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Processor
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Microprocessors


•   A microprocessor is an integrated circuit (IC) that contains a

    complete CPU on a single chip.


•   Microprocessors can be viewed as little black boxes that

    provide answers or perform a variety of chores on command.


•   The CPU accesses system resources by the external buses



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Packaging

•   Most common CPU Packages
•   DIPP (Dual In-Line Pin Package)
•   PGA (Pin Grid Array)
•   SPGA (Staggered Pin Grid Array)
•   PQFP
•   SECC (Single Edge Contact Cartridge)
•   FC – PGA (Flip Chip Pin Grid Array)




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8086 CPU Family

•   The very first member of Intel's 8086/8088 family is 8086
    microprocessor.

•   It has 20-bit address bus and 16-bit data bus.

•   All its internal architecture is 16 bit only.

•   8088 was a downward compatible version of 8086.

•   8088 was having 20 bit address bus with 8 bit external data bus
    and 16 bit internal architecture

•   The next processor was 80186.


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8086 CPU Family (contd.)

•   80186 possess 8086 plus some support IC's such as 8259,
    8253, 8237 & address decoding logic on chip.
•   This processor is also a 16 bit processor having 16 data lines
    & 20 address lines.
•   The 80286 doesn't included support IC's on-chip.
•   It has virtual memory management circuitry
•   24 bit address lines
•   Time-sharing ability that allowed multi-tasking, multi user
    capabilities.


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80386 CPU Family

•   The next Microprocessor introduced was
    80386.

•   This is a true 32 bit Microprocessor.

•   The memory management circuitry &
    protection circuitry in this Microprocessor
    is much more improved.

•   The segment size in this can be as large
    as 4GB instead of 64K possible in 80286.

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80386 CPU Family (contd.)

•   Instruction pipelining, on chip address translation, and high
    bus bandwidth ensure short average instruction execution
    times and high system throughput.
•   The 80386 is available in two versions, the 80386SX &
    80386DX.
•   The 80386 SX is available in Quad plastic flat package (QPFP)
    IC
•   80386DX comes in a 132 Pin ceramic Pin Grid Array packages
    (PGA).
•   The 386 DX is also manufactured in QPFP form by a company
    named AMD (Advanced Micro Devices).


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80386 CPU Family (contd.)

•   The 386 is available in clock needs ranging from 16MHz to
    33MHz.
•   The 386 operates in 3 modes, real mode, protected mode and
    virtual 8086 mode.
•   It can switch to and form protected mode
•   80386 SX is identical to 386 DX except that it has a 16 bit data
    bus.
•   It can address a maximum of 16MB of physical memory. 386DX
    can address it is available in clock needs 16MHz to 33MHz

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80486 CPU Family

•   80486 = 80386 + 80387 + 8 KB cache + cache
    controller.
•   25 MHz and went up to 100 MHz with clock
    doubling
•   Address 4 GB of RAM and 64 TB of virtual
    memory.
•   Provided a built-in math coprocessor (e.g. 80387).
•   486SX was the cheaper version of the 486,which
    did not have the math coprocessor
•   Included System Memory Management (SMM)
    mode, which could dim the liquid crystal display
    (LCD) screen and power down the hard disk drive,
    extending the life of the battery.
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80486 CPU Family (contd.)

•   486 has a built-in math coprocessor.

•   This coprocessor is essentially the same as the 387 processor
    used with a 386,

•   Integrated on the chip allows it to execute math instructions
    about three times as fast as a 386/387 combination.

•   8-Kbyte code and data cache.

•   486 implements the five-stage instruction pipeline scheme that
    allows it to execute instructions much faster than a 386.

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80486 CPU Family (contd.)

•   The 486 fetch several instructions ahead of time, and while it is
    executing one instruction, it decode and as soon as possible,
    start the execution of the next instruction.
•   Clock Doubling technique
•   Makes the processor work internally at twice the speed of the
    external clock frequency.
•   The 486SX without a coprocessor is slow .
•   To implement the clock doubling on the 486SX motherboard
    we have the overdrive processor.

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Pentium

•   32-bit
•   3.1 million-transistor
•   112 MIPS
•   66-MHz Pentium processor
•   Dual pipeline design(U – Pipelining & V – Pipelining) Process
    multiple instructions simultaneously at varying stages of
    execution
•   Processor Types
•   CISC (Complex Instruction Set Computing)
•   RISC (Reduced Instruction Set Computing)

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Pentium                   (contd.)




CISC                                                                             RISC
•   Rich instruction set                                                         Reduced instruction
•   Micro program                                                                Hardwired control med. control unit
•   Instruction set are                                                          Instruction set are uniform
    variable in length
•   Poor floating pt                                                             Excellent floating pt
•   Less no of on chip                                                           Large no of on chip registers
•   No branch predic                                                             Branch prediction




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Pentium                  (contd.)




• Use fast memory                                                                 Extensively use techniques
  Cache,                                                                          Pipelining (optional)
• Complex addressing                                                              Simple addressing
• Slower                                                                          Faster
• eg. X86 family                                                                  eg., Sun SPARC
  PowerPC 601, 604
  DEC ALPHA 21164 HP                                                              PA 8000
  MIPS Silicon Graph


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Pentium                    (contd.)




•   Why Still CISC
•   Inspire of all advantages RISC don't have Software
    compatibility.
•   Win95 and ix86 based Application do not run on RISC (Except
    WinNT, OS/2 etc.)


•   CRISC
•   Intel saw the advantages of RISC and implemented CRISC
    processors combining advantages of both.
•   Intel have stolen some RISC techniques like Cache, Pipelining,
    Branch prediction on chip large number of registers.

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Different 32 bit processor




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Intel's Competitors

•   Competitors have moved away from simply making clones of
    the Intel processors.

•   They are currently designing their own processors with unique
    features.

•   AMD and Cyrix are among the best known.




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Intel MMX
Media Enhancement Technology

•   The technology is based on new instructions
    that are dedicated to processing video, audio
    and graphical data efficiently.

•   Chips with Intel MMX technology, when
    combined with software designed for MMX
    technology, deliver’s
    – High performance multimedia experience

    – Rich with color and sound

    – Fast graphics, and smooth video.
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MMX


•   57 new multimedia instructions (single-instruction multiple-

    data)

•   Use dynamic branch prediction using the branch target buffer

    (BTB)




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Intel's Pentium® II Processor


•   The Pentium II processor, from Intel, delivers outstanding

    integer, floating-point, and multimedia performance.

•   The Pentium II processor is available in 233-, 266-, 300-, 400-,

    500-, 550-, 600-, 633-MHz desktop systems.




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Dual Independent Bus Architecture

•   Data travels between a processor and other parts of a
    computer (e.g., its keyboard, monitor, CD-ROM drive, floppy
    drive, and other memory storage areas) via a single, one-lane
    pathway called a system bus.

•   Pentium II processor has both a system bus and high-speed
    memory.

•   The high-speed memory, called the "level 2 cache" or "cache
    memory" provides nearby storage for instructions the
    processor needs to access quickly.

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Dual Independent Bus Architecture (contd.)

•   The system bus and the cache bus can be used
    simultaneously

•   Much more data can move in and out of the Pentium- II
    processor in a given amount of time, as compared to a single-
    bus design such as the Pentium processor

•   The Pentium II processor's system bus can handle eight data
    transactions simultaneously,

•   while Pentium processor bus can only work on one
    transaction at a time.

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Dual Independent Bus Architecture (contd.)




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Dynamic Execution

•   This technology reduce the amount of time the processor sits
    idle between processing instructions.

•   With dynamic execution, the processor looks ahead several
    steps and intelligently predicts which groups of instructions
    are most likely to be processed next

•   Analyzes which instructions are dependent upon each other's
    results

•   Creates an efficient schedule for dispatching instructions, and
    carries them out.

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Single Edge Contact (S.E.C) Cartridge

•   To achieve high performance, Intel has moved processor
    packaging to a cartridge format.

•   The Pentium II processor along with its high-speed bus and
    cache memory are packaged in a black plastic and metal
    cartridge measuring 5.5 inches wide by 2.5 inches high by 0.5
    of an inch thick.

•   Packaging the cache close to the processor, and linking the
    two by a dedicated pathway allow the processor to achieve
    higher performance.

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Single Edge Contact (S.E.C) Cartridge (contd.)


•   The cartridge attaches to a "slot" on the computer's


    motherboard via.a single edge connector.


•   The system bus along the single edge connector is capable of


    evolving to higher speeds, like raising the speed limit, to boost


    overall computer performance.


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AMD Processors

•   AMD-K6®-2 Processor with 3DNow!™ Technology

•   Provides Vibrant Images

•   Graphics Rich Sound

•   Video Enhanced Internet Experience 3D Processing
    using DirectX 6 and OpenGL libraries.

•   AMD-K6-III

•   AMD's TriLevel Cache design enables the largest total
    system cache on currently available desktop PC

•   Resulting in excellent performance on Windows
    applications.
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Types of Tri-level cache

•   Larger
•   An AMD-K6-III processor-based PC can deliver up to 2,368KB
    of total system cache
•   more than four times the size of the 544KB maximum system
    cache of a Pentium III processor-based PC.
•   In general, the larger the cache, the better the system
    performance.
•   Faster
•   320KB of internal cache including
•   256KB Level 2 (L2) cache
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Types of Tri-level cache (contd.)

       – 64KB Level 1 (L1) cache that's standard in AMD-K6 family
           processors-races along at the full speed of the processor.

•     More flexible
       – AMD-K6-III is the first desktop PC processor to offer a 100-MHz
           front side bus to an optional Level 3 (L3) external cache on the
           Super7 platform.

    AMD K6-III / Pentium-III                                                           AMD-K6®-III                                  Pentium-III
    Maximum total system cache                                                         2368 KB                                      544 KB
    Total Internal Cache                                                               320 KB                                       32 KB
    L2 cache speed (relative to CPU)                                                   Full-Speed                                   Half-Speed
    Enables external L3 cache                                                          Yes                                          No


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Types of Tri-level cache (contd.)

•   Celeron

•   Intel's value-priced
    processor

•   Provides good
    performance.

•   Clock speeds range from
    333 to 866 MHz

•   128Kb of full-speed L2
    cache
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Intel Pentium III Processor

•   Features of PIII Processor
•   The Pentium III Processor is available at
    speeds ranging from 450 MHz to 1.13 GHz
    Versions
•   Available with either a 133 MHz or a 100 MHz
    system bus.
•   Designed to support the Intel® 840, 820, 810e,
    440GX and 440BX chipsets.
•   256 KB Advanced Transfer Cache (on-die, full-
    speed level 2 (L2) cache with Error Correcting
    Code (ECC)
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Intel Pentium III Processor (contd.)


•   Half-speed, 512 KB in package L2 cache with ECC.

•   32 KB (16 KB/16 KB) non-blocking, level 1 (L1) cache.

•   P6 Dynamic Execution micro architecture including multiple

    branch prediction, data flow analysis and speculative

    execution.

•   Intel MMX™ media enhancement technology.

•   Both dual-processor capable and uni-processor only versions.

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Intel Pentium III Processor (contd.)

•   Internet Streaming SIMD Extensions, consisting of 70 new
    instructions that enable advanced imaging 3D, streaming
    audio and video, speech recognition and an enhanced Internet
    experience.

•   Dual Independent Bus (DIB) architecture increases bandwidth
    and performance over single-bus processors.

•   Memory cacheable up to 4 GB of addressable memory space

•   System memory scalability up to 64 GB of physical memory.

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Intel Pentium III Processor (contd.)

•   Some of the processors are having a notification of E, B, EB
    for eg. 500E MHz, 600EB MHz, 533B MHz.
•   Note
•   'E', 'B' and 'EB' nomenclature is used to differentiate processors
    within a processor speed designation when there is an overlap
    between processor frequencies and functionality.
•   'E' designates Advanced Transfer Cache and Advanced System
    Buffering support.
•   'B' designates 133 MHz System Bus support.
•   'EB' designates Advanced Transfer Cache, Advanced System
    Buffering and 133 MHz System Bus support.


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Intel Pentium III Processor (contd.)

•   All processors greater than 600 MHz include the Advanced
    Transfer Cache and the Advanced System Buffering
    functionality.



•   Note

•   Pentium® III processor at 1.13 GHz does not support Dual
    Processor.




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Intel Pentium III Processor (contd.)


•   Processor Package Options

•   Pentium III processors are available in two different package

    options

    – Single Edge Contact Cartridge 2 (S.E.C.C.2)

    – Flip-Chip Pin Grid Array (FC-PGA).

•   The FC-PGA package is designed for the new breed of sleek,

    powerful, small form factor PCs.


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Advanced System Buffering

•   The Advanced System Buffering consists of optimizations in

    the system bus buffer sizes and bus queue entries

•   This result in an increase in the utilization of the available

    bandwidth on the 100 and 133 MHz system bus.

•   4 writeback buffers , 6 fill buffers , 8 bus queue entries.

•   A pipelined Floating-Point Unit (FPU) for supporting the 32-bit

    and 64-bit formats specified in IEEE standard 754, as well as

    an 80-bit format.

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Advanced System Buffering (contd.)

•   Coppermine
•   Clock speeds range from 533 to
    733MHz
•   256k full-speed L2 cache.
•   High-end Pentium III processor run on
    the new 133MHz front-side bus
•   Helps in preventing data bottlenecks.
•   These processors also work with the
    new Rambus memory, which boasts
    an impressive 800MHz internal clock.

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Advanced System Buffering (contd.)

•   Other Copper mine motherboards use PC133 memory, which
    isn't as fast.

•   Coppermine PCs performs excellent at computation intensive
    tasks, such as
     – 3D rendering

     – Streaming video

     – Animation

     – Speech recognition.

•   Delivers faster Web browsing.

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AMD Athlon Processor

•   Available in initial speed grades of 650,
    600, 550 and 500 MHz on 0.25-micron
    process technology.
•   The industry’s first nine-issue super
    pipelined, super scalar x86 processor
    micro architecture designed for high clock
    frequencies.
•   Multiple parallel x86 instruction decoders.
•   Three out-of-order, super scalar, fully
    pipelined floating point execution units,
    which execute all x87 (floating point), MMX
    and 3DNow! instructions.
•   Advanced dynamic branch prediction.

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AMD Athlon Processor (contd.)

  – Enhanced 3DNow! technology for leading-edge 3D performance.
  – 21 original 3DNow! instructions-the first technology enabling
      super scalar SIMD.
  – 19 new instructions to enable improved integer math calculations
      for speech or video encoding
  – Improved data movement for Internet plug-ins and other
      streaming applications.
  – 5 new DSP instructions to improve soft modem, soft ADSL, Dolby
      Digital surround sound, and MP3 applications.
  – Compatible with Windows 98, Windows 95, and Windows NT 4.x
      without software patches.

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AMD Athlon Processor (contd.)

  – 200-MHz AMD Athlon system bus (scalable beyond 400 MHz)
      enabling leading-edge system bandwidth for data movement-
      intensive applications.
  – Source synchronous clocking (clock forwarding) technology.
  – Support for 8-bit ECC for data bus integrity.
  – Peak bandwidth of 1.6 to 3.2 GB/s.
  – Multiprocessing support point-to-point topology, with number of
      processors in SMP systems determined by chipset
      implementation.
  – Support for 24 outstanding transactions per processor.


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AMD Athlon Processor (contd.)

  • High-performance cache architecture featuring an
    integrated 128KB L1 cache and a programmable, high-
    speed backside L2 cache interface.

  • Slot A infrastructure design based on optimized, high-
    performance platforms.

  • Available in processor cartridge with mechanical
    dimensions comparable to Pentium III.

  • Leverages existing physical/mechanical Slot 1 PC
    infrastructure, including mechanical connector, but with
    different bus protocols and electrical definitions.

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AMD Athlon Processor (contd.)

  – Electrical interface compatible with 200-MHz AMD Athlon system
      bus, based on Alpha EV6 bus protocol.

  – Supported by a full line of optimized Slot A infrastructure
      solutions (chipsets, motherboards, BIOS).

  – Manufactured using AMD’s state-of-the-art 0.25-micron, six-layer-
      metal process technology at AMD’s Fab 25 wafer fabrication
      facility.

  – Die size: approximately 22 million transistors on 184 mm2 die on
      0.25-micron process technology.


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AMD Athlon Processor (contd.)

•   AMD - Athlon - Thunderbird (Athlon with
•   Performance Enhancing Cache) - Athlon-C
•   The Thunderbird core Athlon is available in the Socket A form
    factor with 256K of on-die L2 cache.
•   The L2 cache on the Thunderbird is 16-set associative and
    uses a 64-bit bus, as compared to the Pentium III's
    (Coppermine) 256-bit cache bus.
•   Capable of running in multi -processor configurations
•   Eventually uses a 200 or 266MHz system bus, which actually
    runs at 100MHz x 2 or 133MHz x 2 for the Athlon-C.

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AMD Athlon Processor (contd.)


•   The bus speed may eventually be pushed up to 166MHz x 2 for

    use with PC2600 DDR memory.

•   It speed grades from 650MHz to 1GHz, in increments of 50MHz,

    much like the original Athlon.

•   The AMD launches 650 and 700MHz speeds of Thunderbird.




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AMD DURON

•   High-Speed System Bus

•   The AMD Duron processor features a
    200MHz front side system bus

•   Offering more available bus bandwidth
    than that of Intel's Celeron processor.

•   Delivers exceptional performance on data
    -rich applications, such as MP3 encoders,
    video encoders, soft DVD players, and
    basic video-editing packages.

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Sophisticated Cache Architecture

•   The AMD Duron processor features 192K of total on-chip
    cache.

•   Large on-chip cache combined with the sophisticated cache
    architecture

•   Delivers superior performance in comparison to Intel's Celeron
    processor on memory-intensive applications.

•   Such applications include business and personal productivity
    suites, as well as basic 3D content creation and photo-editing
    packages.

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Sophisticated Cache Architecture (contd.)

•   Superscalar Floating Point Unit with Enhanced
•   3DNow!™ Technology
•   The AMD Duron processor offers three floating point pipelines
•   Intel's Celeron processor offers only one
•   3DNow!™ multimedia technology, enables the AMD Duron
    processor to deliver superior performance on applications rich
    in graphics.
•   Examples of these applications include web-design tools, as
    well as entertainment and edutainment products.

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Intel Pentium 4

•   Features of P4 Processor

•   The Pentium 4 processor is

    available at speeds ranging from

    1.30 to 3.2 GHz.

•   Featuring the new Intel Net - Burst

    micro-architecture. Supported by

    the Intel® 850, 860, 870 series

    chipset.

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Intel Pentium 4 (contd.)

•   Fully compatible with existing Intel Architecture-based

    software

•   Internet Streaming SIMD Extensions.

•   Intel® MMX™ media enhancement technology.

•   Memory cacheability up to 4 GB of addressable memory space

•   System memory scalability up to 64 GB of physical memory.

•   Support for uni-processor designs.


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Intel Pentium 4 (contd.)

•   Intel® NetBurst™ Micro-architecture
•   The NetBurst micro-architecture delivers a number of new and
    innovative features including
    – Hyper Pipelined Technology
    – 400 MHz System Bus
    – Execution Trace Cache
    – Rapid Execution Engine)
•   Enhanced features
•   Advanced Transfer Cache
•   Advanced Dynamic Execution
•   Enhanced Floating-point and Multi-media Unit.
•   Streaming SIMD Extensions 2 (SSE2)
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Intel Pentium 4 (contd.)

•   Hyper Pipelined Technology
•   The hyper-pipelined technology of the NetBurst micro-
    architecture doubles the pipeline depth compared to the P6
    micro-architecture used in Pentium III processors.
•   400 MHz System Bus
•   The Pentium 4 processor supports highest performance
    desktop system bus
•   It delivers 3.2 GB of data per second into and out of the
    processor through a physical signaling scheme of quad
    pumping

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Intel Pentium 4 (contd.)

•   The data transfers over a 100-MHz clocked system bus

•   The buffering scheme allows for sustained 400-MHz data
    transfers.

•   Level 1 Execution Trace Cache

•   In addition to the 8 KB data cache, the Pentium 4 processor
    includes an Execution Trace Cache

•   It stores up to 12 K decoded micro-ops in the order of program
    execution.


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Intel Pentium 4 (contd.)


•   Rapid Execution Engine

•   Two Arithmetic Logic Units (ALUs) on the Pentium 4 processor

    are clocked at twice the core processor frequency.

•   This allows basic integer instructions such as Add, Subtract,

    Logical AND, Logical OR, etc. to execute in ½ a clock cycle.

•   For example, the Rapid Execution Engine on a 1.50 GHz

    Pentium 4 processor runs at 3 GHz.

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Intel Pentium 4 (contd.)

•   256 KB, Level 2 Advanced Transfer Cache
•   The Level 2 Advanced Transfer Cache (ATC) is 256KB in size
•   Delivers much higher data throughput channel between the
    Level 2 cache and the processor core.
•   The Pentium 4 processor 1.50 GHz can deliver a data transfer
    rate of 48 GB/s.
•   This compares to a transfer rate of 16 GB/s on the Pentium - III
    processor at 1 GHz.
•   Enhanced Floating-point and Multi-media Unit

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Intel Pentium 4 (contd.)

•   Internet Streaming SIMD Extensions 2 (SSE2)

•   With the introduction of SSE2, the Net Burst micro-architecture

    extends the SIMD capabilities that delivered by adding 144 new

    instructions.

•   These instructions include

    – 128-bit SIMD integer arithmetic

    – 128-bit SIMD double-precision floating-point operations.



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Intel Pentium 4 (contd.)

•   Intel Pentium® III Xeon™ Processors
•   Variety of cache sizes
•   Speed options to meet server and workstation solution needs
•   Available cache sizes
•   Available MHz speeds
    – front-end
    – 1-2 way 256K
    –     1 GHz, 933 MHz, 866 MHz, 800 MHz,
    –     733 MHz, 667 MHz, 600MHz
    –     mid-tier
    –     4-8 way 1MB, 2MB 700MHz, 900MHz
    –     Greater 1MB, 2MB 700MHz, 900MHz

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Intel Pentium 4 (contd.)


•   All cache is L2 on-die Advanced Transfer Cache

•   This are special server based processor used in most of Intel

    based branded machine.

•   Eg:-IBM - Tivoli, IBM – Net infinity, COMPAQ - Presario etc.




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64-bit Processors

•   In 1992, DEC (Digital Equipment Corporation - now part of HP-
    Compaq) released the Alpha 64-bit processor, running at the
    then blistering speed of 200MHz - remember, this was a time
    when the 66MHz 486 DX2 was top of the line in the consumer
    space.
•   A number of 64-bit processors hit the market all targeted at
    high-end computing applications, such as scientific analysis,
    or running large back-end servers.
•   64-bit computing now comes to the masses in the form of
    AMD's Hammer architectures (also known as AMD64) as well
    as Intel's IA64-based processors.
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AMD Opteron

•   AMD Opteron is based on the AMD64 architecture from
    AMD.

•   It has eight more general purpose registers, and eight
    more SIMD registers (for SSE and SSE2 code), all of
    which are 64-bit.

•   Features
     – Designed to enable 64-bit computing while remaining
        compatible with the vast x86 software infrastructure.

     – Represents a new class of computing, enabling a single
        architecture across 32- and 64-bit environments.
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Itanium Processor

•   Based on EPIC (Explicitly Parallel Instruction Computing).
•   Features
•   Large memory address ability
•   Error detection & correction
•   World class floating point performance
•   High bandwidth
•   2.1 gigabyte per second bus speed
•   2 and 4 MB Level 3 "memory reservoir" cache
•   Production frequencies of 800 and 733 MHz.
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Itanium 2

•   Intel Itanium 2 processor is uniquely architected for
    demanding enterprise and technical applications.

•   Itanium 2 processors are binary-compatible with existing
    Itanium-based software to provide investment protection.

•   It is available at 1.50 GHz, 1.40 GHz, 1.30 GHz, having around
    Level 3 integrated cache of 6MB, 4MB, and 3MB, Level 2 cache
    of 256 KB and Level 1 cache of 32 KB (Instruction and data).

•   It operates with a chipset of Intel E8870 and with a system bus
    speed of 400 MHz, 128-bit wide and having 6.4 GB/s bandwidth.

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