U.S. History Lesson Using the Disciplinary Literacy Approach: The Boston Massacre : “Identifying Bias When Analyzing Multiple Accounts” Austin ISD Bureau of Curriculum & Instruction Social Studies Department ifl The goal of Disciplinary Literacy is that all students will develop deep content knowledge and, at the same time, literate habits of thinking in the context of academically rigorous learning in individual disciplines. Economists ! DISCIPLINARY LITERACY Political scientists ! in Social Studies Philosophers ! Our students Sociologists ! are engaged Anthropologists ! in the work of… Historians ! Archaeologists ! Cartographers ! Archivists! Geographers ! ifl Disciplinary Literacy: Our Discipline is History Our primary objective is to facilitate an environment wherein students Content Knowledge are acting as historians as they learn about history. Habits of Thinking ifl See Handout, “DL in Social Studies” DL PRINCIPLE ONE Students learn core concepts and habits of inquiry, DL Lesson Study: investigating, reasoning, reading, writing, and talking within disciplines as defined by standards. U.S. History content focus: PRINCIPLES OF LEARNING • Learning as Apprenticeship • The Boston Massacre • Clear Expectations -------------------------------------------------------------------- • Students regularly engage in historical inquiry, tackling themes, concepts and Social Studies habits of thinking addressed: content by reading and analyzing multiple • While actively engaged in the process of historical sources, both primary and secondary. inquiry, students learn of the value in examining • Students learn and use skills of historical multiple primary and secondary sources related to analysis, persuasion, and use of evidence a specific topic. in reasoning, writing, and talking about Content Knowledge history in every unit of study. • Students learn to read with a critical eye - • Historical habits of thinking are woven questioning an author’s point of view, through each unit of study and students are coached to utilize these habits with assumptions, background – increasing complexity and ability over time. and become proficient in identifying bias. • Students are engaged in explicating multiple historical roots of current world and local events and conversely, they are Habits of Thinking engaged in understanding historical events, people, systems, and movements as historical phenomena situated in specific ifl time and place. “Examining Multiple Perspectives on the Boston Massacre” Our ongoing work: Reading for perspectives about significant events in history When we investigate significant events in history, we consistently turn to certain kinds of questions. These questions define, and often launch, the process known as historical inquiry and, as historians, we must make them a part of our own habits of thinking / reasoning. We ask: • What caused this event to happen? • What actually happened? • What changed as a result? • Why is this event significant? …significant within the context of this period (i.e., the Am. Rev.)? • Why is this event significant within the historical / pedagogical canon? Why teach about it? One way we study significant events in history is to study how these events are interpreted. To understand the manner in which interpretation of events evolve over time, we read multiple accounts to see how different authors have written about the event. We call these accounts secondary sources. The process of examining them aids historians in identifying bias. When we read multiple sources about the same event, We ask: • What are the different perspectives about this key event? • What is the same and different about these different perspectives? • What new knowledge can I gain from the sum of these perspectives? Our work today: Reading as historians to compare different perspectives on the Boston Massacre We have been studying significant events that led to the American Revolutionary War. Today our content focuses on an event that has come to be known as the Boston Massacre. Our sources*: 1. “A Massacre in Boston” from A History of Us, Book 3: From Colonies to Country, (1999) by Joy Hakim. 2. Excerpts from U.S. history textbooks about the Boston Massacre (1981 – 2001). 3. “A Shoemaker and the Boston Tea Party” (2001) by historian Alfred E. Young. * Full citations appear on the documents themselves. As we read each secondary source, we’ll ask: • According to the author, what were the causes of the Boston Massacre? • What actually happened that day in March, 1770? • According to this author, what is the significance of the Boston Massacre? After we’ve read multiple accounts about the Boston Massacre, we’ll ask: • What aspects of these accounts are the same? • What aspects of these accounts are different? • How do these different perspectives shape how we understand this event? • What else do I need to know and how can I find out? Understanding Multiple Perspectives on the Boston Massacre Our Sources: 1. “A Massacre in Boston” from A History of Us, Book 3: From Colonies to Country, (1999) by Joy Hakim. Engraving of the Boston Massacre, 1770, Paul Revere. http://www.authentichistory.com/antebellum/revolution/1770_ boston_massacre_engraving_1-revere.jpg Understanding Multiple Perspectives on the Boston Massacre Our Sources: 1. “A Massacre in Boston” from A History of Us, Book 3: From Colonies to Country, (1999) by Joy Hakim. 2. Excerpts from U.S. history textbooks about the Boston Massacre (1981 – 2001). This chromolithograph by John Bufford, ca. 1856, of the Boston Massacre prominently features a black man believed to be Crispus Attucks. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Crispus_Attucks Understanding Multiple Perspectives on the Discovery Education Streaming Video Clip Boston Massacre Josiah Quincy quote: Our Sources: “ Words cannot express the pain we felt 1. “A Massacre in Boston” when our streets were stained from A History of Us, by the blood of our brothers Book 3: From Colonies when our ears heard to Country, the groans of the dying (1999) by Joy Hakim. and our eyes saw the twisted bodies of the dead.” 2. Excerpts from U.S. history textbooks about Josiah Quincy [1744–75] was a political leader the Boston Massacre in the American Revolution. An outstanding (1981 – 2001). lawyer, he wrote a series of anonymous articles for the Boston Gazette in which he opposed the 3. “A Shoemaker and the Stamp Act and other British colonial policies. Boston Tea Party” Nevertheless, Quincy, along with John Adams, (2001) by historian defended the British soldiers in the trial after the Boston Massacre. Alfred E. Young. Let’s make it a Habit of Thinking …when we read multiple sources about the same event, to ask: • What aspects of these accounts are the same? • What aspects of these accounts are different? • How do these different perspectives shape how we understand this event? Reflecting on the Lesson: • Describe what happened in the lesson. • What about the way we worked with documents supported and assisted our ongoing work and learning goals today? • At what points did your own thinking about the Boston Massacre change? What new information did you learn? Disciplinary Literacy: Content Knowledge + Habits of Thinking = Learning on the Diagonal What caused this event to happen? What actually happened? Content Knowledge What changed as a result of this event? Understanding the causes, details, results and significance of the Boston Massacre as one event leading up to the American Revolution. Habits of Thinking Comparison and study of different accounts of the same event: there is always more than one perspective. Analyzing multiple perspectives contributes to our overall understanding of the content. ifl Adapted from definition of academic literacy, Cheryl Geisler, 1994.