# Analysis, Presentation, and Interpretation of Data

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```							Analysis, Presentation, and
Interpretation of Data

Reported by John C.T. Ko
May 5, 2005

1
The structure of this
presentation consists of 3 parts:

1. Theories
2. Example Explanation
3. Exercises

2
Analysis

 Analysis  is the process of breaking up the whole
study into its constituent parts of categories
according to the specific questions under the
statement of the problem.
 Each constituent part may be subdivided into its
essential categories.
 Analysis usually precedes presentation.

3
Classification of Data
1.   Qualitative: Those having the same quality or
are of the same kind are grouped together.
Data may be alphabetically arranged, or from
the biggest class to the smallest, or vice versa.
2.   Quantitative: Data are grouped according to
their quantity.
3.   Geographical: Data are classified based on
their location.
4.   Chronological: Data are grouped according
to the order of their occurrence.
4
Group-derived Generalizations (1)
Definition:
 One of the main purposes of analyzing data is
to     form     inferences,   interpretations,
conclusions, and/or generalizations from the
collected data.
 These conclusions are called grouped-derived
generalizations designed to represent groups’
characteristics and are to be applied to
groups rather than to individual cases.
5
Group-derived Generalizations (2)
Types of Generalizations
1. Generally, only proportional predictions can
2. The average can be made to represent the
whole group.
3. Full-frequency distribution reveals a group’s
characteristics.
4. A group itself generates new qualities,
properties, characteristics, or aspects not
present in individual cases.
6
Group-derived Generalizations (3)

However, 2 more categories may be added
at this point.

an individual case.
2. In certain cases, predictions on individual

7
Presentation of Data

3 Ways to present data:

1. Textual Presentation of Data
2. Tabular Presentation of Data
3. Graphical Presentation of Data

8
Table 1
Degrees and Specializations of Science Teachers in High
Schools of Province A
Specializations (Majors)

English            History        Mathematics            Science                Total
Degrees     Fa       %b         F       %         F        %         F         %          F           %
ABa            1      1.69          2   3.39          6 10.17         12     20.34          21     35.59
BSCEa                                                 4    6.78                               4       6.78
BSEa           2      3.39          2   3.39       14 23.73           13     22.03          31     52.54
MA                                                    1    1.69          2     3.39           3       5.08
Total          3      5.08          4   6.78       25 42.37           27     45.76          59 99.99C
a.  F=frequency, AB=Bachelor of Arts, BSCE=B. of Science in Civil Eng., BSE=B. of Science in Education
b.  The total number of 59 teachers was the base used in computing all percentages.
c.  The percent total does not equal to 100% due to rounding off of partial percents to two decimal places.
However the 99.99% can be increased to 100% by adding 0.01 to the largest partial percent.
Sources: The Principals’ offices
9
Textual Presentation of Data

Textual   Presentation uses statements
with numerals or numbers to describe
data. It aims to focus attention to
some important data, and to
supplement tabular presentation.
especially when it is long.

10
Tabular Presentation of Data

 Tabular  Presentation uses statistical
table or simple table to arrange data,
then to present the relationships of
the numerical facts.
giving the whole information without
combining numerals with textual
matter.
11
Findings

 Findings are the original data derived or
taken from the original sources which are
results of questionnaires, observations, etc.
 Data presented in tables and their textual
presentations are examples of findings.
 Findings do not directly answer the specific
questions, but only provide the bases for
making the conclusions.

12
Interpretation, inference, implication (1)
   These 3 terms are synonymous and can be used
interchangeably.
   Each is a statement of the possible meaning,
probable causes and effects of a situation as
revealed by the findings plus a veiled suggestion
to continue the situation if it is good or to adopt
some remedial measures to minimize its bad
effects.
   Those who are to benefited or those who are
going to suffer the bad effects should be also
mentioned.
13
Interpretation, inference, implication (2)
Five elements to be includes when interpreting:
1. Condition: Statement of the condition or
situation
2. Cause: Probable cause of the condition
3. Effect: Probable effects of the condition
4. Continuance or remedial measure: A veiled
suggestion for continuance, or remedial
measure if the effect is bad
5. Entity involved: The entity or area involved or
affected
14
Interpretation of Table 1 (1)
Table 1
Degrees and Specializations of Science Teachers
in High Schools of Province A

Specializations (Majors)

English      History        Mathematics     Science             Total
Degrees   Fa    %b      F       %       F       %      F        %      F           %
ABa        1    1.69        2   3.39        6 10.17    12      20.34   21      35.59
BSCEa                                       4   6.78                       4       6.78
BSEa       2    3.39        2   3.39    14 23.73       13      22.03   31      52.54
MA                                          1   1.69       2    3.39       3       5.08
Total      3    5.08        4   6.78    25 42.37       27      45.76   59 99.99C

15
Interpretation of Table 1 (2)
Five elements to be includes:
1. Condition: It is discovered that the majority of the science teachers are not
qualified to teach science. This finding is an unsatisfactory one.
2. Cause: The logical cause of lacking enough qualified science teachers may
be due to the problem when recruiting teachers, or there were not enough
qualified applicants for the positions.
3. Effect: It is understandable that a fully qualified science teacher provide
better science knowledge to his students than a non-qualified teacher.
Therefore, the students would suffer a lot.
4. Continuance or remedial measure: If it is not practical to dismiss the
unqualified teachers, the logical measures to remedy the unfavorable
situation is to require them to improve their qualification by taking evening
or summer studies in science, attending more science seminars, or by
5. Entity involved: It is the teaching of science in the high schools of Province
A that is affected. Hence, the topic for discussion could be entitled
“Implications of the Findings to the Teaching of Science in High Schools”.
16
Exercise 1: Interpretation of Table 2 (1)

Table 2
Discrepancy of trade volume statistics between Taiwan and the Philippines
(based on hosting country’s statistics)
Unit: US\$ 1,000
2003                                             2004
Import Export                     Total           Import Export                    Total
RP            1,860,782      2,492,224         4,353,006       2,941,661      2,188,499         5,130,160

Taiwan           2,300,293      3,080,933         5,381,226       3,893,533      3,054,762         6,948,295

Difference         -439,511       -588,709        -1,028,220        -951,872       -866,263        -1,818,135

Note 1: Bilateral trade amounts between RP and Taiwan are calculated based on that hosting country’s statistics. RP
import from Taiwan corresponds to Taiwan export to RP.
2: Comparing to the discrepancy of bilateral trade volume statistics between RP and PRC in 2004, RP’s trade
volume figure is lower than that of PRC by US\$ 3 billion less.
Sources: DTI, RP; BOFT, Taiwan

17
Exercise 1: Interpretation of Table 2 (2)
1. The existence of a Condition:
It is discovered that the Philippines’ statistics in terms of trade volume are
much lower that those of Taiwan. It is an unsatisfactory finding.
2. The probable Cause of the condition:
The logical causes of this discrepancy may be attributed to undervalued
invoices, smuggling, transshipment (triangle trade), rule of origin, etc.
3. The probable Effect of the condition:
It is understandable that Philippine tax revenue will decrease. Therefore, the
government and the people will suffer adversely. Also local business sectors will
lose their competitiveness, hence imports will prevail against exports.
4. Continuance or Remedial Measure:
If it is not practical to find out and dismiss the unlawful customs officers, the
logical measures to remedy the unfavorable situation is to enhance the customs
discipline and ability by system computerization, good morale and moral
conduct re-education.
5. The Entity or area involved or affected:
It is the Philippine government and its people affected the most. However the
side effects like moral deterioration of Customs officers and other civil servants
will be more serious if not adjusted. People’s life may not be also improved as it
should be. Besides, the development of local industries will be also undermined. 18
Exercise 2: Interpretation of Table 3
Table 3
In-Service Trainings Attended by College Teachers in 2004
Number of                         SUCs                    Private Colleges
In-Service                                                                              Total
Trainings             Faculty          Coop. Tea.     Faculty      Coop. Tea.
Attended           F       %          F     %       F      %      F     %          F       %
10 or more           10     22.22        5    17.86   12    40.00   18   45.00       45     31.47

7-9               2          4.45    9    32.14   3     10.00    1        2.50   15     10.49

4-6              13     28.89        6    21.43   1      3.33    7   17.50       27     18.88

1-3              11     24.44        8    28.57   5     16.67    6   15.00       30     20.98

0                9     20.00        0     0.00   9     30.00    8   20.00       26     18.18

Total             45    100.00       28   100.00   30 100.00     40   100.00 143        100.00

Source: Department of Education

19
Taipei 101 building,
the tallest office
building in the world

Thank you!
20

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Shared by: Jacquie Dore
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