  analysis. However, exclusion of outliers
                                                       attempt to overcome the pitfalls of the
  should not take place solely because
                                                       cross-sectional research and longitudinal
  they mar an otherwise conveniently
                                                       research methods. Different age groups
  neat set of findings.
                                                       o f p a r t i c i p a n t s a re t e s t e d an d
outlying case outlier.                                 compared, and then retested some time
outplacement counselling The provi-                    (usually years) later. At each testing, the
  sion of counselling to individuals or                different age groups can be compared,
  groups faced with redundancy. It is                  as in a cross-sectional study (e.g. a group
  usually a combination of helping to                  of 40-year-old participants can be
  cope with the emotional blow and                     compared with a group of 60-year-old
  assisting with finding a new job.                    participants). Also, however, the same
                                                       age cohort’s scores can be compared
overachievement Performing apprecia-                   across test periods (e.g. and the scores
  bly better at a (usually scholastic) task            of a group of participants who were 40
  than would be predicted from aptitude                on the first test session and 60 on the
  tests. In contrast, underachievement is per-         next can be compared). This enables
  forming far worse than would be pre-                 researchers to keep a check on possible
  dicted.                                              cohort effects. E.g. suppose that on retest-
                                                       ing, the 40-year-old participants have

  s c o re s 2 0 % h i g h e r t h a n t h e           with children or teenagers under the
  60-year-old participants. This might                 age of consent (most often the desired
  seem to indicate an age decline.                     individuals are pre-pubertal).
  However, suppose it is found that the
                                                     Pain Assessment Questionnaire
  scores of the 60-year-old group, when
                                                      (PAQ) Questionnaire measuring the
  they were 40, were only 5% higher.
                                                      degree to which chronic pain sufferers
  This indicates that a principal cause of
                                                      experience subjective discomfort.
  the difference is not ageing per se, but
  rather that the two age groups have                Pain Patient Profile (P-3) Measure of
  been reared differently. Finally, a                  factors relevant to a patient’s experi-
  time-lag comparison is possible (i.e. each           ence of chronic pain.
  age cohort’s scores can be compared as             paired associate learning Remember-
  they reach the same age).                            ing which item was previously pre-
overt behaviour Aspects of behaviour                   sented with which (e.g. the participant
  which can be measured; the way the                   sees the words ‘cat’ and ‘briefcase’ pre-
  participant presents him/herself to the              sented together, and later when shown
  rest of the world.                                   ‘cat’ must recall ‘briefcase’).
overt compulsion See compulsion.                     paired comparison (1) Statistical test
                                                       examining dif f erences between
OWLS tests Set of measures of various
                                                       members of paired samples. (2) Psycho-
 aspects of linguistic skills in younger
                                                       logical measure, in which the partici-
                                                       pant compares every item in a set of
own-control research ABA design.                       stimuli with every other item in the set
                                                       (e.g. for brightness, aesthetic value,
                                                     paired comparison ranking See
P                                                     ranking.

p (1) probability. (2) significance/signifi-         paired sample Form of matching, in
  cance level.                                         which participants are matched, so that
                                                       the scores of one participant are
P (1) Psychotism. (2) Perception.                      directly compared with those of the
P-3 Pain Patient Profile.                              other. Participants matched in this way
                                                       must be very similar indeed to justify
P technique A factor analysis method for               this one-to-one comparison. A
  e x a m i n i n g ho w c o n s i s t e n t l y a     common use of the method is in com-
  participant’s pattern of behaviour is                paring the same participant at two dif-
  maintained across different testing                  ferent times (e.g. before and after treat-
  conditions.                                          ment).
Pa scale See Minnesota Multiphasic Person-           paired t test See t test.
  ality Inventory.
                                                     palilalia Disordered speech character-
Padua Inventory Measure of obses-                      ized by the persistent repetition of the
 sive-compulsive behaviour.                            same information.
paedolalia infantile speech.                         palinopsia A disorder of visual percep-
paedophilia paraphilia in which the                    tion, in which items are seen as
  (adult) patient has a desire to have sex
                                                             PARALYSIS AGITANS / 193

  remaining after they have actually dis-         choices can be made and acted upon.
  appeared from view.                             E.g. a (probably apocryphal) story
                                                  concerns a man shy of looking people
palsy (1) Now largely superseded term
                                                  in the eye who was instructed to enter a
  for paralysis. (2) Paralysis accompanied
                                                  pharmacy, look the assistant in the eye,
  by hand tremors.
                                                  and ask if the shop stocked smaller
panel study (1) Study of a group (a               condoms because the normal ones were
  panel) of participants, usually over a          too big for him.
  period of time. Participants may share a
                                                paraesthesia Subjective impression of
  particular characteristic (in which case
                                                  sensations on the skin (e.g. burning,
  it is more accurately called a cohort
                                                  tickling, etc.) although no physical
  study), but more usually, they are
                                                  alteration of the skin has occurred. The
  selected simply because they are able
                                                  sensation has several causes, including
  and willing to come to the test sessions.
                                                  drug side-effects, and conversion
  (2) Not necessarily at odds with defini-
                                                  disorder. When the condition is coupled
  tion (1), the term is also often applied to
                                                  with epilepsy, it is known as sensory
  a body of participants who are willing
  to experience fairly aversive test proce-
  dures (e.g. injections, drug treatments,      parageusia An illusory or abnormally
  etc.).                                          distorted sense of taste.
panic attack See panic disorder.                paragnosia clairvoyance.
panic disorder One of the anxiety states.       paralalia The persistent substitution of
  Characterized by frequent panic attacks         sounds within a word.
  – in addition to feelings of severe
                                                paralexia (1) A misreading of words. (2)
  apprehension, there are sensations of
                                                  A form of dyslexia where there is a high
  not being in control, and physical
                                                  frequency of such errors.
  symptoms of shallowness of breath,
  dizziness, chest pains, etc.                  parallel forms (of a test) Different
                                                  versions of the same test, with equal
panophobia A phobia of everything.
                                                  predictive powers (see alternate form reli-
pantophobia panophobia.                           ability). They are employed because, if a
                                                  participant needs to be repeatedly
PAQ (1) Pain Assessment Questionnaire. (2)
                                                  tested on the same skill, using different
  Position Analysis Questionnaire.
                                                  versions of the same measure mini-
paradigm (1) An experimental method               mizes the practice effect.
  usually employed to demonstrate or
                                                parallel forms reliability alternate form
  investigate a particular concept or phe-
  nomenon. (2) A theoretical model.
                                                Parallel Spelling Tests (PST) Spelling
paradoxical injunction paradoxical
                                                  test for children aged 6–13 years. The
                                                  test uses blocks of sentences drawn
paradoxical intention Therapeutic                 from a large set, and by using different
  technique employed most notably in              combinations, a wide variety of test
  logotherapy. The patient is placed in a         blocks can be created.
  (usually exaggerated form of a) situa-
                                                paralog A nonsense word of two syllables.
  tion of which s/he is afraid or embar-
  rassed, and by going through with it,         paralogia Illogical language.
  comes to terms with the fact that
                                                paralysis agitans Parkinson’s disease.

paralytic dementia paresis.                     paraphemia Habitual misuse of words
                                                  and/or phonemes.
parametric statistics Statistical methods
  which presume that the data being             paraphilia A group of psychosexual disor-
  analysed come from populations with             ders, in which the patient solely or prin-
  particular sets of characteristics (param-      cipally gains sexual gratification from
  eters). Typically (but not invariably), it      activities and items either forbidden by
  is assumed that the data are continuous         societal conventions, or which would
  variables, and come from populations            not elicit such extreme responses in an
  with a normal distribution. Examining           average person. See atypical paraphilia,
  data which are derived from popula-             ecoutism, exhibitionism, fetishism, masoch-
  tions with the ‘wrong’ characteristics          ism, paedophilia, sadism, transvestism, and
  for the test in question will produce           voyeurism.
  spurious significance values, because,
                                                paraphobia See phobia.
  inter alia, the sampling distributions will
  be inappropriate. See non-parametric          paraphonia Abnormal voice production.
  statistics.                                   paraphrasia paraphasia.
paramimia An impaired ability to                paraphrenia paranoid schizophrenia.
  perform gestures.
                                                paraphrenic schizophrenia paranoid
paramnesia An incorrect or entirely false         schizophrenia.
  memory. Sometimes applied to a déjà
  vu experience.                                paraphresia parosmia.
paranoia Irrational feelings of persecu-        paraplegia See hemiplegia.
  tion and/or of self-importance.               parapraxis A minor slip of the tongue or
paranoid disorder Irrational suspicion            pen, or moment of absent-mindedness.
  of persecution or of being deceived by        parapsychology The study of psycho-
  others.                                         logical phenomena falling outside the
paranoid personality disorder person-             confines of conventional scientific
  ality disorder characterized by an irratio-     theory and experience (e.g. extrasensory
  nal suspicion of other people’s motives,        perception, psychokinesis). There is a body
  leading to a secretive and unemotional          of respectable and rigorously executed
  personality.                                    research in this area, but, unfortunately,
                                                  it is overshadowed by a mass of ‘pop
paranoid pseudocommunity A group                  psychology’ with little or no experi-
  of people who believe the arguments of          mental rigour. Perhaps because of this,
  a patient suffering from paranoia.              in the popular imagination the field is
paranoid schizophrenia See schizophre-            often (unfairly) associated with people
  nia.                                            who also have interesting ideas about
                                                  the Loch Ness Monster and the where-
paranosic gain A direct benefit from
                                                  abouts of Elvis Presley.
  being ill (e.g. avoiding work). See
  epinosic gain.                                parasexuality Any form of sexual
                                                  activity or predilection considered
paranosis paranosic gain.
                                                  abnormal by the society in which it is
paraparesis Weakness in the legs, result-         practised.
  ing from neural damage.
                                                parasomnia A disorder of sleep, or
paraphasia A profound misuse of words.            disorder which occurs during sleep.
                                                        PARTIAL CORRELATION / 195

parasuicide Attempted (but unsuccess-            fering from many of the dementias.
  ful) suicide; self-inflicted but not fatal     Causes of the illness are several, but a
  harm.                                          lack of dopamine in the substantia nigra
                                                 within the brain has been cited as a key
parataxis Lack of integration of thoughts
  and/or emotions.
                                               parmia Cattell’s term for a personality
parathymia inappropriate affect.
                                                 trait corresponding to degree of adven-
paratypic Caused by the environment.             turousness.
parent distribution The population dis-        parosmia Impaired sense of smell.
                                               parosphresia parosmia.
parent ego state See transactional analysis.
                                               paroxetine Type of selective serotonin
Parenting Stress Index (PSI) Measure             re-uptake inhibitor drug.
  of parenting abilities of parents with
                                               parsimony principle The general prin-
  children aged under 10 years. The test
                                                 ciple that in explaining an experimen-
  identifies aspects of parenting which
                                                 tal finding, the simplest explanation
  are under stress, and of potential
                                                 should be preferred.
  problems which might result.
                                               part correlation semi-partial correlation.
paresis Neurological disorder, character-
  ized by partial paralysis or complete        partial correlation A technique for
  paralysis (general paresis) and dementia.      assessing how much of the correlation
                                                 between two variables is due to the coin-
paresthesia paraesthesia.
                                                 cidental effect of a third variable. E.g.
parietal lobes The region of the cerebral        suppose that a high correlation is found
  cortex which occupies an area contigu-         between children’s feet sizes and their
  ous with a hairband across the head.           maths ability. This could be taken to
  Their role is hard to concisely define,        mean that being good at maths makes
  but they can be said to be involved in         your feet grow (or vice versa). However,
  maintaining an awareness of the body’s         a more plausible explanation is that the
  state and location, and in interpreting        relationship is due to a coincidental
  symbols (e.g. object recognition and           factor – namely, that older children
  some aspects of reading).                      tend both to have bigger feet and to be
Parkinsonism (1) A set of symptoms               better at maths tests than younger
  strongly akin to those of Parkinson’s          children. In order to demonstrate this, a
  disease, although they are present in          partial correlation would calculate how
  other disorders of psychological               much of the correlation between feet
  and/or neurological functioning. (2)           size and maths score was due to this
  Parkinson’s disease.                           third variable of age, and demonstrate
                                                 the extent to which feet and maths were
Parkinson’s disease (PD) organic mental          still related once the coincidental effect
  disorder, characterized by severe              of age had been accounted for. The
  muscular trembling in resting muscles,         technique has certain similarities with
  and akinesia. In later stages walking is       analysis of covariance. The difference lies
  reduced to a characteristic shuffle.           in the fact that analysis of covariance
  Patients are often depressed, and a            assesses whether differences between
  sizeable proportion are also intellectu-       groups remain after allowing for a third
  ally impaired. Symptoms of Parkin-             variable, whilst partial correlation
  son’s disease are found in patients suf-       assesses whether any relationship

  between them is still present. See corre-      passive therapy See active therapy.
  lation and semi-partial correlation.
                                                 Patau’s syndrome Genetic disorder
partialled out The process whereby the             characterized by intellectual dysfunc-
  coincidental effect of a third variable is       tion (may vary from relatively mild to
  mathematically removed from the corre-           severe in individual cases).
  lation between two variables. See partial
                                                 path analysis Complex technique for
  correlation and correlation.
                                                   analysing causal links from correlations
participant A person who participates in           between variables, both directly, and
  an experiment. In many statistical texts         indirectly through other variables. The
  and older psychological writings, the            variables can be single measures, or
  term subject is used instead. Generally,         several measures grouped together (e.g.
  psychology journal and book editors              a ‘mathematical skills’ variable could
  now prefer ‘participant’ because it is           simply be a score on a single mental
  thought to be more neutral sounding              arithmetic test, or alternatively, a
  and thus less offensive, but often ‘sub-         battery of tests of different maths
  ject’ is still used when referring to sta-       skills). The experimental hypothesizes
  tistical analyses.                               is that links between variables fall in
                                                   particular directions – in a recursive
participant observation Experimental
                                                   model, all influences fall in one direc-
  method in which the experimenter ‘dis-
                                                   tion only (e.g. A can affect B, but B
  guises’ him/herself as one of the group
                                                   cannot affect A). In a non-recursive
  of participants to be studied in order to
                                                   model, the influences can be mutual
  gain greater insight, closer observa-
                                                   (though not necessarily equally strong
  tions, etc. See action research and natural-
                                                   in both directions). The relationships
  istic research (definition 2).
                                                   between variables are traditionally
partile A division of a sample into equal          expressed with a diagram, in which the
  sizes (e.g. quartiles).                          names of the variables are linked by
parturiphobia A phobia of childbirth.              arrows, and the strength of the rela-
                                                   tionship is expressed as a path coeffi-
passing stranger effect The phenome-               cient (expressed as a correlation coeffi-
  non whereby some people are willing              cient, or as the number of standard devia-
  to talk about their problems with                tions by which one variable alters when
  complete strangers whom they meet for            the other variable changes by 1
  a brief while, and know they will never          standard deviation) printed above the
  meet again, whilst they would never do           arrow. The direction of the arrow indi-
  this with closer associates, therapists,         cates the direction of the relationship
  etc.                                             (e.g. AÕB indicates that A influences B,
passive-aggressive personality                     but not vice versa). A straight arrow
 disorder personality disorder character-          means that the experimenter has identi-
 ized by avoiding obeying other                    fied the nature of the causal link. A
 people’s requests (the avoidance is felt          curved double-headed arrow indicates
 by some theorists to be a substitute for          that a link has been identified, but the
 being aggressive and refusing alto-               direction of its causality is as yet uncer-
 gether). Note that the DSM-IV has                 tain. It should also be noted that the
 removed the definition from its list.             technique requires a degree of subjec-
                                                   tive judgement in deciding which
passive-dependent personality                      measures should be grouped together
 disorder dependent personality disorder.          as variables.
                                                                    PENETRANCE / 197

path coefficient See path analysis.            PDDNOS pervasive developmental disorder
                                                not otherwise specified.
pathognomonic symptoms Symptoms
  which are typical of a particular disease.   PDS Post-traumatic Stress Diagnostic Scale.
pathological gambling An impulse               Pd scale See Minnesota Multiphasic-
  disorder – the patient has an irresistible    Personality Inventory.
  urge to gamble.
                                               p.d.f. probability density function.
pathomimicry Imitation of illness
                                               PDI Psychiatric Diagnostic Interview.
  (either deliberately malingering or
  unconsciously through mental illness         PE probable error.
  such as factitious disorder).                Peabody Individual Achievement
pathoneurosis Excessive reaction to              Test (PIAT) achievement test principally
  illness.                                       assessing mathematics, reading and
                                                 spelling skills.
pathophobia A phobia of illness.
                                               Peabody Picture Vocabulary Scale See
Pathways to Independence A behav-
                                                 British Picture Vocabulary Scale.
  ioural checklist measuring the degree to
  which a patient is capable of independ-      peak experience A highly emotion-
  ent living.                                    ally-charged experience.
patient cohort A group of people with          Pearson correlation coefficient (r) A
  not only illness in common, but also a         measure of correlation when both vari-
  set of attitudes (e.g. feeling ‘un-            ables are measured on interval scales or
  healthy’). Compare with cohort and             ratio scales.
  disease cohort.                              PEC scale A measure of level of conser-
patient history See history.                    vatism of political and economic atti-
patrilineal Inherited through males.
                                               peccatophobia A phobia of being sinful.
pattern variable A value on a nominal
 scale where each score on the scale rep-      pedophilia paedophilia.
 resents a unique combination of attrib-       pegboard task There are several variants
 utes (e.g. 1 = males who like ice cream;        of this test of psychomotor skills, but
 2 = males who hate ice cream; 3 =               the central feature of all of them is that
 females who like ice cream; 4 = females         the participant is required to put pegs
 who hate ice cream).                            into holes as quickly as possible. One
PC (1) politically correct. (2) personal         commercial version of the test is the
 computer. (3) percentage correct.               O’Connor Finger Dexterity Test.
PCA principal components analysis.             penetrance The proportion of people
                                                 with a genetic makeup known to cause
PCC Portage Classroom Curriculum.
                                                 a particular condition who actually have
PCL Hare Psychopathy Test.                       the condition. Complete penetrance
                                                 occurs when all affected individuals
PCP phencyclidine – the initials are an
                                                 have the condition, and incomplete
 acronym for the drug’s chemical
                                                 penetrance occurs when only some have
                                                 it. Incomplete penetrance indicates that
PD Parkinson’s disease.                          another factor is required (typically an
PDD pervasive developmental disorder.

  environmental one) before the condi-         percentile norm A norm expressed in
  tion will manifest itself.                     terms of the percentile of the group
                                                 recording certain scores.
penile plesthymograph Device mea-
  suring the size of the male sexual organ,    percentile rank percentile.
  and accordingly, changes in the level of
                                               Perception (P) See Myers-Briggs Type
  sexual arousal.
penis envy See Freud’s psychoanalytic
                                               Perception of Relationships Test
                                                 (PORT) Measure of the degree of
People Pieces Test analogy test using            emotional closeness a child feels
  schematic figures, rather than words.          towards their parents and the ways in
                                                 whi ch t h e s e rel at i o n s h i p s a re
per-comparison error rate See familywise
  error rate.
                                               perceptual defence Raising the threshold
Perceived Competence Scale for
                                                 for recognizing items which are emo-
 Children Measure of children’s assess-
                                                 tionally disturbing/embarrassing, etc.
 ment of their own abilities at intellec-
 tual, social and physical skills, plus a      perfect correlation See correlation.
 measure of general self-esteem.
                                               performance anxiety anxiety induced
percentage cumulative frequency                  by fear of performing an act which
  curve Graphical representation of a            others will judge. The term has been
  percentage cumulative frequency distribu-      applied not only to performing before a
  tion.                                          large audience (public performance
                                                 anxiety), but to worries about how one
percentage cumulative frequency dis-
                                                 will ‘perform’ (e.g. sexually) with a
  tribution frequency distribution in which
                                                 partner, in an examination (test
  each observation is given a ‘score’ indi-
                                                 anxiety), etc. See performance neurosis.
  cating the percentage of total observa-
  tions which have values equal to or          performance asymmetry Consistently
  below the observation in question. E.g.        preferring to perform an act in a partic-
  the highest recorded mark on a test            ular way (e.g. opening a boiled egg at
  might be 40. Therefore, in a cumulative        the peaked rather than the rounded
  frequency distribution, 40 would be            end).
  given a score of 100 (since 100% of
                                               performance neurosis A neurosis
  scores are equal to or below 40). Simi-
                                                induced by fear of performing an act
  larly, a score of 50 would indicate that
                                                which others will judge. See performance
  half of the sample scores are at or below
  this point. These points are often called
  percentiles. E.g. ‘90th percentile’ indi-    Performance scales (WAIS) See
  cates that 90% of the sample have lower       Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale.
  scores. (Note, however, that some com-       performance test A non-verbal test
  mentators apply the reverse of this – i.e.     (usually of non-verbal intelligence).
  ‘90th percentile’ would mean that 90%
  of the sample have better scores.) The       period effect cohort effect.
  50th percentile is also referred to as the   periodicity Pertaining to something
  median. See cumulative frequency distribu-     which occurs at periodic intervals.
                                               peripheral construct See personal con-
percentile See percentage cumulative fre-        struct theory.
  quency distribution. Also, see quartiles.
                                                            PERSONAL EQUATION / 199

peripheral nervous system (PNS) Col-               ferently, based upon their own unique
  lective term for neurons not of the              set of knowledge and beliefs (construc-
  central nervous system.                          tive alternativism). Several types of
                                                   constructs are proposed: many are basic
permeable constructs See personal con-
                                                   building blocks (subordinate con-
  struct theory.
                                                   structs), which can be combined in a
perseveration A failure to stop repeating          variety of ways to form superordinate
  an action or statements. The phenome-            constructs. Others (e.g. a strong stance
  non is characteristic of patients with           on a particular issue) can only exist by
  damage to their frontal lobes, and certain       themselves (preemptive constructs).
  types of schizophrenia.                          constellatory constructs are prejudices
persistent vegetative state (PVS) See              which shape how other constructs are
  vegetative state.                                designed. Permeable constructs will
                                                   permit additions to their structure,
person-based test See knowledge-based              whilst impermeable constructs will not.
  test.                                            The process of expanding a construct is
person-centred therapy client-centred              known as dilation, whilst narrowing it
  therapy.                                         is known as constriction. Core con-
                                                   structs cannot be removed without
person-situation debate The debate                 altering a fundamental feature of per-
  over whether the state of the individual         sonality (in contrast, peripheral con-
  or the effect of the environment upon            structs can). The therapeutic regime
  him/her should be the central concern            derived from the theory essentially
  of research.                                     seeks to get patients to change inaccu-
persona A mode of behaviour adopted to             rate or inappropriate constructs for
  fulfil a particular societal role. Note that     ones which are more suitable: why the
  an individual’s personal needs and               person formed the constructs in the
  feelings need not concur with this. Too          first place, or why s/he is motivated to
  large a disparity between the personal           do so are not of central importance. A
  and public role is held by many theo-            method often employed is role play
  rists to result in behavioural and other         therapy. A person may not be able
  problems.                                        verbally to explain all his/her con-
                                                   structs, since many are not stored in a
personal construct See personal construct          verbal form. To allow a person to
  theory.                                          identify many of their constructs, Kelly
personal construct theory George Kelly             developed two major measures – the
  (1905–1967) argued that people view              Role Construct Repertory Test (REP Test)
  the world through constructs, which are          and the repertory grid test. See laddering.
  collections of ideas and opinions, and         personal construct therapy Therapeu-
  that in order to perceive a person’s             tic method based on personal construct
  personality, his/her personal constructs         theory.
  have to be determined, rather than mea-
  suring how s/he scores on common traits        personal equation Adjustment to scores
  (i.e. seeing how their traits compare            to allow for individual differences in
  with the rest of the population). The            ratings of an item, when attempting to
  theory has a certain intuitive appeal:           gain an accurate rating of the item
  it is a commonplace observation that             (e.g. one might wish to adjust for indi-
  everyone views the same situation dif-           vidual differences in reaction times in

  attempts to time exactly when an event             pally using in-depth analyses of rela-
  occurred).                                         tively small numbers of subjects.
personal growth group encounter group              persuasive therapy Any therapeutic
  aimed at promoting personal growth.                technique in which the therapist gives
                                                     direct advice to the patient.
personal-universal scale internal-
  external scale.                                  PERT Programme Evaluation and Review
personality A person’s set of behaviours,
  attitudes and experiences which define           pervasive developmental disorder
  his/her responses to others and to the             (PDD) Group term for a set of condi-
  environment.                                       tions originating before three years of
                                                     age, and characterized by profound
personality dimension A dimension
                                                     problems with communication and
  which measures a personality trait.
                                                     interacting with others. PDD com-
personality disorders General term for               prises five separate conditions: autism,
  a group of illnesses whose principal               Rett’s disorder, childhood disintegrative
  symptom is a personality trait which is            disorder (CDD), Asperger’s syndrome, and
  sufficiently extreme and at odds with              pervasive developmental disorder not other-
  societal norms to cause distress, either           wise specified (PDDNOS).
  to the patient or to those whom s/he
                                                   pervasive developmental disorder
  comes into contact with. These include:
                                                     not otherwise specified (PDDNOS)
  antisocial personality disorder, avoidant per-
                                                     A severe impairment, originating in
  sonality disorder, borderline personality
                                                     early childhood, of communication
  disorder, compulsive personality disorder,
                                                     and/or social skills, stereotyped
  dependent personality disorder, histrionic
                                                     patterns of behaviour and/or interests.
  personality disorder, narcissistic personality
                                                     The symptoms of the condition
  disorder, paranoid personality disorder,
                                                     resemble, but are not adequately similar
  passive-aggressive personality disorder,
                                                     to those of other pervasive developmental
  schizoid personality disorder, and
                                                     disorders (PDD). The degree to which
  schizotypal personality disorder.
                                                     PDDNOS is a separate entity or a
personality inventory Questionnaire                  failure to diagnose other forms of PDD
  test of personality.                               is debated.
personality test Any test which seeks to           PET scan positron emission tomography.
  codify a person’s personality (see e.g.
                                                   pet therapy See animal assisted therapy.
  Eysenck Personality Questionnaire).
                                                   petit mal epilepsy See epilepsy.
personality type See type.
                                                   PFQ Positive Feelings Questionnaire.
personalization (-isation) The
 misperception that remarks and events             PGR psychogalvanic skin response.
 are directed against oneself.
                                                   phagophobia A phobia of eating/swal-
personnel screening Assessing the                    lowing.
  information about job applicants.
                                                   phallic stage See Freud’s psychoanalytic
personology A biosocial movement,                    theory.
  centred around Henry Murray, and
                                                   phantom limb Phenomenon experi-
  most active in the 1940s and 1950s.
                                                     enced by some amputees that the
  Concentrated on personality, princi-
                                                     missing limb(s) feels as if it is still there.
                                                                    PHRENOLOGY / 201

pharmacodynamic tolerance The less-             phobia (phobic disorder) A type of
  ening of the effectiveness of a drug            anxiety disorder – an irrational and
  through repeated dosages.                       extreme fear of an item or event which
                                                  cannot be reasonably considered to be
pharmacokinetic tolerance The less-
                                                  denoted by a prefix (usually Greek in
  ening of the effectiveness of a drug
                                                  the case of a single source of anxiety,
  because less of it reaches the target (e.g.
                                                  and English if it is a set of things or a
  because it is metabolized increasingly
                                                  general situation). Among the better
                                                  known are fear of enclosed spaces
pharmacophobia A phobia of drugs.                 (claustrophobia), fear of open spaces
phencyclidine (PCP) psychedelic drug –            (agoraph obi a), f ear of spiders
  in relatively low doses, it creates a           (arachnophobia) and fear of heights
  feeling of euphoria.                            (acrophobia). Other phobias can be
                                                  more general, such as social phobia (fear
phenomenal Pertaining to that which is            of mixing and dealing with people). A
  perceived.                                      phobia held in a mild (i.e. not incapaci-
phenomenological experience The                   tating) form is known as a paraphobia.
  participants’ awareness of his/her own          Treatments for phobia have included
  perceptions, thoughts and feelings.             systematic desensitization and flooding.
phenomenological therapies Group                phobic disorder phobia.
  term for therapies which emphasize the        phobic object The object producing the
  patient’s own experiences and interpre-         phobia (e.g. a spider in the case of an
  tations. Best-known examples are                arachnophobic patient).
  client-centred therapy and therapies
  derived from personal construct theory.       phobophobia A phobia of fear.

phenomenology The doctrine that the             phonemic dyslexia phonological dyslexia
  principal focus of interest is the            phonological dysgraphia An inability
  contents of the mind and/or experi-             to spell words using phonological
  ence, rather than behaviour.                    skills. E.g. patients can spell real words,
phenothiazines A group of antipsychotic           but cannot spell nonsense words dictated
  drugs.                                          to them. See phonological dyslexia.

phenylketonuria (PKU) Genetically               phonological dyslexia An acquired
  inherited metabolic disorder, resulting        dyslexia – the patient is incapable of
  in failure to process phenylalanine, a         reading nonsense words, indicating a
  chemical found in many foodstuffs –            failure to translate letters into their oral
  unless given a diet which omits this           representations.
  substance, mental retardation results.        phonophobia A phobia of sound.
phi correlation coefficient (r§) See            photophobia An extreme physical sen-
  tetrachoric correlation coefficient.            sitivity to light (i.e. so that ‘normal’
Phillips scale Questionnaire assessing            lighting levels may be painful). The
 the premorbid adjustment of a schizo-            term bears no connotations normally
 phrenic patient.                                 associated with the suffix of phobia.

phinothiazines Group of major tranquil-         phrenaesthesia mental retardation.
  lizers.                                       phrenology The inference of personal-
                                                  ity type from the contours of the skull

  (i.e. reading ‘bumps on the head’).             Picture Arrangement Task Sub-test
  Popular in the nineteenth century, but            on the Weschler intelligence tests. The
  now discredited.                                  participant is shown a set of pictures
                                                    which must be placed in a sequence so
phylogenesis phylogeny.
                                                    that a cartoon-like story is told.
phylogeny The growth and develop-
                                                  picture completion task A measure of
  ment (in evolutionary terms) of the
                                                    intelligence. The participant is shown a
  species. Contrast with ontogeny.
                                                    picture from which something is
physical therapy organic therapy.                   missing (e.g. a door without a handle).
physiological addiction See addiction.              The participant’s task is to identify the
                                                    missing piece. The test can be prone to
physiological age biological age.                   cultural bias (e.g. showing a picture of a
physiological correlates The physio-                Porsche’s dashboard might not be
  logical processes which are linked with           readily accessible to most of the popu-
  a particular psychological act.                   lation).
PIAT Peabody Individual Achievement Test.         picture frustration test A projective test,
                                                    in which the participant is required to
piblokto A mental illness restricted to             judge how s/he would behave in the
  E s ki m o p e o p l e. The p r i n c i p a l     frustrating scenes shown on a series of
  symptoms are running uncontrollably,              pictures.
  screaming and crying.
                                                  Piers-Harris Children’s Self-Concept
pica A mental illness characterized by the          Scale Measure of children’s self-esteem.
  habitual eating of non-food substances.
                                                  Pillai-Bartlett trace significance test for
PICA Porch Index of Communicative Abili-            multivariate analysis of variance.
                                                  pilot study Small scale study which is a
Pick’s bodies Damaged neurons, found in             ‘dress rehearsal’ for a proposed larger,
  the brains of Pick’s Disease patients,            but identically structured study. It is
  which under a microscope have a char-             used to practise running tests and
  acteristic swollen appearance.                    ironing out problems which could not
Pick’s Disease Named after its discov-              be foreseen at the planning stage. Also
  erer, a form of dementia characterized by         it can be used to evaluate whether a
  a progressive deterioration of brain              larger (and costlier) study is worth
  tissue commencing in the ‘front’ of the           running at all.
  brain (more accurately, the frontal lobes)      pineal gland Located adjacent to the
  and progressing backwards. Psycho-                thalamus. Involved in regulation of the
  logically, there are often disturbances           ‘body clock’.
  in personality before any intellectual
  changes manifest themselves (unlike             PIP Developmental Charts behaviour
  other dementias, memory loss is usually           checklist assessing the key developmen-
  one of the last symptoms to appear).              tal ‘milestone’ of pre-school children.
picture anomalies test Any test in                PIPS Preschool Interpersonal Problem
  which the participant must identify              Solving Test.
  what is ‘wrong’ with a series of pictures       pituitary gland Located adjacent to (and
  (e.g. a dog with chicken’s legs, a car            principally controlled by) the hypothal-
  with square wheels, etc.).                        amus. Secretes hormones into the blood
                               POINT BISERIAL CORRELATION COEFFICIENT (RPB) / 203

Pk The percentile. The value assumed by k        play therapy Therapeutic technique in
 indicates its value. E.g. P20 = 20th per-         which the patient (usually a child) is
 centile, etc.                                     allowed to play with various toys and
                                                   materials. The manner in which s/he
PKU phenylketonuria.
                                                   plays forms part of the diagnosis, and
placebo A treatment which whilst                   amending some of the ways in which
  appearing to be real, in fact contains           s/he plays forms part or all of the treat-
  nothing of real value. However, the              ment (e.g. by treating the toys as substi-
  recipient of the treatment is convinced          tutes for real-life people and situations).
  that s/he is receiving the genuine
                                                 pleasure principle See Freud’s psychoana-
  thing. Usually the treatment consists of
                                                   lytic theory.
  a ‘drug’, but the term can also be
  applied to e.g. types of therapy. See          PLSD test Fisher’s PLSD test.
                                                 pluralism (1) Belief that things can have
placebo effect Improvement resulting               many causes. (2) The belief that there is
  from administration of a placebo. Since          more than one ‘ultimate principle’
  the placebo does not contain anything            (moral, logical, etc.). (3) The belief that
  of real worth, the improvement must be           more than one belief system or theory
  from purely psychological factors (e.g.          can c o-exist within t he same
  feeling better because of the attention          society/field of study.
  being received). It follows from this
                                                 PMAS primary mental abilities.
  that even when given a genuine treat-
  ment, part of the improvement in the           PMA Test Primary Mental Abilities (PMA)
  participant must be due purely to the           Test.
  placebo effect. One way of assessing           PMPQ Professional and Managerial Position
  whether an improvement following a              Questionnaire.
  treatment is due to expectation or to a
  real effect is to run a placebo study, in      PMS (1) premenstrual syndrome. (2) Profile
  which one group receives a placebo              of Mood States.
  and another the real treatment. One            PMT (1) premenstrual tension. (2) Porteus
  would expect both groups to display             mazes test.
  some improvement, but to be of any
  value, the treatment must score signifi-       PN Test projective personality test, akin to
  cantly higher marks than the placebo.           the Blacky Test. ‘PN’ is a pig, shown in
  The placebo study can be criticized for         pictures of a variety of situations
  providing a bad service to those receiv-        designed to assess aspects of develop-
  ing the placebo, if the genuine treat-          ment according to Freudian theory.
  ment yields appreciably better results.        pneumoencephalograph X-ray image
  See nocebo.                                      of the brain after air has been injected
placebo study See placebo effect.                  into it via the spinal cord. The tech-
                                                   nique reveals distortions in the brain’s
planned comparison Experimental                    shape.
  design in which the experimenter
  intended to perform the comparison             PNS peripheral nervous system.
  performed. See unplanned comparison.           pogonophobia A phobia of beards.
platykurtic distribution frequency distri-       point biserial correlation coefficient
  bution with a very flattened shape. See          (rpb) A measure of correlation between
  leptokurttc distribution and mesokurtic dis-     a dichotomous variable and a variable
  tribution.                                       measured on an interval scale or a ratio

  scale. The dichotomous variable must               x (a third order regression line) yields a
  have ‘natural’ categories (e.g. male and           curved line with two ‘bends’. (A first
  female) – if it is an artificial dichotomy,        order regression line simply predicts y
  then the analysis required is a biserial           from x, and is the procedure used in
  correlation coefficient. If the groups             linear regression).
  being compared score at opposite
                                                   polyopsia A disorder of visual percep-
  extremes of a measurement scale, then a
                                                     tion, in which items are seen as
  widespread biserial correlation coefficient is
                                                   polyphagia over-eating.
point estimate A figure that is an
 estimate of the value for the population.         ponophobia (1) A phobia of pain. (2) A
 The degree to which it is accurate may              phobia of being over-worked.
 be gauged by including the confidence             pons Part of brain stem. Functions include
 interval as well.                                   relaying information between the spinal
pointedness of distribution kurtosis.                cord and the brain.
Poisson distribution Special form of               Pool Reflections Test A measure of
 the binomial distribution in which one of          visuo-spatial skills. The participant is
 the mutually exclusive events has a lower          required to identify (from a multiple
 probability of occurrence than the                 cho i c e) a f i g ure whi ch i s t he
 other.                                             mirror-image of a given figure.
politically correct (PC) The degree to             pop psychology (1) Derogatory term for
  which an item conforms to currently                over-simplified (often to the point of
  acceptable moral standards. The term is            being inaccurate) works on a psycho-
  in principle useful, but has become a              logical theme devised for the popular
  contentious one because of the debate              media. (2) Everyday explanations of
  (largely media-fuelled) over who                   psychological processes offered by
  decides what is acceptable.                        non-psychologists, usually based on an
                                                     interpretation (and often further sim-
polydipsia Over-drinking (any fluids).
                                                     plification) of media interpretations of
polydrug abuse See substance abuse.                  psychology.
polygraph A machine measuring heart                Popper’s theory of science See
  and breathing rates, galvanic skin                falsifiability.
  response, blood pressure, etc., to monitor a
                                                   population The total set of subjects,
  participant’s physical responses to
                                                     items, or data possessing a particular
  questions. The most familiar use for the
                                                     characteristic (e.g. one could consider
  machine is as a ‘lie detector’.
                                                     populations of students, crested newts,
polynomial regression non-linear regres-             humans, coal scuttles, etc.). A finite pop-
  sion in which a curved, rather than                ulation has a limited number of
  straight regression line is calculated. The        members (e.g. cars made in 1968),
  line is calculated by predicting y from x          whilst an infinite population has no size
  plus x to any number of powers speci-              constraints (e.g. numbers). It is often
  fied by the experimenter. For example,             obviously impossible to measure every
  a line calculated by predicting y from             member of a population, and therefore,
  values of x and x (a second order regression       its characteristics have to be inferred
  line) yields a curved line with one                from a sample from it (inferential statis-
  ‘bend’). A line calculated from x, x , and         tics).
                             POST-TRAUMATIC STRESS DIAGNOSTIC SCALE (PDS) / 205

population mean The mean of the popu-          positive reinforcement Rewarding a
  lation. Unless the values of every single      participant for performing the behav-
  member of the population are taken             iour which s/he is being taught.
  into account (which is usually impracti-
                                               positive result See negative result.
  cal) then this has to be estimated from
  the sample mean.                             positive symptom See negative symptom.
population validity The degree to              positively skewed distribution See
  which a sample represents the popula-          negatively skewed distribution.
  tion from which it is drawn.                 positivism Philosophical doctrine that
population variance The mean of the              only that which can be observed and
  sum of the squared raw score deviations of     objectively measured is fit for study.
  the sample.                                  positron emission tomography (PET
Porch Index of Communicative Abil-               scan) Body scan in which the patient is
 ities (PICA) test battery used in the           given a mildly radioactive tracer (e.g.
 assessment and classification of                injection of radioactive glucose) whose
 aphasia.                                        passage in the blood stream is then
                                                 charted. The PET scan can thus
poriomania A compulsion to walk
                                                 measure, inter alia: abnormal metabo-
 around aimlessly.
                                                 lism, thereby indicating atrophy or
PORT Perception of Relationships Test.           abnormally functioning cells (e.g. in a
                                                 tumour); blood flow; energy use by dif-
Portage Classroom Curriculum
                                                 ferent areas of the brain (and hence
 (PCC) Behaviour checklist for assessing
                                                 how areas change activity levels
 the psychological and motor develop-
                                                 depending on the nature of the psycho-
 ment of children aged 2–6 years.
                                                 logical task being prevented).
Porteus mazes A set of paper and pencil
                                               post hoc comparison post hoc test.
 mazes, designed to assess visuo-spatial
 intelligence. They are also used to           post hoc reasoning Explaining events
 assess patients with some forms of brain        with the gift of hindsight.
                                               post hoc test Any method of investigat-
Position Analysis Questionnaire                  ing an unplanned comparison (contrast
 (PAQ) A job analysis questionnaire              with a priori test).
 yielding ratings on six categories
                                               post-hypnotic suggestion See hypnosis.
 appropriate to commonly sought-after
 jobs (e.g. extent to which job requires       post-natal depression State of depression
 use of machinery, physical skills, etc.).       which occurs in some mothers shortly
                                                 after giving birth. Symptoms include
positive asset search See asset search.
                                                 feelings of inadequacy and hopeless-
positive correlation See correlation.            ness.
Positive Feelings Questionnaire                post-test Assessing the effect of a treat-
 Measure of level of a person’s positive         ment – this is usually compared with
 feelings for his/her partner.                   the results of a pre-test, which measured
                                                 the state prior to treatment.
positive psychology The study of
 leading a happy and fulfilling exis-          Post-traumatic Stress Diagnostic
 tence.                                         Scale (PDS) Diagnostic test of post-
                                                traumatic stress.

post-traumatic stress disorder                  cally weak test have the same power as a
 (PTSD) Feelings of anxiety, depression,        stronger one. This is calculated as 100 x
 and an emotional numbing and dis-              (sample size of test A yielding power
 tancing from once-liked events and             size p / sample size of test B yielding
 people, resulting from being subjected         power size p), where B is the weaker
 to a catastrophic experience (e.g.             test. E.g. if test B has power p when it
 hijacking, war, etc.) which have lasted        has 20 participants, whilst test A attains
 for 1–3 months (acute post-traumatic           the same power with 10 participants,
 stress disorder) or over 3 months              then B has 50% of A’s power. The
 (chronic post-traumatic stress disorder).      power-efficiency measure is used to
 Acute stress disorder has similar              compare the relative powers of statisti-
 symptoms but is shorter-lasting (the           cal tests, especially comparisons of
 DSM-IV specifies that it must arise            non-parametric and parametric tests
 within 4 weeks of the event and last less      (usually the former are weaker).
 than 4 weeks).
                                              power test Any measure in which the
posterior Anatomical term. In a quadru-         accuracy of the answers, rather than the
  ped, it denotes the rear/tail section of      time taken to complete, is of prime
  the animal. In bipedal animals, it            importance. This contrasts with the
  denotes the back section (i.e. the back       speed test, in which the speed at which
  rather than the belly side). See ventral.     correct answers can be produced is the
                                                principal consideration.
postural echo (Consciously or other-
  wise) mimicking the posture of              practice effect The phenomenon
  someone else. In normal interaction,          whereby the more a participant is
  this usually indicates that the people        tested on a particular test, the better
  concerned are in accord with each             s/he gets (through practice). This can
  other.                                        distort findings (e.g. if the participant
                                                has to be repeatedly tested as in a longi-
postural tremor Trembling that occurs
                                                tudinal study). More generally, repeated
  when the affected body part is being
                                                testing, even on different tests, can
  held in a posture against gravity.
                                                produce test wise participants. See parallel
potency dimension See semantic differ-          forms (of a test) and Solomon four-group
  ential technique.                             design.
power (of a statistical test) Calculated      Prader–Willi syndrome (PWS)
  as 1 – beta. The higher the score, the       Genetic disorder characterized by
  less likely the test is to make a Type II    excessive appetite, poor muscle tone
  error. Typically, a value of circa 0.8 is    and immature physical development.
  considered acceptable. Generally, para-      There is usually emotional instability
  metric tests have greater power than         and a degree of intellectual impair-
  non-parametric tests. Also, power            ment.
  increases with the sample size being
                                              praxernia Cattell’s term for a personality
  considered (see power-efficiency).
                                                trait corresponding to degree of realism
power curve Graphical representation of         and practicality.
  the power calculation. The curve
                                              pre-delinquent Child whose behaviour
  becomes narrower with increasing
                                                pattern indicates a danger of him or her
  sample size.
                                                becoming a delinquent.
power-efficiency The increase in
                                              pre-morbid Before the illness.
 sample size required to make a statisti-
                                                                   PREPAREDNESS / 207

pre-morbid adjustment The degree to              Predictive Screening Test of Articula-
  which the patient ‘fitted in’ with               tion (PSTA) Test which assesses a
  ‘normal’ life prior to falling ill. With         child’s articulation defect and also
  certain mental illnesses (e.g. many              predicts whether the child will auto-
  forms of schizophrenia), the patient             matically ‘grow out of it’.
  may be reported as e.g. being ‘eccen-
                                                 predictive validity The degree to which
  tric’ or a ‘loner’ (see Phillips scale).
                                                   a test score predicts the future behav-
pre-morbid IQ The IQ level (usually                iour or performance of the participant.
  estimated) of a person before the onset          Concurrent validity measures the
  of an illness (usually one which has             degree to which the test predicts
  affected the intellect – e.g. dementia).         behaviour/performance at or near the
                                                   same time as the test. Both measures are
pre-morbid state State before the onset
                                                   expressed as correlations between the
  of illness.
                                                   test and the behaviour/performance in
Pre-School Behaviour Checklist                     question. Sometimes predictive and
 behaviour checklist for assessing the             concurrent validity are subsumed under
 development of children aged 2–5                  the title of criterion-related validity.
 years.                                            See validity.
pre-senile dementia dementia whose               predictor variable A variable whose
  onset occurs before the patient’s 60th           value is held to predict another variable
  birthday was once felt to be qualita-            (the predicted variable).
  tively distinct from senile dementia, but
                                                 preemptive constructs See personal con-
  this division is now disputed.
                                                   struct theory.
pre-test See post-test.
                                                 premature ejaculation Achievement of
precision (h) A measure of the narrow-             orgasm by the male before he or his
  ness of the frequency distribution (i.e. how     partner wishes. The term is usually spe-
  closely the values fall around the mean).        cifically applied to an habitual ‘hair
  Calculated as the reciprocal of the              trigger’ level of responsiveness.
                                                 premenstrual syndrome (PMS)
preconscious Term denoting those                  Extreme feelings of bloatedness, depres-
  thoughts which are subjectively per-            sion and irritability felt by many women
  ceived as not in consciousness but              for several days prior to their period.
  which can be almost instantly ‘brought          Some commentators treat PMS and
  to mind’.                                       premenstrual tension (PMT) as
predictability The degree to which a              synonyms, whilst some reserve the
  statistical formula can predict the value       label of PMS for more severe cases of
  of a predicted variable given the values of     the symptoms.
  the predictor variables.                       premenstrual tension (PMT) See
predicted variable A variable whose                premenstrual syndrome.
  value is predicted from the values of          premsia Cattell’s term for a personality
  other variables (e.g. in a regression            trait corresponding to degree of
  equation). In multiple regression, a             tender-mindedness.
  synonym of the criterion variable.
                                                 preparedness The degree to which a
predictive research See explanatory                participant is predisposed to acquire a
  research.                                        particular habit, mental illness, etc.

presbycusis Hearing loss characterized          prevention (of disease) Classified by
  by a relatively greater difficulty in per-      some commentators into three types.
  ceiving high frequency sounds.                  Primary prevention corresponds to pro-
                                                  phylactic treatment. Secondary prevention
presbyopia An inability to focus on near
                                                  is identifying cases in the early stages
                                                  before they can become established.
Preschool Interpersonal Problem                   Tertiary prevention is simply the treat-
  Solving Test (PIPS) Presents partici-           ment of the disease.
  pants with pictures of various social
                                                preventive counselling counselling
  problems, to which the participants
                                                  intended to dissuade individuals from
  must provide as many solutions as
                                                  commencing or maintaining potential
                                                  or actual dangerous behaviours (e.g.
prescriptive Providing guidance or                providing guidance on ‘safe sex’).
                                                Prevue assessment system Measure of a
presenilin-1 Gene located on chromo-              person’s skills and personality used to
  some 14 associated with a variant of            assess suitability for a variety of occu-
  early onset dementia of the Alzheimer type.     pations.
presenilin-2 Gene located on chromo-            primacy effect The phenomenon
  some 1 associated with a variant of             whereby items at the beginning of a list
  early onset dementia of the Alzheimer type.     are remembered better than those in
Present State Examination (PSE)                   the middle of a list. See recency effect.
  Standardized measure of a patient’s           primal scream See primal therapy.
  current mental state.
                                                primal therapy Therapeutic technique
p re s e n t i n g s y m p t o m s (1) The        devised by Arthur Janov, who held that
  symptoms which a patient possesses              underlying the patient’s problems were
  when first presenting for treatment. (2)        unresolved problems and conflicts in
  The symptoms which first cause the              childhood (the primal trauma). The
  patient to seek or be sent for treatment        therapy encouraged patients to emit a
  (this is different from definition 1,           primal scream – a wholehearted yell –
  because the patient may have other              to vent pent-up feelings about the
  symptoms of which s/he is unaware).             primal trauma. This was held to be
pressure of speech Habitually garbled             therapeutic.
  and rapid speech.                             primal trauma See primal therapy.
preventative ritual A compulsive and            primary amenorrhoea See amenorrhoea.
  irrational behaviour in which the
                                                primary auditory cortex Area of
  patient repeatedly performs an act to
                                                  temporal lobe, responsible for receiving
  avoid a negative event (e.g. repeatedly
                                                  auditory signals. The secondary
  checking that the gas taps are turned
                                                  auditory cortex and the tertiary
  off before going to bed). In contrast, a
                                                  auditory cortex are adjacent to the
  restorative ritual is a compulsive act
                                                  primary area, and are responsible for
  performed to remove the perceived
                                                  the interpretation and identification of
  negative effects of an event (e.g. com-
  pulsively washing after meeting
  someone of the opposite sex).                 primary cortex Collective name for
                                                  areas of cortex directly receiving
                                                  sensory and motor information. The
                                                                    PRION DISEASE / 209

  secondary cortex refers to areas adjacent     primary source The original report of
  to the primary cortex, which integrate          an experiment, observation, etc. (e.g. a
  and interpret this information. The             journal article). See secondary source.
  tertiary cortex (association cortex)
                                                primary symptoms Symptoms which
  refers to the remaining cortical areas,
                                                  are presumed to be a core feature of an
  which are involved in cognitive pro-
                                                  illness (most commonly the term is used
  cesses, but which do not appear to have
                                                  in schizophrenia). Symptoms which are
  a specific function. Note that some
                                                  thought to be the results of primary
  commentators group the secondary
                                                  symptoms are called secondary
  and tertiary cortices together, and label
  them the association cortex.
                                                primary visual cortex Area of the occipi-
primary drive See drive.
                                                  tal lobe which receives the direct input
primary factor See factor analysis.               from the eyes. The secondary visual
                                                  cortex is principally responsible for
primary impotence See impotence.
                                                  interpreting the information received
primary memory short-term span.                   by the primary cortex.
primary mental abilities (PMAs) The             primitive conflict According to some
  most basic mental skills, held to               commentators, an anxiety formed in
  underlie all mental processes. Often            early childhood, which underlies later
  classified as verbal, numerical, and            fears.
  visuo-spatial, but many researchers cite
                                                primitive reflex reflexes found only in
  Thurstone’s wider calculation of seven
                                                  babies, which normally disappear by
  primary mental abilities (memory,
                                                  the first birthday (best known is the
  numerical, perceptual, reasoning,
                                                  Babinski reflex). If present in adults, then
  space, verbal, and word fluency). See
                                                  they are indicative of neurological
  Primary Mental Abilities (PMA) Test.
Primary Mental Abilities (PMA) Test
                                                principal components analysis Statis-
  Intelligence test battery assessing ability
                                                  tical method for summarizing a large
  at Thurstone’s seven primary mental abil-
                                                  number of variables in terms of a smaller
                                                  n u m b e r o f i n d i c e s, whi ch are
primary prevention See prevention (of             uncorrelated with each other (akin to
  disease).                                       the factors in an orthogonal factor
primary process thought See Freud’s               analysis). The indices are also ordered,
  psychoanalytic theory.                          so that the first index accounts for the
                                                  largest amount of variance, the second
Primary Reading Test (PRT) Reading                index the second largest amount, etc.
  test for participants aged 6–12. There          See factor analysis.
  are t wo ‘Levels’: Level 1, for
  6–10-year- olds, and Level 2, for             principal components factor analysis
  7–12-year-olds. Both consist of                 See factor analysis.
  word-picture matching and sentence            principal factor analysis See factor
  completion tasks.                               analysis.
primary sensory area An area of the             prion disease (Speculative) group term
  parietal lobe (located in a strip adjacent      for a range of degenerative brain
  to the central sulcus) involved in touch,       diseases such as bovine spongiform
  pain and temperature perception.                encephalopathy and Creutzfeldt-Jakob

  Disease, which some commentators             probable error (PE) A measure of disper-
  believe are due to an abnormal protein         sion, which can be calculated as 0.6745
  metabolism. ‘Prion’ is an abbreviation         of the standard error. In a normal distribu-
  of ‘proteinaceous infectious particle’.        tion, 50% of the observations fall
                                                 within the mean plus or minus the
privation See deprivation.
                                                 probable error.
probability (p) The fraction of occasions
                                               proband Individual who possesses a par-
  upon which a particular event is likely
                                                 ticular trait, disease, etc., who is chosen
  to occur. Probability can be represented
                                                 as the starting point of a study of
  as a fraction, a percentage, or a decimal
                                                 genetic inheritance. The proband’s
  fraction (with a maximum value of 1.0).
                                                 blood relatives are examined to see if
  For example, 1/2, 50% and 0.5, all
                                                 they also possess the trait/disease in
  mean that the event is predicted to
  occur on half the occasions in question.
  The decimal fraction is the most             process schizophrenia See schizophre-
  commonly used. See classical probability.      nia.
probability curve Graph displaying the         Procrustes rotation See factor analysis.
  probability of different values of the
                                               product-moment correlation coeffi-
  same variable occurring.
                                                 cient See correlation.
probability density The probability of an
                                               product variable variable produced by
  event occurring between two specified
                                                 multiplying other variables.
                                               Professional and M anagerial
probability density function (p.d.f.)
                                                Position Questionnaire (PMPQ) job
  frequency distribution.
                                                analysis questionnaire aimed at white
probability level significance level.           collar workers.
probability ratio The probability of an        profile The psychological composition
  event occurring expressed as a fraction        of a participant as defined by his/her
  of the probability of all possible alter-      scores on a set of tests of psychological
  natives occurring.                             attributes.
probability sampling Choosing differ-          Profile of Mood States (PMS) A
  ent participants for a sample in propor-       measure of the current mood of the par-
  tion to their representativeness in the        ticipant. Has two formats: ‘monopolar’,
  general population (e.g. if 40% of a           measuring a set of single moods (e.g.
  population is working class, choosing          tension/anxiety); and ‘bipolar’, mea-
  40% of one’s sample from people with           suring a set of moods each presented as
  a working class background). The               a continuum between extremes (e.g.
  criteria chosen can vary according to          composed-anxious).
  the needs of the study. E.g. in examin-
                                               profile matching (1) Any process of
  ing the attitudes of the public to politi-
                                                 matching a participant to the psycho-
  cal issues, getting the correct mix of
                                                 logical characteristics of known ‘good’
  classes would be an important factor,
                                                 exponents of the skill in question. The
  and e.g. quality of eyesight would be
                                                 phrase is most commonly used for com-
  unimportant. However, in examining
                                                 paring job applicants’ scores to those of
  ability to perceive road signs, class may
                                                 a person known to be good at the job in
  be relatively unimportant, but eyesight
                                                 question. (2) Identifying the character-
  would be of crucial interest.
                                                 istics of the person being sought, and
                                                         PROSPECTIVE STUDY / 211

  then searching for an individual who         supposedly reveals details of the partic-
  fits the description. E.g. in searching      ipant’s personality (the projective
  for a criminal, identifying what s/he is     hypothesis). It is favoured most strongly
  likely to be like may reduce the police      by some branches of psychoanalysis – the
  search time.                                 opinions of mainstream experimental
                                               psychology have generally been less
profound mental retardation See
                                               complimentary. Compare with non-pro-
  mental retardation.
                                               jective personality test.
progeria A congenital condition charac-
                                             projective test projective personality test.
  terized by stunted physical growth,
  rapid physical ageing, and onset of        pronoun reversal Language disorder in
  dementia whilst still in childhood.          which the patient refers to him/herself
                                               in the third person.
prognosis Anticipated result (of treat-
  ment etc.). Contrast with diagnosis.       prophylactic treatment Taking precau-
                                               tionary measures to avoid catching a
Programme Evaluation and Review
                                               disease or to prevent other undesired
  Technique (PERT) System of
                                               outcomes (e.g. barrier contraception,
  planning a research programme. The
                                               inoculation, etc.). See prevention (of
  problem is identified and itemized into
                                               disease) and preventive counselling.
  a series o f smaller p ro bl ems.
  Problem-solving methods and their          proportional stratified sampling See
  logistics (including time taken to           stratified sampling.
  execute them) are calculated using a
                                             propositus proband.
  series of formulae.
                                             proprioreception Awareness of the
progressive When referring to an injury
                                               position of one’s body and parts of
  – an injury which is getting worse.
                                               one’s body.
Progressive Matrices Test Raven’s Pro-
                                             proprioreceptor Any sensory process
  gressive Matrices.
                                               involved in proprioreception.
progressive relaxation relaxation
                                             proprium See Allport’s theory of personality
progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP)
                                             prosopagnosia A profound failure to
  An illness characterized by distur-
                                               recognize faces.
  bances of motor function and mild to
  moderate dementia.                         prospective memory task Memory
                                               measure in which the participant is
projection In psychoanalysis, transferring
                                               required to remember to do something
  one’s own faults onto other people –
                                               in the future.
  e.g. a man who is a compulsive liar
  decides that everyone tells lies except    prospective study Experimental
  him.                                         method in which a group of partici-
                                               pants is studied, and then followed over
projective hypothesis See protective per-
                                               a period of time to see if some of the
  sonality test.
                                               group develop a particular condition
projective personality test Personality        (e.g. a mental illness). The participants
  measure in which the participant is          who do are compared with those who
  required to make up stories or other         do not, to see if they differed on any of
  descriptive passages based upon a            the measures they were originally
  picture or other object. The technique       assessed on. The method avoids the

  biasing problems of the retrospective          pseudoconvulsion A convulsion or fit,
  study, but is logistically difficult to run.     attributable to a somatoform disorder.
  Since many conditions are relatively
                                                 pseudodementia A side-effect of depres-
  rare, a very large number of people
                                                   sion in some older people – a lowering
  must be tested and kept track of, in
                                                   in intellectual abilities, which in turn
  order to yield a reasonable sample of
                                                   masquerades as dementia.
  participants with the condition in
  question.                                      pseudodepression A lack of activity and
                                                   conversation exhibited by some
protected t test Fisher’s PLSD test.
                                                   patients with damaged frontal lobes,
protocol (1) A set of instructions. (2)            who from their behaviour appear
  Records of an experiment, observa-               depressed, although they are not.
  tions, etc.
                                                 pseudolalia Emitting meaningless
protriptyline A tricyclic drug.                    speech sounds.
proverb test Any test in which partici-          pseudologia fantastica A syndrome
  pants are asked to provide explanations          characterized by the compulsive telling
  for proverbs.                                    of tall stories, which the patient briefly
                                                   believes, and then discards.
proximal Anatomical term. Closer to a
  reference point on the body than               pseudomania A compulsive urge to
  another section of the body under con-           confess to crimes (of which the patient
  sideration. Compare with distal.                 is innocent).
proximal effects Changes directly                pseudomemory paramnesia.
  attributable to changes in another
                                                 pseudoneurotic schizophrenia
  process (e.g. a stroke, due to a defect in
                                                  schizotypal personality disorder.
  the cardiovascular system). See distal
  effects.                                       pseudoparkinsonism Parkinsonism
                                                   induced by long-term use of certain
proximate cause The immediate cause
  of an event. This is contrasted with the
  ultimate cause, which may be a more            pseudopsychosis factitious disorder in
  general factor underlying the proxi-             which the ‘faked’ illness is a mental
  mate cause. E.g. the immediate cause of          one, particularly a psychosis.
  a blow on the head might be that a             pseudoretardation Mental abilities
  bottle was thrown by a person. The               commensurate with mental retardation,
  ultimate cause may be that the said              which are attributable to poor upbring-
  person suffered the results of faulty            ing rather than a congenital problem.
                                                 PSI Parenting Stress Index.
proximo-distal growth Growth pro-
  gressing from the midline outwards.            psilocybin See psychedelic drugs.
Prozac Brand name of fluoxetine.                 psopholalia meaningless language.
PRT Primary Reading Test.                        PSP progressive supranuclear palsy.
PSE Present State Examination.                   PST Parallel Spelling Tests.
pseudo- The prefix denotes that the              PSTA Predictive Screening Test of Articula-
  suffix is a ‘fake’, in that its causes are       tion.
  not the ones normally associated with          psychalgia A physical disorder not
  the condition (see e.g. pseudodementia).         attributable to physical causes.
                                                                 PSYCHODRAMA / 213

psychasthenia psychoasthenia.                 psychoactive Having an effect on psy-
                                                chological functioning.
psychedelic drug (Illegal) drug which
  produces hallucinations, and feelings of    psychoanalysis The treatment of mental
  an altered reality. The sensations are        illness by means of analysing the
  often reported as being profoundly            patient’s subconscious, which is argued
  beautiful and calming, but equally,           to be the cause of aberrant conscious
  nightmarish ‘trips’ are not uncommon.         behaviour and/or negative feelings.
  The most common of these drugs are            Psychoanalysis is usually confined to
  d-lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD),           the treatment of relatively mild com-
  mescaline, phencyclidine, and psilo-          plaints. See ego analysis, Freud’s psychoan-
  cybin (synthetically manufactured,            alytic theory.
  derived from the peyote cactus, and
                                              psychoanalytic Adjective of psychoanaly-
  derived from the psilocybe mushroom).
  In the 1960s and 1970s in particular,
  the experience of such drug-taking          psychoanalytically-oriented psycho-
  attracted various artists, pop groups,        therapy General term for any method
  etc., as well as more serious research on     of psychotherapy which has adopted psy-
  whether the effects of psychedelic            choanalytic techniques and theories as an
  drugs mimicked those of psychoses             appreciable component of its therapeu-
  (particularly schizophrenia). Users of        tic content, although without an adher-
  psychedelic drugs may also be prone to        ence to all its principles.
  flashbacks – these are recurrences of       psychoasthenia mental retardation.
  images from a ‘trip’ which occur
  months or even years after the last dose    psychodiagnosis Diagnosis of (mental)
  has been taken.                               illness through assessment of psycho-
                                                logical symptoms.
Psychiatric Diagnostic Interview
  (PDI) A diagnostic test, conducted by       psychodrama A therapeutic technique
  interview, which identifies the princi-       in which the patient must act out the
  pal mental illnesses from which the           role of him/herself or another key
  patient might be suffering.                   person in his/her life in a dramatic
                                                enactment of an event. The main thera-
psychiatric history See history.                peutic focus is on one group member,
psychiatry The treatment of mental              and it is his/her issue that is worked on
  illness by qualified medical practitio-       by the group throughout one session.
  ners with appropriate specialist              Members of the group act as witness to
  training. Treatment usually involves          their drama, and as auxilliary egos in
  conventional medical treatments, such         role as the protagonist’s significant
  as drug therapies, but psychiatrists may      others. The experience supposedly
  also provide non-drug therapies as well       enables the patient objectively to view
  (e.g. counselling).                           his/her situation, in so far as it allows
                                                the presentation of personal truth in the
psychic ataxia mental ataxia.
                                                protected world of make-believe as a
psychic determinism The belief that             way to master and cope vicariously
  behaviour is controlled by the uncon-         with stressful life events in a creative
  scious.                                       and adaptive manner. Dramatherapy is
                                                incorrectly used by some commenta-
psychic energy See Freud’s psychoanalytic
                                                tors as a synonym, but the term actually
                                                refers to therapy in which the role

  playing concentrates upon the group            average person of the same chronological
  participating and its perceptions. Fic-        age.
  tional, metaphorical, story-based
                                               psychological autopsy Reviewing the
  material is used, and through this indi-
                                                 case of a patient who has (usually suc-
  vidual and group issues can be explored
                                                 cessfully) attempted suicide, or who has
  indirectly. Rolls are often self-assigned.
                                                 otherwise died, to attempt to determine
psychodynamic Pertaining to dynamic              the causes.
                                               psychological deficit An aspect of psy-
psychogalvanic skin response (PGR)               chological functioning which is appre-
  galvanic skin response.                        ciably below par on a criterion-referenced
                                                 test, and/or below the participant’s
psychogenesis (1) The belief that mental
                                                 level of performance on other psycho-
  faculties originate in the mind (rather
                                                 logical tasks.
  than in physiological mechanisms).
  Hence, (2), the belief that mental illness   psychological dependency See addic-
  originates in the mind. (3) The growth         tion.
  of psychological mechanisms. See
                                               psychological history See history.
                                               psychological moratorium See
psychogenetic (1) psychogenic. (2) Per-
                                                Erikson’s theory of development.
  taining to the genetic inheritance of
  psychological factors.                       psychological profile profile.
psychogenic Produced by the mind.              Psychological/Psychiatric Status
                                                 Interview Diagnostic test (conducted
psychogenic amnesia dissociative
                                                 by interview) which identifies the
  disorder in which the patient cannot
                                                 patient’s general mental and social state
  remember information about a particu-
                                                 upon first presenting for treatment.
  lar period or aspect of his/her life. The
  information which cannot be recalled         psychological reactance reactance.
  often pertains to a particularly stressful   psychological zero A perception that a
  or otherwise distressing aspect of the         stimulus is neutral.
  patient’s life.
                                               psychologically shaken Nebulous term
psychogenic pain A somatoform disorder,          for a mental state which has been tem-
  characterized by a feeling of persistent       porarily disturbed by a stressful event
  pain for which no physical cause can be        (e.g. bereavement).
                                               psycholytic drug psychedelic drug.
psychogeriatrics The study of mental
  illness in older people.                     psychometrics Strictly speaking, the
                                                 measurement of psychological traits
psychokinesis The (as yet unproven)              and skills. Generally used as a synonym
  ability to cause physical actions by           of individual differences.
  thought alone. See parapsychology.
                                               psychometry psychometrics.
psycholepsy A sudden drop in mood
  and/or alertness.                            psychomotor Pertaining to the mental
                                                 control of movement.
psychological addiction See addiction.
                                               psychomotor agitation Extreme rest-
psychological age A person’s psycho-             lessness and generally excessive (and
  logical state compared to that of an           usually pointless) mental and physical
                                                  PSYCHOTOMIMETIC ILLNESS / 215

psychomotor epilepsy See epilepsy.               principal categories as: gender identity
                                                 disorder, paraphilia, and psychosexual dys-
psychomotor hallucination An illusion
                                                 function. It must be stressed that the
  of movement of parts of the body.
                                                 classification is not evaluative – a
psychomotor retardation A gross slow-            person’s sexual preferences are only
  ing of movement and thought processes.         classified as a disorder if they cause
psychoneurosis neurosis.                         him/her or other people distress, or
                                                 place them or others in danger.
psychonosology The classification of
  mental illness.                              psychosexual dysfunction psychosexual
                                                 arousal dysfunction.
psychopathic deviate (Pd) See Minne-
  sota Multiphasic Personality Inventory.      psychosis A nebulous term for any
                                                 mental illness in which the patient,
psychopathology (1) The study of the             although not mentally retarded, has a
  causes and nature of mental illness. (2)       poor grasp of reality with accompany-
  mental illness.                                ing negative effects. The commonest
psychopathy antisocial personality disorder.     example is schizophrenia. Compare with
psychopharmacology The study of the
  effect of drugs on psychological pro-        psychosis with cerebral arteriosclero-
  cesses.                                        sis multi-infarct dementia.
psychophysiological disease Physical           psychosomatic complaint A complaint
  illness in which psychological factors         of physical dysfunction for which no
  play a causal or strong contributory           physical explanation can be found, and
  role (e.g. cardiovascular problems result-     which therefore must be produced by
  ing from stress).                              the patient’s imagination. The term,
                                                 though popular in lay use, is not used
psychophysiological measurement                  by all classificatory systems (e.g. the
  The inference of physiological state           DSM).
  from physical indicators (e.g. galvanic
  skin response).                              psychosurgery Operations on the brain
                                                 and (less commonly) other parts of the
psychose passionnelle de Clerembault’s           nervous system, to control or cure psy-
  syndrome.                                      chological problems.
psychosexual arousal dysfunction A             psychotherapy Any therapeutic method
  failure to produce the physical responses      of treating illness by psychological
  necessary for sexual intercourse or other      means (as opposed to by purely drug
  forms of sexual activity to take place,        treatments, surgery, etc.).
  due to psychological factors.
                                               psychotic depression Condition in
psychosexual development The process             which there is depression, with delusions
  of acquiring one’s adult sexual prefer-        (of failure, unworthiness, etc.).
  ences (the topic is of central importance
  in many branches of psychoanalysis).         psychoticism (P) See Eysenck’s model of
psychosexual disorders General term
  for a group of illnesses whose principal     psychotomimetic illness Condition in
  symptom is a ‘failure’ to have a con-          which the symptoms of a psychosis are
  tented sexual life because of psycholog-       evident, although the underlying cause
  ical factors. The DSM identifies the           is different (a common cause is taking
                                                 psychedelic drugs).

psychotrauma The psychological effects          pursuitmeter Any device for assessing
  of trauma.                                      how well a participant can track a
                                                  moving target. The traditional device
psychotropic drug Any drug which
                                                  for this is the pursuit rotor, but more
  alters psychological functioning.
                                                  modern devices, using computer-gen-
Pt scale See Minnesota Multiphasic Person-