Historical Development of Physical Education Curriculum PHE 125 Study of History • Influence of individuals • Innovations • Institutions • Impact of Social Forces Social Forces • Religious Influences • Immigration • Philanthropy • Urbanization • Industrialization • Educational Movements • Technological Developments Religious Influences Colonial America • Puritans: New England Colonies • Anglican: Middle Colonies Immigration • German Turners • Settled in Midwest America during the 1840s • Introduction of German gymnastics in school systems Philanthropy • Mary Hemenway in Boston • Introduction of Swedish System Urbanization • Health Problems associated with demographic changes • Increase demand for recreation • Promotion of sport for entertainment • Need for social health concerns Industrialization • Modifications in labor conditions • Consumerism Educational Movements • Development of European models in America • Harvard and Yale modeled after Oxford and Cambridge • Round Hill School: Northampton, Mass. Johann Bernhard Basedow 1723-1790 ∗First to recognize the importance of exercise ∗Required a specific uniform for his students to allow unrestricted movement ∗Offered a camp for 2 months during the summer for the children ∗Was known as a difficult man to work with For More Information go to www.bookrags.com/Johann_Berhard_Ba sedow Technological Developments • Mass Media • Developments in transportation and communication • Mass production of consumer goods Curriculum Development: 19th Century • Beck, Follen, and Lieber • German Gymnastics • Friedrich Ludwig Jahn: Father of Gymnastics • 1848 Friedrich Hecker in Cincinnati • Large Muscle development Charles Beck 1798-1866 ⋆Friend and follower of Jahn ⋆Was hired to teach Latin and Physical Education in the form of German gymnastics ⋆Became the first official Physical Education teacher in America From Gymnastik für die Jugend (1793) by GutsMuths From Gymnastik für die Jugend (1793) by GutsMuths Gymnastik für die Jugend (1793) by GutsMuths Turnplatz Swedish Gymnastics • Father of Swedish gymnastics: Per Henrik Ling • Introduced in Boston through philanthropic efforts of Mary Hemenway • Baron Nils Posse Training Institute • Alternative to German gymnastics • Light gymnastics with therapeutic emphasis Per Henrik Ling Father of Swedish gymnastics Lewis System • Dio Lewis, M.D. • Medical gymnastics (new gymnastics) • First physical education teacher training institute: 1861 in Boston Diocletian (Dio) Lewis 1823-1866 ♣ Did more to promote physical education than any other single individual ♣ Wanted the feeble, old, fat, frail and women to have a system they could use ♣ Opened the Normal Institute of Physical Education in Boston ♣ Invented bean bags and wooden dumbells ♣ Also used music to enhance his exercises For More Information go to: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Diocleti an_Lewis Beecher System • Catherine Beecher of famous Beecher family • Developed calisthenics for females • Two female schools: Cincinnati and Hartford • Called for the importance of physical activity for females Hitchcock System • Edward Hitchcock, M.D.: hired as the first physical educator to have professorial rank, in 1861. He had the status of Assistant Professor of Physical Training and Hygiene at Amherst College • Development of anthropometrics • Group calisthenics accompanied to music Sargent System • Dudley Sargent, M.D., hired in 1879 as Assistant Professor of Physical Training and Director of Hemenway Gymnasium, Harvard University • Anthropometrics • Individual Exercise program • Over 90 patents for exercise machines Dudley Allen Sargent 1840-1924 ☺ Invented over 80 machines, using pulleys & weights ☺ Contributed to anthropometric measurements - He took these measurements and compared them with standards at a given age, whereupon a series of prescribed exercises was given to meet the demands of each particular case Growth of Intercollegiate Sport • Began as class rivalries in the 1820’s • Developed into club teams in the 1840’s • First Intercollegiate contest in 1852: rowing match between Harvard and Yale • First Intercollegiate football contest occurred in 1869 between Rutgers and Princeton Intercollegiate Growth (cont.) • International collegiate match in 1869 between Harvard and Oxford on the Thames River • Football is modified in 1874 • By 1880’s attendance of over 40,000 spectators during national championship • President Roosevelt convenes White House meeting in 1905 Interschool Athletics • Popularization of school sports in the early 1900’s • Organization of state associations in the 1920’s Recreation • Urban recreation programs as early as 1827 Boston opens the first municipal recreation center • 1820’s boating clubs in Boston • 1842 New York Knickerbockers • 1845 Alexander Joy Cartwright codifies baseball rules • Amateur baseball clubs throughout the north east 20th Century • In 1910 Clark Hetherington introduces the “new physical education” (see pp.40-41; 231-232) • Broadens the view that neuromuscular activities in the form of play leads to character development • The view that physical education activities contribute to the goals of education 20th cent. Cont. • Philosophical view of Education Through the Physical. Espoused that physical education contributed to social and moral development. • Jesse Feiring Williams • Jay Nash • Thomas Wood • Luther Gulick: YMCA triangle Two Philosophical Views • Education of the Physical: the importance of training the physical as a goal in and of itself. • Education through the Physical: utilization of sports and games to develop behavioral goals such as social and moral development.
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