XML and e-commerce in book and serials publishing

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					 XML and e-commerce in
book and serials publishing

                    Francis J Cave
            Francis Cave Digital Publishing



8th November 2000      SGML UK Meeting:       1
                       XML in Publishing
 Projects / initiatives using XML

• Digital Object Identifier (DOI) metadata
    – kernel metadata
    – genre metadata
• Digital rights management
    – XrML (ContentGuard)
    – ODRL ()
    – <indecs>
• “Book trade” product information
    – EPICS
    – ONIX
• XML/EDI initiatives

8th November 2000       SGML UK Meeting:     2
                        XML in Publishing
       Digital Object Identifier
• International DOI Foundation
• An identifier for intellectual property entities
    – persistent
         • the identifier remains the same, regardless of ownership
           or location of the entity it identifies
    – actionable
         • the identifier is part of a system that includes technology
           (the Handles system) for resolving DOIs to specific
           locations
    – interoperable
         • the identifier uses existing identification schemes, such as
           ISBN, ISSN, SICI and PII

8th November 2000          SGML UK Meeting:                               3
                           XML in Publishing
       Digital Object Identifier
• DOI kernel metadata
    – needed to provide a minimal description of the identified
      entity:
         •   DOI
         •   genre                      e.g. journal article, e-book, photo
         •   unique identifier          e.g. ISBN, ISMN
         •   title
         •   entity type                e.g. work, physical manifestation
         •   origination                e.g. original, excerpt
         •   primary agent              agent identifier
         •   agent role                 e.g. publisher, distributor


8th November 2000            SGML UK Meeting:                             4
                             XML in Publishing
       Digital Object Identifier
• DOI genre metadata
    – extension of the kernel metadata to meet the
      description requirements of a specific genre
    – focus on rights metadata
    – must follow the <indecs> model
• So what’s this all got to do with XML...?
    – registration of DOIs will in future involve mandatory
      delivery of DOI metadata in XML
    – XML format is likely to be harmonised with ONIX
• Finding out more...
    – http://www.doi.org/


8th November 2000       SGML UK Meeting:                      5
                        XML in Publishing
  Digital Rights Management
• XrML – eXtensible Rights Markup Language
    – developed at Xerox PARC
    – XML-based language for specifying rights and issuing
      permissions associated with works
    – llicensed by ContentGuard, a Xerox spin-off supported
      by Microsoft, Adobe and others
    – http://www.xrml.org/
• ODRL – Open Digital Rights Language
    – developed by OASIS
         • editor Renato Iannella, IPR Systems
    – standardised rights language with XML binding
    – http://odrl.net/

8th November 2000         SGML UK Meeting:                    6
                          XML in Publishing
          Book trade metadata
• EDItEUR Product Information Communication
  Standard (EPICS)
• ONIX International




8th November 2000   SGML UK Meeting:          7
                    XML in Publishing
                        EPICS
• Abstract data dictionary
    – Defines semantics of product information for the book
      trade (books, serials, looseleafs, electronic...)
    – Defines an abstract data model for product information
      in terms of data elements, composites and value
      domains
    – Does not define a concrete syntax
    – Based upon the principles defined in the <indecs>
      metadata schema




8th November 2000      SGML UK Meeting:                        8
                       XML in Publishing
                        EPICS
• Pilot XML expression
    – DTD development based upon RDF
    – Strong EDI “feel” in choice of syntax
    – March 2000: exploring harmonisation with MUZE
      MerchEnt
    – Development suspended in March as priority switched
      to development of ONIX International
• Current status
    – Maintained as the abstract foundation for ONIX
    – A basis (primary source) for other “book” and allied
      trade metadata standards

8th November 2000       SGML UK Meeting:                     9
                        XML in Publishing
             ONIX International
• True XML application
    – XML DTD now ... XML Schema later
    – ONIX messages must be valid XML documents
• One DTD, two implementation levels
    – Level 1 – meets original US ONIX requirements
         • minimal use of composites
         • short “numeric” element type names
         • aimed at low-tech SMEs
    – Level 2 – implements most of the EPICS semantics
         • wider use of composites (but fewer than in EPICS)
         • choice of short and verbose element type names
         • aimed at larger publishers

8th November 2000         SGML UK Meeting:                     10
                          XML in Publishing
             ONIX International
• ONIX descriptive metadata element groups:
 – Product numbers                 – Audience
 – Product form                    – Publisher
 – Series details                  – Publishing dates
 – Set details                     – Territorial rights
 – Title                           – Dimensions
 – Authorship (contributors)       – Descriptions and other text
 – Conference                      – Links to image/audio/video
 – Edition                         – Prizes
 – Language                        – Replaced by / alternative format
 – Pagination and other content    – Supplier, availability and prices
 – Subject                         – Sales promotion information
8th November 2000        SGML UK Meeting:                           11
                         XML in Publishing
              ONIX International
• Metadata group example: “authorship”
    – organised into metadata about each individual contributor
      (author, editor, translator,...)
    – individual contributor information comprises some combination
      of any of the following data elements:
         •   contributor sequence number (display ordering)
         •   contributor role
         •   person name
         •   person name, inverted
         •   structured person name (up to six elements)
         •   professional position
         •   affiliation
         •   corporate contributor name
         •   biographical note
         •   contributor description (other than biographical information)

8th November 2000              SGML UK Meeting:                              12
                               XML in Publishing
             ONIX International
• XML-coded example of a contributor composite,
  using short element type names (Level 1):
   <contributor>
   <b035>A01</b035>
   <b037>Schur, Norman W</b037>
   <b044>A Harvard graduate in Latin and Italian
   literature, Norman Schur attended the University of
   Rome and the Sorbonne before returning to the United
   States to study law at Harvard and Columbia Law
   Schools. Now retired from legal practice, Mr Schur is
   a fluent speaker and writer of both British and
   American English </b044>
   </contributor>



8th November 2000     SGML UK Meeting:                     13
                      XML in Publishing
             ONIX International
• XML-coded example of a contributor composite,
  using verbose element type names:
   <Contributor>
   <ContributorRole>A01</ContributorRole>
   <PersonNameInverted>Schur, Norman W
   </PersonNameInverted>
   <BiographicalNote>A Harvard graduate in Latin and
   Italian literature, Norman Schur attended the
   University of Rome and the Sorbonne before returning
   to the United States to study law at Harvard and
   Columbia Law Schools. Now retired from legal
   practice, Mr Schur is a fluent speaker and writer of
   both British and American English</BiographicalNote>
   </Contributor>

8th November 2000     SGML UK Meeting:                    14
                      XML in Publishing
             ONIX International
• Current status
    –   Current release (1.1) was issued in July 2000
    –   Minor corrections in August 2000
    –   Next release (1.2) expected end mid-November 2000
    –   Schema under development
         • to enable verification of element content
    – Extensions in progress for:
         • e-books (for release 1.3 in December 2000)
         • video (for release in 2001)
         • rights metadata



8th November 2000          SGML UK Meeting:                 15
                           XML in Publishing
             XML/EDI initiatives
• Book Industry Communication (BIC) / EDItEUR
  are evaluating XML as an alternative to EDI for
  trade with libraries
    – draft DTD for library book order messages
• Direction likely to be influenced by the Global
  Commerce Initiative (GCI) and ebXML
• Finding out more...
    – EDItEUR         http://www.editeur.org/
    – GCI             http://globalcommerceinitiative.org/
    – ebXML           http://www.ebxml.org/

8th November 2000      SGML UK Meeting:                      16
                       XML in Publishing