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Health_ Stress_ and Coping

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									 Chapter 10
Health, Stress, and
      Coping
        Questions We Will Be
      Addressing in This Chapter
• What do health psychologists do?
• How do psychological stressors affect physical
  health?
• How do people react to stressors?
• Why doesn’t everyone react to stressors in the
  same way?
• How does stress affect your immune system?
• Who is most likely to adopt a healthy lifestyle?
    Health Psychology

What do health care psychologists
              do?
         Health Psychology
• Link between mental state, behavior, and
  health
  – Chronic illness among leading causes of
    disability and death
• Goals of health psychology
    VIDEO: Health and Stress




• Discussion Questions
Understanding Stress and
       Stressors
 How do psychological stressors
    affect physical health?
          Important Terms
• Stress
• Stressors
• Stress reactions
Figure 10.1: The Process of Stress
       Psychological Stressors
•   Catastrophic events
•   Life changes and strains
•   Chronic stressors
•   Daily hassles
       Measuring Stressors
• Social Readjustment Rating Scale (SRRS)
• Face to face interviews
• Life Experiences Survey
    Stress Responses

How do people react to stressors?
       Responses to Stress
• Physical responses
  – General Adaptation Syndrome (GAS)
• Psychological responses
  – Emotional changes
  – Cognitive changes
  – Behavioral responses
• Linkages – Stress and Psychological
  Disorders
Figure 10.2: The General
  Adaptation Syndrome
Figure 10.3: Organ Systems
    Involved in the GAS
        Stress Mediators

Why doesn’t everyone react to stressors
         in the same way?
             Stress Mediators
•   Cognitive appraisal
•   Predictability of stressors
•   Perception of control
•   Coping resources
    – Problem-focused coping strategies
    – Emotion-focused coping strategies
• Social support
       Individual Differences
• Personality and stress
  – “Disease-prone” vs. “disease-resistant”
    personalities
• Gender
  – Women: “Tend and befriend” style
  – Men: “Fight-or-flight” pattern
• Focus on Research – Personality and
  Health
  The Physiology and
Psychology of Health and
        Illness
  How does stress affect your
      immune system?
          Stress, Illness, and
         the Immune System
• Stress can impair or suppress the immune
  system.
• Social support factors can help sustain
  immune system.
  Stress and the Cardiovascular
             System
• Repeated exposure to stress linked to
  cardiovascular problems
  – Especially for those who display strong
    physical reactions to stressors.
• Physical reactions depend partly on one’s
  personality.
• Thinking Critically – Does Hostility
  Increase Risk of Heart Disease
Promoting Healthy Behavior

   Who is most likely to adopt a
        healthy lifestyle?
         Rosenstock’s Health-
            Belief Model
• Health decisions guided by:
  – Perception of a personal threat or risk.
  – Perception of seriousness of illness and its
    consequences.
  – Belief that changing behavior will reduce
    threat.
  – Comparison of perceived costs vs. expected
    benefits if change behavior.
      Other Cognitive Factors
• Self-efficacy
• Intention
      Changing Health Behaviors:
         Stages of Readiness
•   Precontemplation
•   Contemplation
•   Preparation
•   Action
•   Maintenance
     Steps in Coping with Stress
•   Assessment
•   Goal setting
•   Planning
•   Action
•   Evaluation
•   Adjustment
 Developing Coping Strategies
• Cognitive coping strategies
  – Cognitive restructuring
• Emotional coping strategies
• Behavioral coping strategies
• Physical coping strategies
  – Progressive relaxation training
End of Chapter 10
        Linkages: Stress and
       Psychological Disorders
• Burnout
• Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD)
• Other psychological disorders
  – Diathesis-stress approach to psychopathology




                                 Return to main slide
  Focus on Research: Personality
           and Health
• What was the researchers’ question?
  – What personality characteristics may protect
    or threaten one’s health?
• How did the researchers answer the
  question?
  – Examined the dates and causes of death of
    individuals who had participated in the
    Terman Life Cycle Study of Intelligence.

                                  Continue to next slide
  Focus on Research: Personality
        and Health (cont’d.)
• What did the researchers find?
  – Most important predictor of longevity was
    conscientiousness.
  – Relationship between health and social
    support.
• What do the results mean?
  – Correlation does not mean causality.
  – Conscientiousness and social stability may
    reflect a general attitude of caution.
                                  Continue to next slide
  Focus on Research: Personality
        and Health (cont’d.)
• What do we still need to know?
  – Does not provide final answers about the
    relationship between personality and health.
  – Did generate intriguing hypotheses for further
    study.
  – Demonstrated another way of exploring
    issues in health psychology.



                                   Return to main slide
 Thinking Critically: Does Hostility
Increase the Risk of Heart Disease
• What am I being asked to believe or
  accept?
  – Displaying hostility increases one’s risk for
    coronary heart disease and heart attack.
• Is there evidence available to support the
  claim?
  – While hostility and heart disease is related,
    the causal direction is uncertain.

                                      Continue to next slide
 Thinking Critically: Does Hostility Increase
      the Risk of Heart Disease (cont’d)
• Is there evidence available to support the
  claim? (cont’d.)
  – Hostile people tend to be unusually reactive to
    stressors, especially when challenged.
  – Hostile individuals take longer to return to
    their resting levels of autonomic functioning.
  – Increased sympathetic nervous system
    activation increases stress-related hormones.
  – Hostility has impact on quality of one’s social
    support.
                                    Continue to next slide
 Thinking Critically: Does Hostility Increase
      the Risk of Heart Disease (cont’d)
• Can that evidence be interpreted another
  way?
  – Supporting studies not true experiments.
  – Relationship may be due to a third factor.
• What evidence would help to evaluate the
  alternatives?
  – How do hostile individuals react to stress
    when they are not angry?

                                    Continue to next slide
 Thinking Critically: Does Hostility Increase
      the Risk of Heart Disease (cont’d)
• What conclusions are most reasonable?
  – Hostile individuals are at greater risk of heart
    disease and heart attacks.
  – The causal relationship between hostility and
    heart disease is probably more complex.
  – Relationship may not be universal.




                                     Return to main slide
      Table 10.1: Lifestyle Behaviors that Affect
      the Leading Causes of Death in the U.S.




Return to Slide
         Table 10.2: The Undergraduate
              Stress Questionnaire




Return to Slide
 ANIMATION: Physical Reactions
 to Stressors: General Adaptation
            Syndrome




Return to Slide
      Figure 10.4: Cognitive Influences
            on Stress Responses




Return to Slide
Table 10.3: Ways of Coping




                    Return to Slide
     Health and Stress Video:
      Discussion Questions
• The evidence suggested that loneliness was a
  factor in illness. Were you surprised by this?
  Why or why not?
• What were your impressions of the research
  methods being employed by health
  psychologists?
• The clip ends by suggesting future research will
  go beyond the lab to look more specifically at
  outside social factors. What specific factors do
  you think need closer attention?
                                      Return to main slide

								
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