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LISTENING

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					LISTENING
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    Content based on Lucas’ The Art of Public
    Speaking




             Listening and Public Speaking      1
What are the origins of the Chinese
symbol for "listen"?
   The answer: Ear (耳朵) , eye (眼睛), and
    heart (心脏).




                  Listening and Public Speaking   2
Listening is Different from Hearing.

   Listening is an
    involved reception
    process--a complex
    cognitive process--
    that uses multiple
    aspects of your brain
    and your skills.
   Listening is important.


                     Listening and Public Speaking   3
Managers are required to listen up to 60%
of the workday (Brownell, 2000).

   "The most important communication skill --
    listening -- is also the hardest to master"
    (Busey, 2000).
   Most Americans spend the majority of their
    communication time listening, but use only 25
    percent of their innate ability to listen"
    (Wolvin, Berko, & Wolvin, 2000).


                    Listening and Public Speaking   4
Attention
                Attending is when you decide
                 to listen or pay attention to
                 something in particular.
                60 visual cues a minute.
                Attention in short term memory
                 lasts less than 1 minute.
                " The brain is so capable and
                 so underused that the typical
                 communication event leaves
                 the brain "undernourished, if
                 not starved" (Jensen, 2000,
                 pp. 12-13).

            Listening and Public Speaking     5
5 Minute Write or Talk

   Right now:
   1. What is happening
    in the rest of the
    environment?
    2. What else is going
    on in your mind?
    3. What does the
    other person mean?
    4. What do you feel
    able to listen to?

                    Listening and Public Speaking   6
In listening, after attention comes
Elaboration

   Elaboration is sense-making or meaning-
    making.




                   Listening and Public Speaking   7
The next step in listening is
Response
                                   Provide meaningful
                                    feedback to speaker.
                                   What meaningful
                                    feedback are you
                                    sending right now?
                                   Click here to learn more
                                    about giving feedback




                 Listening and Public Speaking                 8
A key element in listening is
Memory
   Remembering is the process of retaining the
    information, impression, and experience that
    you processed.
   Good nutrition, water, and sleep as essential
   Once processed in your short term memory,
    may store information in long term memory
    for later recall.



                    Listening and Public Speaking   9
Barriers to Effective Public Listening


   Too Much Information
   Distractions
   Day Dreaming
   Biases




                   Listening and Public Speaking   10
Interact as a listener

   Ask questions where appropriate or rephrase
    the speaker's idea.
   Respond as a listener
   Respond with your body.
   Avoid reacting to words that generate strong
    emotions.
   Try not to jump to conclusions, hear the
    whole message.

                    Listening and Public Speaking   11
Focus on the speaker.

   Take notes and review notes.
   Sit near the front and next to someone you
    don't know.




                    Listening and Public Speaking   12
Practice listening more effectively.


   Look beyond speaker’s distracting
    mannerisms.
   Motivate yourself.
   Patience helps.




                    Listening and Public Speaking   13
Improve Your Listening Skills:

   Focus on message
   Think about the message.
   Be actively engaged in listening.




                    Listening and Public Speaking   14
Yes, but

   "Whenever you respond to someone with 'Yes, but
    ...,' it's a sure sign you haven't listened.
   Before you state your response, make an effort to
    paraphrase what the other has said ('So what I hear
    you saying is ...') or to identify the feelings behind
    what the other said ('You must be so proud').
   When people feel listened to, they're more likely to
    listen to you in return.
   That creates a connection that creates
    understanding, improves relationships and
    capitalizes on opportunities" (Busey, 2000, p. 25)

                       Listening and Public Speaking     15
Establish Listening Goals

   At the basic level, listeners listen for discrimination,
    to distinguish auditory or visual cues.
   At a second level, we listen for comprehension of
    information.
   At a higher order of listening, we listen for
    therapeutic purposes to provide a sounding board
    for a friend, colleague, or family member who has a
    problem they need to vent.
   Another higher order level of listening is critical
    listening, which is listening to assess the message in
    order to decide whether to accept or reject it.

                        Listening and Public Speaking      16
Appreciation

   The other level of higher order listening is
    listening for appreciation.
   Toasts and tributes, for example, are
    designed to help you appreciate the
    communication experience.




                     Listening and Public Speaking   17
Listen Ethically
                  a. Determine the speaker's
                   motivational appeals.
                  b. Determine the
                   assumptions on the part of
                   the speaker.
                  c. Consider the speaker's
                   arguments and evidence.




               Listening and Public Speaking   18
Avoid
Poor Reasoning
   An ad hominem is when the speaker attacks the person rather
    than the idea.
   Bandwagon technique is when the speaker argues that everyone
    does it, so you should too.
   A nonsequitor is when you move from one idea to an unrelated
    idea while acting as if the two are somehow relevant to each
    other.
   A hasty generalization is when too few or atypical examples are
    used to support the conclusion.
   Either-or fallacy is when the speaker leads you to believe there
    are only two choices, when in fact there may be many.
   Straw man (woman) is when the speaker puts up a false issue
    and refutes it.
   A red herring is when the speaker throws out an irrelevant issue
    as a distraction.


                           Listening and Public Speaking           19
How Can You Listen to and Analyze
Speaker Appeals?
   Adventure                            Loyalty
   Companionship                        Pity
   Creativity                           Pleasure
   Diversity                            Power
   Ethnicity                            Praise
   Fear                                 Pride
   Gender                               Reverence
   Guilt                                Revulsion
   Humor                                Savings
   Independence                         Sexual attraction

                    Listening and Public Speaking             20
5 Minute Talk or Write

Do you agree?
 Poor audience behavior is linked to a general
  increase in rudeness among US Americans.
 Poor audience behavior is caused by shortened
  attention span due to over-stimulation, hurry, and
  stress.
 Poor audience behavior is caused by our sound bite
  society where an entire message must be conveyed
  metaphorically in an 8-second phrase that can
  shape an entire campaign or program.

                    Listening and Public Speaking   21
As you listen,
Evaluate the Evidence and Source




               Listening and Public Speaking   22
End Lecture




              Listening and Public Speaking   23
5 Minute Write or Talk
Research says that one of the best ways to
improve your public speaking is by
practice, practice, practice. What skills do
you learn in these types of assignments?
   Impromptu.
   Telling a story.
   Giving a toast.
   Giving a group presentation.
   Presenting an extemporaneous speech.
   Watching yourself speak on videotape.

                      Listening and Public Speaking   24
Speech and Audience with Sunglasses
   Wear sunglasses while you give an
    impromptu speech.
   Learning speakers sometimes find it easier to
    talk when they don't have or feel direct eye
    contact. Do you?
   Why is eye contact from the speaker and
    audience important?
   After the speeches, talk about how you felt
    wearing sunglasses while talking and
    listening.


                    Listening and Public Speaking   25

				
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