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Guide To UNIX Using Linux Third Edition by ygq15756

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									     Chapter 11:
The X Window System

 Guide To UNIX Using Linux
        Third Edition
                                    Objectives
  • Describe the X Window system and its
    client/server model
  • Understand the role of the Window Manager
  • Start the X Window system
  • Interact with the X Window system and use its
    components




Guide to UNIX Using Linux, Third Edition            2
                                    Objectives
  •    Use Nautilus
  •    Run an application
  •    Configure a desktop
  •    Shut down a system from the desktop




Guide to UNIX Using Linux, Third Edition         3
          What is the X Window System?

• GUI that runs on Linux and many UNIX operating
  systems
• Programmers may develop applications that run on
  the X Window system and support GUI components,
  such as windows, dialog boxes, buttons, and pull-
  down menus




Guide to UNIX Using Linux, Third Edition          4
          What is the X Window System?
                    (continued)
• Originally created at MIT
• Created for different hardware, running different
  variations of UNIX/Linux
• All look and feel the same to the user




Guide to UNIX Using Linux, Third Edition              5
          What is the X Window System?
                    (continued)




Guide to UNIX Using Linux, Third Edition   6
            X Window Clients and Servers

• You can use the X Window system to run:
   – Programs stored on your local computer
   – Applications over the network
• X Window uses a client/server model in which a
  program can run on one computer but display its
  output on another




Guide to UNIX Using Linux, Third Edition            7
           X Window Clients and Servers
                   (continued)
• The desktop system from which you run a program
  is called the X server
• The system that hosts and executes the program is
  called the X client
• This is the opposite of normal networking
  terminology




Guide to UNIX Using Linux, Third Edition              8
                  Using Window Managers

• X Window System is layered and built from
  components
• Top layer is the Window Manager
• Window Manager
   – Controls how windows appear
   – Determines how users control windows




Guide to UNIX Using Linux, Third Edition      9
   Using Window Managers (continued)




Guide to UNIX Using Linux, Third Edition   10
                             Using a Desktop

• A desktop provides
     – A specific GUI appearance
     – Specific software applications
     – Other resources
• Closely integrated with a Window Manager
• Common UNIX/Linux desktops include
     – GNOME
     – KDE
Guide to UNIX Using Linux, Third Edition       11
                               Using GNOME

• GNOME is
  – GNU Network Object Model Environment
  – A product of the GNU project
• Most popular desktop
  – Very user-friendly
  – Many applications (file-access, office, general
    utilities)




Guide to UNIX Using Linux, Third Edition              12
                                    Using KDE

• Can be installed alongside GNOME
• More popular internationally
   – Offers a broader range of drag-and-drop
     capabilities
• Both KDE and GNOME are compatible with X11 and
  various Window Managers




Guide to UNIX Using Linux, Third Edition        13
           Starting the X Window System

• Can be started from the command line with the
  startx command
• Linux can be configured to start X Window System
  automatically
   – Set the runlevel in the /etc/inittab file
   – For automatic startup, runlevel must be 5
   – Requires superuser privileges




Guide to UNIX Using Linux, Third Edition             14
           Starting the X Window System
                     (continued)


Establishing the
default runlevel,
or mode of
operation




Guide to UNIX Using Linux, Third Edition   15
           Starting the X Window System
                     (continued)




Guide to UNIX Using Linux, Third Edition   16
  Interacting with the X Window System




Guide to UNIX Using Linux, Third Edition   17
                  Interacting with Windows

• Window components provide window functionality
  including:
   – Title bar
   – Window Menu button
   – Minimize Window button
   – Maximize/Unmaximize Window button
   – Close Window button
   – Status bar
   – View pane



Guide to UNIX Using Linux, Third Edition           18
   Interacting with Windows (continued)




Guide to UNIX Using Linux, Third Edition   19
  More About the Window Menu Button

• The Window Menu button shown in previous figure
  provides options including:
   – Minimize
   – Maximize/unmaximize
   – Roll up/Unroll
   – Move
   – Resize
   – Close
   – Workspace options

Guide to UNIX Using Linux, Third Edition            20
           Interacting with the Panel
• Panel appears at bottom of GNOME desktop
• Features Main Menu (hat), Pager, clock,
  applications




Guide to UNIX Using Linux, Third Edition     21
                  Using the GNOME Pager

• Pager is an applet
• Includes:
   – Workspace Shifter (virtual desktops)
   – Window List (running applications)




Guide to UNIX Using Linux, Third Edition    22
                               Using Nautilus
• Nautilus is a file management tool:
  – View files and folders
  – Create folders
  – Delete and move files and folders
  – Copy and paste files and folders
  – Configure permissions
  – Open a file or start a program
  – Access the Internet
  – Manage bookmarks


Guide to UNIX Using Linux, Third Edition        23
                Using Nautilus (continued)




Guide to UNIX Using Linux, Third Edition     24
                Using Nautilus (continued)




Guide to UNIX Using Linux, Third Edition     25
                    Running an Application
• GNOME has a Run Application feature on the Main
  Menu
   – Can run application or view possible applications
• Sample applications include:
   – Add/Remove Applications
   – CD Writer
   – Dictionary
   – Mozilla Web browser



Guide to UNIX Using Linux, Third Edition             26
     Running an Application (continued)




Guide to UNIX Using Linux, Third Edition   27
                   Configuring the Desktop

• Can customize many aspects of the X Window
  System
   – Change background
   – Change screensaver
   – Configure Panel
   – Add a menu to the Panel
   – Add a new Panel




Guide to UNIX Using Linux, Third Edition       28
     Configuring the Desktop (continued)




Guide to UNIX Using Linux, Third Edition   29
        Shutting Down from the GNOME
                   Desktop
• Proper shutdown important
   – Ensure files are closed
   – Protect integrity of file system
• Use GNOME Main Menu Log Out option




Guide to UNIX Using Linux, Third Edition   30
                           Chapter Summary
  • The X Window System is a graphical user
    interface (GUI) that runs many on UNIX and Linux
    systems
  • The top layer of the X Window System is the
    Windows Manager
  • Desktops are used with a Window Manager,
    providing specific appearance, applications, and
    resources




Guide to UNIX Using Linux, Third Edition           31
           Chapter Summary (continued)
  • X Window System can start automatically or can
    be started from the command line
  • Interact with X Windows through desktop
    components
  • Interact with specific windows through window
    components
  • GNOME provides multiple virtual desktops called
    workspaces



Guide to UNIX Using Linux, Third Edition              32
           Chapter Summary (continued)
  • The GNOME panel provides access to the Pager,
    Main Menu, applications
  • Nautilus is a GNOME file manager
  • Various applications can be run from the Main
    Menu in GNOME
  • GNOME Main Menu can be used to safely shut
    down the system




Guide to UNIX Using Linux, Third Edition            33

								
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