Historical Roots of Migration.pp by xumiaomaio


									Historical Roots of Migration
 in the Age of Globalization

                   Cynthia Radding
               University of New Mexico
           Region XIII Diaconate Community
     25th Annual Conference in Gallup, New Mexico
                   July 27-29, 2007
      Continental Borderlands
   Migratory streams

   Borderlands before the nation-state

   Movements of native peoples through
    deserts, mountains and wetlands
Casas Grandes, Paquimé

Photograph: Xicotencatl Murrieta
European Invasions of the Americas

                    Immigrants, slave and free

                    New plants, animals, and

                    Colonial institutions

                    Adaptation to natural
                     environment and to Indians’
                     cultural traditions
           19th-Century         Transitions
   Wars for Independence

   Anglo-American traders,
    trappers and adenturers

   North-to-south migratory

   Borderlands networks of
    kinship and cultural ties
        Mapping the Borderlands
   U.S. invasion of

   Treaty of Guadalupe-

   Boundary Commission

   Treaty of Mesilla
    Migration in Historical Context
   Migratory flows to and from Latin America

   Diverse populations

   Globalization and migration

   Cultural identity, citizenship, and nationalism
    Mexico and the U.S.: 1820-1920
   Migration is not restricted to the border region

   Migration issues understood within larger
    national and international histories

   Seasonal and permanent migrations
        Mexico in the        19th      Century
   Internal Struggles          Foreign Invasions

                                United States, 1846-1854
   Church-state relations          Loss of territory
   Regional autonomy vs.           Binational boundary
    the central state
   Communal lands              France, 1862-1867
   Colonists in Chihuahua          Hapsburg monarchy
                                    French troops
          Modernization in Mexico
   Capital growth and              Population growth and
    technology                       immigration

       Railroads, telegraph            Immigrants from Europe,
       Industrial mining                Middle East and China
       Timber concessions
       Commercial agriculture          Colonies in northern

   President Porfirio Díaz
                 Mexican Revolution
    Principal Movements
   Constitutionalists
        Carranza
        Obregón
        Calles
   División del Norte
        Villa
   Plan de Ayala
        Emiliano Zapata
                             Orozco, La Trinchera
Past Meets the Present: 1920-2000
Parallel histories of Mexico and the United States

   World Wars and Great Depression
   Structural changes in world finances
   Mexico: agrarian reforms and labor policies
   Bracero program, 1943-1968
   Assembly plants (maquiladoras)
    Mexican Revolution on the Border
   Recruitment, provisions         Constitution of 1917
    and weaponry for the
    principal armies                Elective government
                                     restored, 1920
   Migration in Mexico and
    to the U.S.                     Cristero Revolt, 1927-
       Yaqui Indian                 1929
        communities in Arizona
       Migrants settle beyond
        the border states
          19th-century          U.S. History
   Forced migration of            Industrial capital and
    Native Americans                private fortunes
       Raiding by Kiowas,
        Comanches and Apaches
        in Mexico                  Immigration history
                                       Migrants from Europe,
                                        North Africa, Middle
   Consequences of U.S.-               East, Latin America and
    Mexico War for the                  China
    United States                      African-American “Great
       Slavery                         Migration” of 1920s
       Civil War
     Changing Migratory Patterns
   Migrant regional origins             Annual net flows of migrants
       Traditional                      1961-1970          27,500
       North
                                         2000-2005         396,000
       Center
       South-Southeast
   Destinations                         2005
       Major industrial cities              26.8 million persons from
       Small towns in the interior of       Mexico living in the U.S.
        the U.S.                             10.6 million born in Mexico
     Human Faces of Migration
Sam Quiñones           Hard choices for poor
                       Barriers to returning
                        home to Mexico.
Antonio’s Gun and
                       Dangerous border
 Delfino’s Dream        crossings.
                       Circular patterns give
                        way to permanent
Migration in the Global Economy
   Neo-liberal policies

   Structural adjustment

   Eroding standards of

   Reduced social services
       Maize and Global Markets
   Ethanol and world
    demand for industrial
    uses of maize
   Rising prices for Mexican
   Importation of corn
   Subsidies to raise
   NAFTA and peasant
         Ecuador: “our America”
   President Rafael Correa, inaugural speech

   Foreign debt service renegotiation

   Demands to meet basic social services

   Integration of Latin America
          Indigenous Movements
   Challenges to traditional
    national constitutions

   Demands for political
    recognition, territory,
    cultural dignity

   Responses to
        Indian Migrants to the U.S.
   Inclusion and autonomy
   Territorial spaces
   Cultural distinctiveness
   Autonomous
    communities in Chiapas
   Language preservation
       Tzotzil
       Mixtec
       Zapotec
 New   political actors
  Internalindigenous movements
  Migrant populations

  New claims to suffrage
    Paisanos in Mexico
    Ecuadorian Constituent Assembly

    Voter registration of Brazilians abroad.
     Human Rights and Populism
   Freedom from detention
   Security of life and home
   Right to food, housing,
    health care
   Access to education
   Freedom of movement
   Right to work and a
    living wage
    Collaborative Research and Service
   Language revitalization

   Local histories

   Community traditions

   Economic development
    Border Violence and Civic Action
   Border State Governors
    and Commissions.

   Surveillance and security

   Citizens’ networks for
    human rights and dignity
           Sources of Information
   University of New Mexico,
      Latin America Database

   University of Texas, LANIC
   New York Times
   Espadaña Press
   SPIN México Ilustrado
   Reséndez, Changing National Identities at the Frontier
   Zúñiga, et al, Migración México-Estados Unidos

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