Forensic Science –

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					SUPA Forensic Science                      Name _________________
Chapter 1: Science Introduction            period: _____________

What is Forensic Science?

1. The use of the _______________________________ in the legal arena.

2. The transfer of ______________________________ to aid the legal

3. The use of science and technology to provide _____________________.


           by Sir Arthur Conan Doyle’s fictional character of _________

Early Forensic Scientists

Orfila – 1814 father of forensic _______________________

Bertillion- 1879 system of personal identification by body measurements
called ________________________

Galton – 1892 first definitive study of _______________________

Lattes – 1915 devised method for determining __________________ in
dried blood stain

Goddard – US Army colonel used ________________________ for bullets

Osborn – 1910 –___________________________ identification

Gross – 1893 published handbook for ___________________________

Locard – 1910 –first workable ___________________ in France; Exchange
Supreme Court Decisions 1960’s


Emphasis   on ____________________________ rights and advising
criminals upon arrest virtually eliminated confessions as a routine
investigative tool

Increase in drug investigations

All illicit drug seizures require __________________________ and

New Jersey State Police Laboratory stats
–1968 – 9000 drug cases
–1987 – 21,000 drug cases
–1996 – 29,000 drug cases

Basic Full Service Crime Lab

Physical science Unit – ______________________________________

Biology Unit – serology, _______________________, dried blood,
_____________, hair fibers, wood, _________________

Firearms Unit – all ________________ and ____________________

Document Examination Unit – _________________, writing identification

Photography Unit – examine and record evidence using _____________,
UV and x-ray

Toxicology Unit – ________________________

Latent   Fingerprint Unit-

Polygraph   Unit-

Voice  Print Analysis Unit –sound ______________________ examine
individual _______________________
Evidence   Collection Unit-

Forensic Pathology – ______________________ and ________________
determine causes of sudden, unnatural, violent death

Forensic Anthropology – identification and examination of human

Forensic Odontology – identify victims from ___________________, bite
marks analysis

Forensic Entomology – study ______________, carrion flies and maggots

Forensic Psychiatry – study __________________ patterns of criminals
and determine ________________________ to stand trial

Forensic Engineering – accident ____________________, causes/origins
of fires and explosions, structural failure

What is Evidence?

Evidence is information that can and should influence the _____________
________________about a specific legal question (e.g., guilt or innocence;
liable or not).

Evidence must be ____________________ to the question at hand and must
be more probative than prejudicial on that issue.

How is Forensic Evidence Used?

    To _______________________ that a particular person or thing was
     at a particular place at a specific time.

    To establish that something was done ________________: e.g., this
     bullet came from this weapon, this cutter sliced this tape, this letter
     was typed on this printer, or this glass came from this window.

    To establish a _____________________ between people: e.g., that
     these people are siblings, or that this person is likely to be the child of
     those parents.
Locard’s Exchange Principle

                  Every contact leaves a trace!
Whenever two objects come together they must affect each other in some
way. Something is likely to be exchanged between them!

Principle of Individuality

Two objects may be indistinguishable, but no two objects are ever
_____________________. Things can at least be put in classes or even
individualized in useful ways

Science & The Law: Tests for Admissibility

      Frye test
      Daubert test
      Federal Rules of Evidence
      Specific statute

Frye v. United States, 293 F. 1013 (D.C. Cir. 1923)

“…scientific evidence will not be admissible unless it has been generally
accepted by the scientific community…”

Prongs 1, 2 & 3 of Frye

    Has the underlying scientific theory gained general acceptance in the
     scientific community?

    Has the scientific technique gained general acceptance in the pertinent
     scientific community?

    Castro/Frye – “Were proper test procedures employed in this case?”

What Constitutes General Acceptance?

    Scientific ________________________

    Presentations ____________________
      General Use of the _____________________

                  In the fields of genetics and molecular biology
                  In forensic applications (including paternity)
                  Concordance of results demonstrated by proficiency testing

      Expert Testimony

General Acceptance –Further Defined

      General means in a reasonably inclusive manner _________________

      A party need not prove absolute validity of the techniques in
       producing novel (new) scientific evidence before it can be admitted.

      The mere existence of a debate does not require exclusion of the
       evidence. People v. Fishback, 851 P2nd 844 (Colo.1993)

Daubert v. Merrill Dow Pharmaceuticals, Inc.

- Gate keeping Responsibility: In order to admit scientific evidence, the trial
court judge must find that the opinion offered is relevant and that the basis
for that opinion is more likely than not valid and reliable.

                    Four non-exclusive factors:
                          - Testability (and results of testing);
                          - Peer review and publication;
                          - Error rate;
                          - General Acceptance.
                    Other Considerations:
                          - Qualifications (depth and breadth) of the expert.

     The Difference……..

     Daubert asks the question, “Does it work?”; where Frye asks “Do
     scientists like and use it?”


Lingjuan Ma Lingjuan Ma MS
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