tsunami_2 by pittpeng


“On the first day of a new year, we join the world in
 feeling enormous sadness over a great human tragedy.
 Last Sunday, an earthquake and violent tsunami
 struck the nations that surround the Indian Ocean.
 The carnage is of a scale that defies comprehension,
 with over 100,000 deaths reported. I have signed a
 proclamation calling for our nation’s flag to be flown
 at half-staff this coming week. As the people of this
 devastated region struggle to recover, we offer our love   President George W. Bush signs a
                                                            condolence book for the victims of the
 and compassion, and our assurance that America will        tsunami at the Embassy of Thailand,
 be there to help.”                                         Washington, D.C., Monday, Jan. 3, 2005.
                                                            Also signing the book are Mrs. Bush, and
                          — Radio Address by                former presidents Bush and Clinton.
                            President George W. Bush        Inset: Condolence book, Embassy of Sri
                            January 1, 2005                 Lanka. The president wrote: “We pray
                                                            for the victims and families of this epic
                                                            disaster. And the American government
                                                            and American people are dedicated to
                                                            helping you recover.” (White House photos)
Americans Respond to
Tragedy                                                                                   An injured Indonesian boy is treated
                                                                                          by U.S. and Australian military
                                                                                          personnel and relief workers at Banda

                                                                                          Aceh airport, Indonesia. (Andy Eames,
          n December 26, 2004, a mag-        affected region. Twenty-five ships and       AP/WWP)
          nitude 9.0 earthquake off the      94 aircraft were participating in the
          west coast of Northern Suma-       effort. The U.S. military had delivered
tra, Indonesia, triggered a tsunami — a      about 2.2 million pounds of relief
series of giant waves — that inundated       supplies to affected nations, including
coastal areas of Indonesia, Thailand,        16,000 gallons of water, 113,000 pounds
Sri Lanka, India, and Malaysia, as well      of food, and 140,500 pounds of relief
as Indian Ocean islands, and parts of        supplies in the previous 24 hours alone.
East Africa.                                 On February 9, President Bush asked
   Both the American people and the          Congress to increase the U.S. commit-
U.S government responded with mas-           ment to a total of $950 million.
sive support for the people swept up in          In addition to initiating the flow
the terrible tragedy of the earthquake       of U.S. funds and materiel as part of a
and tsunami.                                 coordinated global relief effort, Presi-
     “Americans are a compassionate          dent Bush dispatched Secretary of State
people,” said President Bush in his radio    Colin Powell and his brother, Governor
address on New Year’s Day, “and we are       Jeb Bush of Florida, in the first days af-
already hard at work helping those na-       ter the disaster to assess the situation.
tions meet these challenges. The United          Speaking in Sri Lanka, January 7,
States has pledged $350 million in relief    Secretary Powell said: “I will leave the
assistance…. Disaster response officials     region this afternoon and report to
are on the ground and have established       President Bush on all that I have seen in
a support center in Thailand that is         Thailand, in Indonesia, and here in Sri
manned and operational; more than            Lanka, as well as the reports I received
20 patrol and cargo aircraft have been       about what happened in other nations
made available to assess the disaster and    in the region. Twelve countries spread
deliver relief supplies…. We have dis-       over thousands of miles, all struck by a
patched the aircraft carrier, Abraham        single event, a single catastrophe, and
Lincoln, the Maritime pre-positioning        the international community has mo-
squadron from Guam, and an amphibi-          bilized in a way that I have never seen
ous ship carrying a Marine Expedition-       before, to help the affected people…to
ary Unit…to support relief efforts, to       rebuild their lives.”
include the generation of clean water.”          While the U.S. Department of De-
   This was the beginning. By January        fense supplied the logistics component,
12, the day following a conference of        using its ships, planes, and helicopters
donors in Geneva, Switzerland, about         to establish a rapid supply chain to
$88 million — out of the $350 million        stricken regions, the U.S. Agency for
in relief funds for the region pledged       International Development (USAID)
by the U.S. government — had been            coordinated much civilian activity.
                                                                                          Sailors from USS Abraham Lincoln and
committed to specific projects in the        Speaking January 11 in Geneva, USAID         Carrier Air Wing TWO move supplies
affected nations. That figure did not in-    Administrator Andrew Natsios esti-           from a truck in preparation for aerial
clude the cost of military relief efforts.   mated the daily cost of U.S. military        resupply drop by SH-60 helicopters,
As of January 12, more than 15,000           relief efforts in the region to be more      Sumatra, Indonesia, Jan. 2, 2005.
U.S. military personnel were involved        than $5 million a day, in addition to the    (Photographer’s Mate 2nd Class Philip A.
in providing relief support in the           initial $350 overall U.S. government         McDaniel, U.S. Navy)

commitment. USAID, Natsios empha-              scientific tasks of building an early           “Americans,” the President added,
sized, “is currently undertaking one of        warning system for earthquakes and          “have suffered sudden catastrophe
the largest relief efforts in its history in   tsunamis in the Indian Ocean similar to     many times in our own history, from
order to save lives, mitigate human suf-       the one that exists in the Pacific, where   massive earthquakes in Anchorage and
fering, and reduce the economic impact         tsunamis are far more frequent.             San Francisco, to destructive wildfires
of the Indian Ocean disaster.”                    In the American system, the pri-         in the West, to the series of hurricanes
    “Of the $350 million we have al-           vate sector plays an enormous role in       that struck Florida last year. From our
ready committed or spent, USAID has            disaster relief efforts. Acknowledging      own experiences, we know that noth-
dispersed $78 million…. $35 million of         this reality, President Bush on Janu-       ing can take away the grief of those
that is [going] to United Nations agen-        ary 3 appointed two former presidents       affected by tragedy. We also know that
cies, and the rest to the Federation of        — his father, George H.W. Bush, and         Americans have a history of rising to
Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies…          Bill Clinton — to head an effort to         meet great humanitarian challenges
to non-governmental organizations, to          raise funds directly from the American      and of providing hope to suffering
the direct purchases of commodities by         people, an effort already well underway     peoples. As men and women across
our staff, or to air flights.”                 at that date. Almost from the earliest      the devastated region begin to rebuild,
    After the first round of emergency         news reports of the disaster, corpo-        we offer our sustained compassion and
relief efforts, the United States and          rations and many, many individual           our generosity, and our assurance that
the world community look forward               Americans had offered up relief dona-       America will be there to help.”       
to a period of long-term reconstruc-           tions on their own.
tion and rebuilding in the region. The            “In the coming days,” Bush said,
tragedy has heightened the importance          “Presidents Clinton and Bush will be
of the World Conference on Disaster            speaking about the countless ways indi-
Reduction — to be held in Kobe, Japan,         viduals and businesses can support this
during the third week of January — and         urgent cause. I ask every American to
added new urgency to the technical and         contribute as they are able to do so.”

Above: U.S. Navy Petty Officer 2nd Class Timothy Sullivan gets an aerial
view of Banda Aceh after a supply drop, Jan. 1, 2005. (Seaman Patrick
M. Bonafede, U.S. Navy) Right: Sailors aboard the USS Abraham Lincoln
fill jugs with purified water, Jan. 4, to be flown by helicopters to tsunami-
isolated regions in Sumatra. (Jordon R. Beesley, AP/WWP; US Navy)

                                                                                                      Former U.S.
                                                                                                      Secretary of State
                                                                                                      Colin Powell, second
                                                                                                      from left, speaks with
                                                                                                      an Indonesian tsunami
                                                                                                      patient under the
                                                                                                      care of the Australian
                                                                                                      Defense Force Aero
                                                                                                      Medical Evacuation
                                                                                                      team in Banda Aceh,
                                                                                                      Jan. 5. (AP/WWP,
                                                                                                      Australian Department of

Lt. Mark Banks tends to a patient
brought in by helicopter to a temporary
triage site in Banda Aceh, Jan. 3.
(Photographer’s Mate 2nd Class Elizabeth
A. Edwards, U.S. Navy)

                                           Ambassador Lynn Pascoe and USAID Director William Frej lead the way Jan. 1
                                           as volunteers from the U.S. Embassy, Indonesian and American NGOs, the
                                           American business community and the Indonesian Armed Forces help load two
                                           C-130s at Halim Air Force Base in Jakarta. (Joule H. Hardjo, U.S. Embassy, Jakarta)

Above: Indonesians run toward a U.S. helicopter
carrying food and relief supplies, Sumatra, Jan. 7.
(U.S. Navy ) Right: Sri Lankan Red Cross members
loading aid supplies from the United States on to a
truck in Galle, Sri Lanka, Jan. 4. (Vincent Thian, AP/
WWP) Far right: U.S. Navy flight crewmen carry
an injured evacuee, Jan. 3, at the airport in Banda
Aceh. (Bullit Marquez, AP/WWP)

Top: U.S. Air Force personnel unload a rescue helicopter from a U.S. cargo
plane at the airport in Colombo, Sri Lanka, Jan. 5. (Elizabeth Dalziel, AP/
WWP) Center: At Yokota Air Base, Japan, airmen from the 374th Airlift Wing
load relief supplies onto a C-17 Globemaster III, Dec. 31, to be delivered
to a forward operating base in Thailand. (lst Lt. Warren Comer, U.S. Air Force)
Bottom: A U.S. airman carries boxes of relief supplies destined for tsunami-
hit areas of southern Thailand Jan. 1 at the international airport in Bangkok.
(Master Sgt. Michael Farris, U.S. Air Force)

Top left: Dr. Monique Tello, left,
a pediatric resident from Yale
University, examines a young
Sri Lankan girl in a town east of
Colombo, Jan. 4. (Julia Drapkin,
AP/WWP) Top right: A family
from Washington, D.C., signs the
condolence book at the Indonesian
Embassy, Dec. 30. (Janine Sides, U.S.
State Department) Center: Bill Frist, a
Republican senator from Tennessee,
and Mary Landrieu, a Democratic
senator from Louisiana, talk with
tsunami survivors at a refugee camp
in Galle, Sri Lanka, Jan. 6. (Vincent
Thian, AP/WWP) Bottom: Florida
Gov. Jeb Bush, President George W.
Bush’s brother, talks to a television
reporter outside a tent hospital at
Banda Aceh airport after a helicopter
inspection of the tsunami-ravaged
area, Jan. 5. (Bullit Marquez, AP/WWP)

                                            U.S. Private-Sector Support
Eight-year-old twin brothers, Themio,
left, and George Pallis display the
sign they used to attract attention to
                                            for Tsunami Relief
their fund-raising effort for tsunami

victims on New Year’s Eve at a grocery
store near their home in a town in                   .S. private-sector contributions   Development, Lutheran World Relief,
Washington state. They raised over
                                                     to tsunami relief already have     and Presbyterian Disaster Assistance.
$5,000 for tsunami relief. (Elaine
Thompson, AP/WWP)                                    topped $360 million and are            The American Red Cross already
                                            expected to reach nearly $700 million       has contributed nearly $160 million of
                                            when planned fundraising is complete,       a planned $400 million expenditure
                                            according to figures released January 11    to relief and recovery efforts in the
                                            by the Center on Philanthropy at Indi-      affected area. The Brother’s Brother
                                            ana University. American corporations       Foundation, based in Pittsburgh,
                                            and nongovernmental organizations           Pennsylvania, has sent over $8 mil-
                                            are contributing cash, supplies, and        lion worth of medicines and supplies
                                            services to assist in immediate relief      to tsunami survivors, while CitiHope
                                            efforts as well as in long-term recovery    International, a Christian relief and de-
                                            and rehabilitation projects, according      velopment agency based in Andes, New
                                            to the center.                              York, has contributed $10 million to the
                                                Corporate donors include com-           aid effort.
                                            panies such as ChevronTexaco Corp.,             The U.S. chapter of Doctors With-
                                            which has sent $490,000 to the Thai Red     out Borders has raised $20 million for
                                            Cross and local relief agencies; General    tsunami relief — an amount sufficient
                                            Mills Inc., which has spent $750,000 on     “for our currently foreseen emergency
                                            food, water, and shelter for victims; and   response in South Asia,” according to
                                            Levi Strauss & Co., which has contrib-      the organization. Overall, the interna-
                                            uted $160,000 to local relief agencies.     tional nonprofit group says it has sent
                                                Foundations established by large        more than 160 international aid work-
                                            corporations also are giving gener-         ers and 400 tons of relief materials to
                                            ously, among them the Abbot Labo-           provide assistance to people affected by
                                            ratories Fund, pledging $4 million in       the crisis in South Asia.
                                            health care products and cash; the GE           Another volunteer organization,
                                            (General Electric) Foundation, con-         Habitat for Humanity, is currently
                                            tributing $10 million; and the Bill &       working to rebuild housing in six of
                                            Melinda Gates Foundation, created by        the 12 affected countries. The organiza-
                                            the Microsoft chief executive and his       tion, based in the U.S. state of Georgia,
                                            wife, pledging $3 million.                  is strongly supported by former Presi-
                                                Throughout the United States,           dent Jimmy Carter, who frequently
                                            charitable organizations ranging from       participates in its home-construction
                                            national nonprofits to local community      projects.
                                            groups are engaged in fundraising ef-           In the initial days after the disaster,
                                            forts to assist tsunami survivors. In       many other American corporations had
                                            addition, nearly every major U.S. re-       responded.
                                            ligious denomination seems to be ac-            At a January 6 forum in Washington,
                                            tively supporting the relief effort. The    the Global Business Dialogue (GBD)
Tjalang, Sumatra — An Indonesian child      list of donors released by the Center       noted the following contributions,
smiles as he receives a much-needed         on Philanthropy includes the Adven-         among others:
bottle of water flown in by a U.S. Navy     tist Development and Relief Agency,             Proctor and Gamble is providing $1
Seahawk helicopter. (Photographer’s         American Jewish Joint Distribution          million worth of its PUR water purifica-
Mate Airman Jordon R. Beesley, U.S. Navy)   Committee, Baptist World Aid, Catho-        tion sachets as well as $500,000 in cash
                                            lic Relief Services, Episcopal Relief and   to partner organizations to deliver over

150 million liters of purified water to           The Wal-Mart chain of variety stores            Cisco Systems Inc., the Cisco Foun-
areas in the greatest need.                   is setting up collection containers in          dation, and Cisco employees are donat-
   New Jersey-based Johnson & John-           its stores and has pledged $2 million           ing $2.5 million.
son has made an initial cash contribu-        from its foundation, according to                   Pledged aid funds include $3 mil-
tion of $2 million to relief efforts and is   news reports.                                   lion from a philanthropic foundation
distributing medical supplies through-            Internet service providers Google           headed by Michael Dell, the founder of
out the region.                               Inc., America Online and Yahoo are              Dell Computer.
   The world’s largest package delivery       all linking visitors to their sites to relief       U.S.-based health-care provider
company, UPS, based in Atlanta, has           groups ranging from the Red Cross               Kaiser Permanente has offered to send
announced it will ship free up to 1 mil-      and its sister organizations, to CARE,          physicians to help the relief effort, and
lion pounds of emergency relief supplies      AmeriCares, Oxfam, World Vision, and            some oil companies reportedly are sup-
from Europe, Asia, and the Americas           the United Nations Children’s Fund              plying free fuel for rescue operations.
via air, ship, and ground to Asia.            (UNICEF).                                           Federal Express is shipping medical
                                                  The list of private contributors, as        supplies to the region on behalf of sev-
In addition:
                                              noted, includes drug and health-care            eral aid groups. Northwest Airlines is
Top corporate donors and their founda-        companies: Merck and Company,                   teaming with AmeriCares to transport
tions include pharmaceutical company          Inc. is donating $3 million. All also           relief supplies.
Pfizer Inc., which is donating $10 mil-       are sending supplies to the affected                MoneyGram has offered to discount
lion in cash to local and international       region, which spans from Indonesia to           its fees for sending money transfers to
relief organizations and $25 million in       Somalia.                                        the region.
medicines. The Coca-Cola Company is               Bristol-Myers Squibb is donating                Stucc On Steel, based in Virginia,
contributing $10 million, Exxon Mobil         $1 million in funds and enough anti-            said it is donating $2.5 million for
Corporation and its employees are giv-        biotics and antifungal drugs to treat           building 5,000 low-cost, high-strength
ing $5 million, and Citigroup Inc., is        75,000 people.                                  houses for homeless families. The
sending $3 million.                               Drug companies with operations in           company’s new foundation, created to
    The Dow Chemical Co. of Michigan          the area have employees distributing            help tsunami reconstruction, also will
said it will contribute $5 million in aid     antibiotics, nutritional supplements,           provide training and other support to
funding, matches of employee contri-          infant formula, and baby food and               builders in the area.
butions for relief, and products and          other supplies, news reports say.                   Texas-based Kimberly-Clark Corp.
funds for longer-term reconstruction              News sources cite further corporate         said it will contribute $1.5 million in
efforts.                                      donors, including Nike, American                a combination of direct support and in
    As of January 3, online retailer          Express, and First Data, each giving            dollar-for-dollar matching of employee
Amazon.com had collected nearly $13           $1 million.                                     contributions.
million for the American Red Cross di-            PepsiCo rushed out bottled water                New Jersey-based Prudential Foun-
saster relief fund from almost 160,000        from one of its plants in India and plans       dation, the grant-making organization
contributors using Amazon.com’s one-          to contribute an additional $1 million          of Prudential Financial Inc., said it will
click payment system.                         to the relief effort.                           donate $1 million and open a disas-

Federal Express (FedEx) workers               A Northwest airlines employee in                The Petticoat Tearoom in Baltimore,
load supplies for tsunami victims on          Michigan looks over part of a 29,000-           Maryland, one of 19 restaurants and
to a plane at Kennedy Airport in New          pound relief shipment for tsunami               bars in the neighborhood that agreed
York, Jan. 7, bound for southeast Asia.       victims, Jan. 4. The airline offered            to contribute some of their income to
(Gregory Bull, AP/WWP)                        to carry up to 200 tons of supplies.            the Catholic Relief Services for tsunami
                                              (Carlos Osorio, AP/WWP)                         relief. (Chris Gardner, AP/WWP)

ter-relief fund for employees, waiving    The King of Thailand Foundation,          raising concerts and television specials,
an annual limit for its matching gifts    according to news reports.                including a January 15 telethon broad-
program.                                     Celebrities are also contributing to   cast by NBC television.
   The Carnegie Corp. of New York and     the relief effort, including film stars      At the Global Business Dialogue fo-
the New York Stock Exchange each have     Sandra Bullock, giving $1 million, and    rum, Vikram Misri of the Embassy of
pledged $1 million to tsunami relief.     Leonardo DiCaprio, who has pledged a      India said his nation has “been touched
   Companies are targeting the major      “sizeable” amount, according to news      and gratified by the love, the warmth,
groups working in the area to receive     reports. In 2000, DiCaprio filmed a       and the affection and the generosity
their help, including the U.N. Chil-      movie on an island in Thailand that has   that has been shown by the American
dren’s Fund (UNICEF) and the Red          been devastated by the disaster.          people — ordinary citizens, the gov-
Cross, as well as local groups, such as      Other performers will appear in and    ernment … who have brought to this
the National Relief Fund of India and     contribute to tsunami-related fund-       disaster a very human face.”          

                                                                                    Left: Singer Willie Nelson performs
                                                                                    at the “Tsunami Relief Austin to South
                                                                                    Asia” concert in Austin, Texas, Jan.
                                                                                    9. (Kelly West, AP/WWP) Top: A Red
                                                                                    Cross worker, right, holds a bucket
                                                                                    accepting donations to the disaster
                                                                                    relief fund for tsunami victims outside a
                                                                                    football stadium in Baltimore, Maryland,
                                                                                    Jan. 2. (Chris Gardner, AP/WWP)
                                                                                    Above: Ken Hacket, center, president
                                                                                    of Catholic Relief Services, supervises
                                                                                    donations coming to the CRS web site,
                                                                                    Dec. 31. (Chris Gardner, AP/WWP)

                                          Only Largest Earthquakes
                                          Generate Tsunami Waves
Massive waves wash through houses in

a village south of Colombo, Sri Lanka,
Dec. 26, 2004. A tsunami triggered by
a magnitude 9.0 earthquake centered               he series of monster waves, or         by tectonic subduction along tectonic
off northern Sumatra destroyed life and           tsunami, that destroyed life and       plate boundaries.
property in many nations. (AP/WWP)                property December 26 in coun-              When the plates move past each oth-
                                          tries bordering the Indian Ocean, re-          er under the ocean, they generate large
                                          sulted from a magnitude 9.0 earthquake         earthquakes that tilt, offset, or displace
                                          centered off the west coast of northern        large areas of the ocean floor, from a
                                          Sumatra, according to the U.S. Geologi-        few kilometers to 1,000 kilometers or
                                          cal Survey.                                    more. This disturbs the ocean’s surface,
                                              A tsunami is a series of large waves       displaces water, and generates a series of
                                          usually generated by a sudden, violent         tsunami waves.
                                          undersea disturbance near a seacoast or            Once a tsunami is generated, its en-
                                          in the ocean. Earthquakes, landslides,         ergy is distributed throughout the water
                                          volcanic eruptions, nuclear explosions,        column above the earthquake, regard-
                                          and even the impacts of meteorites,            less of the ocean’s depth.
                                          asteroids, and comets can generate a               Tsunami waves may go unnoticed
                                          tsunami.                                       by ships on the open ocean, but as they
                                              Tsunami is a Japanese word that            approach land and the water shallows,
                                          means “harbor wave.”                           they can grow to great heights and rush
                                              According to geologists, earthquakes       far inland. Tsunami waves can travel
                                          and other violent upheavals of the earth       across the ocean at speeds up to 800
                                          are possible because the earth is made         kilometers an hour — about as fast as a
                                          up of different layers. From the inside        jet airliner travels.
                                          to the outside, the layers are a solid             A tsunami is made up of a series
                                          inner core, a liquid outer core, and a         of very long waves. The waves travel
                                          solid mantle. The solid mantle contains        outward on the surface of the ocean
                                          a soft, semi-molten layer called the as-       in all directions away from the source
                                          thenosphere, the solid lithosphere, and        area, like ripples caused when a rock is
                                          the crust.                                     thrown into a pond.
                                              The lithosphere is made up of mas-             The period of the tsunami waves
                                          sive plates, like pieces of a jigsaw puzzle,   (the time it takes for two successive
                                          that float on the soft asthenosphere           wave crests to pass a given point) can
                                          and support the earth’s continents and         range from five minutes to 90 minutes.
                                          oceans. This theory, called plate tecton-      A tsunami’s wave crests can be a thou-
                                          ics, says that hot currents of molten rock     sand kilometers long, and from a few to
                                          under the plates move them constantly          a hundred kilometers or more apart as
                                          in different directions.                       they travel across the ocean.
                                              Sometimes the plates are close to-             On the open ocean, the wavelength
                                          gether and pull apart (spreading bound-        of a tsunami may be as much as 200 ki-
                                          ary) or grind past each other (transform       lometers, many times greater than the
                                          boundary), or one plate slides under           ocean depth, which is on the order of a
Oceanographic tsunami warning buoy        another (subduction zone).                     few kilometers.
being deployed from the stern of the          The most destructive tsunamis are              Tsunami waves in the deep ocean
National Oceanic and Atmospheric          generated by large, shallow earthquakes        can travel at high speeds for long
Administration (NOAA) vessel Ronald
H. Brown. (Commander Emily B.             with an epicenter or fault line near or        periods of time for distances of thou-
Christman, NOAA)                          on the ocean floor. These usually occur        sands of kilometers and lose very little
                                          in regions of the world characterized          energy in the process. The deeper the

water, the greater the speed of tsunami     tsunami waves arrive at high tide, or if    tive tsunamis ever recorded was gener-
waves will be.                              there are concurrent storm waves in the     ated in 1883 after the explosion and col-
    Tsunamis arrive at a coastline as a     area, the effects will be cumulative and    lapse of the volcano of Krakatau in In-
series of successive crests (high water     the inundation and destruction will be      donesia. The explosion generated waves
levels) and troughs (low water levels),     even greater.                               that reached 41 meters and destroyed
usually occurring 10 to 45 minutes             Not all earthquakes generate tsu-        coastal towns and villages along the
apart. As they enter the shallow waters     namis. It usually takes an earthquake       Sunda Strait in the islands of Java and
of coastlines, bays, or harbors, their      with a magnitude of more than 7.5 to        Sumatra, killing 36,417 people.
speed decreases to 50-60 kilometers         produce a destructive tsunami.                 Some geologists believe the ex-
per hour.                                      The devastating December 26 earth-       plosion or collapse of the volcano of
    For example, in 15 meters of water, a   quake was centered in the town of           Santorini in the Aegean Sea destroyed
tsunami’s speed will be only 45 kilome-     Padangsidempuan in North Sumatra            the Minoan civilization in Crete in
ters per hour. But 100 or more kilome-      Province, about 1,300 kilometers north-     1490 B.C.
ters away, another tsunami wave travels     west of Indonesia’s capital, Jakarta, and      In the last decade, destructive tsuna-
in deep water toward the same shore at      had an estimated magnitude of 9.0.          mis have occurred in Nicaragua (1992),
a much greater speed, and still behind it      Tsunamis can be generated in any         Indonesia (1992, 1994, 1996), Japan
there is another wave, traveling at even    world ocean, inland sea, or large body      (1993), Philippines (1994), Mexico
greater speed.                              of water, but most occur in and near the    (1995), Peru (1996, 2001), Papua-New
    As tsunami waves become com-            Pacific Ocean. This happens because         Guinea (1998), Turkey (1999), and
pressed near the coast, the wavelength      the Pacific covers more than a third of     Vanuatu (1999).
is shortened and the wave energy is di-     earth’s surface and is surrounded by a         Experts say technical elements of a
rected upward, increasing their heights     series of mountain chains, deep-ocean       regional early warning system could
considerably. Just as with ordinary surf,   trenches, and island arcs called the        cost about $20 million and with inter-
the energy of the tsunami waves must        “ring of fire,” where most earthquakes      national cooperation could be put in
be contained in a smaller volume of wa-     occur (off the coasts of Kamchatka,         place in less than a year.
ter, so the waves grow in height.           Japan, the Kuril Islands, Alaska, and          In a statement issued by the United
    Even if a tsunami wave was one          South America). Many tsunamis are           Nations, Salvano Briceño, director of
meter or less in the deep ocean, it may     also generated in seas that border the      the secretariat for the United Nations
grow into a huge 30-35 meter wave           Pacific Ocean.                              International Strategy for Disaster Re-
when it sweeps over the shore. If the          One of the largest and most destruc-     duction, notes that “We are not starting

                                                                                                  These two charts show
                                                                                                  estimates of how much the
                                                                                                  earth’s surface moved as
                                                                                                  a result of the earthquake.
                                                                                                  On the left is vertical
                                                                                                  displacement, or uplift.
                                                                                                  Positive values (red, yellow,
                                                                                                  and green) show areas that
                                                                                                  rose during the earthquake
                                                                                                  and negative values (blue)
                                                                                                  show regions that dropped.
                                                                                                  The maximum rise, along
                                                                                                  the subduction zone where
                                                                                                  the Burma (tectonic) Plate
                                                                                                  is moving over the India
                                                                                                  Plate, was over 5 meters (16
                                                                                                  feet). The greatest horizontal
                                                                                                  motion of the sea floor (right)
                                                                                                  was 11 meters (36 feet). (Image
                                                                                                  courtesy Chen Ji, California
                                                                                                  Institute of Technology)

 (White-bordered box is 450 Km by 180 Km.)

from scratch. Risk maps are already
available and many countries in the
Indian Ocean have early warning sys-
tems for other types of natural hazards,
such as floods and cyclones. Existing
international warning organizations
already detect earthquakes and connect
relevant authorities with each other.”
    Mark Lagon, U.S. deputy assistant
secretary of state for international orga-
nization affairs, adds, “President Bush
has said that we are going to develop
and share plans for expanding existing
technical capability for early warning
about tsunamis. Such a system would
cover not just the Pacific, not just the
Indian Ocean, but would offer a broad
early warning capability.”
    General and educational mate-                 Top: The Pacific Tsunami
rial on tsunamis is available at http:            Warning Center in Ewa
//www.tsunami.org/                                Beach, Hawaii, where the
    National Weather Service Interna-             U.S. National Weather
tional Tsunami Information Center is              Service monitors tracking
available at http://www.prh.noaa.gov/             systems watching for
itic/library/about_tsu/faqs.html                  tsunami activity in the
    Information about tsunamis and                Pacific Ocean, Dec. 30.
earthquakes from the U.S. Geologi-                (Ronen Zilberman, AP/WWP)
cal Survey (USGS) is available at http:           Left: These images,
//walrus.wr.usgs.gov/tsunami/                     acquired by Space Imaging’s
    USGS      tsunami       and    earth-         Ikonos satellite, show the
quake links are available at http://              town of Lhoknga, Banda
walrus.wr.usgs.gov/tsunami/links.html             Aceh, before and after
    The Great Waves, a brochure about             the tsunami. Almost all
tsunamis from the National Oceanic                the trees, vegetation, and
and Atmospheric Administration, is                buildings in the area were
                                                  washed away. (NASA)
available at http://www.prh.noaa.gov/
tsunami_great_waves_1.html              

                                         USEFUL WEB SITES
U.S. Government Links                     U.S. Geological Survey                  A list of charities verified by the
                                          http://earthquake.usgs.gov/             Reuters Foundation
U.S. Department of State: Tsunami
                                          eqinthenews/2004/usslav/                http://www.alertnet.org/member_
http://www.state.gov/p/sa/tsunami         U.S. Forces Aid Tsunami Relief
                                          Efforts in Southeast Asia               The American Red Cross Disaster
Asian Tsunami Crisis Information
                                          http://www.defenselink.mil/home/        Information: Listing of Relief
                                          features/tsunami                        Agencies
                                          U.S. Pacific Command - Tsunami
Latest News from VOA                                                              GiveHelp/
                                          Relief: Special Coverage
                                          http://www.pacom.mil/special/           CNN.com: Aid groups accepting
                                          0412asia/index.shtml                    donations for victims
The White House: U.S. Support for                                                 http://www.cnn.com/2004/WORLD/
                                          FirstGov.gov: Asia Earthquakes and
Earthquake and Tsunami Victims                                                    asiapcf/12/27/quake.aidsites/
http://www.whitehouse.gov/infocus/                                                index.html
                                                                                  U.S. Embassies
U.S. Agency for International
Development (USAID): Earthquake           Relief Agencies                         U.S. Embassy Sri Lanka
and Tsunami Relief                                                                http://colombo.usembassy.gov/
                                          Center for Disease Control: Tsunamis
                                          http://www.bt.cdc.gov/disasters/        U.S. Embassy New Delhi, India
                                          tsunamis/                               http://newdelhi.usembassy.gov/
Map of USAID Tsunami Relief
                                          USA Freedom Corps: Tsunami/             U.S. Embassy Bangladesh
Activities (PDF)
                                          Earthquake Relief                       http://dhaka.usembassy.gov/
near_east/tsunami/Indian_Ocean_                                                   U.S. Embassy Jakarta, Indonesia
earthquake_010205.pdf                                                             http://www.usembassyjakarta.org/
                                          USAID: U.S. Relief Organizations
USAID Fact Sheet on Indian Ocean                                                  U.S. Embassy Thailand
Earthquake and Tsunamis (PDF)                                                     http://bangkok.usembassy.gov/
near_east/tsunami/Indian_Ocean_           Center for International Disaster
EQ_and_TS_FS07-1.2.05.pdf                 Information: South Asia Earthquake
                                          and Tsunami

                                                                                  Editor: Paul Malamud
                                                                                  Art Director/Designer: Min Yao
                                                                                  Photo editors: Barry Fitzgerald,
                                                                                                 John Wicart
                                                                                  Writers: Cheryl Pellerin,
                                                                                           Kathryn McConnell,
                                                                                           Bridget Hunter
 Jan. 6: Ecstatic children in Meulaboh, Sumatra, Indonesia, thank Aviation Antisubmarine Warfare
Operator Second Class Donald Shannon for bringing them food and water that had been desperately
    needed in the wake of the tsunami. (Photographer’s Mate Airman Jordon R. Beesley, U.S. Navy)

     Front Cover: Banda Aceh, Indonesia, Lieutenant Shawn Harris of the USS Shoup carries an
            Indonesian boy to medical facilities at Banda Aceh airport, Jan. 6. (AP/WWP)

                               U. S. DEPARTMENT OF STATE
                         Bureau of International Information Programs

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