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Energy Crisis Solutions in Bangladesh
Energy Crisis in Bangladesh Short and Long Term Solutions April 30, 2009 Compiled by Shawkat Haider Electricity Generation Worldwide Current production costs : 1.76 cents per kWh for nuclear, 2.47 cents for coal, 6.78 cents for natural gas and 10.26 cents for petroleum. Coal accounts for 39% of global energy World Nuclear Association IAEA. Electricity Generation in Bangladesh Peak demand is catered by: Natural gas Liquid fuel Coal Hydropower 85% 6.76% 5.41% 2.45% Demand from: DESA, DESCO 1800MW REB 2200MW PDB itself 1500MW 1 TCF Coal (37MT) can produce 14000-94000 MW 1 TCF Gas can produce 22000 MW 3.5 barrels of oil = 17000 cubic feet gas = 1780 pound coal (in terms of energy production) Coal Mining Challenges in Bangladesh Khondkar Abdus Saleque, energybangla, April 2009 Solution lies in gas supply, Sharier Khan, The Daily Star Dr. Khalequzzaman, The Daily Star World Nuclear Association Energy Sector Snapshots TOTAL INSTALLED CAPACITY BPDB IPP SIPP & Rental Present generation capacity Current demand Average generation Maximum generation in history Load shedding Access to electricity Per capita generation Distribution lines (33 KV & below) 5453 MW (105 Unit) 3812 MW (59 Unit) 1330 MW (39 Unit) 311 MW (7 Unit) 4931 MW 5500 MW 3700-3800 MW 4146.9 MW 1000-1500 MW 45% 149 kWh 47,479 Route KM December - 2008 December - 2008 December - 2008 December - 2008 December - 2008 April- 2009 April- 2009 April-2009 April-2009 FY- 2008 FY- 2008 FY-2007 Bangladesh power development board, BPDB; Power Cell, Energybangla Power Sector Structure in Bangladesh Gas Sector Scenario in Bangladesh Total recoverable gas (proven and probable) Reserve remaining : 21 TCF : 13 TCF National demand of natural gas : 2200 MMCFD Production capacity : 1880 MMCFD Power sector requirement Power sector gets : 921 MMCFD : 800 MMCFD PetroBangla Coal Mining Challenges in Bangladesh, Khondkar Abdus Saleque, Energybangla GAS PRODUCTON CAPACITY 2009 Capacity Company 1.BGFCL TITAS BAKHRABAD HABIGANJ NARSHINGDI MEGHNA Sub Total 2.SGFL SYLHET KAILASHTILA RASHIDPUR BEANIBAZAR Sub Total 3.BAPEX SALDANADI FENCHUGANJ Sub Total SUBTOTAL (1+2+3) CAIRN SANGU JALALABAD MOULOVIBAZAR CHEVRON NIKO TULLOW BIBIYANA FENI BANGURA Field Producing Wells 14 4 9 2 1 30 1 6 5 2 14 2 2 4 48 6 4 4 12 3 2 (mmscfd) 405 34 240 35 0 714 2 97 53 18 170 11 32 43 927 35 230 75 500 3 100 Category Wise Gas Consumption (2007) Power Fertilizer Captive Power Industrial Domestic Others 44% 13% 13% 16% 11% 3% Titas Gas, Petrobangla Sub Total TOTAL 31 79 943 1870 PetroBangla Coal Sector Scenario in Bangladesh The total coal reserves in 5 coal fields = 2.9 billion metric tons = energy equivalent to 67 TCF of gas Only Baropukuria Coal Mine is operational from where 1.73 mill MT of coal has been extracted up to December 2008 for 250MW power plant Place/ Field (Discovery) Barapukuria, Dinajpur (1985) Khalashpeer, Rangpur (1995) Phulbari, Dinajpur (1997) Jamalganj, Jaipurhat (1965) Dighirpar, Dinajpur (1995) Depth (Meter) 119-506 257-483 150-240 900-1000 327 Proven Reserve (Mill Ton) 390 143 (GSB), 685 (Hosaf) 572 1050 200 (partly evaluated) Petrobangla Coal Mining Challenges in Bangladesh, Khondkar Abdus Saleque, April 26, 2009, Energybangla.com Power Plant Status in Bangladesh Years in operation No. of power plants 7 6 26 10 50 Capacity (MW) 40 + 31 - 40 21 – 30 11 - 20 01 - 10 140 318 1399 1113 2483 5453 Power Crisis: Issues and Challenges Md. Mizanur Rahman, March 26, 2009, Energybangla Causes of Power Crisis • The demand for around 5,500MW of electricity is not met by an avg supply of only 3,800MW. High gas dependence. Many power plants are idle due to shortage of gas supply and poor maintenance. An inefficient transmission and distribution system operated by state owned companies are the main factor behind huge system loss (15-20%). Unprecedented delay in finalizing a coal policy. We have a probable coal reserve of 3.3 billion tones, which is around 5 times higher than our current proven gas reserve in terms of its heating value. A lack of transparency in power generation procurement and tendering in the past. Highly inefficient decision making process • • • • Maximizing Growth for Bangladesh: A Private Sector Vision, Ifty Islam, Asian Tiger Capital Partners Short Term Solutions • Shutting down of all the government owned urea plants. This the only immediate source of additional gas to be used for power generation. Most of these fertilizer factories use old fuel inefficient process which already have outlived their effective economic life. • Going for long term agreements to import urea right now as international price of urea is low. The availability of urea must be assured but the price should be appropriate; a subsidy is possible but undesirable. At least the subsidy should be linked to the price of rice. • More Rental Power Plants need to be installed to overcome the short term power crisis. • Reducing system loss in the power sector should be a priority as a reduction of 1% system loss can save around 45 MW of power. The government should implement the merchant power policy immediately • The government can set up some small coal fired power plants and can import coal from India on a temporary basis before developing our own coal mines • Several large barge mounted power plants can be contracted on short term basis which can supply additional 600 MW by the end of the year. This will ease the power crisis for a few years while other fuel sources are developed and the required power plants constructed Solving the energy crisis Salman F Rahman and Forrest Cookson Maximizing Growth for Bangladesh: A Private Sector Vision, Ifty Islam, Asian Tiger Capital Partners Power Crisis: Issues and Challenges Md. Mizanur Rahman, Energybangla.com Bangladesh Power System Master Plan Review, Engr Khondkar Abdus Saleque, Feb 2009, Enerybangla.com Short Term Solutions • Captive power generation by the private sector is around 1800-2000 MW; 20-25% of this capacity remains unutilized which can be added to the national gridline. Provide incentive to the standby captive generators to run their machine without taking power from grid. The improvement of the gas pipelines and installation of compressors to increase pipeline pressure - should be implemented immediately. • Daylight energy saving. Changing the office timetable to 8 am - 2 pm can save more electricity for using in the evening peak hours. 350 MW at Dhaka and Chittagong can be saved daily • Using energy efficient appliances and immediate removal of taxes on them • Importing Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) from gas exporting countries like Indonesia, Qatar to meet urgent need • Nation-wide power conservation awareness program Solving the energy crisis Salman F Rahman and Forrest Cookson Maximizing Growth for Bangladesh: A Private Sector Vision, Ifty Islam, Asian Tiger Capital Partners Power Crisis: Issues and Challenges Md. Mizanur Rahman, Energybangla.com Bangladesh Power System Master Plan Review, Engr Khondkar Abdus Saleque, Feb 2009, Enerybangla.com Mid to Long Term Solution • Accelerate the exploration for gas. The recoverable proven remaining reserve of gas is will start depleting after 2012. The maritime boundary dispute with India and Myanmar is a major barrier to offshore gas exploration, and should be resolved as soon as possible. • Petrobangla and EMRD must do everything possible to support Bapex to make it a self reliant exploration company. • Install new urea plants that are more gas efficient. As coal fired power plants come on line in five years the gas can be sold to the urea factories enabling imports of urea to be curtailed. • Fast-track the development of Phulbari and other coal deposits and simultaneously build large-scale coal-fired power stations. Gradually remove coal imports (currently about 5 mill MT) and supply ultimately 18 MMT to the power plants [enough for 6000 MWs]. Contract for 3 coal fired power plants each for 1000 MWs in about 4-5 years. When these plants are available gas is switched to new efficient urea plants and peaking plants for the power sector and for direct industrial use. • Public private partnership should be highly encouraged. If needed, energy bond or levies should be charged to raise funds. Solving the energy crisis Salman F Rahman and Forrest Cookson Maximizing Growth for Bangladesh: A Private Sector Vision, Ifty Islam, Asian Tiger Capital Partners Power Crisis: Issues and Challenges Md. Mizanur Rahman, Energybangla.com Bangladesh Power System Master Plan Review, Engr Khondkar Abdus Saleque, Feb 2009, Enerybangla.com Mid to Long Term Solution • Government must encourage expansion of Solar, wind and bio fuel energy generation. Efforts to use solar power on tall buildings, factories, rural areas should be promoted with low cost loans while removing taxes on solar equipment. Full potential of mini micro hydro generation must also be explored. Energy from solid municipal waste in major cities can be possibility also. • Nuclear energy is a long term solution with huge cost involvement of billion dollar per 1000 MW plant, but essentially this would become a vital source with highest durability and low unit cost of production. • Many power plants set up in Ashuganj, Ghorashal, Shajibazar have outlived their effective economic life. Further investment in those will be waste of money and efforts. There has been considerable drainage of national resources in maintenance of some plants. These can be replaced with fuel efficient modern plants. • A more efficient and faster procurement and tendering process should be adopted for quicker implementation of any project. Solving the energy crisis Salman F Rahman and Forrest Cookson Maximizing Growth for Bangladesh: A Private Sector Vision, Ifty Islam, Asian Tiger Capital Partners Power Crisis: Issues and Challenges Md. Mizanur Rahman, Energybangla.com Bangladesh Power System Master Plan Review, Engr Khondkar Abdus Saleque, Feb 2009, Enerybangla.com
"Energy Crisis Solutions in Bangladesh"