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The H5N1 Virus

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					                   The H5N1 virus


  The virus known as H5N1 type bird flu virus that
has infected most harmful to both humans or
animals. Viruses are also known as A (H5N1) virus
is epizootic (an epidemic in the cause of non-
human creatures) and also panzootic (which can
infect animals of various species from a very wide
area.

Virus HPAI A (H5N1) was first known to kill a
flock of chickens in Scotland in 1959, but the virus
that emerged at that time very different from the
H5N1 virus at this time. Dominant species of the
H5N1 virus that emerged in 2004 evolved from a
virus that emerged in 2002 that created the gene
type Z.

The H5N1 virus is divided into 2 types of
derivatives, the first derivative is a virus that infects
humans and birds in Vietnam, Thailand, Cambodia
and birds that exist in Laos and Malaysia. Type the
first derivative does not spread to other areas.

Meanwhile, a derivative of type 2 identified from
birds in China, Indonesia, Japan, and North Korea
which later spread to the Middle East, Europe and
Africa. Virus type 2 of this derivative into is the
virus that causes the infection to humans that occur
in the period 2005-2006 in various countries.
Genetic analysis has been done to prove that there
are 6 types of subclasses of the derivative type 2,
the 3 of them spread and infect humans in the
following countries:

  Subclasses 1: Indonesia

  Subclass 2: Europe, Middle East and Africa

  Subclass 3: China

H5N1 is actually a type of virus that attacks the
galactose receptors that exist on the nose to the
lungs in birds that are not found in humans, and
attacks only occur around the alveoli of the areas in
the lungs where oxygen is transmitted through
blood. Therefore, this virus is not easily spread
through the air when coughing or sneezing like a
common cold virus.

Since it was first discovered in 1997, researchers
found that the H5N1 virus continues to evolve with
changes in antigenic substance and structure of the
internal genes that then can infect several different
species.

The virus was first discovered in Hong Kong in
1997 and 2001 is not easily transmitted from one
bird to another and do not cause lethal disease in
some animals. But in 2002, a new type of H5N1
virus emerged, known as the H5N1 virus gene type
Z which became the dominant type of gene, which
causes acute disease in bird populations in Hong
Kong, including neurological dysfunction and
death in ducks and other fowl.

The virus with this gene type that became epidemic
in Southeast Asia that caused the death of millions
of chickens and from 2 sub-class created by the
ever-changing virus mutation has caused hundreds
of human victims who died. Mutations that occur
from this strain of pathogenic virus that can
increase exacerbate attacks and viruses to different
species of fear it will correctly transmit the virus
from humans to other humans. Mutation occurs in
the body of the bird that keeps the virus in a long
time in her body before eventually died of
infection.

Mutations that occur in H5N1 viruses is
characteristic of type A influenza virus, where the
virus is able to combine the two types of influenza
viruses of different types which are in 1 type
receptor at the same time.

The ability of viruses to mutate to produce the type
that can infect various types of species is due to the
variation in the hemagglutinin gene. Genetic
mutations in the haemagglutinin gene causes an
amino acid shift in akhrinya can change in the
hemagglutinin protein ability to bind to receptors
on the cell surface.

These mutations can alter the H5N1 bird flu virus
that was unable to infect humans become easily
transmitted from birds to humans. Therefore,
researchers are now actively trying to understand
nature-very jealous of this virus and tried to do
genetic engineering by inserting two amino acids
H1N1 Spanish flu virus into the haemagglutinin of
H5N1 that will not be a pandemic of H5N1 viruses
that harm humans as it did in an outbreak in 1918.

The study yielded encouraging results in which the
object of research can stay healthy even if placed in
a room with objects that sick.