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Microsoft PowerPoint - Ergonomic - PDF

VIEWS: 55 PAGES: 12

									 Why ergonomics?

           Increase usability:                                                                        Ergonomics in product development:
           Fitting the job to the man
                                                                                                      Fitting the tool to the woman & the man
                      or
           Fitting the man to the job?


          Existing workplace (lathe)                Modified operator to lathe




                                                                                                                  Seminar at Ryerson University
                                                                                                                        March 26th, 2008
                                                   Modified Anthropometry: height 1.37 m
                                                                                                                        Linda Rose, KTH
                                       [Galer, 1987]
Linda Rose 2008                                                       linda.rose@sth.kth.se     Linda Rose 2008                                   linda.rose@sth.kth.se




 Why ergonomics?

Productivity and quality reasons                        An example from SSAB
                                                                      New improved method for
          “Old” ladle preparation: quality problems, production
          disturbances and accidents and illnesses                    ladle preparation                      Outline
                                                                                                              • Why ergonomics in product- & production
                                                                                                                development?

                                                                                                              • How to integrate ergonomic aspects in the
                                                                                                                design process – methods, examples
                                  2%
                                                   Quality
                                                   Improvements                                               • Analysis and evaluation methods
                       39%
                                                   Productivity
                                             59%   improvements                                               • Discussion

                                                   Reduced direct
                                                   sick-leave costs
                             [Abrahamsson, 2000]

Linda Rose 2008                                                       linda.rose@sth.kth.se     Linda Rose 2008                                   linda.rose@sth.kth.se




 Why ergonomics?                                                                                Why ergonomics?
                                                                                                              Decrease risk of injury
               Economic reasons                                                                                   Accidents and illnesses
           •    Improved Human factors issues

               profitable for individual, company
               & society



           • Major Swedish industrial players highlight
             ergonomics in their branding:
             Scania, Volvo, Saab, Atlas Copco, BT, …

               competitive advantages on markets




Linda Rose 2008                                                       linda.rose@sth.kth.se     Linda Rose 2008                                   linda.rose@sth.kth.se
Why ergonomics?                                                       Why ergonomics?



             Legal reasons           §
             • Legislation                                                                     Poor working environment

             • European Directives

             • Contractual reasons…
                                                                                                Suffering and costs



                                                                        Individual                     Company                           Society


Linda Rose 2008                               linda.rose@sth.kth.se   Linda Rose 2008                                              linda.rose@sth.kth.se




How to integrate ergonomics                                           Why ergonomics?

                                                                                     Equal opportunity reasons
             Outline
             • Why ergonomics in product- & production
               development?

             • How to integrate ergonomic aspects in the
               design process – methods, examples

             • Analysis and evaluation methods                                      Gripping diameter between          Oxygene uptake ability
                                                                                    thumb and index finger
                                                                                           [Sperling, 1991]               [Ilmarinen, 1992]
             • Discussion

                                                                                           • Example secateurs

Linda Rose 2008                               linda.rose@sth.kth.se   Linda Rose 2008                                              linda.rose@sth.kth.se




How to integrate ergonomics                                           Why ergonomics?
    How to make it happen…                                                       Design for whom?
         § 1. Awareness…                                                         Force exertion
                                                                             •   Strength is proportional to the muscle sectional area
                                                                             •   Men’s muscles have larger sectional area than women’s




                                                                                    Muscle force depending on age and sex [Grandjean, 1980]

                                                                                           Example with female painters…
Linda Rose 2008                               linda.rose@sth.kth.se   Linda Rose 2008                                              linda.rose@sth.kth.se
How to integrate ergonomics                                          How to integrate ergonomics
                                                                              Methods for product and production
      An example: a multifunction tool                                        development with focus on ergonomics
                                                                                 • Andersson’s seminar method

                                                                                 • 3 criteria:
                                                                                         - ergonomics,
                                                                                         - quality,
                                                                                         - production economy

                                                                                 • Bahco’s 11-step method – similar to Andersson’s
                                                                                   method
           Flerfunktionsverktyg
                                                                                 • Roebuck’s anthropometrical design method
           [handkraft]
                                                                                 • …
                                                                                             design                metho
                                                                                                                         ds
                                                                                  r ce ntred                 atory
                                                                              Use                  Partic
                                                                                                          ip

Linda Rose 2008                              linda.rose@sth.kth.se   Linda Rose 2008                                                linda.rose@sth.kth.se




How to integrate ergonomics                                          How to integrate ergonomics

            Evaluation of the ”combiknife”
                                                                         Andersson’s seminar method
                                                                         Part 1: Development of ideas
                                                                                      •    Problem statement/definition

                                                                                      •    Project organization

                                                                                      •    Info-retrieval & requirement specification

                                                                                      •    Development seminar (brainstorm)

                                                                                      •    Processing of results from the seminar

                                                                                      •    Evaluation seminar

                                                                                      •    Choosing ideas

                                                                                      •    Summary and spreading the results

                                                                                      •    Preparation of the development
Linda Rose 2008                              linda.rose@sth.kth.se   Linda Rose 2008                                                linda.rose@sth.kth.se




How to integrate ergonomics                                          How to integrate ergonomics

   Evaluation inquiry
                                                                        Part 2: Development of prototype
                                                                                  •       Development of prototype

                                                                                  •       Testing in lab

                                                                                  •       Modifications

                                                                                  •       Testing at work sites

                                                                                  •       Modifications

                                                                                  •       Zero- series

                                                                                  •       Evaluation

                                                                                  •       Decision about the product

                                                                                  •       Manufacturing and introduction on the market
                              etc.
Linda Rose 2008                              linda.rose@sth.kth.se   Linda Rose 2008                                                linda.rose@sth.kth.se
How to integrate ergonomics                                               How to integrate ergonomics
   Example 3: Precast Concrete Elements                                      Evaluation among users

                                  ‰ Advantages
                                  ‰ Drawbacks




Linda Rose 2008                                   linda.rose@sth.kth.se   Linda Rose 2008                                                  linda.rose@sth.kth.se




How to integrate ergonomics                                               How to integrate ergonomics

       ”Rational handling of precast concrete elements”
                                                                              The result
      Rational and safe handling?




                                                                          Mora chiselknife 712, sold world-wide by Mora of Sweden

                                                                          ”Partly a wood chisel, partly a knife – the best from two worlds."

                                                                          Chisel blade in carbonized steel, handle of plastic and rubber for secure and comfort grip.


Linda Rose 2008                                   linda.rose@sth.kth.se   Linda Rose 2008                                                  linda.rose@sth.kth.se




How to integrate ergonomics                                               How to integrate ergonomics
                                 Aims                                      Example 2: Concrete-vibrating equipment

           • Identify risks with the handling

           • Develop products/methods to reduce the risks when
             using precast elements

           • Develop a handbook about how to use and handle
             the precast concrete elements




                                                                                          ”Ergonomic”?                                         ”Ergonomic”!
    Adequate methods from factory to fulfilled contract at site

Linda Rose 2008                                   linda.rose@sth.kth.se   Linda Rose 2008                                                  linda.rose@sth.kth.se
   How to integrate ergonomics                                                             How to integrate ergonomics

                      Evaluation example: solution to                                                   Carrying through the project
                      reduce squeezing risk – a handle                                                       Many different skills needed (Andersson’s method)



                           RISK/
                        BELASTNING
                         Risk/strain                       Evaluation scale
                              5                            1 = much worse than existing
Market assessment
                                        ANVÄNDAR-          2 = somewhat worse than
  MARKNADS-                   4
                                       User friendliness
                                         VÄNLIGHET
                                                               existing
  BEDÖMNING
                              3
                                                           3 = as existing

                              2                            4 = Somewhat better than
                              1                                existing

                                                           5 = Much better than existing


CostKOSTNAD
     for equipment                         KVALITET
& FÖR MASKIN/
  material                             Quality
   MATERIAL



                        TIDSÅTGÅNG
                      Time needed
  Linda Rose 2008                                            linda.rose@sth.kth.se         Linda Rose 2008                                           linda.rose@sth.kth.se




   How to integrate ergonomics                                                             How to integrate ergonomics
                                                                                              Part 1 - identifying problem & finding suggestions
       Part 2 - From words to action – The Conny handle                                       for solutions

                                                                                              What are the risks?

                                                                                                        Squeezing or
                                                                                                        crushing                                  Falling
                                                                                                        hands




                                                                                                                            Corners
  Linda Rose 2008                                            linda.rose@sth.kth.se         Linda Rose 2008                                           linda.rose@sth.kth.se




   How to integrate ergonomics                                                             How to integrate ergonomics

                     Solution for corners: Ladder                                                     Ideas that solve the problems?
                                                                                              Squeezing

                                                                                                                        Falling


                                                                                                                                                 Corners




  Linda Rose 2008                                            linda.rose@sth.kth.se         Linda Rose 2008                                           linda.rose@sth.kth.se
How to integrate ergonomics                                                             How to integrate ergonomics
                         Evaluation                                                                       Preventing from falling
             Economics
             • The costs are easy to calculate

             •    Time saving through repetitiveness

             •    The personal injury risks are lowered and thus the costs for
                  such injuries

             Quality
             With a “smart” and structured construction method the
                working task can be in focus. This leads to higher quality.




Linda Rose 2008                                                 linda.rose@sth.kth.se   Linda Rose 2008                                       linda.rose@sth.kth.se




How to integrate ergonomics                                                             How to integrate ergonomics

                  Conclusions                                                                Handbook - developed together with
                  In the project
                                                                                             construction workers
                  • Some severe injury risks were identified,

                  •   alternativ work methods based on three new products were
                      developed &

                  •   a handbook describing how to work with precast concrete
                      elements was developed.

                  The result
                  • Gives the oportunity to use a structured working methods each
                     time,

                  •   is used by APJ today and

                  •   is shared by the whole construction industry


Linda Rose 2008                                                 linda.rose@sth.kth.se   Linda Rose 2008                                       linda.rose@sth.kth.se




How to integrate ergonomics                                                             How to integrate ergonomics
  Roebuck’s anthropometric design method
                                                                                                            Evaluation
                                                                                                   Ergonomics
                                                                                                   • The risk of squeezing is decreased
                                                                                                      by the handle

                                                                                                   •   The ladder is stable and safely
                                                                                                       attached

                                                                                                   •   The platform is stable, flexible and
                                                                                                       designed for the elements

                                                                                                   •   The hand-book helps in training
                                                                                                       construction workers and rises the
                                                                                                       level of awareness




Linda Rose 2008                                                 linda.rose@sth.kth.se   Linda Rose 2008                                       linda.rose@sth.kth.se
Analysis methods                                                                             Analysis methods


      Examples of methods for evaluation from a
      project evaluating of a new type of rollator                                                         Outline
      from ergonomic aspects
                                                                                                           • Why ergonomics in product- & production
                                                                                                             development?

                                                                                                           • How to integrate ergonomic aspects in the
                                                                                                             design process – methods, examples

                                                                                                           • Analysis and evaluation methods

                                                                                                           • Discussion

                                 Ulf Orrenius & Linda Rose
                                           ERAK

Linda Rose 2008                                                     linda.rose@sth.kth.se    Linda Rose 2008                                linda.rose@sth.kth.se




Analysis methods                                                                             Analysis methods

 Background
            •   Mobility aids anticipated to be increasingly demanded in the future:
                 ageing population in Europe                                                               Physical load…
                 elderly of the next decades are not expected to be content with a passive
                    everyday living

            •   In addition: Interest in mobility aids that combine good looks with user
                friendliness!




Linda Rose 2008                                                     linda.rose@sth.kth.se    Linda Rose 2008                                linda.rose@sth.kth.se




Analysis methods                                                                             Analysis methods


           Objectives                                                                          The principle for Yoyo wheel suspension
                                                                                                        Traditional wheel suspension:
                  •   Independent ergonomic evaluation of Walker:
                       ‰capacity to overcome obstacles
                         (benchmark to common outdoor rollators)
                       ‰Steering, maneuvering and general user-
                         friendliness.

                  •   Evaluate shortcomings                                                             Yoyo wheel suspension:


                  •   Suggest design proposals




Linda Rose 2008                                                     linda.rose@sth.kth.se    Linda Rose 2008                                linda.rose@sth.kth.se
Analysis methods                                                                                              Analysis methods

Results: Obstacles                                                                                                      Method
     Force required [N] /          Walker – lowered    Walker – raised    Ahlberg-Leber      Dolomite -
     Obstacle                      front wheel         front wheel        Carl Oskar         Soprano
                                                                                                                         Literature review:
     Standard threshold          20 [10-24]           33 [29-37]         116 [95-130]       228 [137-289]                • Rollator usage and user satisfaction - traditional rollators
     (42 mm)
     Low threshold               13 [10-15]           26 [17-30]         77 [61-88]         81 [70-90]                   Technical tests:
     (29 mm)
                                                                                                                         • Forces measured for passing of obstacles (curb stones and door-sills)
     Standard curb               57 [36-68]           72 [54-81]         N/A *              N/A *
     (70 mm)
                                                                                                                         • Maneuvering evaluation (steering, braking)
     Low curb                    15 [7-23]            36 [19-56]         129 [86-183]       122 [102-154]
     (32 mm, 45˚ slant)                                                                                                  User survey:
                                                                                                                         • Ten users evaluated “Walker” in comparison to their standard rollator
                                                                                                                            after two week test period
 • Forces significantly reduced with Walker with lowered front wheel.                                                    • Semi-structured interviews
                                                                                                                         • Monitored walk analysis (EMG, Borg’s RPE scale, Body maps)
 • Force needed for Carl-Oskar is 6-9 times higher and for Soprano 7-12 times
   higher than for Walker.

 • The higher curb was too high for Carl-Oskar and Soprano; the front wheels
   needed to be lifted manually.
Linda Rose 2008                                                                       linda.rose@sth.kth.se   Linda Rose 2008                                                linda.rose@sth.kth.se




Analysis methods                                                                                              Analysis methods


 Steering and maneuvering                                                                                          Literature: main results
                                                                                                                        Estreen (2005):
                                                                                                                        • Increase from 25 000 to 55 000 new rollators per year 1989-2004
                           •   The hand brakes much appreciated (disk-brakes allow                                      • Most common aid in Sweden
                               gradual braking)
                                                                                                                        Brant (2000): 64 users interviewed in Denmark
                           •   Steering sometimes difficult on non-level ground: center of                              • Youger users, (< 70 years) less satisfied with rollators’ areas of
                               gravity far from handle (with loaded basket)                                                 application and transportation possibilities
                                                                                                                        • Older users, (>70 years), less satisfied with rollators weight
                                                                                                                           (muscular strength).
                                                                                                                        • Women in the study up to three times less satisfied than the men
                                                                                                                        • Biggest problem: to handle and operate rollators, especially outdoors
                                                                                                                        • Those who had participated in selection of their own rollator more
                                                                                                                            satisfied

                                                                                                                        Broddnäs (2005): 23 users (> 65 years)
                                                                                                                        • Outdoor rollators play large role in the health of elderly, both physically
                                                                                                                           (exercise) and psychologically (increased self-esteem and positive effect
                                                                                                                           on social contacts).


Linda Rose 2008                                                                       linda.rose@sth.kth.se   Linda Rose 2008                                                linda.rose@sth.kth.se




Analysis methods                                                                                              Analysis methods
                     Results: Monitored walk in forested
                     terrain with EMG recording                                                                    Technical tests: obstacles
               Normalized RVE
     100                             83
     80         68
     60
 %




     40
     20               10                   10
                                                         Surface
      0
                 Walker              Ordinarie        electrodes on
                                                      left and right
           normerat maxvärde    normerat medelvärde
                                                        trapezius
                                                         muscles

 • Small difference in normalized
   max RVE during the walk

 • No difference in normalized
   average RVE during the work
Linda Rose 2008                                                                       linda.rose@sth.kth.se   Linda Rose 2008                                                linda.rose@sth.kth.se
Analysis methods                                                               Analysis methods

                                                                                       Body map and Borgs’ RPE rating
             Methods                                                                                                                                      Borgs RPE-skala

                                                                                                                                                          6
                                                                                                                                                          7                 VERY, VERY EASY
            • A survey regarding the DV’s WE in and around the                                                                                            8
                                                                                                                                                          9                 VERY EAST
              car to all Swedish District Veterinarians (DV’s).                                                                                           10
                                                                                                                                                          11                FAIRLY EASY
                                                                                                                                                          12
                                                                                                                                                          13                SOMEWHAT STRENUOUS
                                                                                                                                                          14
            • A field study: 6 Veterinarian Stations, 12 vets. Interviews &                                                                               15                STRENUOUS
                                                                                                                                                          16
              work site analysis with                                                                                                                     17                VERY STRENUOUS
                                                                                                                                                          18
                    - Borg’s CR-10 scale,                                                                                                                 19                VERY, VERY STRENUOUS
                                                                                                                                                          20
                    - VIDAR,
                                                                                               7
                    - Interviews,                                                                                                                         20
                                                                                               6                                                          18
                    - Weight measurements,




                                                                                                                                         RPE- skattning
                                                                                               5                                                          16
                    - Biomechanical calculations                                                                        med Walker                        14
                                                                                               4




                                                                                       Antal
                    - EMG analysis of the upper extremities/back and neck,                                                                                12
                                                                                               3                         med ordinarie                    10
                    - The results from the analysis were compared to                                                    rollator
                                                                                                                                                           8
                                                                                               2
                       recommended and regulated limit values.                                                                                             6
                                                                                               1
                                                                                               0                                                                    Trionic's Walker          Ordinarie rollator




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Linda Rose 2008                                                                Linda Rose 2008




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                                                       linda.rose@sth.kth.se                                                                                                  linda.rose@sth.kth.se




Analysis methods                                                               Analysis methods

              Results from the inquiry
                                                                                               Conclusions
             • 95 % of the active Swedish DV’s responded                                           • Walker is in several respects ergonomically advantageous
                                                                                                     compared to tested conventional rollators (terrain and
             • 91 % content with their job                                                           obstacles)
             • 47 % experience physical problems that they
                                                                                                   • Measured forces 6-13 times lower when passing typical
               relate to working in the car                                                          obstacles than with conventional rollators

             • they drive between 10000-80000 km/year                                              • Younger participants in evaluation study were more
                                                                                                     positive towards Walker than the older
             • 59 % use a computer in the car
             • 86 % drive a VW Passat                                                              • Room for improvement:
                                                                                                      accessibility to narrow indoor environments
                                                                                                      procedure to fold the rollator, e.g. for transport in a car.
                                                                                                      mechanism for rollator disassembly, especially folding
                                                                                                        and detachment of wheels.

                                                                                                                             -
Linda Rose 2008                                        linda.rose@sth.kth.se   Linda Rose 2008                                                                                linda.rose@sth.kth.se




Analysis methods                                                               Analysis methods

  Postures: examples from the field study                                       Another example: District veterinarians working
                                                                                environment in and around the car
                                                                                In co-operation with The Swedish Board of Agriculture &
                                                                                         The Swedish Veterinary Association

                                                                                                   Objectives
                                                                                                      To contribute to the improvement of the DV’s work
                                                                                                         environment (WE) related to work tasks in and
                                                                                                         around the official car.

                                                                                                      Aim:
                                                                                                      • Map the DV’s work environment in and around the
                                                                                                         car
         Twisted postures, unsecured equipment, MMH in                                                • Produce a basis for criteria for the procurement of
         unfavourable postures, insufficient sight, …                                                    the official car and included work-related equipment
                                                                                                         for the car.


Linda Rose 2008                                        linda.rose@sth.kth.se   Linda Rose 2008                                                                                linda.rose@sth.kth.se
Analysis methods                                                          Analysis methods

       VIDAR: Psychological strain
                                                                                       Cognitive ergonomics




                                                                                        Similar packaging and insufficient lightning
                                                                                        increase the risk of mixing up drugs.


Linda Rose 2008                                   linda.rose@sth.kth.se   Linda Rose 2008                                       linda.rose@sth.kth.se




Analysis methods                                                          Analysis methods

            Results from the field study I                                       Biomechanical analysis
          • Several deficiencies in the DV’s official car.                                  • The compression force exceeds the
                                                                                              recommended force limit 3400 N.
          • Some very unfavourable working postures in MMH
                                                                                            • The shear force is near the limit 1000 N.
            situations & in computer work.
                                                                                            • Actions should be taken to reduce the
          • All participating DV’s had musculoskeletal                                        strain and the injury risks.
            problems and suffered from pain from muscles or
            joints.
          • They spend 2-4 hours a day in their car.
          • During MMH vision, weight, reach, height,
            distance, frequency and exposure time influence
            the loading situation.




Linda Rose 2008                                   linda.rose@sth.kth.se   Linda Rose 2008                                       linda.rose@sth.kth.se




Analysis methods                                                          Analysis methods

                  Results from the field study II                           Rapid Upper Limb Assessment (Mc Atamney & Corlett,1993)
              • Too small car
              • Entrance in-step & and driver’s seat are low,               Result: Investigation and changes are required immediately

              • Lighting insufficient,
              • Equipment often not secured,
              • No space for passengers,

              • Psychologically stressing factors: problems with
                the equipment and time pressure, etc,
              • Tiredness and stress, mostly on duty.




Linda Rose 2008                                   linda.rose@sth.kth.se   Linda Rose 2008                                       linda.rose@sth.kth.se
    Analysis methods                                                                        Analysis methods
                                                                                                          Criteria and design suggestions
                     Another example

                                                                                                         •     Traffic safety
                                                                                                         •     Comfort
                                                                                                         •     The computer work station
                                                                                                         •     Lighting design with ergonomic aspects
                                                                                                         •     Manual material handling
                                                                                                         •     Hygiene
                                                                                                         •     Power supply




    Linda Rose 2008                                        linda.rose@sth.kth.se            Linda Rose 2008                                linda.rose@sth.kth.se




    Analysis methods                                                                        Analysis methods


         Another method for evaluation: Ergo-Index                                                       Conclusion
         A tool for choosing and to motivate the ”best” method
         from ergonomic as well as economic aspects                                                      • A high percentage of the DV’s are content with
                                                                                                           their job, but a large proportion suffer from
                                                                                                           physical problems that they relate to work.
                         Chisseling/drilling in concrete wall
                                                                                                         • The work environment for the DV’s in and
                                                                                                           around the official car has several clear
                                                                                                           ergonomic deficiencies which lead to increased
                                                                                                           injury risks.
                                                                                                         • Computer work and manual material handling
                                                                                                           are two such examples.
                                                                                                         • There is room for improvement and a base for
                                                                                                           criterions and design suggestions is presented.
                   Traditionally    With a support
                                                           [Glimskär et al.]
    Linda Rose 2008                                        linda.rose@sth.kth.se            Linda Rose 2008                                linda.rose@sth.kth.se




    Analysis methods                                                                        Analysis methods

                                                                                                         A design suggestion
                               Traditional comparison




                                        Ergonomics          Economics
          Unit time                 N                 Kr/hole      Cost for Cost for
                                                                   drilling support
    Minutes/hole                                                 5.85          6.13

3                            3000

2                            2000

1                            1000




                                                                        [Glimskär et al.]
                         Would you invest in alternative II?
    Linda Rose 2008                                        linda.rose@sth.kth.se            Linda Rose 2008                                linda.rose@sth.kth.se
                                                                                   Analysis methods

                                                                                                                  Ergo-Index comparison

             Outline
             • Why ergonomics in product- & production                                     PRODUCTION TIme                                    ECONOMY
               development?                                                          Minutes/hole                                          Kr/hole
                                                                                                                                                        5.85
                                                                               3                                   Recovery               6                                   Cost for
             • How to integrate ergonomic aspects in the                                                                                                          Cost for support
                                                                                                                   Drilling
               design process – methods, examples                                                                                         4                       drilling 3.50
                                                                               2
             • Analysis and evaluation methods                                                                                            2
                                                                               1

             • Discussion
                                                                                               I            II                          I                                 II
                                                                                                           Would you invest in alternative II?                       [Glimskär et al.]

Linda Rose 2008                                        linda.rose@sth.kth.se       Linda Rose 2008                                                        linda.rose@sth.kth.se




                                                                                   Analysis methods
                                                                                                                   Ergo-Index computer program
                                                                                    Traditional drillinmg                       Drilling with                         support

                  Tank you fo
                              r   your attenti
                                                 on!


                                                                                   TIME                        LOAD LEVEL               TIME                   LOAD LEVEL
                                                                                                                              Minutes          Recovery
                                                                               Minutes                                         0,05            time
                                                                                   0,51             Recovery
                                                                                                    time

                                                                                   0,33                                        0,33             Loading time
                                                                                                   Loading time


                                                                                   0,84        Production time
                                                                                                                               0,38             Production time           [Rose, 1992]

Linda Rose 2008                                        linda.rose@sth.kth.se       Linda Rose 2008                                                        linda.rose@sth.kth.se




                                                                                   Analysis methods


                                                                                          Ergo-Index:
                                                                                                     • is used by e.g. GM in Oshawa and in the
                                                                                                       US

                                                                                                     • currently a research project refining the
                                                                                                       recovery model is carried out




                                                                                   Linda Rose 2008                                                        linda.rose@sth.kth.se

								
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