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The Boston Massacre - Slide 1

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					                          U.S. History Lesson
               Using the Disciplinary Literacy Approach:


                   The Boston Massacre :
                      “Identifying Bias
              When Analyzing Multiple Accounts”




Austin ISD Bureau of Curriculum & Instruction
         Social Studies Department
                                                           ifl
The goal of Disciplinary Literacy is that all students will develop
deep content knowledge and, at the same time, literate habits of thinking
in the context of academically rigorous learning in individual disciplines.



               Economists !
                                 DISCIPLINARY
                                   LITERACY
        Political scientists !      in Social Studies
           Philosophers !
                                    Our students
             Sociologists !         are engaged
       Anthropologists !          in the work of… Historians !
              Archaeologists !           Cartographers !
                           Archivists!             Geographers !




                                                                         ifl
            Disciplinary Literacy:
           Our Discipline is History

      Our primary objective
      is to facilitate an environment
      wherein students




                                        Content Knowledge
      are acting as historians
      as they learn about history.



                                                       Habits of Thinking


ifl
                                                                                 See Handout, “DL in Social Studies”

                                                                           DL PRINCIPLE ONE
                                                           Students learn core concepts and habits of inquiry,
            DL Lesson Study:                              investigating, reasoning, reading, writing, and talking
                                                               within disciplines as defined by standards.

U.S. History content focus:                                              PRINCIPLES OF LEARNING
                                                                          • Learning as Apprenticeship
•   The Boston Massacre                                                        • Clear Expectations
                                                          --------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                          • Students regularly engage in historical
                                                          inquiry, tackling themes, concepts and
Social Studies habits of thinking addressed:              content by reading and analyzing multiple
•   While actively engaged in the process of historical   sources, both primary and secondary.
    inquiry, students learn of the value in examining     • Students learn and use skills of historical
    multiple primary and secondary sources related to     analysis, persuasion, and use of evidence
    a specific topic.                                     in reasoning, writing, and talking about




                                                                      Content Knowledge
                                                          history in every unit of study.

•   Students learn to read with a critical eye -          • Historical habits of thinking are woven
    questioning an author’s point of view,                through each unit of study and students are
                                                          coached to utilize these habits with
    assumptions, background –                             increasing complexity and ability over time.
    and become proficient in identifying bias.
                                                          • Students are engaged in explicating
                                                          multiple historical roots of current world
                                                          and local events and conversely, they are
                                                                     Habits of Thinking
                                                          engaged in understanding historical events,
                                                          people, systems, and movements as
                                                          historical phenomena situated in specific
ifl                                                       time and place.
“Examining
Multiple Perspectives
on the
Boston Massacre”
 Our ongoing work: Reading for perspectives about
                   significant events in history
When we investigate significant events in history, we consistently turn to certain kinds of
  questions. These questions define, and often launch, the process known as historical inquiry
  and, as historians, we must make them a part of our own habits of thinking / reasoning.
We ask:
•   What caused this event to happen?
•   What actually happened?
•   What changed as a result?
•   Why is this event significant? …significant within the context of this period (i.e., the Am. Rev.)?
•   Why is this event significant within the historical / pedagogical canon? Why teach about it?
One way we study significant events in history is to study how these events are interpreted.
To understand the manner in which interpretation of events evolve over time,
we read multiple accounts to see how different authors have written about the event.
We call these accounts secondary sources.
The process of examining them aids historians in identifying bias.

When we read multiple sources about the same event,
We ask:
• What are the different perspectives about this key event?
• What is the same and different about these different perspectives?
• What new knowledge can I gain from the sum of these perspectives?
Our work today: Reading as historians to compare
 different perspectives on the Boston Massacre
We have been studying significant events that led to the American Revolutionary War.
   Today our content focuses on an event that has come to be known as
the Boston Massacre.
Our sources*:
1. “A Massacre in Boston” from A History of Us, Book 3: From Colonies to Country,
    (1999) by Joy Hakim.
2. Excerpts from U.S. history textbooks about the Boston Massacre (1981 – 2001).
3. “A Shoemaker and the Boston Tea Party” (2001) by historian Alfred E. Young.
                                                * Full citations appear on the documents themselves.
As we read each secondary source, we’ll ask:
• According to the author, what were the causes of the Boston Massacre?
• What actually happened that day in March, 1770?
• According to this author, what is the significance of the Boston Massacre?
After we’ve read multiple accounts about the Boston Massacre, we’ll ask:
• What aspects of these accounts are the same?
• What aspects of these accounts are different?
• How do these different perspectives shape how we understand this event?
• What else do I need to know and how can I find out?
    Understanding
  Multiple Perspectives
          on the
   Boston Massacre

   Our Sources:
   1. “A Massacre in Boston”
       from A History of Us,
      Book 3: From Colonies
      to Country,
      (1999) by Joy Hakim.




Engraving of the Boston Massacre,
                1770, Paul Revere.
http://www.authentichistory.com/antebellum/revolution/1770_
boston_massacre_engraving_1-revere.jpg
  Understanding
Multiple Perspectives
        on the
 Boston Massacre

Our Sources:
1. “A Massacre in Boston”
    from A History of Us,
   Book 3: From Colonies
   to Country,
   (1999) by Joy Hakim.

2. Excerpts from U.S.
   history textbooks about
   the Boston Massacre
   (1981 – 2001).
                             This chromolithograph by John Bufford, ca. 1856, of the Boston
                             Massacre prominently features a black man believed to be
                             Crispus Attucks.
                                                            http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Crispus_Attucks
  Understanding
Multiple Perspectives
        on the                                   Discovery Education Streaming Video Clip
 Boston Massacre
                             Josiah Quincy quote:
Our Sources:                 “ Words cannot express the pain we felt
1. “A Massacre in Boston”      when our streets were stained
    from A History of Us,       by the blood of our brothers
   Book 3: From Colonies       when our ears heard
   to Country,                  the groans of the dying
   (1999) by Joy Hakim.        and our eyes saw
                                the twisted bodies of the dead.”
2. Excerpts from U.S.
   history textbooks about   Josiah Quincy [1744–75] was a political leader
   the Boston Massacre       in the American Revolution. An outstanding
   (1981 – 2001).            lawyer, he wrote a series of anonymous articles
                             for the Boston Gazette in which he opposed the
3. “A Shoemaker and the      Stamp Act and other British colonial policies.
    Boston Tea Party”        Nevertheless, Quincy, along with John Adams,
    (2001) by historian      defended the British soldiers in the trial after the
                             Boston Massacre.
    Alfred E. Young.
Let’s make it a Habit of Thinking
…when we read multiple sources about the same event, to ask:

• What aspects of these accounts are the same?

• What aspects of these accounts are different?

• How do these different perspectives shape
  how we understand this event?
Reflecting on the Lesson:

• Describe what happened in the lesson.

• What about the way we worked with documents supported
  and assisted our ongoing work and learning goals today?

• At what points did your own thinking about the Boston Massacre
  change? What new information did you learn?
                    Disciplinary Literacy:
           Content Knowledge + Habits of Thinking = Learning on the Diagonal




 What caused this event to happen?
 What actually happened?




                                                   Content Knowledge
 What changed as a result of this event?

 Understanding the causes, details,
 results and significance of
 the Boston Massacre
 as one event leading up to
 the American Revolution.                                              Habits of Thinking


           Comparison and study of different accounts of the same
              event: there is always more than one perspective.
           Analyzing multiple perspectives contributes to our overall
              understanding of the content.
ifl               Adapted from definition of academic literacy, Cheryl Geisler, 1994.

				
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posted:10/29/2010
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