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					                                           Chapter # 4

                           Planning and Strategic Management:

Strategic Management:

Processes of management mangers from all deptt/levels of the organization formulate strategies e.t.c…

   1. Establish vision, mission & goal:

   2. Analysis of external opportunities & threats:

   3. Analysis of internal strength & weakness:
    Resources & Core competence:
    Benchmarking:

   4. SWOT analysis & strategy formulation:
    Corporate strategy:
         o Concentration strategy: concentrate on a single industry.
         o Vertical strategy: make all the things in
         o Concentric integration:
         o Conglomerate strategy:
    Business strategy:
         o Low cost strategy:
         o Differentiation strategy:
         o Functional strategy:

   5. Strategy formulation:

   6. Strategy control:
                                            Chapter # 12


Leading & managing:          management is the deal with day to day complexities, planning & budgeting
routines. Management also tells us Structuring the organization, staffing & monitoring the activities.

While Leading is creating vision, setting direction and orchestrating the important change. It tells us
about inspiring people to attain the vision and Make the organization towards the ideal future and also
motivating the employees whatever obstacles lie in the way.

       Supervisory Leadership: Behavior that provides guidance, support & feedback for day to day
        activities of work unit members.
       Strategic Leadership: Behavior that gives meaning to organization, envisioning and creating
        positive future.

Leading & Following: Organizations succeed & fail not only because of how well they are led but because
how well their followers follow. Followers’ most important characteristic is their willingness.
Enthusiastic leaders like good followers as in Football matches.

Power & Leadership: power is the ability to influence others.

Sources of Power:

       Legitimate power:       Legal power
       Reward power:           Giving reward
       Coercive power:          By force
       Referent power:         Personal character
       Expert power:
                                                 Chapter # 10

                                 Human Resources Management
Job analysis:

Tool use to determine what is done on a given job and what should be done on that job.

Two things must be know in job analysis:

1). Job Description: duties, responsibilities…

2). Job Specification: skills, knowledge…

Recruitment: development of pool of applicants for the specific job.

Internal recruiting: employee taken inside the organization (Upgrading of employees). E.g… sears do.

External recruiting: New bloods come in the organization. Outside the organization, people come and
bring new ideas. E.g.… Cisco does.

Selection: choosing qualified applicants.

       Applications & Resume’s
       Interviews
       Personality test
       Performance
       Drug testing
       Cognitive ability test: intellectual, verbal, numerical
       Reliability & validity
       Integrity
       Reference check

Work force reduction:

Lay’s Off:

        Outplacement - Helping dismissed people from the company.


        Get fried – known as Employment at Will OR Termination at Will.
        Termination interview: the interview between manager and employer for work.

Legal issues & Equal employment opportunity: Discrimination, civil rights, sex, color, religion.

Developing Workforce:

Training: teaching lower level employees.

Development: teaching managers and professionals for brooder skill.

        Phase One: Need assessment (identify jobs / job analysis)

        Phase Two: Design training program and objectives

        Phase Three: Decision about training whether on-the-job OR off the job

        Phase Four: Evaluate training program effectiveness and employee reactions.

Training Types:

Orientation training: introduce new employees. Familiarize with company policy and culture.

Team training: provide skills to work together. Interpersonal skills.

Diversity training: awareness of diversity issues. Make employees aware to work with others who are
different from them.

Performance Appraisal: assessment of an employee’s job performance.

What do you appraise?

Trait appraisal: it includes the judgment, attitude and performance of an employee.

Behavioral appraisal:

Result appraisal: deals as Management by Objectives (MBO)

        Focus on sales data, sales unit, unit produce, profit e.t.c…

360-Degree appraisal: complete assessment.

        Comprehensive perspective of one’s performance.
Reward system:

Pay Decision

Incentive System

Employee benefits’ (cafeteria…)

Legal Issues

Health & Safety

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