Cardiovascular Disease Mortality Trends for Males and Females by SupremeLord

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									Cardiovascular Disease Mortality Trends
for Males and Females
United States: 1979-2002


                         520
   Deaths in Thousands


                         500
                         480
                         460
                         440
                         420
                         400
                         380
                         79

                               81

                                    83

                                         85

                                              87

                                                   89

                                                        91

                                                              93

                                                                   95

                                                                        97

                                                                             99

                                                                                  01
                                                        Years

                                              Males          Females


Source: CDC/NCHS.
Age-Adjusted Death Rates for Coronary Heart
Disease, Stroke, and Lung and Breast Cancer
for White and Black Females
United States: 2002

                          200
 Per 100,000 Population



                                        169.7

                          150   131.2

                          100
                                                        71.8
                                                 53.4
                                                                   42.6 40.1
                           50                                                               34.0
                                                                                     25.0

                            0
                                Coronary Heart    Stroke          Lung Cancer       Breast Cancer
                                   Disease

                                                  White Females     Black Females




Source: CDC/NCHS.
Deaths From Diseases of the Heart*
United States: 1900–2002


                         900
                         800
   Deaths in Thousands


                         700
                         600
                         500
                         400
                         300
                         200
                         100
                           0
                            00

                                 10

                                      20

                                           30

                                                40

                                                     50

                                                           60

                                                                  70

                                                                       80

                                                                            90

                                                                                 00

                                                                                      02
                         19




                                                          Years



Total CVD data are not available for much of the period
covered by this chart.

Source: CDC/NCHS.
Hospital Discharges* for Cardiovascular
Diseases as First Listed Diagnosis
United States: 1970-2002


                            7

                            6
   Discharges in Millions




                            5

                            4

                            3

                            2

                            1

                            0
                                70

                                     72

                                          74

                                               76

                                                    78

                                                         80

                                                              82

                                                                   84

                                                                        86

                                                                             88

                                                                                  90

                                                                                       92

                                                                                            94

                                                                                                 96

                                                                                                      98

                                                                                                           00

                                                                                                                02
                                                                   Years



Note: Hospital discharges include people both living and
dead.
Source: CDC/NCHS.
 Percentage Breakdown of Deaths From
 Cardiovascular Diseases
 United States:2002 Preliminary

                                        Coronary Heart Disease
                        13%
                                        Stroke
                0%
               4%
                                        Congestive Heart Failure
             5%
                                        High Blood Pressure
             6%                   53%
                                        Diseases of the Arteries

                                        Rheumatic Fever/Rheumatic
                                        Heart Disease
                  18%
                                        Congenital Cardiovascular
                                        Defects
                                        Other



Source: CDC/NCHS.
 Prevalence of Cardiovascular Diseases
 in Americans Age 20 and Older by Age
 and Sex
 NHANES: 1999-2002


                             100                                                                              86.4
     Percent of Population



                              90                                                                      77.8
                                                                                               75.0
                              80                                                        68.5
                              70                                                 56.5
                              60                                          52.9
                              50                              36.2 36.6
                              40
                              30                22.9
                                                       17.6
                              20   11.2
                                          6.2
                              10
                               0
                                    20-34        35-44         45-54          55-64        65-74             75+

                                                                       Ages

                                                               Males       Females


Source: CDC/NCHS and NHLBI. These data include coronary
heart disease, congestive heart failure, stroke and hypertension.
Leading Causes of Death for
All Males and Females
United States: 2002
  Deaths in Thousands
  500                                 494
         434

  400

             289                      269
  300
                                                         Males
  200                                                    Females

  100              69   61                  64
                             34                  42 39
     0
         A    B    C    D    E    A   B     D    F   E

  A Total CVD           D Chronic Lower Respiratory Diseases
  (Preliminary)         E Diabetes Mellitus
  B Cancer              F Alzheimer’s Disease
  C Accidents Source: CDC/NCHS
Leading Causes of Death for
White Males and Females
United States: 2002

  Percent of Total Deaths
   45
                                     39.8
   40   36.6
   35
   30
            24.4
   25                                       21.6
                                                                  Males
   20                                                             Females
   15
   10              5.7                          5.6
                         5.4
    5                          2.7                    3.6   3.1
    0
        A    B      C     D     E    A      B   D     F     G

  A Total CVD                    D Chronic Lower Respiratory Diseases
  (Preliminary)                  E Diabetes Mellitus
  B Cancer                       F Alzheimer’s Disease
  C Accidents                    G Influenza and Pneumonia
               Source: CDC/NCHS
 Leading Causes of Death for Black
 or African-American Males and Females
 United States: 2002
   Percent of Total Deaths
    45
                                  39.6
    40
    35   33.4

    30
    25       22.2                     20.9                  Males
    20                                                      Females
    15
    10
                    5.9 4.7               5.2
     5                      3.7                 2.8   2.7
     0
         A    B      C   D   E    A   B   F     G     C

   A Total CVD                D Assault (Homicide)
   (Preliminary)              E HIV(AIDS)
   B Cancer                   F Diabetes Mellitus
   C Accidents                G Nephritis, Nephrotic Syndrome
Source: CDC/NCHS                and Nephrosis
Leading Causes of Death for Hispanic or
Latino Males and Females
United States: 2002
  Percent of Total Deaths
   45
   40
   35                             32.2
        27.1
   30
   25                                    21.2
            18.6                                                    Males
   20                                                               Females
   15            11.7
   10                                        6.1
                        4.2 4.0                     4.7       2.8
    5
    0
        A    B     C     D   E    A      B      D   C     F

  A Diseases of the       D Diabetes Mellitus
  Heart, and Stroke       E Assault (Homicide)
  B Cancer                F Chronic Lower Respiratory Disease
  C Accidents       Source: CDC/NCHS
Leading Causes of Death for Asian or
Pacific Islander Males and Females
United States: 2002
  Percent of Total Deaths
   45
   40
        34.8                       35.8
   35
   30                                     26.9
            25.4
   25
                                                                Males
   20                                                           Females
   15
   10
                   5.7                        4             3
    5                    3.6 3.2                  3.9
    0
        A      B    C     D   E    A      B   E   C     F

  A Diseases of the            D Chronic Lower Respiratory Diseases
  Heart, and Stroke            E Diabetes Mellitus
  B Cancer                     F Influenza and Pneumonia
  C Accidents
         Source: CDC/NCHS
Leading Causes of Death for American
Indian or Alaska Native Males and Females
United States: 2002
  Percent of Total Deaths
   45
   40
   35
   30
        24.4                    24.5
   25
                                    19.3                    Males
   20       16.0 14.9                                       Females
   15
                                        8.6
   10                                         7.2
                      5.0 4.7                       4.1
    5
    0
        A    B   C      D   E   A   B   C     D     F

  A Diseases of the         D Diabetes Mellitus
  Heart, and Stroke         E Chronic Liver Disease and Cirrhosis
  B Cancer                  F Chronic Lower Respiratory Diseases
  C Accidents
                 Source: CDC/NCHS
Estimated 10-Year CHD Risk in
55-Year-Old Adults According to Levels of
Various Risk Factors
Framingham Heart Study

                                          40                                               37
             Estimated 10-Year Rate (%)
                                          35
                                          30                                                           27
                                                                            25
                                          25                                         20
                                          20
                                                           13
                                          15
                                          10                        8
                                               5       5
                                          5
                                          0
                                                   A            B                C                 D

                                                                    Men   Women


                                                                    A         B              C               D
     Blood Pressure (mm Hg)                                 120/80         140/90         140/90        140/90
     Total Cholesterol (mg/dL)                                  200         240            240              240
     HDL Cholesterol (mg/dL)                                    50           50             40              40
     Diabetes                                                   No           No            Yes              Yes
     Cigarettes                                                 No           No             No              Yes
     mm Hg = millimeters of mercury
 l   mg/dL = milligrams per deciliter of blood

 Source:                        Wilson PWF, et al. Circulation 1998;97:1837-1847.
Annual Number of Americans Having
Diagnosed Heart Attack by Age and Sex
ARIC: 1987-2000
   New and Recurrent Attacks

                               500,000
                                                                               410,000 372,000
                               400,000

                               300,000                     250,000

                               200,000
                                                                      88,000
                               100,000   34,000
                                                  10,000
                                    0
                                            29-44              45-64               65+
                                                               Ages

                                                           Men       Women



 Source: Extrapolated from rates in the NHLBI’s ARIC surveillance
 study, 1987-2000. These data don’t include silent MIs.
Annual Rate of First Heart Attacks
by Age, Sex and Race
ARIC: 1987-2000

                      16.00
                      14.00
  Per 1,000 Persons




                      12.00
                      10.00
                       8.00
                       6.00
                       4.00
                       2.00
                       0.00
                                    35-44          45-54          55-64        65-74
                                                           Ages

                              White Men     Black Men      White Women    Black Women




 Source: NHLBI’s ARIC surveillance study, 1987-2000.
 Prevalence of Coronary Heart Diseases
 by Age and Sex
 NHANES :1999-2002


                             20
                                                                                                   16.8
     Percent of Population



                             15
                                                                    11.6                                  10.3
                             10                                                    11.5
                                                                                             6.3
                              5                         3.0                  3.6
                                            1.4               1.6
                                  0.0 0.3         0.2
                              0
                                  20-34     35-44       45-54              55-64          65-74      75+
                                                                    Ages

                                                              Men     Women




Source: CDC/NCHS and NHLBI.
Hospital Discharges for Coronary
Heart Disease by Sex
United States: 1970-2002
    Discharges in Thousands


                              1400
                              1200
                              1000
                              800
                              600
                              400
                              200
                                0
                                     70 72 74 76 78 80 82 84 86 88 90 92 94 96 98 00 02
                                                            Years
                                                    Males    Females




 Note: Hospital discharges include people both living and dead.

Source: CDC/NCHS.
 Risk for Stroke Mortality among
 Racial/Ethnic Groups Compared with
 Non-Hispanic Whites, by Age
 United States: 1997
                  5.0
                        4.0   3.9
                  4.0
  Relative Risk




                              3.0
                  3.0
                                    1.9        1.9
                  2.0
                                      1.2         1.3 1.5         1.3   1.3 1.41.1         1.3 1.3 1.2
                                         0.9           0.9 0.8                    1.0                 0.9
                                                                                        0.7              0.60.5
                  1.0                                            0.4

                  0.0
                        Non-Hispanic           American Indians/        Asian/Pacific          Hispanics
                           Blacks               Alaska Natives           Islanders
                                                          Race/Ethnicity

                                          35-44   45-54     55-64       65-74    75-84      85+



 Note: Values > 1.0 indicate populations with higher relative risks.
 Values < 1.0 indicate lower relative risks.

Source: MMWR, Vol. 49, No. 5, Feb. 11,2000, CDC/NCHS.
Prevalence of Stroke by Age and
Sex
NHANES: 1999-2002
                            14
                                                                                            12.0 11.5
    Percent of Population


                            12
                            10
                             8                                                    6.6 6.3
                             6
                             4                                          3.1 3.0
                                                       1.2       2.1
                             2               1.1 0.8
                                 0.4   0.3
                                                             `
                             0
                                  20-34      35-44      45-54           55-64     65-74        75+
                                                                  Ages

                                                             Men       Women


Source: CDC/NCHS and NHLBI.
Annual Rate of First Cerebral
Infarction by Age, Sex and Race
Greater Cincinnati/Northern
Kentucky Stroke Study: 1993-94

                    30.0
                                                                                                  24.7
                                                                                      23.3
Per 1,000 Persons




                    25.0                                                                             21.8
                                                                                             16.8
                    20.0                                                                        16.5
                                                                                 11.8      13.5
                    15.0                                                            11.3
                                                                          10.4
                                                                               9.8
                    10.0                                               6.7
                                                                4.9 4.6 4.2
                     5.0   0.0 0.0                 1.4 2.1 2.6
                             0.0 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.4
                                           0.1        0.8 2.5 1.6
                     0.0
                             0-34      35-44        45-54      55-64      65-74     75-84        85+
                                                               Ages

                                White Males    White Females         Black Males    Black Females


Source: Unpublished data from the Greater Cincinnati/Northern Kentucky
Stroke Study: 1993-94.
Annual Rate of First Intracerebral
Hemorrhage by Age, Sex and Race
Greater Cincinnati/Northern
Kentucky Stroke Study: 1993-94
                     2.5                                                          2.3                    2.2
                                                                                                   2.1
 Per 1,000 Persons




                     2.0                                                                                       1.8

                                                                                           1.4 1.3              1.3
                     1.5                                                                         1.2
                                                                                        1.0                          1.0
                                                         0.9         0.9     0.9
                     1.0                                                        0.6
                                                                           0.6
                     0.5                                          0.3
                           0.0 0.0         0.1 0.3 0.2         0.2 0.3
                              0.0 0.0 0.0 0.1          0.1
                     0.0
                              0-34       35-44        45-54        55-64        65-74        75-84         85+
                                                                   Ages

                                White Males        White Females         Black Males         Black Females


Source: Stroke 2004;35:426-431.
 Estimated 10-Year Stroke Risk in 55-
 Year-Old Adults According to Levels of
 Various Risk Factors - Framingham
 Heart Study
                                                                                                                     27.0
  Estimated 10-Year Rate (%)


                               30

                               25                                                                             22.4
                                                                                                       19.1
                               20
                                                                                                14.8
                               15
                               10                                                  8.4
                                                                   5.4                    6.3
                                                   4.0                     3.5
                                5   2.6                  2.0
                                          1.1
                                0

                                      A                  B             C             D                 E             F

                                                                       Men       Wom en


                                                A            B         C          D             E          F
 Systolic BP                                    95-105       130-148   130-148    130-148       130-148    130-148
 Diabetes                                       No           No        Yes        Yes           Yes        Yes
 Cigarettes                                     No           No        No         Yes           Yes        Yes
 Prior Atrial Fib.                              No           No        No         No            Yes        Yes
 Prior CVD                                      No           No        No         No            No         Yes

Source: Stroke 1991;22:312-318.
 Risk of Stroke in Women in the Third
 Trimester, Peri- and Post-Partum Period
 Versus Risk of Nonpregnant Women
 and Women in the First 2 Trimesters

                              100                                 95.0
    Relative Risk by Stroke




                              80
            Subtype




                              60                                         46.9
                              40                           33.8

                              20                                                    8.3 11.7
                                    2.2   0.3   0.8                                            1.8
                               0
                                    Third Trimester        Around Delivery           Puerperium
                                                        Pregnancy Duration


         Ischemic Stroke                  Intracerebral Hemorrhage       Subarachnoid Hemorrhage


Source: Epidemiology 2001;12:456-60
Prevalence of High Blood Pressure
in Americans by Age and Sex
NHANES: 1999-2002


                          100
  Percent of Population



                                                                                                        83.4
                           80                                                             74.0
                                                                                                 69.2
                                                                                   60.9
                                                                            55.5
                           60                                        46.6
                           40                            34.1 34.0
                                             21.3 18.1
                           20   11.1
                                       5.8
                            0
                                20-34        35-44       45-54          55-64       65-74           75+
                                                                 Ages

                                                           Men       Women




Source: CDC/NCHS and NHLBI.
 Extent of Awareness, Treatment and
 Control of High Blood Pressure by
 Age
 NHANES : 1999-2000
                           80      73.3   69.8
   Percent of Population


                                                                             66.4
                           70                           62.9 62.7
                           60   51.8                                  51.9
                           50                                                       43.7          41.6
                           40
                                                 27.7                                                    27.4
                           30
                           20                                                              14.4

                           10
                            0
                                   Awareness     Treatment          Control, Treated        Control, All
                                                                                           Hypertensives

                                                        18-39   40-59    60+


Source: JAMA 2003;290:199-206.
Age-Adjusted Prevalence Trends for
High Blood Pressure in Americans Age
20 -74 by Race/Ethnicity, Sex and Survey
NHANES: 1976-80, 1988-94 and 1999-2002

                            60.0
                                                                   50.7             51.1
    Percent of Population




                            50.0    45.0
                                                                                 36.8   34.9 39.4
                                                                          34.3
                            40.0                   33.7
                                              23.9
                                           22.6        18.4 23.3                                                         23.4
                            30.0                                                              25.6 23.4 22.5 22.5 20.9
                            20.0
                            10.0
                             0.0
                                   Non-Hispanic Non-Hispanic       Non-Hispanic     Non-Hispanic  M exican-     M exican-
                                   White only M en White only      Black or AA      Black or AA American M en   American
                                                    Women            only M en      only Women                   Women


                                                            1976-80          1988-94       1999-02


Source: CDC/NCHS. Data based on a single measure of BP.
Extent of Awareness, Treatment and
Control of High Blood Pressure by
Race/Ethnicity
NHANES: 1999-2000

                             80           73.9
                                  69.5
     Percent of Population


                             70                     60.1
                                                           63
                                            57.8                         55.6
                             60
                             50                                                 44.6   44
                                                                40.3
                             40                                                               33.4
                                                                                                     28.1
                             30
                                                                                                            17.7
                             20
                             10
                              0
                                    Awareness        Treatment         Control, Treated       Control, All
                                                                                             Hypertensives

                                    Non-Hispanic Whites     Non-Hispanic Blacks         Mexican Americans




Source: JAMA 2003;290:199-206.
  Prevalence of Congestive Heart
  Failure by Age and Sex
  NHANES: 1999-2002
                                                                                           9.8 10.9
                           10
   Percent of Population




                           8
                                                                  5.8          6.2
                           6
                                                                                     4.1
                           4
                                                      1.8                2.3
                                                            1.5
                           2    0.3 0.3   0.5   0.4
                           0
                                20-34      35-44       45-54          55-64    65-74        75+
                                                               Ages

                                                      Men    Women


Source: CDC/NCHS and NHLBI.
Hospital Discharges for Congestive
Heart Failure by Sex
United States: 1970-2002
                              600
    Discharges in Thousands


                              500

                              400
                              300
                              200
                              100
                               0
                                    70 72 74 76 78 80 82 84 86 88 90 92 94 96 98 00 02
                                                         Years

                                                 Males    Females



Note: Hospital discharges include people living and dead.
Source: CDC/NCHS.
Prevalence of High School Students in
Grades 9-12 Reporting Current
Cigarette Smoking by Race/Ethnicity
and Sex
YRBS:2003
                           45
   Percent of Population




                           40
                           35
                           30              26.6
                                    23.3
                           25                             19.3              19.1
                           20                                                      17.7
                           15                                    10.8
                           10
                            5
                            0
                                Non-Hispanic Whites   Non-Hispanic Blacks   Hispanics

                                                        Males    Females



Source: MMWR, Vol. 53, (23), June 18, 2004, CDC/NCHS.
Prevalence of Current Smoking for
Americans Age 18 and Older by
Race/Ethnicity and Sex
NHIS:2002
                            45
    Percent of Population



                                                               40.5                                40.9
                            35
                                   25.5   27.1
                                                 22.7                   21.8
                            25                          19.0                   18.7

                            15                                                        10.8
                                                                                             6.5
                             5

                            -5
                                                 Men                              Women

                                 Non-Hispanic White                   Non-Hispanic Black
                                 Hispanic                             Asian
                                 American Indian or Alaska Native


Source: MMWR, Vol. 53, (20);427-31, May 28, 2004, CDC/NCHS.
Trends in Mean Total Blood Cholesterol
Among Adolescents Ages 12-17 by Sex,
Race and Survey
NHES III: 1966-70; NHANES I & III: 1971-
74, 1988-94
                                                                                                    174
   Mean Total Blood Cholesterol




                                  175
                                                                                              172
                                                        171                 170
                                  170                                                                     168
                                                                    166           166
                                                              165
                                  165   163 163                                         163

                                  160
                                                  155
                                  155

                                  150
                                        White Males     Black Males        White Females      Black Females

                                                        NHES III     NHANES I   NHANES III


 Source: CDC/NCHS. Prev Med 1998;27:879-90.
Prevalence of Students in Grades 9-12
Who Participated in Sufficient Vigorous or
Moderate Physical Activity During the
Past 7 Days by Race/Ethnicity and Sex
YRBS: 2003
     Percent of Population



                             80    71.9                  65
                                                                                66.7
                             70              58.1
                             60                                                            51.8
                                                                     44.9
                             50
                             40       28.9                    25.8
                             30                  23.3                               23.3
                                                                         17.5                     20.6
                             20
                             10
                              0
                                    Non-       Non-       Non-         Non-     Hispanic   Hispanic
                                  Hispanic   Hispanic   Hispanic     Hispanic    Males     Females
                                   White      White      Black        Black
                                   Males     Females     Males       Females

                                                        Vigorous     Moderate

Note: “Vigorous activity” is defined as activity causing sweating and hard
breathing for at least 20 minutes on 3 or more of the 7 days. “Moderate activity” is
defined as activities such as walking or bicycling lasting for at least 30 minutes on 5
or more of the 7 days.
                                  Source: MMWR, Vol. 53, No. SS-2, May 21, 2004, CDC/NCHS.
Prevalence of Moderate or Vigorous
Physical Activity in Americans Age 20 and
Older by Sex, Race/Ethnicity and BMI
NHANES III: 1988-94
                            50 46.6   48.8   47.3          44.5
                                                    41.8                            44.2
                            45                                       39.5
    Percent of Population




                            40           37.3                 35.4                         30.6             30.3
                            35                                                                       29.4             29.5
                                                                                              28.8                           28.7
                            30                                              26.4                               26.8
                            25                                                                                                 20
                            20
                            15
                            10
                             5
                             0
                                Non-Hispanic Non-Hispanic         Mexican-         Non-Hispanic Non-Hispanic          Mexican-
                                 White Men    Black Men           American         White Women Black Women            American
                                                                    Men                                                Women
                                                             BMI <25        BMI 25-29.9      BMI 30+

Note: BMI indicates body mass index: weight in kilograms divided by height in
meters squared (kg/m2).
 Source: CDC/NCHS.
Prevalence of Overweight among
Students in Grades 9-12 by Sex and
Race/Ethnicity
YRBS: 2003
                            24
                                                21.7
                                        19.5
    Percent of Population




                            20
                                 16.2                                         15.6
                            16
                                                                                     11.8
                            12
                                                                    7.8
                             8

                             4

                             0
                                        Males                             Females

                                  Non-Hispanic Whites   Non-Hispanic Blacks     Hispanics


Source: BMI 95th percentile or higher. MMWR, Vol. 53,No. SS-2, May 21,2004,
CDC/NCHS.
Age-Adjusted Prevalence of Obesity in
Americans Ages 20-74 by Sex and
Survey
NHES, 1960-62; NHANES, 1971-74,
1976-80, 1988-94 and 1999-2002
                          40
                                                                                                      33.2
  Percent of Population




                          30                               27.6
                                                                                               25.9
                                                    20.6
                          20                                                       16.6 17.0
                                                                            15.8
                               10.7   12.1   12.7
                          10


                           0
                                             Men                                       Women

                                        1960-62     1971-74       1976-80    1988-94   1999-2002



Note: Obesity is defined as a BMI of 30.0 or higher.

Source: CDC/NCHS.
Age-Adjusted Prevalence of Physician-
Diagnosed Diabetes in Americans Age 20
and Older by Sex and Race/Ethnicity
NHANES: 1999-2002
                           14                                                  12.6
                                                                                      11.3
                           12
   Percent of Population




                                           10.3    10.4
                           10

                            8
                                     6.2
                            6                                           4.7
                            4

                            2
                            0
                                           Men                                Women

                            Non-Hispanic Whites   Non-Hispanic Blacks     Mexican Americans




Source: CDC/NCHS and NHLBI.
Prevalence of Non-Insulin-Dependent
(Type 2) Diabetes in Women* Ages 25-64
by Race/Ethnicity and Education
NHANES III: 1988-94
                                       20
                            20
    Percent of Population




                            15
                                            11.5            11.3
                                                      9.3
                            10
                                                                   6.8             6.1                   6.4
                                                                                                   5.4
                                 4.5                                       4.6 5.1
                             5                                                               2.9

                             0
                                       <9                   9-11               12                  >12
                                                              Years of Education

                                                   Whites     Blacks     Mexican Americans


* Findings for men are similar but of lower magnitude. See Pathways by
which SES and ethnicity influence CVD risk factors. Annals NY Academy
of Science. 1999;896:191-209
Source: JAMA. 1998;280:356-62.
Trends in Heart Transplants
UNOS: 1968-2003

                             2,500                                                   2,363
                                                                             2,107           2,199
                                                                                                     2,057
     Number of Transplants


                             2,000

                             1,500

                             1,000                                   719
                                                                 `
                              500
                                     23     10     22     57
                                0
                                     1968   1970   1975   1980       1985    1990    1995    2000    2003
                                                                     Years




Source: United Network for OrganSharing (UNOS), scientific registry data.
Trends in Cardiovascular Operations and
Procedures
United States: 1979-2002
  Procedures in Thousands




                            2000

                            1500

                            1000

                             500

                               0
                                   79     80        85     90           95   00       01       02
                                                                Years

                                        Catheterizations   Open-Heart             Bypass
                                        PTCA               Endarterectomy         Pacemakers



Source: CDC/NCHS.
Total Mortality Rates in U.S. Adults,
Age 30-75, with Metabolic Syndrome
(MetS), With and Without Diabetes
Mellitus and Pre-Existing CVD
NHANES II: 1976-80 Follow-up Study**
                              50.0
                                                                                                                       44.1
   Deaths/1000 Person Years




                              45.0
                              40.0                                                                                            No MetS or DM
                              35.0                                                                              30.0          MetS w/o DM
                                                                                            28.1             26.1
                              30.0
                                                                                                          21.1                MetS w/DM
                              25.0
                                                                                     16.7              17.1                   DM only
                              20.0                             17.0
                                                                                 11.5              14.4
                              15.0                      10.9                                                                  Prior CVD
                                                     6.3                    7.8 8.6                                           Prior CVD and DM
                              10.0         4.3 4.8                    5.3
                                     2.6
                               5.0
                               0.0
                                           CHD Mortality                    CVD Mortality              Total Mortality


 ** Average of 13 years of follow-up.

Source: Circulation 2004;110:1245-50.
Estimated Direct and Indirect Costs of
Cardiovascular Diseases and Stroke
United States: 2005

                          450
                          400                                                             393.5
    Billions of Dollars




                          350
                          300   254.8
                          250
                          200
                                          142.1
                          150
                          100                        56.8      59.7
                           50                                                 27.9
                            0




                                                                                                  Total CVD*
                                                                              Heart Failure
                                                      Stroke
                                Disease




                                                               Hypertensive
                                          Coronary

                                          Disease




                                                                               Congestive
                                 Heart




                                           Heart




                                                                 Disease


  Source: Heart Disease and Stroke Statistics – 2005 Update.

								
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