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					        MANAGEMENT RESPONSE TO EVALUATION OF FAO’S EMERGENCY AND
               REHABILITATION WORK IN THE HORN OF AFRICA

1. Management accepts with some caution almost all the recommendations of the evaluation of FAO’s
   emergency and rehabilitation assistance in the Horn of Africa in response to the drought that took
   place in 2005/06 and is pleased to note that some of the recommendations are already being
   implemented and others are under discussion with concerned Units for a rapid implementation.

2. The evaluation team notes that the drought of 2005/06 affected all countries of the region. Its
   epicentre was in northern Kenya and its impact was exacerbated in Somalia by civil conflict.
   Livestock migrations from both countries into Ethiopia strained the already weakened livelihood
   systems. The evaluation team also notes that the drought has essentially affected pastoralist
   communities in every country of the region. These communities were already plagued by
   degradation of natural environment and had little choice but to sustain their livelihood with animal
   herding in a nomadic or semi- nomadic way.

3.    The evaluation team also rightly points out the complexity of the response and underlines the
     necessity of long-term solutions to mitigate the impact of recurrent drought. Management agrees that
     short-term response to a complex issue such as the drought in a vast and semi- arid region should be
     articulated with a longer-term plan. In this spirit, the Organization largely supported the mission of
     the Special Envoy of the Secretary-General for the Drought in the Horn of Africa, Mr Bondevik.
     Similar conclusions were reached by Mr Bondevik, who highlighted the essential need to help
     pastoralist communities to save their livestock assets and who also stressed the importance of
     implementing a large programme of drought prevention in the entire region. The merit of this
     strategy led to a multi-country consultation on food security in the Horn of Africa in Nairobi, 25-26
     June 2007, chaired by the Special Envoy and facilitated by FAO.

4. Management notes that despite an unprecedented effort to coordinate the response among the UN
   Agencies, the financial support received was largely below expectations, although FAO received
   more support from the international community and played a more central and leading role than
   during the 1999 drought in the same region. FAO has strengthened its knowledge of how to handle
   such crises in partnership with other actors and has developed new advocacy tools, such as the Horn
   of Africa Plan of Action and the Integrated Food Security Phase Classification system. These tools
   will enable FAO to respond better to similar situations, which are likely to take place again in the
   near future.

5. Among the recommendations, Management can delineate four main findings and recommendations:
   better food security information systems; a better coordinated and more consistent approach; greater
   involvement at local level since the inception of the emergency operations; and a clearer link
   between short-term and medium-term activities. While detailed reactions on each recommendation
   are provided in the following table, Management’s overall response to the main recommendations,
   as mentioned above, is as follow:

6. Management fully agrees with the need to develop an effective mechanism of information and
   information sharing on food security based on institutional coherence and complementarities among
   partners, involving governments, UN Agencies, donors and non-governmental organizations
   (NGOs). Management appreciates the importance of building credible and harmonized networks of
   information. In crisis situations, access to nuanced information is crucial for decision-making, also
   for the donor community. Management is pleased to note that FAO has already received support
   from three major donors for the roll-out of the Integrated Humanitarian Phase Classification (IPC) in
   the Horn of Africa. The IPC is regarded as an innovative tool for improving food security analysis
   and decision- making, with a proven track record within the Food Security Analysis Unit (FSAU) in
   Somalia, where it was developed in 2004 with a broad range of technical partners. Such a system
   developed and led by FAO is being adopted by all UN agencie s involved in the Humanitarian arena
   in the Great Lakes region. The regional implementation is motivated by the humanitarian imperative
   to improve the effectiveness and efficiency of crisis response. The IPC has the potential to allow for
   technical consensus, transparency and accountability, as evidenced by the contribution of the IPC to
   the 2006 Consolidated Appeals Process (CAP) Regional Appeal and the 2007 CAP Appeal for
   Somalia. Hopefully, it will become a common language and tool within the international community,
   which will enhance prioritisation and allocation of funding resources.

7. Management accepts recommendations to promote better coordination, a more sustainable response
   and more consistency between the short and long-term response. Management acknowledges that
   most donors have a better understanding of this now and the line between emergency and
   development is steadily becoming thinner. Rehabilitation programmes are thus slightly better
   supported now than in the past. However, more efforts from all stakeholders are needed to make a
   seamless transition from emergency to rehabilitation and development a reality.

8. To conclude, Management largely agrees with the findings and notes that compared with the
   previous drought in the Horn of Africa, considerable efforts have been made to mitigate the effects,
   not only by FAO, but also by international NGOs. Continued efforts will be necessary to comply
   with many of the recommendations. However, it should be recognized that in the response to an
   emergency, donors still favour funding immediate impact actions although, as already mentioned,
   attitudes are changing in this regard. Management believes that it is important to continue
   advocating for strengthened food security information in the region as a tool to restore and improve
   the resilience and livelihoods of pastoralist populations in the Horn of Africa and to strive for a
   sound transition from emergency interventions to rehabilitation and longer-term development.
Format for Management response to recommendations
Recommendations         Further     Acceptance by Management    Comment on the Recommendation                                          Action to be taken
To economize space,     donor                Partially Reject                                                                 Action                   Timing         Unit
the content of each     funding     Accept   Accept                                                                                                                Responsible
recommendation has been required
summarized              (yes or no)
Recommendation 1        YES          X                          TCE/REOA is already cooperating with all
Develop institutional                                           major humanitarian actors in the HoA
coherence with respect                                          through the Roll-out in the Integrated
to FS information                                               Food Security Phase Classification
systems and take a                                              System (IPC) and the support of the
lead in harmonizing                                             Regional Food Security Working. Three
existing information                                            donors, Canada, EU and UK are already
systems                                                         supporting this Food Security Information      Speeding up the finalisation of MoU   Dec 07       TCEO
                                                                Integration Initiative.                        with UK and UE.
                                                                It will be difficult to find a donor who is
                                                                willing to finance FAO‟s internal search for
                                                                coherence. Additional resources could
                                                                stem from existing projects. In any case
                                                                this requires a consolidated effort not an
                                                                initiative by TCE above.
                                                                                                               Hold an internal workshop to          early 2008
                                                                                                               formulate a joint proposal.                        GEWS ESAF
                                                                                                                                                                  TCE EMPRES
Recommendation 2                                                TCE: The IPC is a good example of how
Promote information                                             to integrate different information systems.
systems that are of                                             The IPC is being rolled out in several
value to emergency as                                           countries in the Horn of Africa (Kenya,
well as developmental                                           Uganda, Ethiopia and Djibouti). In
understanding and                                               particular, the Government in Kenya offers
responses                                                       a good example of adoption of this tool.

                                                                The SIFSIA project in the Sudan is closely     Exapand the IPC to all countries in   2008         GEWS ESAF
                                                                integrated within the government               the subregion.                                     TCE EMPRES
                                                                structure. In Somalia, the SWALIM
                          YES                X                  project is developing liaison offices within
                                                                Somalia with GIS capabilities and access
                                                                to datasets in Nairobi and ensuring
                                                                training of government employees in
                                                                information management. The
                                                                recommendation requires a corporate
                                                                effort, not an initiative by TCE alone.


Recommendation 3                                                TCE: Point well taken. Already efforts         Use of participatory methods for      ongoing      TCE
Promote greater use of                                          made to increase relevancy for e xample        project/programme formulation.
indigenous knowledge,                                           by FSAU to include translation of products     Dissemination of knowledge in a
disseminate clear and                                           into Somali language and wide distribution     more accessible manner.                            TCE/KCT
effective information                                           within the country. It will suppose skilled
products, assess how      yes      X                            National Staff and FAO should become a         FAO Employment of national
existing systems can be                                         more attractive employer.                      expertise                                          TCE/AFHO
made more relevant to
local decision-making
Recommendation 4          YES   X       TCE: A regional IPC roll-out project is        Expand the IPC to all countries in     2008        ESAF
Support the IPC rollout                 underway.                                      the subregion.                                     TCE


Recommendation 5          YES   X                                                                                             first       ESAF
Develop and improve                                                                    Participants in the workshop           sem.        TCE
methodologies for FS                    Lessons are to be learnt from several          (mentioned under recommendation        2008
assessments                             FAO initiatives on this matter.                1) should formulate the ToR of a
                                                                                       study aiming at proposing a
                                                                                       methodology for FS assessment.
Recommendation 6          YES   X   X   TCE: fully agrees with the first part of the
Promote coordinated                     recommendation. TCE is fully involved in                                                          TCE
response, emergency                     FAO‟s disaster risk management (DRM)                                                              FAOR/OCD
preparedness,                           initiatives. Contingency funding
contingency funding,                    mechanisms, while desirable, require
and strategic reserves                  review of the feasibility of such
                                        mechanisms in the FAO en vironment.
                                        TCE has some serious reservations with
                                        respect to strategic reserves of items such
                                        as veterinary drugs as these have
                                        implications with respect to storage and
                                        keeping up to date which, in turn, have
                                        cost implications. In any case
                                        a project profile on contingency funding is
                                        being included in the Cooperative              Action is ongoing.                     first
                                        Agreement 2008 with OFDA. As far as            Further advocacy is required with      sem. 2008
                                        emergency preparedness, REOA will be           potentially responsive donors.
                                        coordinating ECHO‟s Drought
                                        Preparedness Program II in the HoA.
Recommendation 7          YES   X       This is a continuing effort with some
Ad vocate for more                      success in certain countries where TCES
appropriate and                         is operating (Somalia and Sudan).
sustainable food                        However, funding mechanisms are not
security and livelihood                 always appropriate, e.g. in Southern           TCE: proposes that TCEO/REOA
interventions                           Sudan there is a gap between short-term        and SFE (Subregional Office for
                                        funding covered by the CHF and longer-         Eastern Africa), in cooperation with
                                        term development funding covered by the        the FAORs, should formalize joint
                                        MDTF. In certain cases this objective is       guidelines for the implementation of
                                        being pursued through the development of       the PoA.
                                        the Plan of Action (PoA), in cooperation                                              2008        TCEO
                                        with FAORs and Sub-regional offices in                                                            REOA
                                        Africa (SFE, SFC, SFS). In all cases the                                                          SFE
                                        primary humanitarian objectives should
                                        not be missed
Recommendation 8                        Willing to contribute to this but in many                                             2008        TCE
Acti vely engage in the                 cases it goes beyond the mandate of                                                               SFE
development of medium                   TCE.
term strategies
                                        See comments under recommendation 7            See action under recommendation 7
Recommendation 9          YES       X   TCE agrees with the mobilization and           This activity is ongoing.
Continue to mobilize                    coordination of financial resources at the                                                        TCE
and coordinate                          regional level, although we have some
resources at regional               reservations about strategic
level                               reserves/stocks mentioned in the
                                    comments on recommendation 6.


Recommendation 10         YES   X    While we agree with this proposal, it is          Contribute to FAO corporate effort       ongoing    TCI
Study the long-term,                not up to TCE to carry out the analysis.           to identify the long-term causes of                 TCA
root causes of food                 Information generated by FSAU is for               food insecurity.                                    ESAF
insecurity                          example regularly used to inform CAP               Seek synergies with FAO                             OCDO
                                    proposals prepared by FAO Somalia.                 Representations at field level.
                                    FAO Representations should be involved
                                    in such process and be the basis of the
                                    institutional memory of the Organization
                                    as the studies will be used for several
                                    exercises (NEPAD, UNDAF, ....)
Recommendation 11         YES   X   We strive to achieve this objective.
Be more proactive in                However, donor requirements are not
challenging                         always conducive to innovation as there
assumptions and the                 are often limitations on emergency
status quo of                       funding with respect to duration and type
interventions and                   of activities that can be funded i.e. a high
ensure that these are               percentage to be spent on goods.
based on good practice
and comprehensive NA                However, TCE is implementing a pilot               Ensure a large diffusion of the          First      TCEO
                                    initiative to promote FAO good practices           preliminary conclusions of the pilot     semester   TCER
                                    within the Cluster Approach especially the         intiative.                               2008
                                    Food Security Cluster as created by the
                                    recent UN humanitarian reform.
Recommendation 12         YES   X    Improve coordination with SFE and                 Ad vocacy with donors, develop           First      TCE
Develop a more                      country offices on the elaboration of plans        more regional activities .               semester   TCER
diversified approach to             of action.                                                                                  2008
promote LT recovery
and resilience of local
production systems to
climatic shocks
Recommendation 13         YES   X   Although this is desirable, in order to            Conduct market research with or          ongoing    TCE
Distributions of                    preposition suitable inputs early enough           without funding in order to anticipate              AFSP
agricultural inputs                 for timely distribution, it is crucial to secure   agricultural season requirements.
should remain an option             funding well in advance of the agricultural
when deemed truly                   season. The current CAP funding cycle
necessary. Inputs                   (and also that of the CHF in the Sudan)
should be supplied                  does not allow this for the main
earlier. Distribution               agricultural season in the Horn of Africa.
times should be                     Although efforts are made to source local
decreased                           seeds, in these food deficit regions, they
                                    are often not readily available in the
                                    quantity required.                                 More delegation of Authority should      ongoing    TCE
                                                                                       be given to FAORs for local                         AFSP
                                    FAO Procedures are still too complex,              procurements. TCE together with                     OCD
                                    hence too time-consuming especially                OCD is organizing training for field
                                    regarding procurements. Furthermore,               officers.
                                    delayed delivery is not always due to
                                    FAO. We do not have evidence of any                is already financing the publication
                                          unjustified or not needs-based distribution     of a crop calendar

Recommendation 14           YES       X   In Southern Sudan there is a plan to re-        More delegation of authority to                        TCE
Inputs should be                          introduce seed-fairs using the voucher          FAORs.                                      2008       AFSP
procured from networks                    system. However, this intervention is                                                                  OCD
of local, predictable and                 likely to be limited in scale owing to
professional producers                    problems posed by security                      More training to ERCU staff or              training   TCE
or stockists, and                         considerations as well as poor                  alternative delivery of inputs              ongoing    AGPS
delivered through input                   infrastructure and limited                      (journals, vouchers).                                  AFSP
fairs and voucher                         manpower/capacity in the FAO ECU.
systems                                   There is a requirement for a diversity of
                                          interventions tailored to meet                  Keep dialoguing with AFSP
                                          requirements as far as possible given the
                                          constraints.
                                          Procurement rules may need to be
                                          reviewed and amended. The present level
                                          of delegation of authority to FAO
                                          Representatives is a limiting factor to local
                                          procurement.
                                          See comments under recommendation 13
Recommendation 15           YES       X   This would be helpful and should be
Review the various                        carried out by TCE in conjunction with
CAHWs networks in the                     AGAH.
Horn of Africa
                                                                                          Action being taken by TCE in                2008       TCE
                                                                                          cooperation with AGAH in selected                      AGAH
                                                                                          countries to expand to the network
                                                                                          and effectively utilized it (this is part
                                                                                          of recommendation 26).
Recommendation 16           YES       X   Already strong links have been developed        Develop stronger links on livestock                    TCA
Engage more fully with                    between TCE and AU-IBAR and an                  issues between IGAD and FAO.
existing technical                        Emergency Officer: dedicated to the
capacities at regional                    livestock sector is being recruited in
level; control/eradicate                  REOA to strengthen relations between            This recommendation is already                         REOA - FAOR
transboundary                             livestock institutions.                         being implemented through the                          Djibouti
diseases; help open                                                                       Food Security and Nutrition Working
international market                      However, it should be noted that such           Group (FSNWG) in Nairobi.
access to livestock                       engagement may help, it is not sufficient
                                          to significantly improve international          Acti vities to be more systematically
                                          market access to livestock and livestock        undertaken in cooperation with SFE                     REOA
                                          products from the HoA which requires                                                                   SFE
                                          dedicated projects and intervention at the                                                             CGIAR
                                          political level.                                                                                       IUCN (World
                                                                                                                                                 Conservation
                                                                                                                                                 Union)
Recommendation 17           yes       X   AGAH has worked on and is about to              LEGS will be adopted for all                2008       AGAH
Base interventions on                     release the LEGS (Livestock Emergency           livestock emergency interventions                      TCE
livestock emergency                       Guidelines and Standards)
guidelines and
standards
Recommendation 18           limited       TCE already makes considerable use of                                                       First
Adopt a more strategic                    strategic partnerships with NGOs (e.g.                                                      semester   TCES
approach to                               Somalia) and has developed an interim           Finalization of the comparaive              2008
partnerships                                 standard partnership agreement to               analysis of partnerships.
                                             replace the LoA which has been approved
                                             by ODG. Further work at the strategic
                                             level is being carried out with an informal
                                             working group including members of
                                             TCOM, TC AP, TCE, AUD, LEGA, AFFC,
                                             AFSP, AFDS, ODGS with a view to
                                             developing a more definitive partnership
                                             agreement(s) over the long term.
                                             Currently a comparative analysis of
                                             Partnership . Arrangements of other UN
                                             agencies with Non-Governmental
                                             Organizations are being finalized.

                                         X   The Regional Cassava Mosaic project in          Training of local partners on FAO       ongoing   TCE
                                             the Great Lakes Region funded by ECHO           procedures and mandate and                        TCAP
                                             is an excellent example and a lesson            training of TCE officers and
                                             learnt case of this approach. In fact it        parters‟procedures mandate and
                                             gathers together Governments, National          partner collaboration.
                                             Research institutions, International and
                                             local NGOs. FAO is Team leader and
                                             Coordinator. In certain instances
                                             partners cannot be easily „selected‟ as the
                                             choice is limited and sometimes
                                             conditioned by the donor.
Recommendation 19          Limited   X       Work underway, see answer to
Finalize and introduce a                     recommendation 18. However, in many
more effective                               areas as Southern Sudan, and some parts
partnership agreement                        of Somalia, there is no choice with respect
with NGO partners                            to selection of an appropriate partner as
                                             only one NGO may operate in a specific
                                             targeted area.

                                             The Regional Food Security and Nutrition        Action as above.                        2008      TCE
                                             Working group in Nairobi supported by                                                             TCAP
                                             FAO may be the right forum to discuss
                                             this issue and find solutions.
Recommendation 20          YES           X   By definition, a leading coordination role is   All actions mentioned above to                    TCE
FAO should capitalize                        based on effective information exchange.        strengthen effective information                  ESAF
on its lead coordination                     This is a pre-condition not a consequence       exchange are pertinent. (see
role by….. and                                                                               recommendation No. 1)
effectively linking
humanitarian and
development agendas.
Recommendation 21          YES       X       Although desirable, reliance on short term      Revised criteria for selection of       ongoing   TCE
Undertake a review of                        funding means this is often difficult to        ERCU staff.                                       AFH
human resources                              achieve. A Coordinator‟s fund-raising
required in each country                     skills are critical to providing the means to   Launch regular vacancy
                                             expand the programme and permit                 announcement for roster to benefit
                                             recruitment of more diversified human           of a rich active roster for different
                                             resources. More attention should be             levels of responsibilities.
                                             given to seeking skilled nationals.
                           YES                                                               Diversified composition of ERCU         ongoing
                                   X                                                    staff.
                                                                                        Training FAOR and TCE national        ongoing   TCE
                                                                                        staff.                                          AFH
                                                                                                                                        OCD




Recommendation 22            YES   X       Fully agreed. Training cost for nationals    Encourage participation of national   ongoing   TCE
Prioritise the                             should be better budgeted within each        staff in any training activities                OCD
development of national                    project document.                            organized by FAO. Encourage                     AFH
staff                                                                                   international assignement for NPP
                                           Throughout the year, TCE/REOA has            for borader exposure.
                                           offered national staff courses on
                                           administrative and finance issues, as well
                                           as a language course (ongoing).
                                                                                        National Staff appraisal mechanism    Ma y 08   TCEO/ TCES
                                                                                        to be reviewed together with AFHO
                                                                                                                                        AFH
                                                                                        TCE/REOA has planned a training       First     TCEO/
                                                                                        on logical framework both for its     quarter   REOA
                                                                                        national and international staff      2008
Recommendation 23            YES   X       Highly desirable, but not up to TCE alone.   Common training of ERCU and           ongoing   TCE
ECUs should be well                        Note the Somalia programme is                FAOR staff.                                     OCD
integrated into the                        completely integrated as the Senior                                                          AFH
structure of the Office of                 Emergency Coordinator is the FAO
the FAOR. Regular                          Officer-in-Charge. As a result a holistic
funding must be                            programme has been developed with both
secured for core                           short-term emergency and longer-term
functions of “stand                        rehabilitation and development projects.
alone” ECUs.                               The only “core”funding available for the
                                           Somalia programme is for one secretary
                                           and one NPO.

                                       X   Common training, as organized in 2006        Involvement of ERCU and FAOR                    TCE
                                           bringing together FAOReps and ECU            staff in planning activities                    AFH
                                           Coordinators, should become regular.                                                         OCD
                                           Better understanding between persons
                                           and their respective role and competence
                                           has already led to better integration
                                           between FAOR and ECU
Recommendation 24            YES       X   Agree with respect to technical support.     - Close cooperation and information   ongoing   TCE
SFE must be mandated                       Operational support from the SFE is only     sharing.                                        OCD
to provide technical                       for sub-regional projects that are non-      - Technical clearance subject to
support and clearance                      emergency.                                   type of intervention (AVI related
for field operations                                                                    interventions are still under
                                                                                        CVO/AGAH/HQ clearance).
Recommendation 25         YES           The role and composition of REOA cannot       - periodic strategic meeting between    ongoing   TCE/
REOA should                             be subject to changes on an annual basis .    two entities REOA/SFE.                            REOA
complement the SFE,                 X   This may affect efficient complementarily                                                       SFE
and support ECUs in                     of REOA and SFE.                              - joint training.                                 OCD
situation analysis and
strategic planning;                                                                   - joint field visit.
PCM; institutional
learning; coordination
of strategic reserves;
resource mobilization
Recommendation 26         YES   X        Much remains to be done. Work on             - finalization of a beneficiary         Dec.      TCE
Apply internal                          monitoring guidelines is proceeding and       monitoring guidelines                   2007
guidelines, training                    training of ECU staff should begin soon.
materials and best                      Monitoring and impact assessment is           - implementation of monitoring          Ma y      TCE
practice; monitor the                   acknowledged as a critical weakness in        system in accordance with               2008
impact; share good                      current emergency and rehabilitation          guidelines in pilot countries.
practice between                        operations.
countries and actors in                 The usual timeframe of TCE projects           - harmonization of                      Ma y      TCE
the region                              (twelve months or less) does not facilitate   experience/guidelines used by           2008
                                        monitoring exercise, especially on impact.    various ERCUs in one internal
                                        Some flexibility on budget use may be         guidelines.
                                        needed.
                                                                                      - periodical subregional TCE            2008      TCE
                                        REOA: has been playing an active role in      meetings with ERCU and FAOR                       OCD
                                        sharing best practices. Thanks to a           staff with dedicated sessions on
                                        secondment from SIDA, REOA will soon          sharing of good practices .
                                        implement an M&E unit.
                                                                                      - enhanced role of REOA on good         ongoing   TCE
                                                                                      practise through information sharing
                                                                                      material on ad hoc sessions.


                                                                                      Ad vocacy with donors, as more          2008      TCE
                                                                                      resources and flexibility are needed.

				
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