Offshore codes & Std by pillaibhai

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									Why we need codes? Where we should use? When we should use? How to read? How to identify? Who prepare the Code? Codes & Standards are the authentic documents, usage of which give a products / services of National / International standards w.r.t quality, reliability etc. also this give uniformity of various manufacture to manufacture the product / service.
When we purchase any products / services, these are marked with a Alpha-numerical number, which shows that the product confirms to Codes & Standards for e.g. IS - 2062, CE etc. Let us understand what codes & Standards are? Code are mandatory, where as Standards are recommended and reference documents.

Codes & Standards are divided into:1. National Standard e.g. IS, IBR (used in India) 2. International Standard e.g. ASTM, GHOST, JIS, ISO, BS etc. As thumbrule: When any code & standard is developed & used by country of origin then, it become National Standards.

When any code & standard adopted by many countries to manufacture product then it is called international otherwise it remains as National Standard e.g. we produce steel for our domestic use as per Indian Standard, but if we have to export as per customer requirement, he may ask to produce as per International standard like ASTM, ISO, GHOST. If we are able to convenience customers for National & International standard for PARTICULAR PRODUCT is same then, he may accept.
Who prepares the Code?

Its committee of scientist, Engineers, Industrialist. These team is part of that Codes & Standards and there names etc are always published.
Team or Committee meets depending on product and usages generally they meet every 3 months / 6 months. For any query & question we can ask committee by e-mail / phone etc. Famous Web site : ASTM.org, ASME.org, BS online, techstreet.com, API.org, IS. org, etc.

Why do we need Codes? In order to get a quality product we have to make product which meets National or International Codes & Standard.

Where we should use? When to use? - Codes / Standards are to be used any where and every where, involving any manufacture and or services.

- They have to be used for identifying the type of materials which have to be used.
- The type of manufacture which has to be used (Casting, Forging, Welding, Forming etc,)

- Type of documentation, Inspection and Systems to be followed by the manufacturer are all possible to be referred with various Codes / Standards
How to Identify Codes? How to read them? Codes and standards are having many sub sections, clauses, mandatory supplementary requirements and appendixes.

While reading any code you must read relevant • Scope • Reference documents

• Terminology

• Classification • Ordering information

• Process • Heat Treatment • General requirement • Chemical composition • Mechanical properties • Hydro test • Non destructive tests
• Workmanship finish and appearance • Dimension weight and permissible variations • Supplementary requirements Example- A 106

SOURCES:
Private and governmental organizations develop, issue, and update standards that apply to their particular areas of interest.

The following are examples of national standards designations and the bodies responsible for them.
•BS - BRITISH STANDARD ISSUED BY THE BRITISH STANDARD ASSOCIATION.

•CSA - CANADIAN STANDARD ISSUED BY THE CANADIAN STANDARDS ASSOCIATION.
•DIN - WEST GERMAN STANDARD ISSUED BY THE DEUTSCHES INSTITUTE FUER NORMUNG. •JIS - JAPANESE INDUSTRIAL STANDARD ISSUED BY THE JAPANESE STANDARD ASSOCIATION.

•NF - FRENCH STANDARD ISSUED BY THE ASSOCIATION FRANCAISE DE NORMALISATION.
•IS - INDIAN STANDARD ISSUED BY THE INDIAN STANDARD ASSOCIATION.

•ISO - INTERNATIONAL ORGANIZATION FOR STANDARDIZATION.

SOURCES OF STANDARDS OF INTEREST TO THE WELDING INDUSTRY.

ASTM - AMERICAN SOCIETY FOR TESTING AND MATERIALS. ABS- AMERICAN BUREAU OF SHIPPING

AISC - AMERICAN INSTITUTE OF STEEL CONSTRUCTION ANSI - AMERICAN NATIONAL STANDARD INSTITUTE.
API - AMERICAN PETROLEUM INSTITUTE. AREA - AMERICAN RAILWAY ENGINEERING ASSOCIATION ASME- AMERICAN SOCIETY OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERS

AWWA - AMERICAN WATER WORKS ASSOCIATION AWS - AMERICAN WELDING SOCIETY PFI - PIPE FABRICATION INSTITUTE
ASNT - AMERICAN SOCIETY OF NON DESTRUCTIVE TESTING

PRODUCTS COVERED BY STANDARDS OF VARIOUS ORGANISATION

PRODUCT

ABS AISC

API

ASME

ASTM

AWS

BASE METALS
BRIDGES BUILDING

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CONSTRUCTION EQPT. CRANES, HOIST FILLER METALS
FOOD EQPT MACHINE TOOLS POWER GENERATION

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EQPT PIPING
PRESSURE VESSELS STORAGE TANK STRUCTURES

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1) AMERICAN BUREAU OF SHIPPING ( ABS )

The function of the ABS is to control the quality of ship construction.each year , ABS reissues the rules for building and classfying steel vessels.
One section of ABS rules addresses welding and is divided into the following parts:

PART 1: Hull Construction PART 2: Boilers, unfired Pressure Vessels, Piping, and Engineering Structure. PART 3: Weld Test 2) AMERICAN INSTITUTE OF STEEL CONSTRUCTION( AISC ) AISC is non profit trade organization for the fabricated structural steel industry in united states. The objectives are to improve and advance the use of fabricated structural steel through research and engineering studies ,and to develop the most efficient and economical design of structures.

3) AMERICAN NATIONAL STANDARDS INSTITUTE ( ANSI ) ANSI provides the means for determining the need for standards . they deal with dimensions , ratings, terminology and symbols, test methods, and performance and safety specifications of materials,equipment, components and products, in some two dozen field. these fields include construction, electrical and electronics, heating, air conditioning, piping processing etc.

4) AMERICAN PETROLIUM INSTITUTE ( API ): The API publishes documents in all area related to Petroleum production.The document that includes welding requirements are listed below: 1) PIPELINES AND REFINERY EQUIPMENTS

• The guide for inspection of refinery equipment
• Recommended pipeline maintenance welding practices, RP 1107

• Recommended practice for welded, plain carbon steel refinery equipment for environmental cracking service • Standard for welding pipelines and related facilities, API std 1104.

2 STORAGE TANKS FOR REFINERY SERVICES • Inspection, rating and repair of pressure vessels in petroleum refinery services, RP 510. • Recommended rules for design and construction of large, welded, low pressure storage

tanks, std 620. • Welded steel tanks for oil storage, std 650.

3 SAFETY AND FIRE PROTECTION: • Repairs to crude oil, liquefied petroleum gas, and products pipelines,PSD 2200.

• Safe practices in gas and electric cutting and welding in refineries, gasoline plants, cycling plants, and petro-chemical plants.
• Welding or hot tapping on equipment containing flammables, PSD 2201.

5) AMERICAN SOCIETY OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERS(ASME ) • ASME boiler and pressure vessel code and the code for pressure piping , which are American National Standards: 1.) BOILER AND PRESSURE VESSEL CODE • SECTION I- Rules for construction of Power Boilers • SECTION II- Materials • PART A- Ferrous Materials Specification

• PART B- Nonferrous Material Specification • PART C- Specification for Welding Rods,Electrodes and Filler Wires
• PARD D- Properties •SECTION III• SUBSECTION NCA : General requirements for division 1 and division 2

• DIVISION 1• DIVISION 2- Code for concrete reactor vessels and containment's • DIVISION 3- Containment systems and transport packaging for spunt nuclear
fuel and high level of radioactive waste.

• SECTION IV - Rules for the construction of heating boilers • SECTION V- Non destructive examination

• SECTION VI- Recommended rules for the care and operation of heating boilers. • SECTION VII- Recommended guidelines for the care of power boilers.
• SECTION VIII- Rules for the construction of pressure vessels •DIVISION 1 •DIVISION 2- Alternative rules

•DIVISION 3 - Alternative rules for construction of high pressure vessels. •SECTION IX- Welding and brazing qualifications •SECTION X- Fiber- reinforced plastic pressure vessels
•SECTION XI- Rules for in service inspection of nuclear power plant components.

2) CODE FOR PRESSURE PIPING:
The ASME B31, Code for pressure Piping presently consists of seven sections.

•B31.1 - Power piping
•B31.2 - Fuel gas piping •B31.3 - Chemical plant and Petroleum Refinery Piping.

•B31.4 - Liquid Petroleum Transportation Piping System. •B31.5 - Refrigeration Piping
•B31.8 - Gas Transmission and Distribution Piping System •B31.9 - Building services Piping

6) AMERICAN WELDING SOCIETY (AWS ) The general subject areas covered are
1 DEFINATION AND SYMBOL 2 FILLER METAL 3 QUALIFICATION AND TESTING

4 WELDING PROCESSES 5 WELDING APPLICATIONS
6 SAFETY

1 DEFINATION AND SYMBOLS:•ANSI/AWS 2.4- Symbols for Welding, Brazing, and non-destructive examination

2 FILLER METALS:•Covered carbon steel arc welding electrodes specification for ANSI/ AWS A 5.1
3 QUALIFICATION AND TESTING:•AWS D 10.9 - Specification for qualification of welding procedures and welders for piping and tubing

4 WELDING PROCESSES:•AWS C 5.5 - Gas Tungsten arc Welding , Recommended practices for , AWS C 5.5

5 WELDING APPLICATION:• It covers Automotive, Machinery and Equipment, Marine and Piping and Tubing
6 STRUCTURAL:•ANSI / AWS D 1.1 Structural Welding Code - Steel •ANSI / AWS D 1.2 Structural Welding Code - ALUMINIUM


								
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