Warm Weather Injuries

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					Warm Weather Injuries

   Sunny Weather Blues
     Warm Weather Injuries

• Warm weather
  sometimes provides
  pleasant working
  conditions. You must
  be aware of the
  hazards that await.
                Heat Stress
• Operations involving high temperatures, radiant
  heat sources, high humidity, and/or strenuous
  physical activities have a high potential for
  inducing heat stress in employees.
• Outdoor operations conducted in hot weather,
  such as construction, and hazardous waste site
  activities, especially those that require workers to
  wear semipermeable or impermeable protective
  clothing, are also likely to cause heat stress among
  exposed workers.
           HEAT FATIGUE

• A factor that predisposes an individual to heat
  fatigue is lack of acclimatization. The use of a
  program of acclimatization and training for work
  in hot environments is advisable. The signs and
  symptoms of heat fatigue include impaired
  performance of skilled sensorimotor, mental, or
  vigilance jobs. There is no treatment for heat
  fatigue except to remove the heat stress before a
  more serious heat-related condition develops.
                      Heat Cramps
• Usually caused by performing hard physical labor in a hot
  environment. These cramps have been attributed to an electrolyte
  imbalance caused by sweating. Cramps can be caused by both too
  much and too little salt. Cramps appear to be caused by the lack of
  water replenishment. Because sweat is a hypotonic solution (±0.3%
  NaCl), excess salt can build up in the body if the water lost through
  sweating is not replaced. Thirst cannot be relied on as a guide to the
  need for water; instead, water must be taken every 15 to 20 minutes
  in hot environments.
• Under extreme conditions, such as working for 6 to 8 hours in
  heavy protective gear, a loss of sodium may occur. Recent studies
  have shown that drinking commercially available carbohydrate-
  electrolyte replacement liquids is effective in minimizing
  physiological disturbances during recovery.
             HEAT EXHAUSTION
• The signs and symptoms of heat exhaustion are headache,
  nausea, vertigo, weakness, thirst, and giddiness. Fortunately, this
  condition responds readily to prompt treatment. Heat exhaustion
  should not be dismissed lightly for several reasons. One is that
  the fainting associated with heat exhaustion can be dangerous
  because the victim may be operating machinery or controlling an
  operation that should not be left unattended; or the victim may be
  injured when he or she faints. Also, the signs and symptoms seen
  in heat exhaustion are similar to those of heat stroke, a medical
• Workers suffering from heat exhaustion should be removed from
  the hot environment and given fluid replacement. They should
  also be encouraged to get adequate rest.
                  HEAT STROKE
• Occurs when the body's system of temperature regulation fails
  and body temperature rises to critical levels. This condition is
  caused by a combination of highly variable factors, and its
  occurrence is difficult to predict. Heat stroke is a medical
  emergency. The primary signs and symptoms of heat stroke are
  confusion; irrational behavior; loss of consciousness;
  convulsions; a lack of sweating (usually); hot, dry skin; and an
  abnormally high body temperature, e.g., a rectal temperature of
  41°C (105.8°F). If body temperature is too high, it causes death.
  The elevated metabolic temperatures caused by a combination of
  work load and environmental heat load, both of which contribute
  to heat stroke, are also highly variable and difficult to predict.
• One of the main causes of dehydration is
  overexposure to the Sun.
• Dehydration is one of the most common heat
  diseases. At times dehydration might be dismissed
  as a minor "irritation", but it is something that
  warrants timely treatment.
• Dehydration can be defined as "Loss of water content
  and essential body salts (electrolytes) needed for
  normal body functioning.”
• There are basically 3 types of dehydration. Mild
  dehydration, which is said to set in when there is a
  fluid loss of 5% from the body. At this point in time,
  dehydration is not very dangerous and can be easily
  cured with re-hydration.
• Moderate dehydration is said to set in when there is
  up to a 10% loss of body fluid. This type is of great
  concern and immediate steps should be taken for re-
• When about 15% of a persons body fluid is lost a
  person is considered severely dehydrated. This
  should be treated as a medical emergency and might
  even require hospitalization to bring about a normal
  electrolyte balance.
      Symptoms of Dehydration

To enable quick and easy diagnosis, proper knowledge of some of the
   more common symptoms of dehydration is necessary.
A person suffering from dehydration will display the following
1. A dry mouth with sticky mucus membrane in the mouth.
2. Decreased urine output.
3. Sunken eyes
4. Wrinkled skin which may lack its normal elasticity and sag back
   into position slowly when pinched into a fold.
    Symptoms of Dehydration

5. Fatigue
6. Dizziness, confusion, and coma
7. Low blood pressure
8. Severe thirst
9. Increased heart-rate and breathing
If you experience any of the above symptoms, or observe
   them in a friend then you need to get immediate medical
            Prevent Dehydration
   Dehydration can strike anyone at any time. However by taking
   some basic precautionary measures, the harmful effects of
   dehydration can be avoided.
1. Always drink plenty of fluids especially when going out to
  work in the Sun.
2. Keep a careful check on intake and outflow of fluids. The
   human body should never lose more fluids than it is taking in.
3. Try to schedule all physical outdoor activities for cooler parts
   of the day.
4. For re-hydration a simple solution with a little salt will do
   wonders. Common athletic drinks like Gatorade® are useful in
   maintaining electrolyte balance.
             Prevent Dehydration

5. Weigh yourself daily if
  you use diuretics. Report
  to your doctor if you lose
  more then 3 pounds daily
  or 5 pounds in a week.
                   Sun Exposure
• Sunshine, essential for life, strikes the earth in rays of
  varying wavelengths. Long rays (infrared) are unseen but
  felt as heat. Intermediate length rays are visible as light.
  Shorter rays (ultraviolet) are also invisible and are further
  divided into the following groups:
• Ultraviolet (UVA) rays are beneficial in low doses, but
  may increase the chance of cancer in high doses.
  UVBs are primarily responsible for sunburn and cancer
  UVCs are the shortest and most dangerous
  UV rays contain enough energy to damage DNA in living
  skin and eye cells. DNA controls the ability of cells to heal
  and reproduce. The ozone layer allows life to flourish by
  passing the longer, beneficial wavelengths and effectively
  blocking almost all UVC, some UVB and a little UVA.
        No Tan Is A Good Tan
• A panel of dermatologists, convened by the National
  Institutes of Health (NIH) in 1990, concluded: "All tanning
  is visible evidence of toxic injury."
• Sunburn that continues to worsen several days after exposure
  may be a sun allergy. Sun allergies sometimes show up as
  severe sunburns and, less often, as a poison-ivy-like rash.
• Overexposure to sunlight causes premature aging of the skin,
  preparing the skin for later episodes of skin cancer.
  According to the Skin Cancer Foundation: "The sun is the
  cause of at least 90 percent of skin cancers."
                Protect Yourself
• Take the following precautions when working outdoors:
       Wear protective clothing that does not transmit visible light.
       Frequently apply sunscreen with a Sun Protection Factor of
        15 or higher. Be sure the sunscreen guards against UVB and
        UVA radiation.
       Wear sunglasses that block UV rays.
       Seek shade, if possible, when the sun's intensity is at its
        peak-between 10 a.m. and 4 p.m.
       Be aware of the signs and symptoms of skin cancers and see
        a health-care clinician if an unusual skin change occurs.
• Skin cancer can be thought of as an outdoor
  leisure/exercise/work syndrome, the result of periods of
  intense overexposure to ultraviolet light even if the ozone
  was not depleted. An estimated 32,000 U.S. citizens will
  be told they have melanoma this year, and between 7,000
  and 9,000 will die when the cancer metastasizes (spreads)
  to vital organs. That's a 300-percent rise in the last decade.
• If caught early, malignant melanoma is virtually 100-
  percent curable. Physicians recommend a monthly skin
  check for the symptomatic ABCD's of skin cancer.
Squamas Cell
Basal Cell
• A for Asymmetry : This is when one half of a mole or skin spot
  doesn't match the other half.
• B for Border Irregularity : A mole or skin spot with ragged,
  notched or blurred edges.
• C for Color : Any spot or mole that changes in color from black
  to brown to red, often with a combination of colors. Blue and
  white may appear.
• D for Diameter : Any mole or spot that grows to more than a
  quarter inch; about the size of the end of a pencil eraser.
• About one-half of all melanomas arise from an existing mole, but
  they can also appear as a completely new spot on the skin.
  Consult your physician if any mole or spot appears suddenly,
  looks scaly, becomes itchy, painful or tender, or starts to ooze
                      Poison Plants
                          Poison Ivy
• Varying from low bushes to moderately-sized trees, it can also be
  a climbing vine. The ornamental foliage assume beautiful tints in
  autumn, some of the varieties also bearing showy fruits. It grows
  in thickets and low grounds in North America, where it is quite

• The root is reddish and branching; the leaves rather large, three-
  parted. The central leaflet has a longer stalk, the lateral ones are
  almost stalkless. The leaflets are entire when young, but when
  full-grown they are variously indented, downy beneath, thin and
  about 4 inches long.
               Summer Poison Ivy
• When dry, the leaves are
  papery and brittle, sometimes
  with black spots of exuded
  juice turned black on drying.
  The flowers are in loose,
  slender clusters or panicles, in
  the axils of the leaves and are
  small, some perfect, others
  unisexual, and are greenish or
  yellowish-white in colour.
  They blossom in June, and are
  followed by clusters of small,
  globular, duncoloured, berry-
  like fruit.
If Exposed to Poison Ivy
           • You get the rash from touching
             the plant, or touching
             something that has touched it,
             like your clothes or your dog.
           • The oil in the plant, called
             urushiol causes the rash.
           • What if you know you've been
             exposed to it?
                          If Exposed
• Within a hour or so you should rinse
  with lots of cold water - like a garden
  hose. Hot water will open your pores
  and let the oil in. Taking shower
  could be a disaster!
• Follow the cold water rinse with a
  cleansing of exposed skin with
  generous amounts of isopropyl
  (rubbing) alcohol. For up to about 6
  hours washing with alcohol may still
  help remove the oil.
• Alcohol removes your skin's
  protection along with the urushiol
  and any new contact will cause the
  urushiol to penetrate twice as fast.
Poison Ivy

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