Historical Development of Physic by xumiaomaio

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									  Historical Development of
Physical Education Curriculum
           PHE 125
             Study of History
•   Influence of individuals
•   Innovations
•   Institutions
•   Impact of Social Forces
             Social Forces
•   Religious Influences
•   Immigration
•   Philanthropy
•   Urbanization
•   Industrialization
•   Educational Movements
•   Technological Developments
         Religious Influences
          Colonial America
• Puritans: New England Colonies
• Anglican: Middle Colonies
             Immigration
• German Turners
• Settled in Midwest America during the
  1840s
• Introduction of German gymnastics in
  school systems
             Philanthropy
• Mary Hemenway in Boston
• Introduction of Swedish System
             Urbanization
• Health Problems associated with
  demographic changes
• Increase demand for recreation
• Promotion of sport for entertainment
• Need for social health concerns
           Industrialization
• Modifications in labor conditions
• Consumerism
     Educational Movements
• Development of European models in
  America
• Harvard and Yale modeled after Oxford
  and Cambridge
• Round Hill School: Northampton, Mass.
      Johann Bernhard Basedow
              1723-1790
∗First to recognize the importance of
               exercise

 ∗Required a specific uniform for his
   students to allow unrestricted
             movement

∗Offered a camp for 2 months during
    the summer for the children

∗Was known as a difficult man to work
                with
     For More Information go to
www.bookrags.com/Johann_Berhard_Ba
               sedow
  Technological Developments
• Mass Media
• Developments in transportation and
  communication
• Mass production of consumer goods
   Curriculum Development: 19th
             Century
• Beck, Follen, and Lieber
• German Gymnastics
• Friedrich Ludwig Jahn: Father of
  Gymnastics
• 1848 Friedrich Hecker in Cincinnati
• Large Muscle development
          Charles Beck
          1798-1866

  ⋆Friend and follower of Jahn

 ⋆Was hired to teach Latin and
Physical Education in the form of
      German gymnastics

⋆Became the first official Physical
  Education teacher in America
From Gymnastik für die Jugend (1793) by
GutsMuths
From Gymnastik für die Jugend (1793) by
GutsMuths
Gymnastik für die Jugend (1793) by
GutsMuths
Turnplatz
       Swedish Gymnastics
• Father of Swedish gymnastics: Per Henrik
  Ling
• Introduced in Boston through philanthropic
  efforts of Mary Hemenway
• Baron Nils Posse Training Institute
• Alternative to German gymnastics
• Light gymnastics with therapeutic
  emphasis
Per Henrik Ling
Father of Swedish gymnastics
             Lewis System
• Dio Lewis, M.D.
• Medical gymnastics (new gymnastics)
• First physical education teacher training
  institute: 1861 in Boston
       Diocletian (Dio) Lewis
            1823-1866

   ♣ Did more to promote physical
   education than any other single
               individual
 ♣ Wanted the feeble, old, fat, frail
  and women to have a system they
               could use
  ♣ Opened the Normal Institute of
     Physical Education in Boston
 ♣ Invented bean bags and wooden
               dumbells
  ♣ Also used music to enhance his
               exercises
     For More Information go to:
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Diocleti
                an_Lewis
          Beecher System
• Catherine Beecher of famous Beecher
  family
• Developed calisthenics for females
• Two female schools: Cincinnati and
  Hartford
• Called for the importance of physical
  activity for females
          Hitchcock System
• Edward Hitchcock, M.D.: hired as the first
  physical educator to have professorial
  rank, in 1861. He had the status of
  Assistant Professor of Physical Training
  and Hygiene at Amherst College
• Development of anthropometrics
• Group calisthenics accompanied to music
           Sargent System
• Dudley Sargent, M.D., hired in 1879 as
  Assistant Professor of Physical Training
  and Director of Hemenway Gymnasium,
  Harvard University
• Anthropometrics
• Individual Exercise program
• Over 90 patents for exercise machines
           Dudley Allen Sargent
               1840-1924

☺ Invented over 80 machines, using pulleys
                & weights

     ☺ Contributed to anthropometric
              measurements
    - He took these measurements and
 compared them with standards at a given
   age, whereupon a series of prescribed
exercises was given to meet the demands of
            each particular case
 Growth of Intercollegiate Sport
• Began as class rivalries in the 1820’s
• Developed into club teams in the 1840’s
• First Intercollegiate contest in 1852:
  rowing match between Harvard and Yale
• First Intercollegiate football contest
  occurred in 1869 between Rutgers and
  Princeton
  Intercollegiate Growth (cont.)
• International collegiate match in 1869
  between Harvard and Oxford on the
  Thames River
• Football is modified in 1874
• By 1880’s attendance of over 40,000
  spectators during national championship
• President Roosevelt convenes White
  House meeting in 1905
        Interschool Athletics
• Popularization of school sports in the early
  1900’s
• Organization of state associations in the
  1920’s
              Recreation
• Urban recreation programs as early as
  1827 Boston opens the first municipal
  recreation center
• 1820’s boating clubs in Boston
• 1842 New York Knickerbockers
• 1845 Alexander Joy Cartwright codifies
  baseball rules
• Amateur baseball clubs throughout the
  north east
              20th Century
• In 1910 Clark Hetherington introduces the
  “new physical education” (see pp.40-41;
  231-232)
• Broadens the view that neuromuscular
  activities in the form of play leads to
  character development
• The view that physical education activities
  contribute to the goals of education
           20th cent. Cont.
• Philosophical view of Education Through
  the Physical. Espoused that physical
  education contributed to social and moral
  development.
• Jesse Feiring Williams
• Jay Nash
• Thomas Wood
• Luther Gulick: YMCA triangle
     Two Philosophical Views
• Education of the Physical: the importance
  of training the physical as a goal in and of
  itself.
• Education through the Physical: utilization
  of sports and games to develop behavioral
  goals such as social and moral
  development.

								
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