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					                   Objectives
• List and describe the classic functions of managers –
  planning, organizing, staffing, directing, and
  controlling
• Describe the purpose and components of a
  management information system (MIS)
• Explain how computer networking and related
  software have flattened the classic management
  pyramid
    Management
Information Systems:
   Classic Models
        and
 New Approaches'
Chapter # 3
                   Objectives
• Describe how many companies use employees in
  task-oriented teams
• Describe the purpose and function of sophisticated
  software for top managers
• Explain the problems and solutions related to
  managing personal computers
• Explain the concept of total cost of personal
  computer ownership
                Contents

•   Management Functions
•   Management Levels
•   Information Systems
•   Personal Computer Management
•   MIS Leads into the Future
        Management Functions
                    Planning
• Get the job          Devise short-range and long-range plans
  done                 and set goals to help achieve the plans

• On time           Organizing
                       How to use resources
• Within budget
                    Staffing
• Satisfactorily    Directing
• Using available      Guiding employees to perform their work
  resources         Controlling
                       Monitoring progress towards goals
        Management Levels
• High level (strategic)
   – Long-range view
   – Planning
• Middle level (tactical)
   – Carry out the plan
      • Assemble the material
      • Hire the resources
   – Organize and staff
• Low level (operational)
   – Supervisor
   – Directing and controlling
            Management Levels
• Job titles
   – Chief information officer (CIO)
   – Director of information services
   – Information resource manager
   – MIS manager
• Comfortable with
   – Computer technology
   – Organization’s business
       Management Levels
  Interaction Among Employees
Traditional hierarchy
• High level manager issues directives to a group of
  middle level managers
• Each middle level manager issues directives to a
  group of low level managers
• Each low level manager supervises other
  employees to see that the work is completed
          Management Levels
     Interaction Among Employees
• Modern Hierarchy
• Dispersion of information via network
  – E-mail
  – Groupware
• Authority and work of managers has been altered
• Promotes sharing of information
• Decisions that were once management are now
  open for comment and change
• Supports team-based and information-driven
  organization
            Management Levels
       Interaction Among Employees
•   Need new ways to monitor employees
•   Selection and training of employees
•   Set clear expectations
•   Use customer satisfaction to determine
    performance
Management Levels




  Flattening the pyramid
       Information Systems




MIS   Management Information System
DSS   Decision Support Systems
EIS   Executive Information Systems
                   MIS
 Management Information System

• Data + Organization
• Set of formal business systems designed to
  provide information for an organization
• Computers are typical components
                 DSS
      Decision Support Systems
• Supplements an MIS
• Pulls information from variety of databases
• Interactive
• Nonroutine decision-making
• Model – mathematical representation of real-life
  system
• Simulation – using a computer model to reach a
  decision about a real-life situation
               MIS vs. DSS

• MIS
  – Planned reporting
  – Standard, scheduled, structured, and routine
  – Constrained by the organizational system
• DSS
  – Decision making
  – Unstructured and by request
  – Immediate and friendly
                EIS
  Executive Information Systems
• DSS for top-level managers
• How decisions effect entire organization
   –   Overall vision; company goals
   –   Long-term objectives
   –   Organizational structure
   –   Staffing and labor relations
   –   Crisis management
   –   Control of overall operations
• Access to information from external sources
             Personal Computers
                Management
• Benefits
   – Increased productivity
   – Independence from MIS department
• Problems
   –   No one in charge of overall purchase of PCs
   –   Incompatibility
   –   Network related issues
   –   Needed data from MIS
   –   Training
   –   Inventory
             Personal Computers
                Management
Solutions
• Staffing
    – Personal Computer Manager
    – Network Manager
•   Acquisitions policies
•   Information centers for assistance and training
•   Use software to control inventory of PCs
•   Remote access
•   Consider total cost of ownership (TCO)
              Personal Computers
                 Management
• Personal Computer Manager
   – Technology overload – provide guidance to users for purchase and
     use
   – Data security and integrity – addresses the issues of who has access
     to what
   – Computer junkies – set guidelines for PC use
• Network Manager
   –   Operational
   –   Provide methods for sharing
   –   Install software
   –   Backup
   –   Network security
        Personal Computers
           Management

Manager Characteristics
• MIS background
• Technical knowledge
• Benefits and limitations of computers
        Personal Computers
            Acquisition

• Standards
  – Hardware
  – Software
  – Data communications
• Limit the number of vendors
          Personal Computers
          Information Center
• Services
   – Software and hardware
     selection
   – Data access
   – Network access
   – Training
   – Technical assistance
• Easily accessible location
• “User comes first”
Personal Computers
     Training
        Traditional approach
           – Sporadic participation
           – Minimal results for
             extended training
        Better approach
           –   Initial training
           –   Home-grown gurus
           –   Follow-up support
           –   Involve the workers
           –   Web and CD based training
         Personal Computers
              Inventory
• Budgets
• Software
  – Count computers
  – Determines components
  – Determine installed software
        Personal Computers
          Remote Access

• Equipment needs
• Security concern
• Training
                     TCO
          Total Cost of Ownership
•   Initial hardware and software
•   Training                        TCO
•   Support
•   Upgrading
                                    estimated at
•   Maintenance                     four times
•   Hardware
•   Software extras                 the hardware
•   Communications networks         costs!
                  TCO
             Reduce the TCO
• Limited Options – standardize the ordering
  process including hardware, software, and
  options
• Helpful software – counts computers and
  determines their components and installed
  software in a networked environment
• Hardware and software upgrades – insure there is
  justification for an upgrade
    Management Information
          Systems




Leading Business into the Future

				
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posted:10/27/2010
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