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                                                    OCTOBER 2010 VOL 01 ISSUE 03

34        Cover Story                                                                                                     Advisory Board
          Brazil Geospatial Industry
          Poised to realise potential
          Brazil's geospatial industry is in sync, with the benefits of the                                                   Dato’ Dr. Abdul Kadir bin Taib
                                                                                                                              Director General of Survey and
          technology being realised by a wide range of users and immense
                                                                                                                              Mapping, Malaysia
          scope for further growth…

                                                                                                                              Bhupinder Singh
                                                                                                                              Sr. Vice President
          Interviews                                                                                                          Bentley Systems Inc.

          'The real value of a map is in being real-time'
22                                                                                                                            Prof. Ian Dowman
                                                                                                                              Former President
          Ola Rollén                                                                                                          ISPRS
          President & CEO Hexagon AB

                                                                                                                              Prof. Josef Strobl
                                                                                                                              Director, Centre for Geoinformatics
31        Towards holistic data management                                                                                    University of Salzburg, Austria

          Carsten Rönsdorf
                                                                                                                              Kamal K Singh
          Corporate Data Manager, Ordnance Survey, Great Britain                                                              Chairman and CEO
                                                                                                                              Rolta Group of Companies

          Cloud computing                                                                                                     Mark Reichardt
                                                                                                                              President and CEO,
          Future belongs to 'GIS as a Service'                                                                                Open Geospatial Consortium

          Philip O'Doherty
          Philip O'Doherty, CEO, eSpatial
                                                                                                                              Matthew O’Connell
                                                                                                                              CEO, GeoEye

                                                         COVER STORY.. Pg 34                                                  Dr. Prithvish Nag
                                                                                                                              NATMO, India

                                                                                                                              Prof. V. S Ramamurthy
                                                                                                                              NIAS, Bangalore, India

                                                                                                                              KCM Kumar
                                                                                                                              Chairman & Managing Director
                                                                                                                              Speck Systems Limited

                                                                                                                              Brian Nicholls
                                                                                                                              General Manager

07 Editorial         08 News           51 Picture This         52 Conference Report                    53 Events              Shailesh Nayak
 CHAIRMAN M P Narayanan                                   DISCLAIMER                                                          Ministry of Earth Sciences, India
                                                          GIS Development does not necessarily subscribe to the
 PUBLISHER Sanjay Kumar                                   views expressed in the publication. All views expressed in
 PUBLICATIONS TEAM                                        this issue are those of the contributors. It is not responsi-       Prof William Cartwright
 Managing Editor Prof. Arup Dasgupta                      ble for any loss to anyone due to the information provided.         President
 Director Publications Niraj                              Printed and Published by Sanjay Kumar. Press M. P. Printers         International Cartographic Association
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 Assistant Editor Deepali Roy                             Nagar (UP) INDIA Publication Address A - 92, Sector - 52,
 Sub-Editor Anand Kashyap                                 Gautam Budh Nagar, Noida, India Editor Sanjay Kumar                 Dr Derek. G. Clarke
                                                                                                                              Chief Director: Surveys and Mapping
                                                          GIS Development Pvt. Ltd.                                           South Africa
 Sr. Creative Designer Deepak Kumar
                                                          A - 145, Sector - 63, Noida, India
 Graphic Designer Manoj Kumar Singh                       Tel + 91-120-4612500 Fax +91-120-4612555 / 666
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Geospatial World I October 2010                                                                                                                                   5
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       jurisdictions. Other companies and products mentioned herein may be trademarks or registered trademarks of their respective trademark owners.

              Geospatial: Moving up the value chain

                         couple of issues ago we carried an in-depth

                         analysis of the purchase of Intergraph by Hexa-
                         gon. In this issue we carry an interview with Ola
                         Rollén, President and CEO of Hexagon AB. It is
                         interesting to see how a company originally in
              the business of metrology found opportunities in seeming-
              ly unrelated areas and progressed from CAD to design,
              mapping, remote sensing and now GIS. The story of Hexa-
              gon is an excellent example of moving up the value chain.
              As the interview brings out, Hexagon could easily become
              a one stop shop for design and engineering applications.
              This gels very nicely with the trend of making geospatial
              technologies a part of the solution rather than a stand-
              alone technology. Does this have a message for geospatial
              companies with a single product?

              Another interesting idea put forth in the interview is the
              concept of map as an activity. All of a sudden, a static
              object like a map takes on a new avatar. Interestingly, the
                                                                                                            Prof. Arup Dasgupta
                                                                                                                        Managing Editor
              concept of map as an activity is also what researchers are                      
              working on in the area of ubiquitous mapping. Here the
              user and the map are no longer separate entities. The
              user becomes a part of the map. The key to ubiquitous           nascent stage. The environment is open but the lack of
              mapping is context awareness, which enables a user to           coordination may be a damper. Such issues are common
              relate a 2D map to the real world that is in 3D and populat-    in the BRIC countries and therefore should not pose a bar-
              ed by animate and inanimate objects also in 3D. It must         rier to the geospatial industry. The two big sporting events
              therefore present the user with a 3D real world perspec-        awarded to Brazil, the 2014 Soccer World Cup and 2016
              tive. Further, the user need is time dependent therefore        Olympic Games, may be the drivers for significant growth
              ubiquitous mapping must be a real time activity. The third      in the geospatial business in Brazil. I do foresee opportu-
              requirement of ubiquitous mapping is real scale mapping.        nities in design and engineering, transportation, utilities
              Here, reference points in real space are used to locate         and security. For example, in India, the Commonwealth
              synthetic representations of real objects in the mapping        Games have given the opportunity to establish a geospa-
              environment.                                                    tially enabled security system for the movement of ath-
                                                                              letes and spectators. We had covered this in our Septem-
              Our second story is on Brazil. Economically, Brazil is one      ber 2009 issue.
              of the BRIC nations and therefore being watched with
              great interest by the rest of the world. Our story brings out   This is the third issue of Geospatial World and we would
              the opportunities and pitfalls that dot the geospatial land-    like to hear from our readers if the product in its new form
              scape. Like the other BRIC nation, Brazil holds promise. It     is living up to its promise and your expectations. So
              is endowed with natural resources, an enabling polity and       please, send us your comments and suggestions to help
              trained personnel. The geospatial industry in Brazil is at a    us make Geospatial World, your magazine.

     Geospatial World I October 2010                                                                                                         7
                                            different moisture zones, we can
                                            project how the landscape might
                                            change with climate change," said,
                                            Greg Asner, one of the scientists at

    SOUTH AFR ICA                           UAV for farmland                       I N DIA
    Innovative way to                       The engineering team that devel-
                                                                                   Payloads for
    forecast climate                        oped South Africa’s first commer-      Chandrayaan-2
    change                                  cial satellite, SumbandilaSat, is
                                            now developing an unmanned aerial      Indian Space Research Organisa-
    As African grassland terrains are       vehicle (UAV) that can snap pictures   tion (ISRO) announced that a
    difficult to map because of dense       of farmland. The project aims to       national committee of experts has
    forest cover, scientists at the         provide farmers with an affordable     finalised seven payloads that will go
    Carnegie Institution's Department       way to survey their properties from    on the second lunar mission, Chan-
    of Global Ecology in Palo Alto, Cali-   the air.
    fornia have used the Carnegie Air-        At present, farmers who want an
    borne Observatory, an airborne          aerial view of their land rent
    mapping system that works much          helicopters or small fixed-wing air-
    like a diagnostic medical scan and      craft, which cost them around
    can penetrate the tree canopy to        R2000- R8000 per hour. The UAV
    the soil level. The mapping system      will cost about R1300 per hour,
    creates a three-dimensional map of      according to project leader Thomas
    the vegetation and terrain. "By         Jones, an associate professor of
    understanding the patterns of the       engineering at the University of
    vegetation and termite mounds over      Stellenbosch.

                                                                N IG E R IA
                                                                                   drayaan-2. It is scheduled for
                                                                                   launch from the Satish Dhawan
                                                                                   Space Centre, Sriharikota in 2013.
                                                                                   Three of the seven payloads are
                                                                                   new. The five recommended pay-
                                                                                   loads of Chandrayaan-2 orbiter
                                                                                   include: Large Area Soft X-ray
     Airborne geophysical survey completed                                         Spectrometer (CLASS) and Solar
                                                                                   X-ray monitor, L and S band Syn-
     The Ministry of Mines and Steel Development, Nigeria, in collaboration        thetic Aperture Radar, Imaging IR
     with the World Bank Sustainable Management of Minerals Resources Pro-         Spectrometer, Neutral Mass Spec-
     ject (SMMRP), has completed 100 per cent airborne geophysical survey of       trometer, Terrain Mapping Camera-
     the country and launched the manual for the geochemical mapping of the        2. In addition, two scientific pay-
     nation. Permanent Secretary, Ministry of Mines and Steel Development,         loads on Chandrayaan-2 rover are
     Elizabeth Emuren said that the target of these surveys was to guide           Laser induced Breakdown Spectro-
     investors and the public in the solid minerals sector.                        scope and Alpha Particle Induced
                                                                                   X-ray Spectroscope.

8                                                                                        Geospatial World I October 2010
GIS Development
signs MoU with                            JAPAN
GIS Development signed a memo-            Michibiki
randum of understanding (MoU)
with Bharathidasan University,
Tamil Nadu. Dr K. Meena, Vice-            Japan launched "Michibiki," the
Chancellor of the university              first of a planned series of satel-
exchanged the MoU document with           lites that promise to improve the
Niraj, Director (Publications), GIS       accuracy of satellite navigation
Development.                              services in the country. It was
   According to Niraj, this initiative    sent into space atop a Japanese
aims to study the status of imple-        H-IIA rocket from the country's Tanegashima Space Center. Michibiki is
mentation of geospatial technology        the first in a planned series of three satellites that will provide navigation
in five states of the country and         signals focused on the Japanese islands. Key to their mission is a figure-
then provide appropriate recom-           of-eight orbit that will see them make a tight northern swing over Japan
mendations to the state govern-           and a much broader southern pass over Australia. This "quasi-zenith"
ments.                                    orbit gave the project its name: Quasi-Zenith Satellite System (QZSS).

Nation's prowess in                       JAXA developing SPRINT satellites
space showcased                           Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) is developing a series of
A three-day international confer-         small scientific satellites, called the SPRINT series. These satellites can
ence cum exhibition on space busi-        be built quickly and inexpensively and will allow more scientists to con-
ness – Bengaluru Space Expo 2010,         duct research in space. These new satellites vary in purpose - from
organised by the Confederation of         observing the geospatial environment including the Earth’s upper atmos-
Indian Industry (CII), showcased          phere, magnetic fields, solar plasma and cosmic rays to astronomy and
India’s prowess in space. It also         planetary observation. Covering such a wide range of missions requires
underlined the importance of              flexibility and speed. This can be achieved by shortening the development
greater cooperation and interaction       time. JAXA aims to cut development time and cost by creating “semi-
between the industry and govern-          made-to-order” satellites - the first such project in the world.
ment in space related business with
focus on inclusive growth. Deliver-
ing the keynote address, Dr K Rad-
                                         hakrishnan, Chairman, ISRO, high-          industry would also do well to look
                                         lighted the contribution of space          at high technology sectors in line
                                         technology particularly emphasis-          with ISRO's growing demand for the
                                         ing upon the commercialisation of          latest know–how,” he added.
                                         space technology for inclusive
                                         growth. “For the Indian space sec-         ‘Small could be next
                                         tor to remain in the frontline, the
                                         industry would have to become a
                                                                                    big thing’
                                         risk bearing partner. This would           In the satellite industry, ‘small'
                                         raise the overall level of quality         could be the next big thing in com-
                                         besides proving mutually benefi-           ing years. ‘Smallsats' cost less,
                                         cial,” he said. “In this context, the      weigh less, can be built fast and

Geospatial World I October 2010                                                                                            9
     launched quickly in multiples and        CH I NA
     pack in just as much punch,
     according to D.V.A. Raghav Murthy,
     ISRO's Project Director for Small
                                              Satellites to monitor greenhouse gases
     Satellites.                              OHB System from Germany and the
       “They can achieve 90 per cent of       Institute of Remote Sensing Applications,
     what big satellites can at five per      a unit of the Chinese Academy of Sci-
     cent of the cost and do 17 per cent      ences in Beijing, have signed a contract to
     of their tasks at one per cent of the    jointly develop a satellite fleet to monitor
     cost,” said Koteswara Rao, Director,     greenhouse gases contributing to climate
     Laboratory for Electro-Optics Sys-       change. The CarbonSat constellation
     tems at ISRO.                            would measure carbon dioxide and
                                              methane in the atmosphere, gauging their
     Indian Railways to                       contributions to rising global tempera-
                                              tures. The satellites could help implement
     install GPS                              a post-Kyoto Protocol designed to reduce
     GPS technology will be installed on      heat-trapping greenhouse gas emissions across the globe, according to an
     trains in India in the next two years    OHB System statement.
     to avoid accidents, according to
     Railway Minister Mamata Banerjee.        'Mapping Satellite-I' launched
     The project, Satellite Imaging for
     Rail Navigation (Simran), uses           China successfully launched its first high resolution, stereoscopic mapping
     satellite imaging software along         satellite for accurate surveys of its land resources. The satellite, 'Mapping
     with the GPS and was developed as        Satellite-I', which was launched on a Long March 2-D carrier rocket, has
     part of the Railway Safety Technolo-     successfully entered into the preset orbit. The civilian use of the satellite will
     gy Mission to provide correct train      start in the second half of 2011. It would be used mainly to conduct scientific
     information to passengers. Field         experiments, carry out survey on land resources and mapping, according to
     trial was conducted in several           a statement posted on the website of Ministry of National Defence.

                                             SR I LAN KA

                                             Nationwide digital
                                             The government of Sri Lanka is
                                             developing a digital map of the
                                             country to record citizen informa-
                                             tion. The project is a joint effort of
                                             the defence ministry, the economic          Officials expect to cover the entire
                                             development ministry and the Uni-           district within five days. Once the
                                             versity of Kelaniya. During the first       data is gathered, IT experts from
     trains, including Rajdhani Express      phase, volunteers will go door-to-          defence ministry will take photo-
     (Mumbai, Howrah, and Patna) and         door to collect imformation from            graphs of the locations. Kelaniya
     Shatabdi Express (Bhopal, Amrit-        the residents. The data collection          University will then step in to devel-
     sar, and Lucknow).                      will begin from Nahena in Kelaniya.         op a database.

10                                                                                              Geospatial World I October 2010
                                          reach USD 194 billion worldwide for    ness Week, the industry’s premiere
                                          the decade.                            senior executive event, now in its
                                                                                 14th year.
                                          Awards declared
                                          Euroconsult announced the winners      R USSIA
                                          of its 7th Annual Awards for Excel-
FRANCE                                    lence in Satellite management.
                                          While GeoEye received the Earth
                                                                                 Three more
                                          Observation Operator of the Year       GLONASS satellites
Boom in satellite                         award for the year 2010, Telesat       launched
business                                  won the Global Satellite Operator of
                                          the Year award. Strategic Transac-     As part of its Global Navigation
Euroconsult, a leading global con-        tion of the Year was awarded to        Satellite System (GLONASS), Russia
sulting and analyst firm specialising     Viasat. Arabsat was declared           launched three more satellites into
in satellite sector, has forecasted       Regional Satellite Operator of the     orbit. However, only two out of the
that approximately 1,220 satellites       Year and Hughes Communications         three satellites will be put into
will be built for launch over the next    bagged the Broadband Satellite         operation.
decade. The average of 122 satel-         Operator of the Year award. Accord-       The third will be kept in reserve.
lites, to be launched per year, is up     ing to the company, the awards are     By mid-October, a total of 23
significantly from the annual aver-       the highest tribute in the satellite   satellites will be operational. The
age of 77 satellites launched in the      sector and are given to leaders and    system requires 18 operational
previous decade, a sign that gov-         their companies for outstanding        satellites for continuous navigation
ernment and commercial operators          achievement in several categories.     services covering the entire territo-
require more satellite capabilities.      The winners are presented the          ry of Russia and at least 24 satel-
Revenues from manufacturing and           awards each year in September in       lites to provide navigation services
launch of these 1,220 satellites will     Paris at the World Satellite Busi-     worldwide.

                                                                                 Russia to lift ban on
  Autonomous MAVs by MAVinci                                                     satellite imagery?
  An unmanned aircraft                                                           A draft to remove restrictions on
  system guided by navi-                                                         the use of satellite imagery with
  gation satellite has been                                                      less than two meter resolution has
  developed by German                                                            been prepared and discussed by
  company MAVinci to                                                             ministries and departments,
  provide rapid monitoring                                                       according to Russian federal space
  of land areas and disas-                                                       agency RosKosmos.
  ter zones. The aircraft                                                          This has been one of the long
  uses autonomous                                                                pending demands of companies like
  micro-air vehicles                                                             ScanEx. In fact, ScanEx has filed a
  (MAVs) with a wingspan of less than two metres, to inspect land areas.         claim in the Moscow Court of Arbi-
  Johanna Born, CEO, MAVinci, explained, “Our MAVs are cost-efficient,           tration requesting the Court to force
  available at short notice and easy to use for surveillance of development      Roskosmos to lift the restrictions.
  areas, construction sites, disaster zones and waste disposal sites, just to    The company also plans to appeal
  mention a few. They can carry visual and thermal cameras or other cus-         to the higher authority in case its
  tomer-specific measuring equipment.”                                           demand is rejected.

Geospatial World I October 2010                                                                                          11
®   Trimble   ®
                                               G E R MANY                          ware is developed under the project
                                                                                   ‘Seisem’, funded by the Technologi-
                                                                                   cal Corporation of Andalusia (CTA).
                                               World methane                       The software would allow monitor-
                                               map to be                           ing and quantification of seismic
                                               developed                           risk at municipal level for the emer-
                                                                                   gency planning and early warning.
                                               The German Aerospace                Developed by DG, it represents the
                                               Center (DLR) reported that a        seismic hazard of each point of the
                                               Franco-German climate satel-        city on a digital map using GIS, thus
                                               lite is scheduled for launch in     dividing the city into zones of equal
                                               2014. The climate mission           danger on the basis of action 'in
                                               Merlin (Methane Remote              situ' and local seismology. Seisem
                                               Sensing LiDAR Mission) will         is expected to be completed by the
                                               track down the greenhouse           end of this year.
                                               gas methane around the
                                               globe. Merlin is a joint mission
                                               by DLR and the French space         TH E N ETH E R LAN DS
                                               agency CNES. DLR is develop-
                                               ing and building the methane
                                               LiDAR instrument. France is
                                                                                   Garmin may quit
                                               providing the satellite platform    smartphone market
                                               and mission control. Methane
                                               LiDAR will work from space in       Garmin will decide over the next
                                               exactly the same way as its         couple of quarters the future of its
                                               helicopter-mounted counter-         struggling smartphone unit and is
                                               part. The instrument has been       ready to exit the business if it does
                                               developed jointly by DLR,           not achieve success, according to
                                               ADLARES GmbH and E.ON               the company’s Chief Financial Offi-
                                               Ruhrgas AG                          cer (CFO) Kevin Rauckman in an
                                                                                   interview with Reuters. Rauckman
                                                                                   also said that nuvifone handsets
                                                                                   had missed the company's expecta-
     SPAI N                                 Researchers are developing a sci-      tions so far.
                                            entific instrument that would use         Analysts expect Garmin, which
                                            infrared radiation to analyse the      makes its phones in partnership
     RS technology to                       quality of air at certain locations.   with Taiwan's Asustek, would have
     measure pollution                      Their approach is based on the         to sell about a million smartphones
                                            existing Open-Path FTIR approach.      a year to make a business. But, the
     A team of investigators in Spain is                                           PND or personal navigation
     developing a technology that would     Instant response to                    device industry has been hit by
     keep a virtual eye on pollution lev-                                          competition from navigation-
     els generated by traffic jams. Using
                                            earthquakes                            enabled smartphones and in-dash
     remote sensing (RS) capabilities,      A Spanish company, Geoconstructi-      navigation devices. After hitting a
     researchers at the Universidad Car-    vas Decisions (DG), has developed a    peak in 2008, global PND
     los III de Madrid (UC3M) in Spain,     software that will allow govern-       shipments declined in 2009 and
     hope to find out how the pollutant     ments to instantly respond to emer-    are expected to continue the
     emissions vary over time.              gencies like earthquakes. The soft-    downward spiral.

14                                                                                       Geospatial World I October 2010

  GIS boosts economic growth
  Geospatial technology saved councils GBP 230 million and
  boosted GDP by around GBP 323 million in England and Wales
  in 2009, according to a report produced by ConsultingWhere
  Limited and ACIL Tasman. The report was prepared for the
  Local Government Association (LGA) and Improvement and
  Development Agency (IDeA). Councillor David Parsons, Chair-
  man of the Local Government Association's Improvement Board, said, "It is estimated such technology and infor-
  mation sharing could potentially save councils up to GBP 372 million by 2014/15. In this climate of strained budg-
  ets, councils must strive to keep reaching more residents and improving services in a creative manner and look at
  more ways of working together to make big savings."

FI N LAN D                              models of villages, towns and cities,       from Navteq's nascent Journey
                                        and could one day allow those urban         View system, a dataset of
                                        centres to form the backdrop to             mapping measurements made
Nokia to challenge                      realistic computer games.                   by the laser-radar technique
Google Street View                         Nokia's proposed service relies on       known as LiDAR. These models
                                        two technologies: one to construct a        are then decorated by City Scene,
Nokia and its mapping division          virtual cityscape, the other to clothe it   software written by Mattila's
Navteq are developing a rival to        in images taken from life. The 3D           group that projects and accurately
Google's Street View, one that offers   models that make up virtual streets         stitches photographs onto the
full three-dimensional computer         and buildings are built with data           3D cityscape.

Geospatial World I October 2010                                                                                          15
                                           within minutes of it being             Location-based
                                           discovered. The new computerised       emergency alerts
                                           digital mapping system will bring
                                           together the existing FireWeb          The Australian Government is to
                                           system with PhoenixWeb, a fire         fund the upgrade of the national
                                           simulation and mapping system          emergency warning system, 'Emer-
     AUSTRALIA                             developed at the University of         gency Alert', to deliver warnings on
                                           Melbourne.                             mobile phones based on the loca-
                                             Brumby said, "This new               tion of the handset. At present,
     Innovative fire                       technology integrates critical fire,   warnings are issued based on an
     prevention system                     Bureau of Meteorology weather          owner's billing address. The interim
                                           data, topographical information        report of the Victorian Bushfire
     Victoria Premier John Brumby has      and on-ground fuel data and            Royal Commission, released in
     announced USD 21.5 million to         maps it immediately in digital         August 2009, recommended the
     build a fire prevention system that   format for use by fire authorities     establishment of a national warning
     can provide authorities with          to predict the path and intensity      system based on the location of the
     detailed information about a fire     of fires."                             phones.
                                                                                     The Australian Government sup-
                                                                                  ported this recommendation and
                                                                                  provided USD 1.35 million to the
                                           Seabed map                             Victorian Government to investigate

                                           freely available                       the capability on behalf of all states
                                                                                  and territories.
                                           Highly detailed digital maps of
                                           New Zealand’s seabed are now           Robots – the new
                                           freely available on National Insti-
                                           tute of Water and Atmospheric
                                           Research’s (NIWA) website. The         Robots from Mechanisation
                                           maps give an unprecedented             Automation Robotics Remote Sens-
                                           insight into the shape of the          ing (MARRS) could one day run
                                           ocean floor – ridges, volcanoes,       automated farms in Australia, said
                                           plateaus, canyons and                  Dr Adam Postula, a researcher at
                                           seamounts. The data presents           the University of Queensland. Dr
                                           digital terrain models generated       Postula added that MARRS tech-
                                           from multibeam data, combined          nologies can control unmanned air-
                                           with traditional bathymetric           craft or unmanned tractors. They
                                           data. The 250-metre-resolution         can also use detection systems
                                           digital terrain maps of New            capable of observing environment
                                           Zealand’s Exclusive Economic           using visual, infrared or laser light
                                           Zone are available in multiple         wavelengths.
                                           high-resolution file formats to          The emerging technologies can
                                           suit present and future needs.         also help farmers by detecting
                                           The dataset provides the most          and communicating in real-time
                                           up-to-date bathymetry of the           variable environmental, field,
                                           major features from one of the         and crop parameters such as
                                           largest areas of deep-water            moisture content, temperature and
                                           seabed.                                humidity.

16                                                                                      Geospatial World I October 2010

                                             Discovery of world’s tallest forests
                                             A new study using laser pulses shot from satellites has found that the
     B USI N ESS                             world's tallest forests are along the Pacific Northwest coast. The tem-
                                             perate forests of Douglas fir, Western hemlock, redwoods and sequoias
                                             that stretch from northern California into British Columbia easily reach
     Limitations of GPS,                     an average height of more than 131 feet. That's taller than the boreal
     boon for LBS                            forests of northern Canada and Eurasia. With the help of computers,
                                             Michael Lefsky, Assistant Professor in the department of forest, range-
     Inability of indoor tracking, one of    land and watershed stewardship at Colorado State University, put
     the limitations of GPS, is proving a    together a global forest height map based on LiDAR data from 250 mil-
     boon for location-based services        lion laser pulses collected during a seven-year period. Overall, LIDAR
     (LBS) as more and more organisa-        offered direct measurements of only 2.4 per cent of the Earth's forested
     tions are now offering alternative      surfaces. "This is really just a first draft and it will certainly be refined in
     solutions. In the US, several muse-     future," he said.
     ums have created a mobile applica-
     tion (app) which works like a guide.
     Similarly in the retail business, the   GPR technology for excavation
     decision by the largest regional        Two NASA Earth scientists are using satellite data and ground pene-
     mall owner in the US to embrace a       trating radar (GPR) technology to map and protect areas of archaeologi-
     smartphone application marked a         cal interest for an excavation project in central Turkey. Scientists Comp-
     new stage in the rapidly unfolding      ton Tucker from NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center in Greenbelt,
     evolution of mall marketing,            Maryland, and Joe Nigro, who works at Goddard through Science Sys-
     according to a report published by      tems and Application Inc., hope to use the data to pinpoint the position
     Penton Media.                           of tombs and artifacts prior to excavation, protecting them from both
                                             natural elements and looting. In the past, NASA radar has been used on
     Motorola acquires                       satellites and spacecrafts to detect ice deposits and to explore deep
                                             canyons on the moon’s surface.
     LBS company
     Motorola has acquired Aloqa GmbH,
     a German developer of location-
     based software and technologies.
     Aloqa has joined Motorola Mobility,
     which comprises Motorola's Mobile
     Devices and Home businesses.
     According to the company, Aloqa
     will further enhance Motorola's
     MOTOBLUR, which delivers cus-
     tomised content to mobile device
     homescreens and allows users to
     access Facebook, MySpace and
     Twitter updates along with emails,
     news and favourite apps and widg-

18                                                                                              Geospatial World I October 2010
     ets -- all in one place. MOTOBLUR
     will integrate Aloqa's open, loca-       PRODUCTS
     tion-triggered mobile push platform
     to connect users and publishers of
     location-aware content in real-time.     GreenRide Connect globally launched
                                              As part of its complete suite of Green-
     Morgan Stanley to                        Ride mobility management solutions,
                                              Ecology and Environment, Inc., (E & E)
     cut stake in DGI                         has announced the global launch of
     The private-equity arm of Morgan         GreenRide Connect, a state-of-the-art
     Stanley currently owns about 31 per      web-based platform that facilitates more
     cent of DigitalGlobe Inc. (DGI).         sustainable transportation matches for
     According to NASDAQ report, the          commuters. Designed for use in a variety
     company plans to sell about half of      of languages and in any country with a
     its shares since shares of DGI have      suitable map base, GreenRide Connect integrates robust content manage-
     jumped one-third this year. The          ment and a variety of social networking options to foster a more simplified
     move by Morgan Stanley will result       and natural user experience. It reduces single-passenger vehicle use
                                              through an easy-to-use online interface that identifies personally relevant
                                              options for carpools, vanpools, bicycling, park-and-ride facilities and pub-
                                              lic transit. Currently implemented in 22 states across the US, as well as in
                                              countries like Australia, Canada and New Zealand, GreenRide Connect is
                                              available to more than 39 million users.

                                              Series of precision farming products
     in the investment bank losing the
     right to name two of DigitalGlobe's      John Deere has launched several new precision agriculture technologies
     nine directors. It will, however, have   including a new telematics system, JDLink, GreenStar 3 family of displays,
     the right to nominate three direc-       the StarFire 3000 GNSS Receiver and iGrade and iSteer. “The GreenStar 3
     tors so long as its stake remains        and the new GreenStar 3 2630 display is the new generation of GreenStar
     above 15 per cent. The sale of at        displays,” explained Jake Stein from John Deere. “We have new features
     least 6 million DigitalGlobe shares      like video capability, access manager, operator lock-outs, user friendly
     will cut its stake to as little as 18    standby mode and more.” One of the key new features of the displays is its
     per cent.                                video feature. The video allows them to see more and in real-time. Anoth-
                                              er new product is the StarFire 3000, which is a new receiver replacing the
     Map spamming – the                       StarFire ITC. “It has got great new features like GLONASS, so we get more
                                              satellites. We now have the third access in our TCM that we can calibrate
     latest way to cheat                      to allow autotrack to perform better in the field,” said Stein.
     Practice of map spamming has
     recently gained the attention of gov-
     ernment regulators in the US. It is      based map directories, such as           misleading, or deceptive shall not
     the evolved new version of directory     Google Maps or Yahoo! Maps, to           be used; and online advertisers
     spamming which involves the falsi-       create the false impression of a         should use Internet technology to
     fication of information within Web-      business’ local presence. Better         promote the customer’s knowledge
     based map directories. The term          Business Bureau (BBB) standards          of the products or services being
     describes the practice of dishonest      address the issue in two ways:           offered and should not use technol-
     advertisers using popular Web-           advertisements that are untrue,          ogy to mislead customers.

20                                                                                            Geospatial World I October 2010
OTH E RS                                   COSTA R ICA

Foursquare as ‘Tech                        Digital maps for
Pioneers’                                  property information
World Economic Forum included              Costa Rica will soon get digital maps
Foursquare, a location-based social        under the “Programme for Cadastre and Registration Regularisation.” The
networking website and software            programme is expected to be completed by December 2012. One of the main
for mobile devices, amongst a class        objectives of the programme is digital mapping and ortho-photography,
of 31 companies deemed pioneers            including maps with images, which will be used as a basis for territorial
in technology - the same honour it         cadastre.
once bestowed on a young Google.
However, Foursquare is yet to figure
out a way to monetise its hot loca-         B RAZ I L
tion-based mobile service. Of the
companies selected, 17 were from
the US. Five Silicon Valley compa-          IBGE releases satellite images of Amazon
nies made it to the list, as did two                                             Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e
from the Boston area. The forum                                                  Estatística (IBGE) recently released
recognised the companies amongst                                                 2100 new satellite images of the
those poised to have a critical                                                  Amazon and the Northeast region
impact on the future of business.                                                on its website. The images are like-
                                                                                 ly to benefit users of mapping, car-
DigitalGlobe CEO to                                                              tography and natural resource eval
                                                                                 uation services. The new images
step down                                                                        are of 20-meter resolution and cov-
                 Jill Smith will step                                            er approximately 74 per cent of the
                 down next year as                                               country. They can be accessed at
                 CEO and chairper-                                      The
                 son of DigitalGlobe                                             images were obtained by PALSAR
                 (DG). The company,         (Phased Array L-band SAR), a Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) which oper-
                 in a regulatory filing,    ates within the L-band range.
said Smith elected not to renew her
employment agreement scheduled
to expire on September 1, 2011.
However, she has agreed to remain          CANADA                                   Kelowna campus is designed to
in her position until her successor                                                 estimate how many collisions will
is appointed. The company has                                                       happen in a neighbourhood, given
already hired an executive search          A system to predict                      specific road layouts, and help
firm to look for a successor.              accidents                                engineers improve their plans.
Prior to DG, Smith worked with                                                      Ottawa, Vancouver, Victoria and
Gomez Inc and eDial. She lives in          Engineers at the University of           Kelowna are supporting the project
Boston. Her resignation announce-          British Columbia are developing a        by providing collision data, GIS
ment comes just days after DGI             system for predicting the likelihood     mapping and other information to
won about USD 3.6 billion contract         of car crashes in a specific area. A     help build the models that calculate
from the NGA.                              laboratory being built at UBC's          the likelihood of accidents.

Geospatial World I October 2010                                                                                            21


     Hexagon is originally a scientific            The next step is assembly process     effectively used. These businesses
     instrumentation company with              at an industrial site wherein Hexagon     have complex products and therein
     expertise in metrology and engi-          is heavily involved in guiding and        lies the possibility to measure their
     neering. How did it all begin?
        e                                      monitoring robots and reducing cost       components and put them together to
         Hexagon started as a 3D meas-         and increasing productivity by            create a final product. For instance, a
     urement company and not really as a       analysing CAD files against the real      nuclear power plant has a fairly com-
     scientific instrumentation company.       world objects.                            plex set of operations and processes.
     When we started expanding our 3D                                                    Their components can be measured
     measurement capabilities, we started      What motivated Hexagon to enter           through CAD capabilities and further
     off our operations in metrology and       the geospatial market?                    complemented by scanning technolo-
     engineering. We then tossed around                                                  gy that can capture each and every
                                                   Having said that the analysis and
     with ideas on what all we could do                                                  object and convert them in 3D mod-
                                               relationship of CAD drawing with the
     with the sophisticated 3D software                                                  els. That's where the combination of
                                               real world is very unique to the core
     capabilities we had.                                                                Intergraph and Leica Geosystems'
                                               business of Hexagon, we realised that
         We looked at this from two differ-                                              capabilities with the existing capabili-
                                               this is not happening in the field of
     ent perspectives - CAD world and GIS                                                ties and experiences of Hexagon
                                               civil engineering, housing and infra-
     world. Looking at the CAD world, for                                                makes valuable sense. In such an
                                               structure. A few obvious questions
     instance in the case of design of a                                                 instance, content measurement capa-
                                               that arose in our minds were - why
     car, it has many components and                                                     bilities of Hexagon are strengthened
                                               don't we use these processes and
     while designing using sophisticated                                                 by scanning technology of Leica
                                               methodology of DCIs to increase pro-
     CAD capabilities, those components                                                  Geosystems and CAD/ GIS capabilities
                                               ductivity and quality while building a
     form the basis for the final product                                                of Intergraph. In a nutshell, Hexagon
                                               large plant, bridge or motorway? Why
     and from CAD processes we generate                                                  still has measurement technology at
                                               don't we take the learning from
     certain commands on how to manu-                                                    its core while the acquisition of Leica
                                               industrial world wherein these
     facture these products. Those com-                                                  Geosystems and Intergraph has
                                               methodologies and processes have
     mands will be the basis for program-                                                strengthened its position in scanning
                                               been successfully used for more than
     ming drilling machines, turning                                                     and GIS technologies.
                                               100 years?
     machines and other processes and              Against this background, our
     from these operations, we generate        interest in GIS and geodetic applica-     Having entered in geospatial mar-
     several components. Hexagon has           tions stems from the desire of using      ket with acquisition of Leica
     traditionally been at this stage of the   knowledge which could measure             Geosystems, Hexagon has kept on
     industrial world to check these com-      components and complexity of build-            c
                                                                                         marching with its journey with
     ponents and create Direct CAD Inter-      ing houses and infrastructure. Build-     many more acquisitions. But the
     face (DCIs) to reference the actual       ing a small, traditional house may not    latest acquisition of Intergraph has
     component against the original CAD        require such a high level of measure-     been the largest not only for Hexa-
     drawing. This is the step wherein one     ment and processes, but today we          gon, but also for the core geospa-
     could determine the quality of the        have a variety of businesses like plant   tial industry. What has been the
     components and accordingly decide         and production management wherein         rationale for the same and how
     on the next steps.                        these measurement tools could be          does it fit into your agenda?

22                                                                                             Geospatial World I October 2010
“      Our rationale is to provide the
       entire measurement cycle and
       deliver real-time information to
       our customers about their business

       and associated activities

     Ola Rollén
     President & CEO, Hexagon AB

    Having derived the value of scan-        capture the ongoing activities and        years, about 90 percent of the global
ning, sensors and camera capabilities        update the same in a map in real-         economy was concentrated in Europe,
to capture each and every object of          time. For customers in the business       North America, with significant pres-
business and processes, which made           of defence, security, infrastructure      ence and purchasing power of middle
for an appropriate combination and           and transportation, real-time infor-      class being the main engine of the
extension of Hexagon's offerings of          mation is very critical. And that's       economy. But in the past 10 years,
measurement tools, there still was an        where real-time information of an         Western societies lost their balance.
important missing link in the whole          activity being captured by scanners,      The emergence of stronger middle
process, namely GIS and CAD capabil-         sensors and aerial cameras could be       class in countries like China, India
ities. So the rationale is clearly visible   analysed and represented by using         and Brazil is primarily due to the fact
and that is to provide the entire            GIS tools. So this offers a combination   that the cost of a middle class
measurement cycle and deliver real-          and synergy between the capabilities      resource in these countries is 1/5 of
time information to our customers            of Intergraph and Leica Geosystems.       that in Western economies and that
about their business and associated          Against this background, GIS is an        determines business policies to
activities. I believe GIS is all about       important component of our busi-          invest in building their capabilities in
maps and that it is now a public com-        ness. Not necessarily as standalone       emerging markets. Another signifi-
modity. There are several companies          GIS, but as a part of the system.         cant change that is taking place is the
like ESRI, Google, Intergraph and                                                      emergence of labour arbitrage that
Microsoft providing GIS tools and            What are the key business drivers         will squeeze the western middle
maps. But the real value of a map is         for Hexagon?                              classes for purchasing power even
in being real-time which can actually                                                  more. Eventually things in the global
                                                The changing pattern of global
convert a map into an activity rather                                                  economy will get back to equilibrium
                                             economy is the major driving force for
than just being a static map. It                                                       and we will see the emergence of a
                                             Hexagon’s business. In the past 100
requires much quicker capabilities to                                                  strong global middle class with

Geospatial World I October 2010                                                                                                   23
                                                   nario wherein millions of people lost      next five years. We think that China's
                                                   their jobs and in order to control this    growth path has increased demand
         The changing pattern                      situation, government provided stim-       for nickel, copper, oil, coal and min-
         of the global economy                     ulation and created 10 million new         erals. Countries like Brazil, Indone-
         is the major driving                      jobs. But then these jobs were creat-      sia, Mexico, Venezuela, Kazakhstan,
                                                   ed in health, education, government        Chile and Middle East will benefit
         force for Hexagon's                       and social sector and about 6.6 mil-       from this growing demand and to take
         business. Hexagono                        lion jobs were lost in manufacturing       advantage of the same, these coun-
         remains focussed on                       and engineering, making them lose a        tries will need to invest in cadastre,

                                                   competitive edge.                          infrastructure and utilities. Interest-
         constant innovation                           Typically in an economic recession     ingly, the case of India is quite differ-
                                                   causing unemployment, the govern-          ent. India's growth is fuelled by devel-
     greater purchasing power. What has            ment steps in with stimulus packages       opments within the country. It is more
     been driving this is the price and pro-       and invests in building infrastructure     driven by the purchasing power of
     ductivity comparison between, for             and public utilities and in the process    middle class within the country and it
     example, engineers from emerging              provides employment to its citizens.       will be an interesting market for
     markets with respect to that from             But what changed in the recent eco-        Hexagon. At present, India con-
     Western countries. Given the low              nomic recession is that though the         tributes 3 percent to Hexagon's busi-
     prices, companies are inclined to pro-        government provided stimulus pack-         ness which is equal to our revenues
     vide salary incentives on a regular           ages to companies, jobs were created       from entire South America. Industry-
     basis which motivates them to deliver         overseas to remain competitive and         wise business drivers for Hexagon
           better. If you look at the growth       profitable, resulting in a situation       are agriculture and food; infrastruc-
                of income in the US, the top       where unemployment continues to be         ture; mineral resources; utilities;
                      1 percent of people          a challenge.                               power; constructions; security; and
                        grew 74 percent in             Against this backdrop, Hexagon         urbanisation.
                        the past few years         remains focussed on constant innova-           It is estimated that population will
                        while 99 percent           tion and continues its investments in      grow to nearly 10 billion in the next 30
                        grew about 30 per-         emerging markets of Asia (especially       years which means greater demand
                         cent which is equiva-     China and India) and South America.        for food in general. On top of this, the
                         lent to the inflation,    China will continue to be our top pri-     burgeoning middle class with better
                         which essentially         ority. Hexagon has 20 percent of its       purchasing power will demand better
                         means they had no         revenues from China which reduced          quality of food, creating extra demand
                          growth. Similar sit-     to 15 percent with the acquisition of      for agriculture and food processing
                            uations emerged        Intergraph but we will quickly             industries. Hexagon looks at this as
                               in the employ-      rebound to 20 percent and are target-      an opportunity to invest heavily in
                                     ment          ing at getting 30 percent of our busi-     precision farming and develop solu-
                                            sce-   ness from China in the next five years.    tions to improve productivity. We need
                                                   India shall be our second largest          to be more intelligent with agriculture
                                                   market in Asia and in next five years,     production. For instance, measure-
                                                   we expect Asia to form over 50 per-        ment companies like Leica and Trim-
                                                   cent of Hexagon's business revenues.       ble do provide steering equipments
                                                   This situation will likely motivate us     for tractors in the field. Leica also has
                                                   to shift our headquarters to Asia.         airborne sensors, but there is no con-
                                                       Broadly speaking, we will continue     nection. With Intergraph’s capability,
                                                   to provide leadership to business          we can fly over a field and colour-ref-
                                                    opportunities in North America and        erence it using GIS and present it to
                                                     Europe, but our major growth will be     an agronomist for improved decision
                                                      driven out of Asia and South Ameri-     making while providing an analysis on
                                                      ca. At present, we have about 38        what is going on in the field. Based on
                                                      percent revenues being generated        standards set about 100 years ago, we
                                                      outside Europe and America, which       normally leave 45 cm gap between
                                                     is likely to grow to 60 percent in the   seeds. The same can now be reduced

24                                                                                                 Geospatial World I October 2010
to 30 cm with an application of GIS        there are a few competing product
and measurement tools, leading to          lines?
                                                                                       Integration of
dense agriculture plantation requir-           Integration will be done over a
ing less water and fertiliser and yield-                                               various offerings of
                                           period of time and we will choose one
ing higher productivity. It’s all about                                                Intergraph and Leica
                                           or two industries to begin with. As we
addressing deficiencies and enhanc-                                                    Geosystems will be
                                           select the industries, we will build a
ing productivity by interfacing the real   team sourced from different busi-
                                                                                       done over a period of
world and the model world and infor-       nesses and they will form a new unit        time and we will
mation exchange back and forth.            to integrate the new technologies.          choose one or
                                                                                       two industries to

                                               Though there are a few overlap-
Should we believe that the acquisi-        ping areas of competing product             begin with
tion of Intergraph is the end of           lines, on a closer look we found quite
'acquisition-journey' of Hexagon or
                               o           complementary characteristics.
is it just another important mile-         Erdas is quite strong in image pro-       ties of Erdas and geospatial capabili-
stone in the ongoing process?              cessing whereas Intergraph is leading     ties of Intergraph will provide us
    Acquisition is a process for Hexa-     in photogrammetry. Let us take the        almost real-time information of
gon. Today, we are big enough to fund      example of airborne sensors. Leica        geospatial activity.
our own development, but one would         wanted to develop mid-frame camera
wonder if that is so clever especially     and Intergraph has very good mid-         Intergraph’s addition to Hexagon
when advanced technologies are             frame capabilities. Similarly, Inter-     Group seems to have augured a
already available in the market. We        graph wanted to develop large-frame       new order for the geospatial indus-
have Erdas in our GIS portfolio but it     camera and Leica Geosystems has           try and is perceived to have left not
has its own limitations and con-           the same already in its existing port-    many choices for large geospatial
straints. We could have gone ahead         folio. So we will continue to                                             o
                                                                                     companies. Do you foresee a polar-
with developing and designing our          develop both these technologies to        isation of geospatial industry?
own strong GIS, but we decided to          suit the requirements of our                  I think we see it as a process of
acquire one of the two strong GIS          customers in each segment. We also        consolidation of geospatial industry.
technologies available in the market       understand that people are in love        First, it is very important for us to
to save on time and begin integrating      with different workflows of Intergraph    keep open standards so that, for
our solutions.                             and Leica and wish to stay there but I    example, companies like Trimble and
    Though we initially made an            think we may combine these two in         ESRI are able to connect with our
attempt to develop more GIS compo-         future and develop next generation        sensors and software. I see Inter-
nents in Erdas, we soon realised that      technologies. Another possibility is to   graph and Hexagon as a solution to
we don't need just GIS but GIS in          re-organise our business to be more       move away from 'Frankenstein' type
combination with an activity. This is      industry driven and our future tech-      solutions wherein we borrow different
where Intergraph steps in, with far        nology developments could be driven       systems from different suppliers
more sophisticated tools than ESRI as      out of these markets.                     which are difficult to fit together in
Intergraph has added computer-aided            Let's take the case of agriculture.   one body. With such comprehensive
dispatch and records management            Future will require very high resolu-     offerings from Hexagon, customers
tools to its portfolio. Intergraph fits    tion, small and light weight cameras      may get more productive systems
into our future vision which goes          so that they can be used by UAVs          without having to worry about com-
beyond traditional GIS.Today, we have      which consume less energy. With           munication protocols and interface
many consumer solution providers in        Hexagon's current capabilities, we        standards among different compo-
GIS market like Google and Microsoft       expect UAVs to become a major tool        nents of their geospatial system and
but we decided to focus on the pro-        for geospatial applications. We have      workflows. Having said that, one
fessional market which needs more          GNSS capabilities of Novatel for          should never lock anyone out of the
than just maps and images.                 designing navigation models for           business by shutting down communi-
                                           UAVs; aerial borne sensors of             cation and that's where open stan-
How do you propose to integrate            Leica/Intergraph will help develop        dards and interoperability shall be the
various offerings of Intergraph and        light weight high resolution cameras,     key for the industry. At the end of the
Leica Geosystems especially when  n        while the image processing capabili-      day, users will be the real winners.

Geospatial World I October 2010                                                                                                25
     A general perception is that Inter-          nificantly in the last few years but I do   keep away biases of operations while
     graph has not been progressing               agree that GeoMedia has not                 making decisions. What we need is
     well in the last ten years as com-           advanced as much as it should have.         people with right and open attitude
     pared to its position a decade               There is definitely an opportunity for      and clever mind to achieve the laid
     back. So, was it the right time to           Hexagon to turn it around. It is a great    down business objectives.
     buy and that too at such a price?            product and with capital investments
         First of all, it is not correct to say   of Hexagon, I am quite confident of         What will be the unique value
     that Intergraph's progress has slowed        bringing it to the required levels and      proposition for end users?
     down in the past one decade. This is         Erdas will provide a great support and
                                                  help in this endeavour.                        The future of technology lies not
     more of a perception of traditional
                                                                                              only in accurate sensors, but also in
     geospatial community and Intergraph
                                                                                              enhancing productivity of people
     has been moving away from tradition-         Shall we presume that Erdas will
                                                                                              working with the technology and
     al to modern geospatial business             get integrated with Intergraph?
                                                                                              helping them deliver better end prod-
     opportunities. Today, Intergraph is              Yes, we can presume that Erdas          ucts. In this case, the end product is
     less of a competitor to ESRI which is        will become a part of Intergraph as it      CAD and GIS that supports civil engi-
     focussed on traditional GIS market.          makes more sense to be integrated           neering structures. We need to take
     With regard to timing, this was the          with Intergraph and at the same time        that view and rationalise value and
     right time but it is also true that there    Zeiss/Intergraph (ZI) will become a         cost. Common improvement will be
     is not just one right time. We looked        part of Leica Geosystems. There will        productivity for everyone and it will
     at Intergraph and Leica Geosystems           be an exchange of technology                always depend on specific industry
     at the same time in 2004. We could           between the two groups.                     segment we are talking about.
     have combined the capabilities of the
     two with some other company, but it's
                                                  How do you intend to implement              Acquisition of Intergraph, for sure,
     all about timing and cost of the com-
                                                  this integration and break long-            puts Hexagon well ahead of other
     bination. Intergraph was available for
                                                  lived legacies of individual compa-         geospatial companies, making it
     sale in 2004 at much lower price but
                                                  nies under one umbrella?                    the leader of the geospatial market.
     at the same time with much lower
     profits.                                   We have adequate experience in                Such a position also puts extraordi-
                                            bringing in such integration. I have                                     s
                                                                                              nary pressure to not just maintain
                                            been involved with acquisitions and               the leadership position, but also to
     What would be different at Inter-
                                            integrations since 2001. I work from              invest in market development and
     graph under your leadership?
                                            London with a purpose to connect                  provide direction to the industry.
        Hexagon will bring in more          myself better with our facilities                 What specific plans do you have to
     aggressive investment and re-invest-   around the world. We will have four               address this situation?
     ment to keep customer satisfaction     major strategic centers i.e. Heer-
     and belief in Intergraph intact.                                                             Hexagon is one of the leaders of
                                            brugg, Hyderabad, Huntsville and
     Process, Power and Marine (PPM)                                                          the geospatial industry and we under-
                                            Qingdao and all these locations are
     business of Intergraph has grown sig-                                                    stand our responsibility well. In the
                                            well connected from London. We will
                                                                                              short term, we have the obligation to
                                                                 bring people from
                                                                                              provide a more competitive GeoMedia

                                                                 different centres
                                                                                              for traditional and loyal users who
                                                                 to a common
                         The future of technology                place and create
                                                                                              relied on it for decades. In the long
                          lies not only in accurate              common technol-
                                                                                              term, I think it is even more important
                                                                                              to provide a path to the GIS user to
                                sensors, but also in             ogy platforms to
                                                                                              remain competitive against the large
                        enhancing productivity of                achieve large
                                                                                              movements led by Google and
                                                                 business objec-
                          people working with the
                            e                                    tives. Moreover,
                                                                                              Microsoft as they begin to encroach
                                      technology and             London is a neu-
                                                                                              upon the professional GIS space. I
                                                                                              think that's where Hexagon could
                              helping them deliver

                                                                 tral location away
                                                                                              provide a more stable solution to pro-
                                 better end product              from Hexagon's
                                                                                              fessional GIS community to further
                                                                 major facilities
                                                                                              their profession.
                                                                 and it helps to

26                                                                                                    Geospatial World I October 2010
DigitalGlobe I Advertorial

Insight is in the details
The detailed information provided by
high-resolution 8-Band multispectral imagery from                           WorldView - 2
DigitalGlobe improves the segmentation and
                                                                            Launched in October 2009,
classification of land and aquatic features beyond
                                                                            WorldView-2 is capable of captur-
any other space-based remote sensing platform                               ing 46 cm1 panchromatic imagery
                                                                            and is the first commercial satel-
                                                                            lite to provide 8-Band multispec-
                                                                            tral imagery at 1.84 m resolution.
                                                                            The high spatial resolution, cou-
                                                                            pled with 8 bands, enables the
                                                                            discrimination of fine details
                                                                            like vehicles, detailed building
                                                                            textures and even individual trees
                                                                            in an orchard.
                                                                                 Further, the high spectral
                                                                            resolution can provide detailed
                                                                            information on such diverse areas
                                                                            as the quality of road surfaces,
                                                                            depth of oceans and the health of
                                                                                 Additionally, WorldView-2
                                                                            delivers a remarkable daily
                                                                            collection capacity of nearly
                                                                            500,000 km2 of multispectral
                                                                            imagery and average revisit
                                                                            time of 1.1 days around the
                                                                            globe, which greatly enhances
                                                                            the value of its 8-Band imagery.
                                                                            To date, the DigitalGlobe Image
                                                                            Library contains nearly 100
                                                                            million km2 of current 8-Band
                                                                                 The combination of high
                                                                            spatial and spectral resolution is
                                                                            already revealing the world in
                                                                            amazing detail, empowering
                                                                            problem-solvers with new
                                                                            analysis-based insights and
Shwedagon Pagoda, Yangon, Myanmar taken by WorldView-2 on April 28, 2010.   maximising ROI on imagery.

Geospatial World I October 2010                                                                                  27
>> Advantage 8-Band Imagery
     ENHANCED FEATURE                           millions of metric tons         tion of over 12 million           Normalized Difference
     EXTRACTION                                 and export prices in the        (over 18% of the popula-          Vegetation Index (NDVI)
     Shifts in agricultural                     neighbourhood of $600           tion of Thailand), has            method of measuring
     practices, increased                       per ton. With such finan-       expanded by roughly 4             plant material has been
     urbanisation and natural                   cial importance placed on       million people in the past        very successful, increas-
     processes, all are con-                    this global crop, it is         20 years. This significant        ingly the Red-Edge spec-
     tributing to the changing                  critical for governments        growth places pressure on         tral band is demonstrating
     nature of land use and                     to have a comprehensive         the urban infrastructure          a finer sensitivity to plant
     land cover around the                      mechanism for assessing         and inevitably leads to           health. By combining
     globe.                                     and monitoring the              urbanisation of the               WorldView-2’s new
         Remote sensing is                      nationwide production of        surrounding rural areas.          Red-Edge and NIR2 bands
     a critical tool in under-                  rice.                               Using feature extrac-         and the tightly focussed
     standing changes on a                           Enter DigitalGlobe's       tion techniques that              Green band, analysts are
     large and small scale.                     8-Band imagery, which is        leverage all 8 bands,             revealing details in intra-
     DigitalGlobe's 8-Band                      being leveraged as a            DigitalGlobe's imagery is         field productivity that can
     imagery is enabling a finer                tool for identifying, classi-   being employed to create          help to make more effec-
     level of discrimination                    fying and assessing rice        detailed classification           tive decisions.
     with higher accuracies                     paddies.                        maps of the urban land-
     and paving the way for                          Early indications are      scape. Man-made objects           Analysing Wine Grape
     improved decision-making                   that the spectral fidelity of   are being extracted and           Vineyards
     in both the public and pri-                WorldView-2's 8-Band            classified by material type,      The ability to map mois-
     vate sectors.                              imagery and in particular       e.g. asphalt, concrete and        ture levels, growth rates
                                                the Yellow and Red-Edge         clay in roads and roofing         and fine scale differences
     Mapping Rice Paddies                       bands are proving to be         materials, with accuracies        in productivity may not be
     The economies of many                      very effective in identifying   in many cases over 90%.           necessary for all crop
     Asian countries are close-                 rice paddies and classify-      The spectral and spatial          types, but when it comes
     ly tied to rice, with export               ing the health of the crop.     fidelity of the 8-Band            to the vineyards that grow
     quantities measured in                     In addition, the rapid          imagery is proving to be          premium wine grape,
                                                revisit capabilities of         an invaluable tool for cre-       every single detail mat-
                                                WorldView-2 make it an          ating accurate land use           ters. According to Wine
                                                ideal platform for short        maps and enabling gov-            Spectator, in certain
                                                and long term monitoring.       ernmental agencies to             regions of California's
                                                                                document the changes              Napa Valley, premium
                                                Refining Urban Land             over time.                        grape growers charge as
                                                Cover Maps                                                        much as $23,500 per ton
                                                Thailand, one of the agri-      VEGETATIVE ANALYSIS               of grapes, or approxi-
                                                cultural powerhouses of         Vegetative analysis has           mately $6,800 per acre. In
                                                the region, also happens        been the mainstay of the          situations like this, slight
                                                to be home to one of the        satellite remote sensing          variability in the condi-
                                                world's greatest cities.        community for decades.            tions of each plot of land
                                                Bangkok, with a popula-         While the traditional             translates into substantial
     Land cover classification map of Bangkok

28                                                                                                             Geospatial World I October 2010
                                                                             BATHYMETRY AND                       tourism, public health

case studies                                                                 MARINE HABITATS
                                                                             Coastlines, shoals and
                                                                             reefs are some of the
                                                                                                                  costs and the costs asso-
                                                                                                                  ciated with monitoring
                                                                                                                  and managing the out-
                                                                             most dynamic and con-                breaks.
                                                                             stantly changing regions                 Recent studies in the
  revenue. Analysts have                       people around the globe.      of the globe. Monitoring             UAE have demonstrated
  already demonstrated                         Every year, thousands of      and measuring these                  that HABs can be clearly
  that with the spectral and                   forest fires threaten urban   changes is critical to               detected with Digital-
  spatial fidelity of the 8-                   populations from Russia       marine navigation and an             Globe's 8-Band imagery,
  Band imagery, agricultur-                    to Indonesia to California.   important tool in under-             providing a new and effec-
  al fields can be accurately                  Large-scale forest maps       standing the interactions            tive way to monitor the
  segmented by such                            have been derived from        between people and the               extent of these blooms
  parameters as species,                       satellite imagery for         environment.                         and track their move-
  moisture level, health and                   decades, based on lower                                            ment. 8-Band imagery
                                               resolution imagery from       Monitoring Marine                    will provide another tool
                                               satellites such as            Health Hazards                       for governments to man-
                                               Landsat. These maps,          Harmful algal blooms                 age and hopefully reduce
                                               however, lack the fine        (HABs) are another                   the impacts of these
                                               scale detail necessary to     coastal phenomena                    blooms.
                                               support the development       occurring with increased
                                               of sophisticated wildfire     regularity. In 2008, the             Rapid Response to
                                               models.                       National Centers for                 Change
                                                   In Australia, World-      Coastal Ocean Science                8-Band imagery is
                                               View-2 is being deployed      (an organisation within              increasingly proving its
                                               to collect in-track 8-Band    NOAA) released a report              value in the area of bathy-
                                               stereo imagery in order to    citing that the economic             metric mapping. Several
                                               develop wildfire models       impacts of these blooms              studies are revealing that
                                               that combine vegetative       are in excess of $82 mil-            through supervised clas-
                                               analysis and topography.      lion per year in the U.S.            sification techniques,
 Vegetative analysis of wine grape vineyards
                                               Through species classifi-     alone. Impacts include               bathymetry can be accu-
                                               cation, and mapping of        damage to commercial                 rately calculated within
  maturity. Now with a                         dry fuels and moisture        fisheries, impacts to                ± 1 meter, down to depths
  greater financial incentive                  patterns, analysts are                                                   of 30 meters in clear
  to produce detailed intra-                   able to create more accu-                                                coastal waters. While
  acre productivity maps,                      rate assessments of the                                                  these techniques do
  DigitalGlobe's 8-Band                        forest conditions. Plus,                                                 require a limited
  imagery is being put to                      with in-track stereo col-                                                amount of ground
  test.                                        lections, the same                                                       truth in order to
                                               imagery also becomes the                                                 achieve this degree
  Improving Wildfire                           source for accurate data                                                 of accuracy, the
  Modelling                                    elevation models, which                                                  speed and scale that
  While the premium wine                       are then leveraged to pro-                                               can be achieved cre-
  industry delivers luxury,                    duce detailed models of                                                  ates some remark-
  the risk posed by wildfires                  wildfire behavior and risk                                               able possibilities in
  represents a threat to the                   assessments for sur-                                                     areas such as post
  wellbeing of millions of                     rounding areas.               Analysis of HAB off Abu Dhabi, UAE         disaster mapping.

  Geospatial World I October 2010                                                                                                               29
                                                                       The 8 Bands of WorldView-2
         In the aftermath of         sub-surface water fea-            WorldView-2 is the first commercial high-resolution satellite to provide 8
                                                                       spectral sensors in the visible to near-infrared range. Each sensor is nar-
     Hurricane Katrina, massive      tures. There are several
                                                                       rowly focused on a particular range of the electromagnetic spectrum
     amounts of debris washed        efforts underway to create        that is sensitive to a particular feature on the ground, or a property of the
     off shore and settled in the    automated feature extrac-         atmosphere. Together they are designed to improve the segmentation
                                                                       and classification of land and aquatic features beyond any other space-
     Mississippi Sound. Over the     tion and change detection
                                                                       based remote sensing platform.
     course of several months, a     algorithms based on the
     NOAA funded sonar survey        combination of spatial and
     covered approximately           spectral fidelity and these       Coastal Blue (400-450 nm)                   Red (630-690 nm)
     114 square nautical miles       too are yielding positive         • Absorbed by chlorophyll in healthy        • Narrower than the red band on
                                                                       plants and aids in conducting vegetative    QuickBird and shifted to longer wave-
     and identified over 1300        results.
                                                                       analysis                                    lengths
     sonar contacts that created                                       • Substantially influenced by atmos-        • Better focused on the absorption of
     potential hazards to ships      The 8-Band Research               pheric scattering and has the potential     red light by chlorophyll in healthy plant
                                                                       to improve atmospheric correction tech-     materials
     navigating throughout the       Challenge
                                                                       niques                                      • One of the most important bands for
     Sound.                          DigitalGlobe's Inaugural          • Least absorbed by water, and will be      vegetation discrimination
         In a situation like this,   8-Band Research                   useful in bathymetric studies.              • Very useful in classifying bare soils,
                                                                                                                   roads, and geological features
     8-Band imagery, in con-         Challenge represents an
     junction with a small frac-     unprecedented collabora-
     tion of the sonar survey        tion between private
                                                                       Blue (450-510 nm)                           Red-Edge (705-745 nm)
     data, could create accurate     enterprise and the                • Readily absorbed by chlorophyll in        • Centered strategically at the onset of
     bathymetric measure-            scientific community to           plants                                      the high reflectivity portion of vegetation

     ments over hundreds of          understand the power of           • Provides good penetration of water.       response
                                                                       • Less affected by atmospheric scat-        • Very valuable in measuring plant
     square miles of coastline in    the additional spectral           tering and absorption compared to the       health and aiding in the classification of
     days vs. months. It would       focus of 8-Band imagery           Coastal Blue band                           vegetation

     also provide accurate           and support its usability in
     assessments of marine           the commercial market.
     hazards which could be          Overall enthusiasm for the        Green (510-580 nm)                          NIR1 (770-895 nm)
     used to rapidly update the      challenge is very high, with      • Narrower than the green band on           • Narrower than the NIR band on
                                                                       QuickBird                                   QuickBird to provide more separation
     nautical chart for the entire   researchers from over 70
                                                                       • Able to focus more precisely on the       between it and the Red-Edge sensor
     region. With the costs of       countries planning to             peak reflectance of healthy vegetation      • Very effective for the estimation of
     deriving bathymetry from        explore potential applica-        • Ideal for calculating plant vigour        moisture content and plant biomass
                                                                       • Very helpful in discriminating            • Effectively separates water bodies
     8-Band imagery being sub-       tions for 8-Band data.
                                                                       between types of plant material when        from vegetation, identifies types of vege-
     stantially less than those of   DigitalGlobe is leading the       used in conjunction with the Yellow         tation and also discriminates between
     conducting an exhaustive        way through technology            band                                        soil types

     sonar survey, it becomes a      and ingenuity to bring the
     very effective and efficient    most advanced imagery
                                                                       Yellow (585-625 nm)                         NIR2 (860-1040 nm)
     tool for responding to this     products and solutions to
                                                                       • Very important for feature classifica-    • Overlaps the NIR1 band but is less
     type of challenge.              the marketplace.                  tion                                        affected by atmospheric influence
                                         Read our whitepaper,          • Detects the "yellowness" of particular    • Enables broader vegetation analysis
                                                                       vegetation, both on land and in the         and biomass studies
     FUTURE RESEARCH                 download sample imagery
     In many ways, the full          and get technical specifi-
                                                                       Denotes New Bands
     capabilities of 8-Band          cations on WorldView-2
     imagery are still to            and the 8-Band sensors at
     be exploited. Some    
     researchers are exploring       8-bands.
     the potential for identifying   1
                                      All imagery is resampled
     mineral deposits, while         to .50 and 2.0 metres to comply I
     others are trying to detect     with U.S. regulations.

30                                                                                                                Geospatial World I October 2010
INTERVIEW I Carsten Rönsdorf

Towards holistic
data management
Ordnance Survey has been                                                        nance of data models wher-
involved with standards for                                                     ever this is feasible. We have
many years, what initially                                                      been trialing this approach
motivated them to develop a
                    e                                                           in projects to better control
strategy and architecture                                                       the models that we work
based on standards?                                                             with. This means embracing
    Ordnance Survey initially                                                   a process for data models
became involved in OGC                                                          and data specifications that
standards about 10 years                                                        is in line with INSPIRE and
ago because we were inter-                                                      achieving some level of
ested in structuring and                                                        automation to get an
delivering our products                                                         overview instead of a large
more openly.                                                                    number of separately man-
    However, a mind shift                                                       aged data models. We had a
took place at Ordnance Sur-                                                     close look at the INSPIRE
vey a few years ago, about                                                      methodology to develop data
the use of standards,                                                           specifications, and have
because we knew we had to                                                       adopted a very similar
modernise our information                                                       approach to this. Essentially
architecture to respond to                                                      we are trying to do data
market needs in a more                                                          management in a more
dynamic way; this has                                                           holistic manner; that is, less
resulted in a new geograph-                                                     isolated for individual prod-
ic database and data man-                                                       ucts and production flow-
agement system that is                                                          lines. We have also invested
underpinned by standards.              Carsten Rönsdorf                         significantly in skills devel-
    Previously, we thought it          Corporate Data Manager                   opment to ensure staff is
was all about data delivery          Ordnance Survey, Great Britain             aware and competent about
in terms of GML (Geograph-                                                      the necessary standards.
ic Markup Language) encod-
ing and standards across products,   TC/211 we also deal with a lot of     The delivery of products in GML
but OGC standards are also useful    standards at the lower level, to      format has been a major emphasis
for connecting and modularising      deal with geospatial information,     for Ordnance Survey. How have
internal production systems.         that is, the general feature model        g
                                                                           things progressed into the use of
    The question refers to stan-     which is reflected in the OGC ref-    other OGC standards? Please pro-
dards in general, not just OGC       erence model. There is a strong       vide examples.
standards, and this is good          internal driver to do so because we       We have embraced WMS (Web
because we also support other        aim to utilise model driven archi-    Map Service) and WFS quite early
industry standards. Under ISO        tecture in the creation and mainte-   through a number of projects and

Geospatial World I October 2010                                                                                  31
                                                                          because of the UK Government's
                                                                          activities around linked data.

                                                                          How have OGC standards helped
                                                                          Ordnance Survey save money or
                                                                          increase revenue?
                                                                              Yes, the OS OnDemand service
                                                                          mentioned in the previous ques-
                                                                          tion has enjoyed a healthy uptake.
                                                                          In fact customers have cited the
                                                                          standards compliance of this serv-
                                                                          ice as one of the reasons for using
                                                                          the service.
                                                                              Since it is a paid-for service, it
                                                                          has created additional revenues.
                                                                          From our perspective most of the
                                                                          additional benefits of standards
                                                                          are less tangible. Standards help
                                                                          you determine whether you can
     customer pilots. In 2009, we went
                                   tomer acceptance of technologies       achieve something or not; in some
     live with a commercial servicelike WFS in delivering Ordnance        cases, they have been the key
     called 'OS OnDemand' that deliv-
                                   Survey data.                           enabler that allowed us to imple-
     ers 10 Ordnance Survey products   In terms of CityGML, I see this    ment an approach. Without using
     through WMS and includes the  as a natural follow-on from our        geospatial standards we would
     large scale OS MasterMap®     work on GML. This has been driv-       have needed to back off our ambi-
     Topography Layer, which is in a
                                   en by our customers, who told us       tion.
     raster format that is dynamically
                                   they wanted 'investment security',         When moving towards an infra-
     generated from the vector datathat is, not just being told what to   structure that supports the cre-
     store. We are currently examining
                                   do by vendors but actually having      ation and maintenance of new
     the Web Map Tile Service (WMTS)
                                   something that is accepted and         products, standards help. The
     Standard and are looking at the
                                   driven by a larger implementation      agile development process natu-
     possibility of using it in future ver-
                                   community like the OGC. They also      rally aligns with a standards
     sions of our services.        want technical guidance on this        approach and so we have benefited
         Looking forward, I would  topic; so our investment benefits      through the overall process
     expect that the need to serve data
                                   more than just Ordnance Survey.        improvement.
     using OGC web service protocols
                                   We are therefore looking at
     under the INSPIRE Directive will
                                   CityGML for product encoding. We       Have OGC standards helped
     accelerate the uptake and cus-are also looking at the modu-          Ordnance Survey deliver a
                                                  larised structure of    higher level of service to
                                                  CityGML and the next    customers and the public in Great
      Standards help you determine                generation GML4.0,      Britain?
                                                  which should fit with       Yes, I think there is a higher
      whether you can achieve something           our requirements.       level of service. Change only
      or not; in some cases, they have            The GeoSPARQL           update (COU) through GML is one
      been the key enabler that allowed
          n                                       Standards Working       example. It is just not possible to
      us to implement an approach                 Group (SWG) is also     manage such a process through
                                                  very interesting        less simplistic data encodings -

32                                                                               Geospatial World I October 2010
you need the richness and the life   around INSPIRE delivery in Eng-         priority for Ordnance Survey?
cycle management of the features     land.                                       We sponsored the rights man-
that are being changed. This                                                 agement thread in the OWS-4
means that customers don't have      Has Ordnance Survey commitment          (OGC Web Services project 4) test
to receive the entire database -     to OGC standards encouraged oth-        bed and gained a very good
which is large in terms of data      er producers and users of geospa-       understanding in this area. We
volumes - even if they don't take    tial information to commit to OGC       also played a significant part in
national coverage, they just         standards?                              developing the GeoDRM model
receive the changes and can man-          Definitely, because all GIS ven-   and welcome recent implementa-
age those.                           dors decided to comply with our         tions, notably con terra's work in
    The WMS also offers a higher     version of GML in OS MasterMap,         this area.
level of service because it          our flagship product that is used           However, the future business
expands the product offering - it    across Great Britain. There are         direction of Ordnance Survey and
simply streams data into client      over 1,000 users of OS MasterMap        the themes of this work are less
applications, where this is appro-   and more than 20 software suppli-       connected now. We have achieved
priate. Our delivery capacity for    ers that support our products           our goals in this area in terms of
INSPIRE is also now well             delivered in GML.                       research, but we have turned
equipped; that is we are very au          Ordnance Survey has made a         towards addressing the pragmatic
fait with the technologies from a    significant investment in the           business issues first.
delivery viewpoint and this mar-     OGC's work on geospatial rights         Complete interview is available on
ries well with our current role      management. Is this work still a

                                       OPPORTUNITIES AND THE ROAD AHEAD

             razil is one of the fastest-growing economies in     thereby protecting the future generations as well.

     B       the world. According to industry estimates, the
             country has registered a 9 percent growth in
     the first quarter of 2010. Little wonder then that the
                                                                  Because geography is a basic element in this quest,
                                                                  geospatial technology plays a key role in ensuring
                                                                  informed decisions aimed at creating sustainable envi-
     world's fifth largest country is outweighing other           ronment. Brazil's decision makers are already using the
     South American nations by its large and well-devel-          technology towards this end.
     oped agricultural, mining, manufacturing and service
     sectors. Add to it the fact that the country will be play-   BUSINESS DRIVERS
     ing host to two of the world's most popular sporting         Brazil is rich in mineral resources: Its steadily rising
     events - 2014 Soccer World Cup and 2016 Olympic              industrial sector and rapidly growing agricultural sector,
     Games - and the country is all set for exponential           coupled with a government that is actively encouraging
     growth in the coming years. And with the growing             foreign investment, auger well for the growth of its
     stature comes a more aggressive geopolitical stance.         geospatial industry.
         The country's geospatial industry is matching pace           2014 and 2016 sports events: Brazil has made its
     with its economic growth. The industry is passing through    mark in the international sports arena by securing host-
     a very critical process of gaining maturity. Sustainable     ing rights for two premier sporting events - 2014 Soccer
     development requires balancing economic development          World Cup and 2016 Summer Olympics. The events will
     with the need to improve and sustain the quality of life,    offer the country an unparalleled opportunity to show-
     conserve resources and coexist in harmony with nature,       case itself to the world. These events will not only boost

34                                                                                           Geospatial World I October 2010
                                                                                       Cover Story

Brazil's economy and infrastructure but will also allow it     improve the investment environment. A quicker turn-
to package itself before the world in a way that would         around of construction projects is one of the expected
result in immediate and sustained benefits to all seg-         outcomes, in addition to encouraging further infrastruc-
ments of the economy. The success of these events will         ture development through oil, gas, transportation and
be crucial in determining its emergence as a favoured          sanitation projects.
destination for investors and corporate houses.                    Utilities: Utilities, including electricity, water, gas and
     As part of its winning bid to the International Olympic   phones are significant contributors to good quality of life
Committee, Brazil committed to spend upwards of $14            in urban environment and Brazil is no different. The rise
billion on a vast programme of sports-related infrastruc-      of the services sector has also resulted in the growth of
ture development.                                              the middle class, resulting in stable cash flow in the over-
     Infrastructure development: Brazil is investing as        all sector. Brazil is leading the way in Latin America in
much as $229 billion through 2015, with investment lev-        showing significant Smart Grid activity.
els rising by 18 percent/year. The government's growth-            Mining and minerals: Brazil has world class
acceleration programme, launched in 2007, encompass-           resources of minerals including silver, copper, nickel,
es building initiatives such as airports and ports through-    niobium, zinc, iron ore, manganese, bauxite, tin and gold,
out the country, repair of highways, development of ener-      not to mention a comprehensive suite of industrial min-
gy projects in the north and providing housing, water and      erals and fuels. The status of Brazil as a top priority
sewage systems to benefit the poorer Brazilian commu-          region in global allocation of mining investments can be
nities. The programme also consists of measures to             understood by analysing its relative importance in

Geospatial World I October 2010                                                                                                  35
     attracting parcels of the flow of foreign capital directed to   South and Southeast parts of the country are important
     exploration and development of mining business opportu-         for forestry as well.
     nities. Participation of foreign investors in mineral and            Open mapping policy: A significant contribution in
     energy sectors is also being encouraged by the govern-          awareness towards GIS-based information systems has
     ment.                                                           been made by Right to information and Open Map Policy.
         Oil and Gas: Sitting upon 12.2 billion barrels of oil       A large portion of map-data is freely available and both
     reserves, Brazil is one of the world's fastest growing oil      government and private organisations are trying to find
     producers. As the tenth largest energy consumer in the          easier ways to manage, update and publish information
     world, one of the world's largest ethanol producers and         for the public. Users are permitted to have their own inde-
     the country with the second largest crude oil reserves,         pendent programmes regarding acquisition and manage-
     Brazil is a critical player in the global energy market. The    ment of geospatial data including aerial photography and
     country continues to welcome foreign investment from            high resolution satellite images. Another interesting facet
     international oil companies to increase direct investment       highlighted by Gilberto Camara, General Director, Nation-
     in hydrocarbons.                                                al Institute for Space Research (INPE), is that the national
         Agriculture and forestry: Self-sufficient in foodgrains,    remote sensing agency, INPE, has made all its data avail-
     Brazil offers very strong potential in agri-business. It is a   able on Internet, free of charge, to serve its citizens. This
     leading exporter of a wide range of crops including             initiative has further been supplemented by providing free
     oranges, soybeans, coffee and cassava. Brazil, unlike           open source software known as SPRING which is good
     most Latin American countries, has increased agricultur-        enough for elementary usage of satellite images.
     al production by greatly expanding its cultivated area. The          Democratic political set up: Brazil is politically stable

36                                                                                                Geospatial World I October 2010
                                                                                         Cover Story
and organised under a democratic system. It has an opti-                        "Users have access to National Spatial
mistic long term outlook as it is largely free from getting                     Data Infrastructure (INDE) by means of
locked in conflict with its neighbouring countries. Its                         an Internet portal, the SIG Brasil.
                                                                                During the next decade, other national
economy is more broad-based and so far it has shown no
                                                                                organisations will be able to join INDE"
ambition of playing any significant political role on the
world stage.
                                                                                Luiz Paulo Souto Fortes
                                                                                Director of Geosciences, IBGE
Crucial to defining and steering the future direction for an
industry are its stakeholders. Some of the key stakehold-
ers of the Brazil geospatial industry are discussed below.     year 2000, with the objective of meeting the need for a
                                                               data structure to support the project, the idea of a corpo-
National Mapping and Remote Sensing Programme                  rate data bank was floated, leading to further expansion of
The Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics (IBGE)     the geological data bank, GEOBANK, Dias adds.
is the Federal Government institution responsible for pro-          CONCAR - The National Commission of Cartography,
ducing, analysing and disseminating statistical informa-       plays a directive role in setting up technical standards and
tion as well as geodetic, cartographic and geographic          specifications based on which is the production of
information and the information related to natural             geospatial data for the National Catrographic System.
resources and environment. The combination of statistics       CONCAR comprises the majority of the geospatial data
and geosciences in its activities allows IBGE to optimise      producers and maintainers of Brazil's public sector,
resources and maximise the quality of the contributions of     including one representative of each of the following: 19
each area of the Institute. IBGE is also responsible for       Ministries; IBGE itself; the mapping branches of Army,
systematising information on natural resources and for         Navy and the Air Force; one association representing the
carrying out regional geography studies.                       private sector companies which provide air survey and
     Brazil also has the National Institute of Space           mapping services and five regional forums representing
Research (INPE, responsible for the development and            the federation's states.
application of space technologies in space and atmos-               Linked to the Ministry of Economy and Planning, the
pheric sciences, research and development in space engi-       Geographical Institute of Cartography - IGC was created
neering and technology, remote sensing, Amazonia Pro-          to promote knowledge of Paulista territory through the
gram, research and development in meteorology, tech-           production of cartographic detail and accuracy and geo-
nologies associated with the field of space and the Earth      graphic studies related to the Administrative and Territor-
Observation Project that focusses on scientific and tech-      ial Division of the State of Sao Paulo. According to Alexan-
nological knowledge on remote sensing and geoprocess-          dre Iamamoto Ciuffa of Geographical Institute of Cartog-
ing, natural resources surveying and environment moni-         raphy, most of the maps available to users are in an
toring.                                                        unsatisfactory scale and not updated. IGC is responsible
     Companhia de Pesquisa de Recursos Minerais                for converting existing digital maps and restituting new
(CPRM) is the foremost company in the field of geological      digital maps of regional scale; developing new method-
mapping. In the year 2000, the company launched a vigor-       ologies for use of satellite imagery and mapping specific
ous programme of modernisation in the area of informa-         software to produce thematic maps; implementing GIS
tion technology to present its products through the map-       with information from the database of IGC and other pub-
ping technology of GIS and relational databases, informs       lic agencies; conducting studies and field surveys to sub-
Joao Batista V. Dias Junior, Chief of Staff. It began pre-     sidise the process of changing the territorial-administra-
senting its maps and other cartographic products via GIS       tive framework of the state and aerophotogrammetric
and the relational data banks. The project Projeto GIS do      survey.
Brasil, launched in the same year, constituted a techno-            The design of a new highway, the construction of a
logical milestone for the country as it represented the        hydroelectric power plant, the installation of an industrial
migration from traditional to digital paradigms. In the        complex, decisions on resource planning and manage-

Geospatial World I October 2010                                                                                               37
          "The Brazilian National Water Agency                                      "Codelco applies a GIS-based analysis
          has presented the Atlas for Urban                                         and classification strategy of satellite
          Water Supply that includes a proposi-                                     data for exploration of copper
          tion of technical alternatives for the                                    province of Brazil"
          water supply until the year 2025"

          Marcelo Bitter                                                            Alexandre Carnier Nunes da Silva
          Business Development, GeoAmbient                                          Geologist GIS Coordinator, Codelco

     ment, as well as the elaboration of public and private poli-   income settlements, with an aim to gather and dissemi-
     cies - all are facilitated with the introduction of the        nate information on slums and irregular settlements and
     National Spatial Data Infrastructure (INDE). According to      other types of illegal squatter settlements in the city,
     Luiz Paulo Souto Fortes, Director of Geosciences, IBGE,        informed Fernando Cavallieri, Director of City Informa-
     users have access by means of an Internet portal, the SIG      tion, Instituto Periera Passos.
     Brasil. During the next decade, other national organisa-           In 2004, the Municipal Authority of the commercial
     tions - at state and municipal level, for example - will be    capital Sao Paulo, also known as City Hall, decided to
     able to join INDE. The portal will be fed and updated with     acquire high resolution large scale maps of 1:1000 scale
     geospatial information from diverse bodies.                    and larger scale through aerial photography in partner-
                                                                    ship with the federal government. According to Luiz Cesar
     Geospatial companies                                           Michienlin Kiel, Development Manager, Prod, PRODAM,
     According to a survey by Magalhaes & Granemman, there          Sao Paulo, "While the primary objective was to create an
     are more than 200 companies working with GIS in Brazil.        updated large scale map and use the same for multiple
     A market research from Intare Consulting in Information        purposes by different departments of the Municipality,
     Management pegs the market potential for geotechnolo-          this initiative also helped to increase revenues and tax
     gy in Brazil at $360 million, taking into account all the      collections as it gave a much more detailed information
     data components, software and services, with a growth of       about property and cadastre falling in municipal areas."
     9 percent between 2006 and 2007 and estimated 20 per-          As of today, the secretariats dealing with human develop-
     cent for 2008. In Brazil, the data providers have estab-       ment, government management, finance, production and
     lished their business around the failures of the Brazilian     planning have agreed to use the maps and have created a
     mapping agencies to provide basic digital cartographic         technical group to assist and cooperate with each other,
     information, with their business mostly consisting of digi-    says Jose Marcos, Director, DIPRO, Prefeitura de Sao
     tising existing topographic maps as well as high-resolu-       Paulo.
     tion imagery distribution. In the coming years the private
     companies are likely to continue to be influenced by the
     networks of innovators. As the public SDI in Brazil grows,
     one can expect a reduced market for data providers and
     an expansion of the market for service providers who will
     have to adapt themselves to a geospatial information
     market centered around building corporate applications
     based on spatial databases.

     Municipalities and town planning: The city of Rio de Gene-
     rio had been grappling with the housing problem for quite
     some time. To tackle the situation, the Municipality of Rio
     de Janeiro has implemented the SABREN System for low-

38                                                                                                  Geospatial World I October 2010
         "Key challenges include interoperabili-                  ing systems and a proposition of technical alternatives for
         ty of data and systems; access, sharing                  the water supply until the year 2025.
         of geospatial data; web (Intra/Internet)                     The Sao Francisco Hydroelectric Company (Chesf) has
         geospatial data dissemination and
                                                                  recently created a new GIS solution which unifies and
         interconnection with other databases
         and information technologies systems"                    shares important information to meet the various
         Fernando Gonçalves dos Santos                            business processes of different departments.
         Regulatory Specialist - Geologist, Superintendent of     With its decision to acquire an enterprise
         Collection Management and Technical Data - TDS,
         National Agency of Petroleum, Natural Gas and Biofuels   GIS platform, the company now boasts
                                                                  of a robust platform that allows the
                                                                  sharing of information from the
         Project GeoCONVIAS is the result of a partnership        access to corporate database, said
     between CONVIAS (Infrastructure and Work Department          Valeria Carazzai, Engineer Car-
     of city of Sao Paulo) and SABESP (Sao Paulo Waste and        tographer, Chesf.
     Water Company) and extended by association with other            Mining and minerals: Com-
     companies that operate in the Sao Paulo city area.           panhia Vale do Rio Doce (Vale),
     According to Eng. Antonia Ribeiro Guglielmi, Director,       the second-largest diversified
     Department of Control of Public Roads, the GeoCONVIAS        mining and metal company in the
     system consolidates the asset data buried or under-          world, is one of the pioneers of the
     ground in the municipality areas by using a unique           use of geotechnology in Brazil.
     geospatial database. According to Carlos Henrique            According to Paulo Fernando Costa,
     Gomes de Souza of Municipality of São José do Rio Preto,     Sr GIS Specialist, VALE, geoprocessing
     since the initial deployment of geographic information       was introduced into the planning and
     system, a major obstacle to expansion of the system in       implementation of mineral exploration proj-
     the Municipality has been the difficulty in acquiring and    ects in early 1980s and today it provides support
     maintaining licenses primarily in the acquisition of new     to all phases of the project life cycle. They provide
     licenses for new users. With the signing of the contract     strategic and support tools for defining guidelines for
     ALS, the outlook started to change, expanding the num-       decision-making and efficient operations management.
     ber of users and therefore the applications of GIS in the        Codelco applied a GIS-based analysis and classifica-
     county.                                                      tion strategy of satellite data for exploration of copper
         Utilities: The Brazilian National Water Agency was       province of Brazil. Analyses of geological, structural and
     established with the mandate of enforcing the National       optimised remotely sensed data of the mining areas aids
     Policy on Water Resources. On December 9, 2009, the          in identifying some common characteristics of altered
     Brazilian National Water Agency presented the Atlas for      rocks and associated porphyry copper ores, informs
     Urban Water Supply for metropolitan areas, for North         Alexandre Carnier Nunes da Silva, Geologist GIS Coordi-
     Eastern and Southern Brazil. Marcelo Bitter, Business        nator, Codelco.
     Development, GeoAmbient, informs that the studies con-           Oil and gas: National Agency of Petroleum, Natural
     ducted in the Atlas include population forecasts and         Gas and Biofuels (ANP) is an autarchy functioning under
     demand estimates, evaluation of sources referring to         the control of the Federal Public Administration. The
     water availability and quality, diagnosis of water produc-   solution initially adopted at ANP to maintain the data

40                                                                                            Geospatial World I October 2010
related to oil fields was based on geoprocessing tools.                         "The various programmes related to
Fernando Gonçalves dos Santos, Regulatory Specialist -                          environment underway at Instituto
Geologist, Superintendent of Collection Management and                          Geologica, Sao Paulo are evolution of
                                                                                high-grade metamorphic terrains and
Technical Data - TDS, ANP points out that challenges per-                       plutons and geomorphology of the
        tain to interoperability of data and systems;                           State of Sao Paulo"
            access, sharing of geospatial data; web
                                                                                 Paulo C Fernandes Da Silva
                (Intra/Internet) geospatial data dissemina-                     Executive Technical Advisor, Instituto Geologico
                   tion; confidence and access speed;
                      geospatial data management and
                       integrity; geospatial data storage;
                         interconnection with other data-      Ministry of Environment of Para (SEMA / PA) has been
                          bases and information technolo-      coordinating the Rural Environmental Policy Registration
                           gies systems; handling of a great   (CAR) of the private property of rural areas with the goal
                           amount of raster data; metadata     of promoting environmental regulations of economic
                           creation and recovering and in      activities that result in changes in forest cover. In order to
                           implementing a new geoprocess-      give transparency to the outcomes of this policy, the EMS
                          ing structure.                       / PA has provided on its homepage, a link to access the
                              When a GIS solution was first    map with all the registered properties, informs Gadelha
                        considered at Petrobras Gas Busi-      Rodolfo de Sousa, GIS Technician at Para Gadelha Rodol-
                      ness Unit in early 2003, the situation   fo de Sousa, Ministry of Environment of Para.
                    demanded a reliable and efficient sys-         Meanwhile, the Department of Environment, Sao
                 tem to support the engineering division       Paulo has recently launched "Environment Paulista: Envi-
             responsible for the conceptual design of new      ronmental Quality Report 2010." According to Arlete Tieko
         gas pipeline projects and management of the           Ohata, DIA Director / CPLA, Secretary of State for the
  existing one. To meet ongoing demands from regulatory        Environment, Sao Paulo, the work is a reflection of the
and environmental agencies, the Unit started GIS imple-        environmental status of Sao Paulo, addresses key issues
mentation with a different approach that has yielded good      in the environmental area and aims to provide decision
results. The implementation cost of this was about $           makers with relevant information. The various pro-
268,000. Although the GIS tools require some time to be        grammes related to environment underway at Instituto
properly implemented, they guarantee data reliability and      Geologica, Sao Paulo with an aim to contribute to the
integrity and ensure that all professionals linked to the      understanding and meeting the demands of mapping and
project will have quick access to updated information,         interpretation of geological units of the State of Sao Paulo
says Marksuel Xavier Bastos, Geodesy Engineer, Pero-           are evolution of high-grade metamorphic terrains and
bras. Petrobras recently implemented a 3D GIS environ-         plutons and geomorphology of the State of Sao Paulo,
ment for management of equipment including manifolds,          informs Paulo C Fernandes Da Silva, Executive Technical
pipelines and platforms.                                       Advisor, Instituto Geologico. The geotechnical and envi-
    Environment and Forests: In the Amazonia region of         ronmental research underway aims to develop research
central Brazil, environment management is a major chal-        focused on characterisation of the climatological state of
lenge, especially deforestation in the Para region. The        Sao Paulo, especially rainfall, promoting awareness

Geospatial World I October 2010                                                                                                    41
                                  "The advantages of the geospatial                                   industry and has been a constraint for overall industry
                                  technologies are well understood and                                growth, opines Alexandre P. Cabral, Business Line Man-
                                  the progress path of the industry is
                                                                                                      ager, Fugro Brazil.
                                  already well laid out"
                                                                                                          Paucity of large geospatial companies: For a country
                                                                                                      which is home to almost 200 million people with approxi-
                                                                                                      mately $5000 per capita income, Brazil has no geospatial
                                  Helder Carvalhais
                                  Director, Threetek                                                  company worth the name with local origins. Most of the
                                                                                                      geospatial business in the country is carried through a
                                                                                                      network of distributors. Distributors catering to the whole
                                                                                                      country are a rarity. Also, a single distributor handling two
     towards differences of the elements of climate in time and                                       or more rival manufacturers is not rare.
     space and supporting the integrated study of the environ-                                                                   :
                                                                                                          Price driven market: In a price sensitive Brazilian
     ment, said Antonio Carlos M. Guedes from the Institute.                                          geospatial market, demand is disproportionate to price
                                                                                                      and the number of professional dealers is very limited.
     CHALLENGES AND CONSTRAINTS                                                                       Professional dealers bid for the products and then fix
     As the geospatial industry in Brazil is in its nascent                                           prices not as per the cost price of the product but on pro-
     stages, it has its own set of challenges.                                                        jected demand for the product.
         Immature geospatial industry: The industry requires a                                            Market-makers quote prices at which they are pre-
     lot of nurturing before it can reach a stage of maturity. A                                      pared to buy or sell, up to some quantitative limit, says
     historical perspective to its development reveals that it                                        Eng. Marcos Guandalini, Sales Director, Alezi Guandalini.
     has been concentrated in pockets and is being driven by                                          They adjust the prices according to the supplies, implying
     few disconnected drivers. This fragmented development                                            that the prices will increase if the stocks are ill supplied
     has resulted in a lopsided development of the geospatial                                         and vice-versa.

       'Brazil is in the right direction'
     Kindly highlight the dynamics of the              being used to be all promise in the past,     tions to local and international major
     South America market                              it has been delivering for a few years        customers. This is a clear differentiation:
                                                       now, in a steady and democratic fashion,      Hexagon provides complete and wide-
     South America is a very diverse market-
                                                       with social, political and economic stabil-   ranging solutions with local expertise to
     place    with    different    cultures    and
                                                       ity. But we cannot underestimate the          support them in each segment of the
     economies varying from country to coun-
                                                       issues to address and the difficult prob-     industry. Additionally, Hexagon, as a
     try and their sub-regions. Our group,
                                                       lems Brazil has to tackle - government        global market leader in many seg-
     both Hexagon Metrology and Leica
                                                       spending, investment inefficiency, social     ments, with a comprehensive portfolio
     Geosystems, in Metrology and Geomat-
                                                       security issues, education, etc.              of products, brands and the interna-
     ics respectively, has different business
                                                                                                     tional expertise for development, man-
     models     and    commercial        channels      Hexagon group has been investing con-
                                                                                                     ufacturing and technical support, oper-
     throughout this continent. Brazil and             sistently in the South American conti-
                                                                                                     ates with a strong local compromise.
     Argentina are the main marketplaces but           nent for a long time and both Leica
     Hexagon approaches each market                    Geosystems and Hexagon Metrology as           What are the potential sectors for
     accordingly to its specific characteristics:      a whole have 11 offices and 26 local          business in Brazil?
     in a simplistic view, industry has a strong       certified partners with a significant par-
                                                                                                     In generic words, as a world-leading
     concentration in Brazil and Argentina;            ticipation in this region.
                                                                                                     supplier of systems for measurement,
     agriculture in Brazil, Argentina and Peru;
                                                       What are the key benefits offered by          Hexagon provides to our customers
     mining sector has interesting opportuni-
                                                       Hexagon?                                      access to measurement data with readi-
     ties in Brazil, Chile and Peru and oil &
                                                                                                     ness and precision to improve efficiency
     gas fares well in Venezuela, Brazil,              Hexagon, Metrology and Geosystems
                                                                                                     and productivity and, consequently,
     Bolivia and Colombia. Brazil is in fact a         and its brands have been successfully
                                                                                                     enhancing quality and cost savings in the
     strong leader in South America. The               present in the South American market-
                                                                                                     production process. The main sec-
     country is facing an exceptional eco-             place for many years now, supplying and
                                                                                                     tors for business in Brazil for
     nomic cycle at the present moment;                supporting systems and integrated solu-
                                                                                                     metrology are automo-
                                                                                                                                         Claudio Simao
42                                                                                                                            Hexagon South America
    Poor coordination and cooperation: The industry suf-                                                                "The GeoCONVIAS system consolidates
fers from a lack of inter-organisational cooperation, coor-                                                             the asset data buried or underground
dination and collaboration. Numerous agencies working                                                                   in the municipality areas by using a
                                                                                                                        unique geospatial database"
in the field pursue their work in an independent fashion,
with very little cross-agency coordination on a formal,
accountable basis. Governments are traditionally imma-
                                                                                                                        Eng. Antonia Ribeiro Guglielmi
ture in their thinking and actions, hindering industry                                                                  Director, Department of Control of Public Roads
development and the roll-out of pragmatic solutions for
    Heavy taxation and import duties: Tax burden is heavy
across Brazil in terms of tax rates and administrative                                        of the country is very poor, particularly for ecologically
complexities. Heavy taxation, the huge variety and com-                                       sensitive areas like the Amazonia region (for which there
plexity of tax categories as well as the conflict and contra-                                 are no maps available in any scale). Lack of updation is
diction among one another poses significant challenges                                        also a challenge, with most of the maps being approxi-
to the companies, says Eng. Marcos Guandalini, Sales                                          mately 30 years old and professionals such as planners,
Director, Alezi Guandalini. In addition to federal tax, state                                 engineers and geographers needing updated documents
tax and city tax, enterprises also need to pay for various                                    to develop their work. Also, being a relatively new indus-
types of social expenditures. Typically, taxes amount to                                      try, there is an understandable lack of trained manpower.
71.1 percent of the gross profit per year for a medium                                        Initially the manpower may be brought from outside but in
sized enterprise.                                                                             the long run the need for trained manpower needs to be
    Challenges faced by users: Users have their own set                                       met locally. While manpower demand is sufficient for low
of challenges. Since the country took to mapping very late                                    and medium levels, the paucity is more pronounced at
and not very sincerely, the quality of maps for vast areas                                    high levels.

tive, airspace, railways & metro, ship-        try will need to attract external invest-     For Leica Geosystems, South America is         ready to go further: opening new offices,
yards, oil & gas, energy (wind & hydro),       ment. Brazil has a very complex tax           the smallest territory in terms of revenue,    hiring and training more people and set-
agro-industry, medical, metal industry,        structure with high cumulative taxation                                 e
                                                                                             if we look at the whole scenario. Only 3-      ting-up other service and training cen-
machine-tools, plastics industry, food and     and bureaucracy is also still an issue as     4 percent of the annual revenue comes          tres within the next years.
packaging and tech-centers. For Leica          well.                                         from this region whereas the opportuni-
                                                                                                                                            Would you be investing more time in get-
Geosystems, the most potential seg-                                                                r
                                                                                             ties are quite high. So how do you plan to
                                               Leica Geosystems has very comprehen-                                                         ting solution for clients?
ments are civil engineering, structural                                                      tap the market?
                                               sive range of products. How do you pro-
engineering and monitoring, construc-                                                                                                       Absolutely, Hexagon is a strong group,
                                               pose to integrate them and position           In fact, South America has a participa-
tion (highways, railways, ports, airports,                                                                                                  well-known by its innovation tradition
                                               them in South America?                        tion of around 5 percent of the world
shipyards, metro, etc), precision agricul-                                                                                                  and as a solution provider. We are a fast-
                                                                                             economy, and a little bit less for the glob-
ture, mining, oil & gas applications, elec-    If one looks at Hexagon and Leica                                                            growing organisation and this is our mis-
                                                                                             al geomatics market in value. So, I would
tricity (generation and distribution), water   Geosystems portfolio of products and                                                         sion, our differentiation factor.
                                                                                             say that Leica Geosystems South Amer-
and sanitation, general surveying (prop-       solutions, it is clear how it is important
                                                                                             ica is aligned to the market size. On the                                      n
                                                                                                                                            Do you see any threat from low-end
erty legalisation, seismic monitoring, etc)    for us to correctly address the different
                                                                                             other hand, it is also correct that we will    markets?
as others. The industry growth is relevant     business segments. But it is our mission
                                                                                             have very important opportunities in
and directed to the strong internal mar-       to analyse the applications and either                                                       Not really, Hexagon has a solid global
                                                                                             Brazil and South America in the next
ket related to consumption.                    select or develop the correct options for                                                    strategy but acts with local focus. For
                                                                                             years and we intend to increase signifi-
                                               our customers and not the other way                                                          sure, there are purely price-oriented
What are the main challenges faced in                                                        cantly our participation in this market-
                                               around. I would like to emphasise that                                                       brands in the market but when users see
Brazil?                                                                                      place too. One part of our strategy is to
                                               the approach is not the same in all                                                          no support, major reliability issues as
                                                                                             increase our exposure to the market and
Brazil has still significant social imbal-     sub-regions in South America, so we                                                          other important product limitations, they
                                                                                             enhancing our organisation in some
ances to deal with, in spite the excep-        have developed our commercial chan-                                                          stop buying these brands. This is clearly
                                                                                             regions of the South American territory.
tional increase in the medium class dur-       nels and technical support teams                                                             valid in Brazil and South America where
ing the last years as also the raise of        with different formats in different           What are your future plans for Brazil?         values as strong technical approach,
credit availability to lower classes and       markets. In parallel, we have also                                                           close professional relationship, compre-
                                                                                             South America is a key region for Hexa-
general salary mass. Another problem           analysed the segments in different                                                           hensive support and relentless commit-
                                                                                             gon, with excellent possibilities for
that Brazil will have to tackle is the need    regions and structured our product offer-                                                    ment in the after-sales activities are
                                                                                             growth. In spite of the fact that we are
for funding for all the projects planned:      ing to better fulfil the different applica-                                                  stressed.
                                                                                             well positioned in the region, we are
internal savings are too low so the coun-      tions per segment.

Geospatial World I October 2010                                                                                                                                                          43
         "As far as software vendors are                                             "INPE has made all its data available
         concerned, there are significant                                            on Internet, free of charge, to serve its
         differences when one considers                                              citizens. This initiative has further been
         GIS solutions and systems for image                                         supplemented by providing free open
         processing"                                                                 source software SPRING"

                                                                                     Gilberto Camara
         Iara Musse Felix                                                            General Director
         Director, Santiago e Cintra Consultoria                                     National Institute for Space Research (INPE)

         Other key challenges faced by users are interoperabil-    mining, forests, water resources and utilities. According
     ity and standardisation and lack of data centralisation.      to a report by Intare Consulting in Information Manage-
     Organisations regularly use spatial data collected from a     ment, in the last few years, growth in the number of com-
     variety of sources; they often face the need to re-format     panies operating mainly in services associated with data
     and re-standardise data to make the information compat-       and software with various solutions for different seg-
     ible with existing systems. The country faces a lack of       ments of market has been more than 40 percent, indicat-
     effort in efficiently integrating and managing centralised    ing that growth can be achieved by increasing the ability to
     data. Lack of centralised data can result in significant      offer solutions for integrated services.
     inefficiencies and suboptimal operational and long-term           High growth potential: The outlook for the geospatial
     management strategies.                                        industry in the coming years remains bright. As far as
                                                                   software vendors are concerned, according to Iara Musse
     PRECAUTIONS AND DIRECTIONS                                    Felix, Director, Santiago e Cintra Consultoria, there are
     Challenges notwithstanding, Brazil has a lot going for it     significant differences when one considers GIS solutions
     and is all poised to emerge as a key geospatial destination   and systems for image processing.
     to reckon with. A few investments would go a long way             But the path to achieving this kind of growth is slight-
     towards this end.                                             ly complicated. In this context, the initial route may be that
         Land of opportunities: The opportunities in Brazil are    of providing free promotional software designed to aid the
     vast, particularly considering that there is no one vendor    ongoing projects, thereby establishing credentials and
     who is a leading seller in more than two segments out of      trust, Iara adds. After securing public trust and apprecia-
     major market segments, namely government, education,          tion and establishing some sort of recognition, the more
     environmental management, agriculture, oil and gas,           formal market strategies may be implemented in the
                                                                       The growing demand for integration between GIS sys-
                                                                   tems and corporate management systems in national and
                                                                   international context is highly sensitive to quality
                                                                   requirements and performance. This realisation high-
                                                                   lights the need for strategic partnerships so that
                                                                   the needs of increasingly complex and demanding users
                                                                   are met, opines Marcos Covre, Executive Director,
                                                                       Second mover advantage: Brazil is well placed to
                                                                   secure the second mover advantage in the geospatial field
                                                                   and be spared the false starts and unprofitable ventures.
                                                                   Helder Carvalhais, Director, Threetek opines that the
                                                                   advantages of the geospatial technologies are already
                                                                   well understood and the progress path of the industry is
                                                                   already well laid out.

44                                                                                                   Geospatial World I October 2010
          "Environment Paulista: Environmental Quality Report                             "The Brazilian Geospatial market operates by
          2010 aims to provide decision makers with relevant                              the market-makers quoting prices at which they
          information paying attention the need to formulate                              are prepared to buy or sell, up to some
          action plans on the environment"                                                quantitative limit"

                                                             Arlete Tieko Ohata                                                           Eng. Marcos Guandalini
              DIA Director / CPLA, Secretary of State for the Environment, Sao Paulo                                                    Sales Director, Alezi Guandalini

         Long term strategies: One of the primary roles of the                         HUMAN RESOURCE CAPITAL
     industry is to be innovative and consistently bring new and                       In Brazil, education and training in geo-information start-
     better solutions to the market place. The best possible                           ed in the beginning of 1970s, with the National Institute
     way is to think long term and bring solutions to markets                          for Space Research-INPE starting a Masters programme
     rather than just products. It is important to play a respon-                      in remote sensing.
     sible role by creating a level of education and knowledge                             Today, cartography engineering courses are being
     about geospatial technology and not merely to work                                offered by the Federal University of Pernambuco-UFP in
     towards increasing the turnover.                                                  Recife (NE region), two courses in Rio de Janeiro, at the
         Investment in understanding market dynamics:                                  State University of Rio de Janeiro-UERJ and at the Engi-
     Studying, analysing and understanding a specific market                           neering Militar Institute-IME. There is also a course in the
     is necessary to consider the dynamics of the market, its                          State University of São Paulo-UNESP, in Presidente Pru-
     level of maturity and evaluate trends and changes. It is                          dente Campus and other in the Federal University of
     also important to consider the needs of different users of                        Paraná-UFP in Curitiba. All these institutions are involved
     different segments to guide them.                                                 with cartography, remote sensing, photogrammetry and
         Localisation of manufacturing and product develop-                            GIS, mainly the UFP and IME. Marcos Covre informs that
     ment: As in any other market, the success or failure of any                       Imagem offers courses for GIS students.
                                     business enterprise in this
                                           region will be decided                      CONCLUSION
                                            by the ability of the                      Brazil as a country is poised to grow and grow to its true
                                           companies to give                           potential. In addition to its natural resources, the country
                                           solutions to the chal-                      has unparalleled human resources with a unique distinc-
                                         lenges of the local                           tion of cultural values and co-existing spirits. Democratic
                                          industry.                                    political set-up and visionary leadership has made its
                                                At this juncture                       mark and intent to play a key role in world politics and
                                           the uniqueness of the                       economy. Successful bid to host World Cup in 2014 and
                                        country may also be                            Olympics in 2016 is an indication of the quest of Brazilians
                                        emphasised. Therefore                          to find their due position and role in world affairs. What is
                                         the customisation of                          often considered as laid back attitude of Brazilians can be
                                         solutions to the needs                        an asset instead of weakness as it allows process of con-
                                          of the people consti-                        sultation and paves the way for consistency. Being a dem-
                                          tutes an important step                      ocratic country, it is very important to have consensus
                                             towards the develop-                      building through consultation with different stakeholders
                                               ment of the indus-                      and the same needs time and consistency. Undoubtedly
                                                 try in Brazil, says                   speed is important, but what is more important is collec-
                                                  Heber,      Chief                    tive view and consistency of direction.
                                                   Executive Offi-                     -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                   cer, Geoja.                         Anamika Das
                                                                                       Senior Manager - Conferences,

46                                                                                                                              Geospatial World I October 2010
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     CLOUD COMPUTING I Philip O'Doherty

     'GIS as a Service'

            here is a growing    GIS Companies Weather       niche markets. One of             sations than the market

     T      consensus that the
            future of software
     is tied to cloud comput-
                                 the Gathering Cloud
                                 Computing Storm?" and
                                 concluded that cloud
                                                             the big problems with GIS
                                                             today is that it has failed
                                                             to fulfil its true potential
                                                                                               serves today, but its
                                                                                               uptake by the wider busi-
                                                                                               ness community is still
     ing and software as a       computing and the soft-     outside its core markets          disappointing. Those of us
     service. Someday, all       ware as a service (SaaS)    such as the government,           who know GIS, understand
     software will run online    model would be the push     utilities, telecommunica-         that the capability to
     and clunky desktop          that finally delivers GIS   tions and oil and gas sec-        analyse data in relation to
     applications will be a      capabilities to a much      tors. There is no doubt           its location and visualise
     distant memory. Recent-     wider corporate audi-       that GIS can provide value        the results in easily
     ly, I explored "How Will    ence beyond its existing    to more users and organi-         understood maps, charts

48                                                                                          Geospatial World I October 2010
and reports ultimately            by a wider-audience and it     GIS as a Service has got to     tomers. In many aspects,
increases the value and           won't be long before           bridge the yawning gap          cloud computing eases a
utility of that information.      geospatial capabilities will   between consumer map-           significant amount of pain
But still today, GIS usage        become a base-level            ping applications and tra-      regarding data by bringing
is constrained by factors         expectation for more           ditional corporate GIS,         flexibility to the table as
such as excessive cost,           information systems and        while also including an         never before. For example,
unnecessary complexity            users will demand              element of business intel-      allowing access to a range
and lack of accessibility.        increasing functionality       ligence. But rather than        of geocoding engines to

Integrating location intelli-     and ease-of-access to all      just mimicking today's          support customers with
gence into enterprise and         data sources.                  client-server solutions,
line-of-business applica-                                        GIS as a Service has the
tions for across-the-board        More GIS                       potential to offer a lot
use is just too difficult and     There is clearly untapped      more to customers - a lot
expensive using existing          demand for geospatially-       more GIS.
                                                                                                   The industry
client-server GIS software        enabled solutions that              At eSpatial, we look at
tools.                            bring benefits within its      GIS as a Service as a mul-        needs an
     Despite the con-             established markets but        ti-layered offering with          approach
straints there is a growing       the potential uses for GIS     tailored business/industry
demand for GIS both with-         go far beyond the existing     GIS applications sitting on       that tackles
in and beyond its existing        industry verticals. To         top of broad GIS function-        the problems
niches and some of that           address all these markets      ality and a robust GIS
demand is driven by the           successfully, the industry     platform, all delivered in
                                                                                                   of cost,
availability of low-end GIS       needs a different              the cloud via SaaS infra-         complexity
online, for example, con-         approach than that of the      structure that has all the
sumer mapping tools               last 20 years; an approach     security, reliability, scala-
                                                                                                   and accessi-
such as Google Earth and          that tackles the problems      bility that a user would          bility. SaaS
Bing Maps. They first             of cost, complexity and        expect from online appli-
                                                                                                   and cloud
gained traction in the con-       accessibility. SaaS and        cations.
sumer and hobby spaces            cloud computing is the                                           computing is
but are they really               obvious answer and it          Data and Data Integration
                                                                                                   the obvious
equipped for large scale          won't be too long before       Anyone who knows any-

GIS? Whilst providing their       SaaS-based solutions           thing about GIS will quick-       answer
mapping technologies free         become the dominant            ly realise that one of the
of charge for many uses,          delivery method for            biggest challenges with
companies report that not         geospatial capabilities in     GIS as a Service is data.
insignificant costs can           enterprise and line-of-        It's already one of the key     varying geocoding
apply when used for inter-        business information sys-      challenges facing GIS in        requirements, enabling
nal business purposes.            tems.                          the client-server environ-      them to select the appro-
     However, Google and              But what can users         ment. Because of data's         priate capability for their
Bing have at the very least       expect from GIS in the         overarching importance,         situation and making data
been great for raising            cloud or GIS as a Service?     data integration is a pri-      sharing and data integra-
awareness of the potential        Will it be just like a webi-   mary design consideration       tion a lot easier than in
that exists in GIS and have       fied version of current        for GIS as a Service, which     traditional environments.
shown the way in terms of         desktop GIS products or        needs to provide versatile      In other ways however,
accessibility and ease-of-        will it be more like a         and deep data integration       some sceptics see SaaS
use. Because of them, the         super-charged consumer         capabilities to support the     as further complicating
power of location informa-        mapping solution? At           wide range of require-          the data issue by raising
tion is better understood         eSpatial we believe that       ments of enterprise cus-        the spectre of security and

Geospatial World I October 2010                                                                                                49
                                                                   made it difficult for organ-      deployed on the same GIS
                                                                   isations to justify invest-       platform to be accessed
                                                                   ment.                             by all subscribers.
                                                                       As with data, the cloud            This might not sound
                                                                   paradigm and web tech-            too radical for a growing
                                                                   nologies have dramatically        band of corporate IT users
                                                                   simplified application            who have grown used to
                                                                   integration in other fields       SaaS applications such as
                                                                   and will do the same for, Netsuite or
                                                                   GIS-as-a-Service. All of a        Webex; but if GIS as a
                                                                   sudden, it's a lot easier to      Service is to succeed, it
                                                                   offer pre-packaged inte-          will need to meet the
                                                                   grations for applications         expectations that are
                                                                   and platforms such as             being set by the more
                                                          and                established SaaS and
                                                                   SharePoint as well as             business software
                                                                   easily configured APIs to         providers. Part of meeting
     privacy, despite papers        similar to GIS but where       enable rapid integration          the expectations will
     and reports demonstrat-        GIS as a Service differs is    with pretty much any busi-        mean delivering a pletho-
     ing that data is probably      that all the functionality     ness application including        ra of services such as
     more secure in the cloud       above is fully accessible      enterprise resource plan-         geospatial business intel-
     than it is in most private     through a standard web         ning (ERP), customer              ligence or location intelli-
     data centers.                  browser and comes              relationship management           gence tools that go well
                                    ready-to-go with essential     (CRM), business intelli-          beyond basic GIS.
     GIS Cloud Platform and         base data as part of the       gence (BI) and even tradi-             There is no stopping
     Functionality                  package.                       tional client-server GIS          the cloud revolution.
     The GIS platform on which          And that's just the        applications.                     There are too many
     GIS as a Service sits          start of what SaaS                 On top of this, the           advantages to SaaS and
     needs to have a lot, if not    enables. GIS on its own is     cloud phenomenon allows           cloud computing that are
     all, of what today's client-   useful but its real power      for collaboration in a way        already shaping how busi-
     server and desktop GIS         emerges when it is inte-       that just isn't possible          nesses buy software and
     offerings provide, but         grated with other busi-        when we are all using             manage hardware. Grant-
     delivered and accessed in      ness applications. Beside      isolated silos of GIS func-       ed it could be some time
     a radically different way.     data, this is the area that    tionality. SaaS enables           yet before the desktop is a
     So just like any geographi-    has presented some of the      collaborative development         distant memory in the GIS
     cal information system,        biggest hurdles for organ-     of easily accessible indus-       world, but GIS is no
     GIS as a Service needs to      isations looking to adopt      try-focused solutions that        exception and the accessi-
     be able to capture, store,     GIS. Integrating existing      dovetail with specific busi-      bility, lower cost and flexi-
     analyse, manage, and           desktop and client-server      ness processes that are           bility that comes with GIS
     present data that is linked    GIS with accounting, cus-      often unique to a sector.         as a Service means it will
     to location, allowing users    tomer relationship man-        The flexibility that is pro-      eventually take over from
     to create interactive          agement or planning            vided by GIS as a Service         today's Earth-bound solu-
     queries, analyse spatial       applications has not           means that businesses             tions.
     information, edit data,        always been easy. Long         are no longer stuck with a
     maps, and easily present       project lead times add         one-size-fits-all solution        Philip O'Doherty
     the results of all these       significantly to the cost of   as tailored applications          CEO, eSpatial
     operations. So far it is       GIS and in the past have       are developed faster and

50                                                                                                Geospatial World I October 2010
                                                                                         Picture this...
Mass Movement
Researchers at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Delft University of Technology and
the Netherlands Institute for Space Research, the Netherlands have conducted a nov-
el study to simultaneously measure, for the first time, trends in how water is trans-
ported across Earth's surface and how the solid Earth responds to the retreat of gla-
ciers following the last major Ice Age, including the shifting of Earth's center of
mass.Using a new methodology, the researchers calculated new estimates of ice loss
in Greenland and Antarctica that are significantly smaller than previous estimates.
According to researchers, the new estimate of shift being larger than previous model
estimates of 0.48 millimeters [.019 inches] per year suggests that either Earth's low-
er mantle must be more viscous than previously believed, or the history of Earth's
deglaciation needs to be significantly revised.

Darker areas in the picture represent greater loss of mass.
                                                        Image & text courtesy: NASA

GeospatialWorld I October 2010                                                                    51

Latin America right on G-track
                                               al, SIGSA. Incidentally, the occasion marked
                                               the 30th anniversary of SIGSA. Carlos
                                               sketched the history of geospatial industry in
                                               Mexico and indicated that Mexico is
                                               adopting geospatial technologies in tourism,
                                               agriculture, forests, minerals and utilities

                                               Dean Angelides, Director, International
                                               Operations, ESRI, in his special address, dis-
                                               cussed the significance of GIS as a founda-
                                               tion for a strong economy. What started with
                                               a few thousand professionals as a research
The XXII ESRI Latin America User Confer-       project, GIS, today is all-pervasive, Dean       ics like planning, urban and rural cadastre,
ence 2010 (LAUC 2010) was a spectacle          opined and added that computing and              urban and rural development, public safety,
providing an ideal platform for geospatial     networks, measurement, GIS software, GI          disaster management, infrastructure, agri-
stakeholders from 16 countries of the          Science and data policies are all coming         culture, tourism, natural resources and edu-
region. Organised in Mexico City in associa-   together and providing greater geographic        cation. The conference also witnessed the
tion with Sistemas De Informacion Geografi-    understanding of the world. This was             presentation of geospatial excellence
ca, SA De CV (SIGSA), the three-day con-       followed by a detailed demonstration on          awards. A pre-conference workshop on edu-
ference was an eclectic mix of government      ArcGIS 10, its functionalities and exclusive     cation was well-represented by the local
users, academia and private industry.          features.                                        academia and research institutes. The one-
                                                                                                day workshop had about 14 papers dealing
The conference opened with a presentation      The conference saw the coming together of        with various science and applications
by Carlos Salman Gonzalez, Director Gener-     about 950 delegates discussing various top-      related to geospatial technologies.

Mark your Calendar...
                                23 - 25 November
                                                                                index.html                             Map Africa 2010
04 - 06 October                        24 - 27 October                                                                 Cape Town, South Africa
International symposium on             GIS for National Security,               08 - 10 November             
Benefiting from Earth Observa-         Defence & Emergency Manage-              Trimble Dimensions 2010
tion                                   ment Conference                          Las Vegas, Nevada Area, US             29 November - 03 December
Kathmandu, Nepal                       Abu Dhabi, UAE                            GeoTunis 2010
                                                                             Tunis, Tunisia
                                                                                09 November                  
04 - 08 October                        25 - 29 October                          GIS in the Coastal
XVII Conferencia Latinoameri-          8th International Conference             Environment                            30 November - 01 December
cana de Usuarios ESRI                  African Association of Remote            Bundaberg Area, Australia              European LiDAR Mapping Forum
Chile                                  Sensing of the Environment                      Conference and Exhibition
                                       (AARSE)                                  09 - 10 November                       The Hague , The Netherlands
                                       Addis Ababa, Ethiopia                    ESRI Malaysia User Meet 2010      m
05 - 07 October                               Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
Intergeo                                                                                                                DECEMBER 2010
Cologne, Germany                       26 - 28 October                          10 November
                                       2010 ESRI Europe                         GeoDATA 2010 Glasgow                   02 - 04 December
                                       Middle East, and Africa User             Glasgow, United Kingdom                5th International
                                       Conference                         Conference - gvSIG
06 - 07 October                        Rome, Italy                              s/geodata10/                           Valencia, Spain
Location and Beyond Summit                                          
San Francisco, CA, US                                                           10 - 12 November
                                        NOVEMBER 2010                           5th Esri Eastern Africa User Con-      01 - 03 December
                                                                                ference                                ISRS 2010
07 - 09 October 2010                   01 - 02 November                         Nairobi , Kenya                        Pune, India
Geospatial technologies for            Geospatial Expo Middle East    
Sustainable Planet                     Dubai, UAE                               ents-overview

Allahabad, Uttar Pradesh, India                                                       06 - 10 December
                                                                                10 - 12 November                       5th URISA Caribbean GIS
                                       01 - 04 November                         XXX INCA international congress        Conference
18 - 20 October                        GEOINT 2010                              - 2010                                 Port-of Spain, Trinidad
ESRI Health GIS Conference             New Orleans, LA, US                      Dehradun, India              
Denver, Colorado, US                             ibbean/info
                                       02 November                              16 - 17 November                       07 - 08 December
                                       IronGIS Event                            Rocket City Geospatial                 SPAR Europe 2010
19 - 20 October                        Naperville, IL, US                       Conference                             Amsterdam, The Netherlands
Bentley Systems Be Inspired     Huntsville, AL, US           
Event                                  ndEvents/tabid/143/vw/3/itemid/76/d    /newreg.php?eventid=12830&
Amsterdam, The Netherlands             /20101102/Default.aspx
                                                                                17 - 18 November
                                       03 - 04 November                         Tracking and Positioning Europe
                                       Conferencia ESRI 2010                    Amsterdam, The Netherlands
19 - 22 October                        Teruel, Spain                  

2010 Geospatial Conference            acking/

Athens, Georgia Area, US               cia2010/
                                       05 - 06 November
19 - 22 October                        Asia GIS 2010 International
12th GSDI world conference             Conference
Singapore                              Kaohsiung, Taiwan

GeospatialWorld I October 2010                                                                                                                                 53
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