Historical Roots of Migration.pp

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					Historical Roots of Migration
 in the Age of Globalization


                   Cynthia Radding
               University of New Mexico
           Region XIII Diaconate Community
     25th Annual Conference in Gallup, New Mexico
                   July 27-29, 2007
      Continental Borderlands
   Migratory streams

   Borderlands before the nation-state

   Movements of native peoples through
    deserts, mountains and wetlands
Casas Grandes, Paquimé




Photograph: Xicotencatl Murrieta
European Invasions of the Americas

                    Immigrants, slave and free

                    New plants, animals, and
                     microbes

                    Colonial institutions

                    Adaptation to natural
                     environment and to Indians’
                     cultural traditions
           19th-Century         Transitions
   Wars for Independence

   Anglo-American traders,
    trappers and adenturers

   North-to-south migratory
    flows

   Borderlands networks of
    kinship and cultural ties
        Mapping the Borderlands
   U.S. invasion of
    Mexico

   Treaty of Guadalupe-
    Hidalgo

   Boundary Commission

   Treaty of Mesilla
    Migration in Historical Context
   Migratory flows to and from Latin America

   Diverse populations

   Globalization and migration

   Cultural identity, citizenship, and nationalism
    Mexico and the U.S.: 1820-1920
   Migration is not restricted to the border region

   Migration issues understood within larger
    national and international histories

   Seasonal and permanent migrations
        Mexico in the        19th      Century
   Internal Struggles          Foreign Invasions

                                United States, 1846-1854
   Church-state relations          Loss of territory
   Regional autonomy vs.           Binational boundary
    the central state
   Communal lands              France, 1862-1867
   Colonists in Chihuahua          Hapsburg monarchy
                                    French troops
          Modernization in Mexico
   Capital growth and              Population growth and
    technology                       immigration

       Railroads, telegraph            Immigrants from Europe,
       Industrial mining                Middle East and China
       Timber concessions
       Commercial agriculture          Colonies in northern
                                         Mexico

   President Porfirio Díaz
                 Mexican Revolution
    Principal Movements
   Constitutionalists
        Carranza
        Obregón
        Calles
   División del Norte
        Villa
   Plan de Ayala
        Emiliano Zapata
                             Orozco, La Trinchera
Past Meets the Present: 1920-2000
Parallel histories of Mexico and the United States

   World Wars and Great Depression
   Structural changes in world finances
   Mexico: agrarian reforms and labor policies
   Bracero program, 1943-1968
   Assembly plants (maquiladoras)
    Mexican Revolution on the Border
   Recruitment, provisions         Constitution of 1917
    and weaponry for the
    principal armies                Elective government
                                     restored, 1920
   Migration in Mexico and
    to the U.S.                     Cristero Revolt, 1927-
       Yaqui Indian                 1929
        communities in Arizona
       Migrants settle beyond
        the border states
          19th-century          U.S. History
   Forced migration of            Industrial capital and
    Native Americans                private fortunes
       Raiding by Kiowas,
        Comanches and Apaches
        in Mexico                  Immigration history
                                       Migrants from Europe,
                                        North Africa, Middle
   Consequences of U.S.-               East, Latin America and
    Mexico War for the                  China
    United States                      African-American “Great
       Slavery                         Migration” of 1920s
       Civil War
     Changing Migratory Patterns
   Migrant regional origins             Annual net flows of migrants
       Traditional                      1961-1970          27,500
       North
                                         2000-2005         396,000
       Center
       South-Southeast
   Destinations                         2005
       Major industrial cities              26.8 million persons from
       Small towns in the interior of       Mexico living in the U.S.
        the U.S.                             10.6 million born in Mexico
     Human Faces of Migration
Sam Quiñones           Hard choices for poor
                        migrants.
                       Barriers to returning
                        home to Mexico.
Antonio’s Gun and
                       Dangerous border
 Delfino’s Dream        crossings.
                       Circular patterns give
                        way to permanent
                        migration.
Migration in the Global Economy
   Neo-liberal policies

   Structural adjustment

   Eroding standards of
    living

   Reduced social services
       Maize and Global Markets
   Ethanol and world
    demand for industrial
    uses of maize
   Rising prices for Mexican
    consumers
   Importation of corn
   Subsidies to raise
    production
   NAFTA and peasant
    agriculture
         Ecuador: “our America”
   President Rafael Correa, inaugural speech

   Foreign debt service renegotiation

   Demands to meet basic social services

   Integration of Latin America
          Indigenous Movements
   Challenges to traditional
    national constitutions

   Demands for political
    recognition, territory,
    cultural dignity

   Responses to
    globalization
        Indian Migrants to the U.S.
   Inclusion and autonomy
   Territorial spaces
   Cultural distinctiveness
   Autonomous
    communities in Chiapas
   Language preservation
       Tzotzil
       Mixtec
       Zapotec
              Citizenship
 New   political actors
  Internalindigenous movements
  Migrant populations

  New claims to suffrage
    Paisanos in Mexico
    Ecuadorian Constituent Assembly

    Voter registration of Brazilians abroad.
     Human Rights and Populism
   Freedom from detention
   Security of life and home
   Right to food, housing,
    health care
   Access to education
   Freedom of movement
   Right to work and a
    living wage
    Collaborative Research and Service
   Language revitalization

   Local histories

   Community traditions

   Economic development
    Border Violence and Civic Action
   Border State Governors
    and Commissions.

   Surveillance and security

   Citizens’ networks for
    human rights and dignity
           Sources of Information
   University of New Mexico,
      Latin America Database

   University of Texas, LANIC
   New York Times
   Espadaña Press
   SPIN México Ilustrado
   Reséndez, Changing National Identities at the Frontier
   Zúñiga, et al, Migración México-Estados Unidos

				
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