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Session3_Siwar_tsunami_fisheries

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					  IMPACTS OF THE 26.12.04 TSUNAMI ON FISHERIES,
    AQUACULTURE AND COASTAL LIVELIHOODS IN
                    MALAYSIA


Presented By:
  Chamhuri Siwar
  Institute for Environment
  and Development
  (LESTARI),Universiti
  Kebangsaan Malaysia




                                         Source: REUTERS
Tsunami 26.12.04 in Malaysia


• Tsunami that hit Malaysia was due to the
  9.0 scale Richter earthquake that occurred
  in the west of Northern Sumatra, Indonesia
• Affected States:
  Penang
  Kedah
  Perak
  Selangor
Tsunami 26.12.04 in Malaysia
                 localities
Tsunami 26.12.04 in Malaysia


• Estimated death tolls: 68
  Kota Kuala Muda, Kedah 12
  Penang 52
 Langkawi 1
  Tg.Piandang, Perak 2
  Sabak Bernam, Selangor 1
• Missing bodies: 3
  The bodies of three brothers from Penang have yet
  to be found (The Star, April 6, 2005).
1.15 pm, 26 December 2004 Pantai Kuala Muda, Kedah
                                                     Local District Council
                                                     Kota Kuala Muda
           Chronology of Events




                            Local District Council Kota Kuala
                            Muda,Kedah




Langkawi          1230hr
Penang            1300hr
Kota Kuala Muda   1330hr
    Physical Impact
The physical impact of tsunami was
observed at 31 sites in two state. The
sites may be grouped in three known
areas:
• Kota Kuala Muda, Kedah
•Penang Island, and
•Langkawi Island, Kedah
The physical impact of tsunami consist of
landform and biology aspect.
Field observation, field measurement and
interview are part of data collection
process.
Physical Impact
          characterization of tsunami impact


Tsunami impact in these areas affected by (i)
terminal height of the waves, (ii) run-up area and
(iii) inundation.
 Physical Impact
             characterization of tsunami impact




 Area/        Terminal      Run-up      Inundation
Character      Height
Kota Kuala   3.0m-5.0m     1.5m-2.0m      350m
  Muda
 Penang      3.0m-8.0m     1.0m-1.5m      170m
  Island
Langkawi     3.0m-9.0m     0.6m-1.8m      250m
 Island
        Physical Impact
                      Landform/ landscape

The main impact on the landscape arises from;
• transportation of mud/sand from mudflat/front
 beach to the land by the run-up energy
• deposition of the organism of mudflat or the front
 coastal to further inland area
•Layered of mud crack with sting smell on the flat
 area on land
•Man made building destroyed by severe cracking,
 falling wall and the weak support
• lost of yacht pole at the marina, fisherman boat,
 jetties, fishing and aquaculture equipments
    Biological Impact
                              Biology
The main biological impacts involves;
• destruction of mangrove ( Avicennia alba; Avicennia
  lanata; Rhizophora mucronata; Rhizophora apiculata
  and Bruguiera gymmnorrhiza)
• death of shallow sea habitat and mudflat habitat
  such as fishes, shell due to transportation of mud to
  inland areas (12 species of fish; 3 shell)
• Damage to agriculture areas mainly paddy field and
  some small agriculture plant due to non-adaptation to
  salinity
• Damage/mutation of plants/trees along the coastal
  e.g bending coconut
• Dizziness to small animal e.g dog in cages, low flying
  bird
Socioeconomic Impacts
                Methodology
  Rapid assessment involving a socioeconomic
survey (questionnaire interview) in effected areas
(Kota Kuala Muda, Pulau Pinang on 23/1-27/1/2005
and Langkawi on 5/2 – 8/2/2005
  Revisit to the Kuala Muda was conducted in March
2006 and September 2006.
  interview with officer from government agencies
(District office, Welfare Department)
   interview with local community (particularly tsunami
victims)
  Review of secondary sources, i.e. newspaper,
forum, electronic media etc)
   Socioeconomic impacts
Mainly affected fishing communities in KKM,
Penang and Langkawi
Almost 100% of fishermen in Kota Kuala Muda
are traditional full-time fishermen.

About 98% of the fishermen in Penang are
inshore or traditional fishermen, 70% are full-time
fishermen and the remaining 30% are part-time
fishermen (Department of fisheries, 2000).

Normal fishing hours: go to sea at 6 am and be
back by 12 or 1pm.
Cont…
   Most of fishermen in KKM and Penang used
 “pukat tiga lapis’ to catch prawn or crab.
 However, some of the fishermen in KKM, their
 catch includes kembong, bilis or senangin. In
 Langkawi, most fishermen catch everything
 using different gears.

   Average income of fishermen in KKM, Penang
 and Langkawi almost a same: about RM550-
 RM850/month for crew, RM1500-
 RM2000/month for boat owner and at the same
 time also act as fishermen.
Damage and losses
  Severe damage to properties – House, fishing
equipments (boat, gears, jetty, aquaculture farm),
transport (car, van, lorry, motorcycle, bicycle),
document (IC, license, certificates, school books
ect), money and jewelleries,

  About 1000 fishermen were effected badly in
Kota Kuala Muda and 2733 in Penang,
comprising both licensed and unlicensed
operators as well as their crew

 Refer to table 1
              Table 1.Damage and losses

Damage items                   Kota Kuala Muda         Pulau Pinang*
                         Qty          Value(RM)       Qty     Value
                                                                (RM
Fishermen effected       ≈1000                        2733
Houses*                                               653
 Destroyed/ loss         113          30,000-40,000           20,000
 Damage                  398          10,000-15,000           10,000
Transport
  Car/ van/ lorry        198          4.14 m
  Motorcycle             507          1.52 m
  Bicycle                315          10,000
Paddy field              52.3 ha      160,000
*Value for house losses is in RM/house (survey)
Table 1. Damage and Losses (cont…)
Damage items                                   Kota Kuala        Pulau Pinang*
                                                   Muda
                                           Qty       Value      Qty       Value
Fishing vessel**                           34        2.72 m     102       8.16 m
  Big                                      404          10.1    1059      26.5 m
  Small                                                 m
Jetty                                      1         40,000     41        1.56 m
Fishing equipments                                   4.33 m
Aquaculture                                11        Na         67        13.8 m
 Marine cage                               2         Na         4
 Brackishwater pond                                             1
 Freshwater pond                                                7
 Raft platforms (Cockles/
  oyster)
* Include South Pulau Pinang, Seberang Perai and Teluk Bahang
** Losses for small and big boat was expected to reach about RM25000 and RM80000 per
unit respectively (base on survey).
           Sources: District office of Kuala Muda, LKIM Penang and survey on 23/1-
           27/1/2005 and 5/2 – 8/2/2005
Houses destroyed by tsunami
Boats and fishing equipments damaged
Dead fish in one of the   Jetty in Kota Kuala
10,000 cages, Nibong      Muda destroyed
Tebal, Penang             after Tsunami
 Immediate Impact on occupation and
 income
  After four months of the tragedy, most of the fishermen
in Kota Kuala Muda with severely damaged boats and
fishing equipment have not gone to sea. “Still waiting to
return to sea…It is more fulfilling to earn RM10 with my
toil than to get RM100 handout…(Star, 20/3/05)

 During the time they have no income, and mostly
depend on financial aid from various parties.

  In Penang, after one month of the tragedy, 80% of the
effected fishermen were back at sea and only 20% with
severely damaged boats and equipment were unable to
do so.
Cont…
  In Langkawi, most of the fishers were back at
sea. For those who were badly effected, they
lodge with their friend as a crew.

  Base on survey, the catches in all three places
are not much different compared before tsunami,
however the income have dropped due to
reduction in fish price caused by lower fish
demand.
Immediate Impact on fish marketing system

   Due to damage of fish platform located at Kg.
Kuala Tepi Sungai, Kota Kuala Muda, traditional
fish marketing system, called ‘pasar bisik’ (whisper
market) have temporarily stopped and now the
activity has transferred to Kuala Muda in Seberang
Perai, Penang.”Fish auctions failing to
click…(NST,15/1/05)

  Rumours of contaminated waters and marine life
feeding on rotting corpses of tsunami victims have
proliferated and these have affected consumer
sentiments particularly in Northern state of
Malaysia.
Cont…
  Retail prices of seafood in the markets have
dropped due to poor demand. While the price of
freshwater fish such as tilapia increase from
RM8-RM9/kg and catfish from RM3-RM4-5/kg
(The Star, 23 Jan 2005).

  Consumers show a preference for catches from
the East Coast such as Terengganu and
Kelantan (SERI, Jan. 2005).

  In Langkawi, fish market activity has not been
highly effected as observed in KKM and Penang.
 Immediate Psychological
 impacts (trauma)
 Most of the victims still feel sad, afraid, nightmares and
hallucination especially when they think about the tragedy.
 Mostly caused by loss of properties and family members
 Children and old people highly traumatized
Examples:
1. A children from Kg. Kepala Jalan, KKM cannot hear the sound
of transport, particularly lorry because this can make her recall
the sound of big wave that will kill her.
2. A child doest want to take bath because of afraid to water
3. For the case of old folk in Kg Paya, Kuala Muda, they feel
afraid when hear the sound of wave. They don’t want to stay at
their house anymore if they have other choice
Traumatized cases
              Support to victims
• Donations: RM97.3 million collected, >95% disbursed
• Financial Support
  RM 20,000      death in a family
  RM 200      each injured victims
  RM 500      each family victims of tsunami given by Dept
  of Welfare
  RM 2,000      damage house
  RM 5,000      destroyed house
  RM 1,000      damaged fishing boats
  RM 3,000      destroyed fishing boats
• Material support
  Clothing, kitchenware, households, food items
        Support to victims…….
• Psychological support
  Counseling sessions held in each affected states
  by counselors from Dept. of Welfare,
  Universities, Religious Assoc. and NGOs
• Housing and Relocation Support
  Temporary housed in transit housing In Kota
  Kuala Muda, Penang and Langkawi. Permanent
  housing schemes planned and cost of building
  will be subsidized by Government. The owner
  needs to pay RM50/month.
More Scenes from the affected
            site


                          Temporary housing




Landing a helping hands


                           Material support
Recent Development (05-09-06)
• Impact on Income: The livelihood of fishermen
  affected by tsunami has return to normal, with
  average income between RM800-2000 per
  month.
• Ownership of equipments (boats and nets, etc) ,
  the situation has improved compared to before
  tsunami. Damaged boats have been replaced
  through assistance from the LKIM, complete with
  engines, nets, fish finders, etc. Some crew
  fishermen who do not formerly possess boats,
  presently own their own boat and this has
  boasted their incomes.
                 Cont…..
• Psychologically, most tsunami victims do
  not experience any trauma any more,
  especially those who have been relocated
  into ‘people’s friendly homes’. For those
  still staying in their homes in the affected
  areas, they are still haunted with fears,
  especially when tsunami or earth quakes
  hit neighbouring countries.
• Conflict between community members arises,
  due to unhappiness over distribution of
  assistance to victims. Some victims have lost
  respect for their village leaders, accused of not
  adequately presenting their rights and claims.
  There was also accusation of unfair distribution
  of assistance due to political differences.
• Those who have moved to their new homes, -
  wellbeing have very much improved. Their
  incomes are also more secure. Opportunities for
  wives to earn supplementary incomes from the
  local community and also small-medium scale
  industry centres.
RECENT PICTURES(05-09-06)
RECENT PICTURES (05-09-06)
RECENT PICTURES
Issues of Disaster Management
• Distribution of support to the victims: need for
  better coordination among
  agencies/NGOs/Political Parties/JKKK
• Clearer role for agencies/NGOs in disaster
  response/management
• Lack of demographic and socioeconomic data
  on victims/locality:
• Victims attitude problems- ‘One is not enough’
  /greed/non-victims also claiming
  assistance/plenty of clothing-no more need for
  them/misuse of assistance fund/sell boats for
  cash/ungrateful of assistance.
• Few victims with houses requiring minor repairs
  still at transit houses. Still traumatized to return
  to old houses, and expecting relocation to new
  permanent house.
• Victims giving false information, leading to
  controversial assistance. Lack of supporting
  documents, eg. Business license requires for
  assistance to small business
• Lack of knowledge on early warning sign
  (including natural/biological) of disaster among
  the community
• Lack of structure protection along the exposed
  coastal cause greater damage
     Lessons Learned, Responses &
          Recommendations
• The need for a disaster management response, i.e. Early
  Warning System
• Mangrove conservation: mangrove along the coast
  exposed to extensive erosion and intrusion. No
  development in mangrove sanctuaries
• Cooperation and coordination among government
  agencies, NGOs, community and private sector in
  disaster response
• Reconstruction plans should look at the needs of the
  victims, i.e. housing schemes for fishermen’ way of life
• Public Awareness and education: Informing citizens on
  how to deal with a disaster
                   Cont….
• Development/settlement along the coastline
  need further assessment to ensure safety
• Current guidelines for disaster management
  need to include tsunami related damage and
  impacts
• Governance for Disaster Management: need for
  clear guidelines, role of media in early warning,
  role of lead agency, coordination with private
  sector, NGO, VDSC, religious institutions…..
          Recommendations
• Recommendations in the following areas:
  disaster      risk    management,      disaster
  preparedness, reducing vulnerability, post-
  disaster aid and reconstruction.
• Disaster risk management: i)National Disaster
  Management Policy, ii) creating South East Asia
  Natural Disaster Network, iii) establishing
  Disaster Risk Technical Committee, iv)
  enhancing Institution and Human Resource.
• Disaster preparedness :i) institutionalising
  educational and public awareness on
  disaster, ii) creating and integrating school
  education curricula on environmental
  disaster, iii) creating safe areas at
  residential coastal areas and recreational
  beaches, iv) development of disaster early
  warning system, v) special training for
  dealing with disaster, vi) providing
  information on population demography
  and socio-economy, vii) improving disaster
  communication at village and local levels.
• Reducing vulnerability: i) better land use
  planning approach, ii) preservation of
  mangrove forests and coral reefs, iii) man-
  made defence systems, iv) guide to
  coastal development, v) coastal structure
  design and vi) critical infrastructure guide
  for earthquakes.
• Post disaster aid: i) better aid coordination
  and smart partnership, ii) improved basic
  information on population at village level
  and iii) post disaster counselling
  assistance for victims.
• Reconstruction of affected areas: i)
  environmental conservation, ii) settlement
  planning iii) fishing and other economic
  activities of fishermen iv) improvement in
  community well-being.
Thank you.

				
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