Unit4 _08-34_

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Unit4 _08-34_ Powered By Docstoc
					Written by Daniel Grin, Marko Buric,
Aaron Azlant, and Todd Fisher


I. INDUSTRIAL GROWTH ENGULFS THE UNITED STATES.
        A. ‘ROBBER BARONS’ AND THE GROWTH OF RAILROADS
                 1. The Pacific Railway Act (1862) subsidizes an age of Railroad building.
                            a. Land Subsidization.
                                      1) Railroads were granted 100 yard wide sections bordering the rails
                            in which they would have right of way.
                                      2) Railroads were granted 10 square miles on each side for every
                 linear mile of track laid.
                                                 i. This land was arranged in a checkerboard pattern so that
                                      bordering each track would 20 square miles of railroad land
                            and 20 square miles of public land.
                                                 ii. This was done to ensure public access to the land.
                            b. Money Subsidies.
                                      1) Every mile of track was subsidized up to $16,000 a mile for flat
                 land.
                                      2) Hilly areas were subsidized up $32,000 a mile.
                                      3) Mountainous territory merited up to $48,000.
                                      4) These subsidies were in fact no interest loans.


                   2. Motivations for Subsidization.
                             a. Expenses.
                                       1) Railroads, in their early stages, were destined to carry mostly
                   passengers and mail.
                                       2) This would imply a probable loss and the unlikelyhood that the
                   Railroads would be built without extra help.
                             b. National Prestige and Unity.
                                       1) Having recently acquired California and other Western States, many
                             in power believed that to keep the country tied together, a
                   Transcontinental Railroad was needed.

                  3. The First Transcontinental Railroad is finished in 1869.
                            a. The component Railroads.
                                      1) The Union Pacific stretches from Omaha westward.
                                       2) The Central Pacific stretches from Sacramento eastward.
                                                i. The Central Pacific, due to its passage through the Sierra
                                      Nevada mountain range, was more dangerous an undertaking.
                                                ii. The ‘Big Four’ control the Central Pacific.
                                                           • Leland Stanford was the public figure for the railroad,
                                                a governor of California at one point, and later founder
                                      of Stanford University.
                                                           • Mark Hopkins was the modest bookkeeper of the
                                                bunch.
                                                           • Charles Crocker, the construction foreman, was well
                                                known for despising Chinese laborers
                                                           •Collis P. Huntington was the schemer and lobbyist
                                                behind the Central Pacific.
                                                iii. Theodore Judah threatens to blow the whistle.
                                                           •Theodore Judah, a surveyor, threatens to expose
                                                Central Pacific’s fraudulent map practices.
                                                           Central Pacific agrees to pay Judah his blackmail rate of
                                      $100,000 to safeguard their secret.
                                                           •Conveniently for the Big Four, he dies en route to the
                                                East Coast, and his widow is never paid this dividend.
                  4. Other notable Railroads and Railroad builders.
                            a. The Great Northern is build from Duluth to Seattle.
                            b. The Northern Pacific Railrod went from Duluth to Tacoma.
                            c. The Atchison, Topeka, and Santa Fe Railroad streatched from Topeka, through
         the Southwest, through Los Angeles, and then to San Francisco.
                            d. The Southern Pacific stretches from New Orleans and Los Angeles, but is later
         absorbed by the Central Pacific, which changes its name to the Southern Pacific.




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Written by Daniel Grin, Marko Buric,
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                          e. Most of these Railroads are built with land subsidies, but without monetary
                subsidies.
                                     1) James J. Hill built a railroad without undertaking in many of the
                abuses of other railroad builders, and did not receive any government
      subsidies. His Great Northern Railroad stretched from Duluth to                                               Seattle.
                          f. Cornelius Vanderbilt made his early fortune with steamboats.
                                     1) Vanderbilt helped consolidate and expanding Eastern railroad
                networks.
                                     2) Vanderbilt replaced the iron rails of the New York Central with steel
                          rails.
                5. Railroad Abuses.
                          a. Railroad owners would produce fraudulent maps of the areas they
                were building through, with the intent of showing that the terrain was
      more rugged than it really was.
                                     1) Then, leftover subsidy money could be invested in banks, and
                then this money could be used to repay the loans, essentially
      paying ‘robber barrons’ for the construction of the railroads.
                                     Although only guaranteed half the land in the 40 square mile total
                ribbon surrounding each linear mile of track, the railroads were able to
      amend the Pacific Railway Act so that they could keep the land tied up
      for about 20 years.
                          b. Abuse of Farmers.
                                     1) Railroads would sell their government endowed land to willing
                farmers.
                                     2) Due to a transportation monopoly, Railroads could charge whatever
                          rate they pleased.
                                     3) Right before the mortgage of many farmers would expire, Railroads
                would raise shipping rates, causing farmers to default on loans.
                                               i. As a result, famers who had developed and for the most
                                     part, kept up steady loan payments, were now forced either to
                          buy their land back at a higher price or leave their land.
                                               ii. This was complicated by the fact that most of the credit
                                     sources in the area were controlled by the railroads.
                                     4) Railroads were not required to publish rates openly, and as a result
                          could arbitrarily change rates so that a rate was dependent on the
      market value of a crop.
                                               i. This would allow railroads to keep farmers at a level just
                                     above poverty.
                                     5) The Credit Mobilier Scandal, A wonderful piece of Work by your
                friends at Union Pacific.
                                               i. Union Pacific created a subcompany, the Credit Mobilier
                                     Construction Company.
                                               ii. Union Pacific fraudulently claimed that Credit Moblier’s rates
                                     were much higher than their own, and reaped in extra subsidy
                          money.
                                               iii. Scared that Congress might blow the whistle, Union Pacific
                                     gave gifts of stock in Credit Mobilier to Congressmen.
                                     6) Rebates.
                                               i. Railroads would provide lower rates in return for
                                     steady business from shippers.

      B. GENERAL INDUSTRIALIZATION.
              1. Objectionable Business Practices of the Day.
                        a. Pools.
                                  1) Instead of vicious competition, businesses would divide the market
                        and multilaterally raise rates, benefitting all companies involved.
                        b. Trusts
                                  1) A Trust was, in essence, a disguised monopoly.
                                  2) Stock would be shared between several companies, and joint
              boards of directors were often formed as well.
                                  3) Trusts would allow price hikes and subtle monopolization.
              2. Andrew Carnegie monopolizes the Steel Market.
                        a. Under his practices of vertical consolidation, Carnegie would control all steps
              in the production and sale of the product, which happened to be steel. This



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           would remove the cost of a middleman, and would, in the long run, greatly                                      increase
profits.
                                          1) Although vertical consolidation required a greater initial outlay of
                               funds, it was more profitable overall.
                               b. Carnegie is the first to use the Kelly/Bessemer steelmaking process on a
          large scale, and his ability to provide a superior product quickly establishes                                   him as a
steel baron.
                               c. J.P. Morgan, with a newly born interest in Steel, buys Carnegie Steel for $430
          million dollars after a famous 8-hour dinner.
                                          1) Morgan forms U.S. Steel, a new company, and sells oodles of stock
                               to the public, allowing the whole affair to take place with no cost to
                     him.
                                          2) This was the first Billion Dollar Company Ever.
                               d. Carnegie’s business practices.
                                          1) Carnegie was a master networker who developed a circle of rich and
                     competent friends as he moved up the social ladder.
                                          2) Carnegie was against monopolies, and made up a group of about
                               40 Pittsburgh millionaires.
                                          3) Carnegie ‘mounted the ladder of success’, arriving a poor immigrant
                               boy from Scotland, and becoming one of America’s richest men.
                               e. Carnegie is exceptional in the respect that he gave most of his fortune away
                     in philanthropic activities, feeling obligated to the country at large. (Rockefeller
          gave in abundance, but only after philanthropy became tax deductible)
                                          1) Carnegie funded the construction of Carnegie Hall and some art
                     museums.
                                          2) Carnegie helped develop Carnegie-Mellon University
                                          3) Carnegie was a pacifict/internationalist, who offered to buy the
                     independence of the Philippines after the Spanish American War and
          built the Hague Peace Palace.
                                          4) Carnegie helped create a plethora of public libraries around the
                     nation.
                     3. J.D Rockefeller dominates the Oil Market through horizontal integration.
                               a. Rockefeller rose from humble beginnings and was a successful business by
                     the age of 19.
                               b. Rockefeller organized Standard Oil of Ohio in 1870.
                                          1) Unlike Carnegie, Rockefeller focused on 1 stage of the production
                               process, refining, known as horizontal consolidation/integration.
                                          2) Rockefeller used ruthless policies, employing espionage, extortion,
                               etc; combined with his brutal price cuts, he was able to undersell all
                     competitors.
                                                     i. Rockefeller even forced railroads to pay him rebates on the
                                          freight bills of competitors.
                               c. Rockefeller was largely attributed to the what Bailey calls the ‘Trust Titan.’
                     4. Meat Packing.
                               a. Completely unregulated meat packing resulted in the shipment of unsanitary
                     meat, which often included less desirable portions of the animal, or other
          animals, such as rats. Occasionally an unlucky immigrant would find himself in a                                 hot dog.
                               b. Philip Armour pioneered assembly line meat packing, with gravity doing
          much of the work. This often resulted in the dangerous vats and chutes of meat                                   packing
plants, where the aforementioned undesirables were included in your                                               Spam like product.
                               c. Other well known meat packers.
                                          1) Oscar Meyer.
                                          2) Gustavus Swift, who promoted the refrigerated railroad car.
                     5. J.P. Duke.
                               a. Duke pioneered the industrial process for making Cigarettes.
                               b. Duke gave money to Trinity College, NC, which was redubbed Duke
                     University.
                     6. J.P. Morgan, the ‘banker’s banker.’
                               a. J.P. Morgan joined his father’s banking company.
                               b. Morgan, through keen business practices, monopolized the loan market.
                               c. As a result, eventually controlling the half of the wealthin the nation, could
                     require entrepreneurs to give him stock in their company as a condition of the
          loan, establishing the trend of ‘interlocking’ directorates.




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                         d. Morgon’s dominance in the financial world supercedes the power of any
      other bankers, or that of the U.S. government, for th at matter.

      C. GOVERNMENTAL RESPONSES TO BIG BUSINESS
                1. Farmers push for state regulation all over the country.
                          a. Organizations like the Grange, in statewide efforts all over the country, push
      through legislation to regulate the railroad monopoly.
                          b. The Supreme Court, in the Wabash case of 1887, decreed the Grange laws
                unconstitutional on the ground that the states did not have the right to regulate
      Interstate Commerce.
                2. Grover Cleveland reluctantly signs the Interstate Commerce Act (1887).
                          a. The act had several key provisions.
                                     1) Pools and Rebates are outlawed.
                                     2) Open publication of rates is required.
                                     3) Shipping could not be more expensive for shorter distances than
                          longer ones.
                                     4) An Interstate Commerce Commision (ICC) was created to administer
                          the new regulations.
                          b. Although landmark in the involvement of the United States Government in
                business regulation, the ICA fell short in several respects.
                                     1) The Commission, selected by the President and approved by the
                Senate, was, to a certain extent beholden to the Railroads.
                                               i. Congressman, often showered with free passes and
                                     campaign contributions by wealthy railroad owners, were not
                          particularly inclined to pick commissioners who would strictly
                enforce the legislation.
                3. The Sherman Antitrust Act strictly forbids ‘Conspiracies in Restraint of Trade.’ (1890)
                          a. The vague nature of the law subverted its use.
                                     1) Corporate lawyers easily found loopholes in the law,
                                     2) The Law, with its wording, was actually used to wage legal battles
                          against labor unions.
                          b. Few provisions were given to truly empower this legislation.
                          c. Like the Interstate Commerce Act, this one is a trendsetter.

      D. LABOR UNIONS SLOWLY BECOME AN IMPORTANT FORCE IN THE UNITED STATES.
                 1. Issues pushed by unions.
                           a. Workingman’s Compensation.
                           b. Minimum Wage/Maximum Workday.
                           c. Unemployment Insurance.
                           d. Pensions.
                           e. Improved Working conditions.
                 2. Labor Unions are slow to take hold in the United States.
                           a. Unlike Europe, where farming has been largely superceded by industry, the
                 United States still had a large agricultural population, whose interests
      contrasted with those of the urban proletariat.
                                      1) Farmers would hope for the highest market prices possible
                           for their goods.
                                      2) Laborers making a wage wanted the prices of grain and other
                 nourishment to be as low as possible, as their well being did not
      directly depend on grain sales.
                           b. Yellow Dog Contracts and Open Shops often make employment contingent
                 on not joining a Union.
                           c. Massive immigration created a pool of laborers willing to work at incredibly
                 low wages. As a result, strikes, at first, were rarely effective, as immigrant
      scabs would be easy to hire on a temporary basis.
                           d. Panics in 1873 and 1893 reduce labor demand and increase labor supply,
      pitting workers against each other for low paying jobs.
                 3. The National Labor Union marks an important step in the evolution of Unions.
                           a. Organized in 1866, this Union represented about 600,000 members at its
      peak.
                           b. This Union includes in its ranks workers from all sectors of the economy.
                           c. The Union weakens towards the end of its 6 years and is dealt a final death
                 blow by the Panic of 1873.
                 4. The torch is passed to the Knight of Labor.



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                          a. Led by Terence Powderly, this Union began as a secret society with complex
               rituals.
                           b. Secrecy was undertaken with the intention of avoiding retribution from
      employers, but was forsaken in 1891.
                           c. The Knights of Labor campaigned for economic and social reforms, argueing
                for shorter work days and reasonable health and safety codes for industry.
                           d. The Haymarket Square incident discredits the Knights of Labor.
                                     1) When May Day strikes plague the nation in 1886, a meeting is
                called in Chicago’s Haymarket Square to protest brutality on the part of
      the establishment.
                                     2) A bomb was thrown that injured/killed several people, including
                some police.
                                     3) Although the Knights were never truly connected with the bombing, 8
                Knights are sentenced to Death or Prison.
                                                i. John Altgeld, a progressively minded governor, pardons the
                                     survivors in 1892.
                           e. The Knights, because of their inclusion of both skilled and unskilled laborers,
                have an internal conflict of interrest.
                                     1) Skilled laborers, often in higher demand than unskilled laborers,
                would not be as inclined to participate in a walkout on the behalf of
      workers that were not paid as well.
                5. Samuel Gompers begins the AFL.
                           a. The AFL (American Federation of Labor) was/is a federation of unions from
                throughout the country.
                           b. The AFL included skilled workers only.
                           c. This organization did not attempt general strikes.
                                     1) Instead, employees at the offending employer would walk out, and
                           several of them would picket near the premises.
                                     2) In theory, this would alert the public, and more importantly, other AFL
                           unions, to the offending practices, and direct concerted economic
      pressure towards the offending business.

      E. IMMIGRATION AND URBANIZATION
              1. Domestic Migration, primarily that of Farmers.
                          a. Farming quickly became unaffordable for the small farmer.
                                    1) Advanced technology increases the overhead cost of running a farm.
                                    2) The economics of scale dictate that farmers with large undiversified
                          farms could undersell small farmers.
                                    3) Offensive Railroad policies force some farmers off of their land.
                                    4) This sounds the deathbell for Jefferson’s ‘pastoral Democracy.’
                          b. Expanding industry creates a growing job market in the cities.
              2. The ‘New Immigration’ from Europe.
                          a. Cheap American grain makes life unaffordable for many peasant farmers in
              Eastern and Southern Europe.
                                    1) As a result, many move to European cities.
                                    2) Many, spurred on by legends of American opportunity, take the next
                          step and move to the United States.
                          b. The ‘New Immigration consists of Italians, Croats, Slovaks, Greeks, Poles,
      and Ashkenazi Jews.
                          c. These immigrants, often uneducated (unlike their Anglo-
              Saxon/Nordic/Germanic predecessors) formed astonishingly rich cultural
      communities in cities like New York, Boston, and Chicago.
              3. Tenements offer an inadequate solution to the urban housing problem.
                          a. As some of the wealthy move to the suburb, they would rent their urban
      townhouses to as many as 8 families.
                          b. Dumbbell tenements offered an incredibly unsanitary housing situation.
                                    1) Dumbbell tenements had shared Air shafts between building, into
                          which garbage was thrown. These air shafts provided poor ventilation.
                                    2) Poor construction, boarded up windowns, and few windows made
                          worsened the situation.
              4. Responses to urbanization/immigration.
                          a. City governments did not provide an adequate service level for immigrants.
                          b. The new ‘Social Gospel’, a movement to provide help to the poor instead of
              dismissing their poverty.



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                                        1) William Rauschenbusch, a Baptist pastor in New York, preached this
                             new philosophy.
                                        2) Jane Addams, the founder of Hull House, in Chicago, starts a tradition
                   of settlement houses that serve poor immigrants with language
         instrucion, childcare, cultural activities.
                             c. ‘The New Nativism.’
                                        1) Immigrants of the previous generation viewed the new immigrants
                             with contempt, and were alarmed by their illiteracy, high birthrate, and
                   willingness to work for cheap wages.
                                        2) The American Protective Association (APA).
                                                    i. This organization urged voting against Roman Catholic
                             candidates.
                                        3) The government began to clamp down on immigration.
                                                    i. In 1882, Congress excludes paupers, criminals, and convicts.
                                                    ii. In 1885 forbids the exportation of workers under contract.
                                                    iii. In 1882, the Chinese Exclusion Act is passed.
                                                               •As the Chinese were arriving mostly on the West coast,
                                        where no industrial interest group existed to advocate
                             cheap labor, the Chinese had no one to promote their
                   welfare or continued immigration.

II. CULTURAL CHANGES DURING THE GILDED AGE
        A. RELIGIOUS CHANGES
                  1. J.P. Morgan and J.D. Rockefeller, contributed to the Baptist and Episcopal Churches,
        respectively.
                             a. These churches, ironically, owned many of the worst tenements in large
        cities.
                  2. Dwight Lyman Moody, a former shoe salesman, leads an urban revival by travelling
        through the country preaching in the 1870s and 1880s.
                  3. The Roman Catholic and Jewish religions were gaining strength from increased
        immigration.
                  4. New Religious denominations.
                             a. The Salvation Army, an originally English denomination, leads charitable
        efforts and has a militaristic structure.
                                        1) In exchange for clothes, homeless people would endure lectures.
                             b. Mary Baker Eddy starts the Christian Science Church.
                  5. Darwinism, Modernism, and Fundementalism.
                             a. In 1859, Charles Darwin publishes his landmark work, On the Origin of the
                  Species.
                                        i. This book argued that man and all other species evolved
                             chronologically from less complicated life forms.
                                        ii. Fundamentalists, whose whole faith lay contingent upon a literal
                  interpretation of the Bible, felt outraged and threatened by the new
        theory.
                                        iii. Modernists tried to reconcile Scientific and Religious ideas.
                             b. This conflict reaches a notable climax in the Scopes trial, where a
                  school teacher was prosecuted for teaching evolution by William
        Jenning Bryan.
        B. EDUCATION (WE STILL DON’T NEED NO)
                  1. High Schools become more prevalent, especially in the form of Comprehensive High
        Schools.
                             a. The Comprehensive High School introduced the elective system, in which
        required traditional courses would be mixed with a student selected curriculum
        of various classes, which often included vocational training.
                             b. This was in accordance with the philosophy of pragmatism, as advocated by
        John Dewey (U of Chicago) and William James (Harvard psychology).
                  2. The American University system, now the best in the world, begins to take form.
                             a. The Morill Act (1862) established the policy of land grants given to the
        board of directors of a university system.
                                        1) Most of the land would be sold to create money for a Universityu
                             endowment, while some of the land would be used for the actual
        campus.




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                                       2) This system is extended by the Hatch Act (1887) established the
                            policy of federal funding for agricultural and military divisions at state
                 universities.
      C. THE AFRO-AMERICAN EXPERIENCE IN THE GILDED AGE (GENERALLY STILL BAD)
                 1. Jim Crow laws keep blacks in a state of virtual slavery after Redemption in Southern
      States.
                 2. Booker T. Washington advocates a vocational education.
                            a. Washington, who became director of the Tuskegee Institute in Alabama,
      where a vocational education was given to black students so that, in
      accordance with Washington’s philosophy, they could earn a respectable place
      in the economic scale of society. (Washington takes over at Tuskegee in 1881)
                            b. Washington believed that before political/social equality could be achieved,
                 blacks must reach economic equality with whites.
                            c. The Tuskegee Institute was often supported monetarily by southerners, as it
                 urged an acceptance of certain aspects of the inferior station of blacks in
      American society.
                 3. W.E.B. Du Bois argued for immediate action and immediate equality.
                            a. One of the first black graduates of Harvard, Du Bois founded the NAACP, a
                 powerful lobbying organization in Afro-American issues.
      D. LITERATURE, ART, and JOURNALISM.
                 1. Journalism, now influenced by the idea of the mass market, succumbed to
      sensationalism in a trend known as ‘Yellow Journalism;.’
                            a. William Randolph Hearst and Joseph Pulitzer, engaged in a circulation war,
                 pushed this trend forward.
                            b. However, journalism did appeal more now to people of all classes, which is
      reflected by the presence of human interest stories, sports sections, and comic
      sections.
                 2. LIterature of the Gilded Age.
                            a. Henry George argued for a single, 100% tax on property inflation
                 (improvement of value without expenditure of labor or capital).
                            b. Edward Bellamy, who helped push the trend of of Fabian Socialism,
                 described a future Utopian society in his book Looking Backward.
                            c. Mark Twain.
                                       1) Beginning as reporter in the San Francisco area, Twain achieved
                            fame in his story “The Celebrated Jumping Frog of Calaveras County.”
                                       2) Twain coined the phrase, ‘The Gilded Age.’
                                       3) Twain acheived fame through his boyhood epics, Tom Sawyer and
                            Huckleberry Finn.
                            d. Bret Harte wrote about the west. Among his famous stories is The Outcasts
                 of Poker Flat.
                            e. Jack London, a socialist/Naturalist writer, is well known for The Call of the
      Wild.
                            f. Hamlin Garland wrote about the plight of the Midwestern Farmer, most
      notably in his story, Under the Lion’s Paw.
                            g. Kate Chopin wrote descriptive tales of life in the Deep South.
                            h. Upton Sinclair, a journalist and socialist, wrote The Jungle an exposé of meat
                 packing plants.
                            i. Henry James, brother of psychologist William James, wrote psychological
      dramas, such as Portrait of a Lady, and Wings of the Dove.
                            j. Emily Dickinson, a New England poet, did not achieve fame until after hher
                 death.
                            k. Horatio Alger wrote despicably simplistic accounts of the American dream,
      urging all little boys to work hard and make money. In actual life, this man was
      a drunkard and a womanizer.
                            l. General ‘Lew’ Wallace, horrified by Darwinism, wrote Ben-Hur to affirm the
                 faith of the American public in God.

                3. Art of the Gilded Age.
                           a. James Whistler is well known for his portrait of Whistler’s mother. This
      painting receives a refreshing update in the recent Bean Flic.
                           b. Winslow Homer, a Realist, was well known for his portraits of maritime life.
                           c. Frederic Remington, well known for his portraits of the Old West, was hired
                by William Randolph Hearst to document attrocities in Cuba, helping provoke
      the Spanish American War.



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                   4. Music.
                             a. John Phillip Sousa modifies the tuba to invent the sousaphone.
                             b. German Americans help sponsor first class American symphonies, among
         other philanthropic individuals.

         E. SPORTS AND OTHER PASTTIMES.
                  1. Baseball and football become national pasttimes.
                  2. Basketball is invented by James Naismith, a YMCA instructor, to keep track athletes
         busy during the winter.
                  3. Circuses, such as that of P.T. Barnum, become exhibitions of animal feats and
         American freaks. (How’s that for rhyme?)

          F. WOMEN IN THE GILDED AGE
                     1. Increased opportunity.
                               a. Industrialization and Urbanization afford women the right to work in
                     secretarial and sometimes even factory positions, although the latter is
          frowned upon and only used in dire need.
                     2. ‘The Cult of Domesticity.’
                               a. Women, for the most part were still expected to stay home and take care of
                     children.
                               b. However, an increasingly larger proportion was going to college, and as a
          result, the suffrage movement grew stronger.
                               c. Carrie Chapman, who succeeded Stanton and Anthony as leader of the
          womens’ suffrage movement, used the traditional position of a woman as a                                   caretaker
of children to argue that women should have a voice in local                                                schoolboard
elections, accepting the ‘cult of domesticity’ while using it as a                                 weapon for suffrage. (TALK
ABOUT A RUN ON)

III. WESTERN EXPANSION, NATIVE AMERICANS, AND THE POPULIST CRUSADE.
        A. AS THE FRONTIER LINE MOVES WEST, NATIVE AMERICANS LOSE THEIR LAND.
                  1. Motivations for forcing Native Americans off their land.
                              a. As Natural Resources were discovered in Indian territory, white settlers
        would pour in.
                              b. Violence and war would often ensue, and relocation follows.
                  2. Railroads sponsor slaughter of the bison, destroying the economic staple of many
        Plains Indians.
                  3. A Generation of Indian wars and relocations virtually exterminates the Native
        population.
                  4. Most move to Oklahoma
                  5. ‘Custer’s Last Stand.’
                              a. In the Battle of Little Bighorn, Crazy Horse leads the united Sioux, thanks to
                  spiritual leader Sitting Bull against a tiny Cavalry detachment, which is
        slaughtered.
                              b. Afterwards, reinforcements are sent, and the Sioux are defeated anyway.
                  6. Chief Joseph and the Nez Percé.
                              a. An Idaho Tribe, the Nez Percé, led by Chief Joseph, tried to flee to Canada
                  when prospectors invaded their territory in 1877.
                              b. The group was caught by Army leaders 30 miles from the border and sent to
                  a reservation.
                  7. Geronimo and the Southwestern Indians.
                              a. The militaristic Apaché tribes of New Mexico and Arizona fought until pursued
        into Mexico, scared by a heliograph.
                              b. The Group was moved to Oklahoma, where they became successful farmers.
                  8. Helen Hunt Jackson condemns United States Indian policy in the factual A Century of
        Dishonor and the novel Ramona.
                  9. Revolt spreads among Indian tribes, through the ‘Ghost Dance’ (which supposedly
        made Natives invinvible to bullets), and is crushed finally at The Battle of Wounded                        Knee
(1890).
                  10. The misguided Dawes Severalty Act (1887) exemplifies white attitudes towards
        Native Americans.
                              a. Under this act, Indian tribes were dissolved as legal entities.
                              b. Heads of Indian families would receive 160 acres of land, to which they
        would get title if they made the land productive.



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      B. MINING
                1. The 59ers look for gold and silver in cascade of strikes across the West, notably at
      Pike’s Peak in Colorado and the Comstock Lode of Nevada (Carson City, Virginia City)
                2. Mining Towns pop up all over the west, and are havens of alcaholism and crime.
                3. Sierra mining is facilitated by Adolf Sutro’s use of a pump to prevent flooding of
      mining shafts and caves.

      C. COWBOYS AND THE CATTLE KINGDOM
               1. Texas Longhorns are transported to railheads in places like Abilene, KS, and
      Cheyenne, WY, by cowboys.
               2. Cowboys direct the motion and grazing of cowboys as they undertake the Long
      Drive.
               3. The distinct niche of the Cowboy is eliminated.
                         a. Railroads extend further until the Long Drive is not needed.
                         b. Farmers and Sheepherders, not wishing farm produce or grazing land to be
               tramped on by cattle, fence land, facilitated by Joseph Glidden’s invention of
      barbed wire.
                         c. The winter of 1886-1887 wipes out about half the longhorns.
                         d. Grazing Sheep impede regrowth of grass and destroy grazing land.
                         e. Grange Wars emerge between farmers, sheepherders, and cowboys.

      D. WESTERN FARMING AND THE BIRTH OF THE POPULISTS
                 1. The Homestead Act of 1862.
                            a. Two alternatives were provided for acquiring land.
                                      1) Settlers could receive up to 160 acres of land by using it for 5 years,
                 improving it, usually via farming, and then paying a fee of about $30.
                                      2) Settlers could buy land at $1.25 an acre after living on it for 6 months
                            b. Weaknessess of the Homestead Act.
                                      1) Due to the dryness of the area, an entire parcel of land could rarely
                            be farmed pracically.
                                      2) As a result, 160 acres fell fall short of the amount of land that could
                            be farmed affordably.
                                      3) Speculators and corporate promoters often used fake homesteaders
                 to promote business interests or resell the land to the public at a profit.
                                      4) Many were forced to buy from the Railroads instead, because of the
                 necessity of transporting crops.
                 2. Once thought Barren, the Great Plains become a farming powerhouse.
                            a. Beneath the initially infertile topsoil lay fertile soil that was discovered.
                            b. Improved irrigation and heartier strains of grain make farming more
                 practical.
                            c. Improved Flour milling increase grain demand.
                            d. Single Crop farming, a booster for efficiency, become popular at the expense
      of diversified subsistence farming.
                            e. Farming machinery becomes expensive and complicated.
                                      1) Steam Engines drive plows, seeders, and harrowers, all at the same
                 time.
                                      2) Farm technology culminates in the combine, which reaped and
                 bagged grain.
                                      3) As a result of improved technology, farming became expensive to
                            the extent where many smaller farms could not manage resources to be
      able to afford new production methods, forcing many farmers out of
      business.
                                      4) Many farmers went to the cities, where they added to the industrial
                            work force.
                                      5) Farmers still in the West begin to consolidate and form huge farms.
                 3. A Cascade of Western states joins the Union.
                            a. The Republican Congress, between 1889 and 1890, admits the Dakotas,
      Montana, Washington, Idaho, and Wyoming, but hold off on Utah until 1896,
      when the Mormon church banned polygamy.
                            b. The Government declares many Native acres open to settlement , causing an
      Oklahoma landrush of about 60,000 in 1889.
                            c. Some, known as ‘sooners’, illegally entered the territory early and used
      unscrupulous methods to get land.
                            d. Oklahoma is admitted as a state in 1907.



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                              e. The Frontier line officially disappears in 1890.
                   4. The Turner Thesis and the importance of the frontier.
                              a. Historian Frederick Jackson Turner claimed that the Western frontier was a
                   defining characteristic of American civilization.
                                         1) Turner argued that a spirit of self reliance and ruggedness was
                   established by Americans during this time period.
                                         2) Turner argued that the frontier served as a safety valve for
                              overcrowded cities in economically difficult times.
                              b. Although this thesis held value to the extent that the frontier, by making land
                   readily available, made possible Jacksonian Democracy by making white
         manhood suffrage universal, there were some flaws.
                                         1) It was, in fact, the cities that served as a sort of safety valve for
                   embattled farmers, who were being ruined by consolidation and low
         prices.
                                         2) Job opportunities were abundant in industry, and poor European
                              peasants could rarely afford the moving expense or the land expense
                   necessary to go West.
                                                    i. Some peasant immigrants first moved to cities in Europe, and
                              as a result, were planning to go West.
                                         3) Finally, entrenched urban dwellers were not about to throw their arms
                   in the air, go west, and have a jolly old square dance.
                   5. Farmers, who were often free-silverites, backed the Greenback-Laborite party in
         1878 and 1880, when the candidate for President was future Populist candidate                                General
James B. Weaver.
                   6. In the late 1880s, organizations known as Farmers’ Alliances began to replace the
         Grange, and towards the beginning of the1890s, coalesced into the Populist party.
                              a. Popular speakers began to spread the protest of the farmers.
                                         i. Ignatius Donnelly, an inspiring speaker, was elected to Congress 3
                              times.
                                         ii. Mary Ellen Lease was a prolific speaker of impressive physical
                   appearance. She argued against a government ‘of Wall Street, by Wall
         Street, and for Wall Street’

IV. POLITICS AND PRESIDENTS IN THE GILDED AGE.
         A. THE ELECTION AND PRESIDENCY OF ULYSSES S. GRANT
               1. The election of 1868.
                     a. This is the first election since 1864 where the Republican party, free of being
                         bound to the Union party coalition, can nominate its own candidate without
                         the interference of former War Democrats.
                     b. Republicans nominate war hero U.S. Grant, with a platform calling for
                         continued military Reconstruction. Grant instinctively trusted his friends,
                         often corrupt and dishonest, and had little political know how.
                     c. Democrats nominate Horatio Seymour, a former governor of New York is
                         nominated. A small conflict over platform develops.
                              i. Wealthy Easterners want redemption of war bonds in gold, even
                                   though many had been bought with Greenbacks.
                              ii. Westerners wanted redemption in Greenbacks when possible. This
                                   is called the ‘repudiation’ plank. Reasons for this lie in farmers’
                                   desires. See the next unit for explanation.
                              iii. Although Seymour, a wealthy conservative, is nominated, the
                                   Western ‘repudiation’ plank is part of the platform.
                      d. Grant wins with a small popular majority. A ‘Bloody Shirt’ campaign is
                           waived, meaning that Grant’s image as a war hero is heavily utilized.
               2. The Corruption of the Grant Presidency.
                     a. Grant had no political experience, trusted his dishonest friends too much,
                         and kind of saw the presidency as his award for being a successful general.
                         He enjoyed the benefits of the Presidency without doing anything of true
                         value for the country.
                     b. ‘Black Friday’ and the Gold Market Corner.
                              i. The two man team of Jim Fisk and Jay Gould concoct a scheme


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                                   whereby they would slowly accumulate gold until it reached a high
                                   price, and then sell it and make an enormous profit.
                              ii. The plan was contingent on the U.S. Treasury not selling gold, as
                                   that would bring the price back down.
                              iii. Gould and Fisk get at Grant through his brother and law, and they
                                   drive prices of gold up dramatically on ‘Black Friday,’ making money
                                   while many businessmen lost all their money.
                     c. Stock Market manipulation.
                              i. J.P. Morgan often slowly accumulates stock through his agents
                                   without dramatically increasing the price.
                              ii. Then good old J.P. would do something like waltz openly onto the
                                   stock market floor, and buy 1000 shares of a company’s stock,
                                   driving up the price and increasing the value of his holdings.
                     d. Boss ‘Tweed’ and the Tammany Hall political machine.
                              i. Tammany Hall is the exemplification of the urban political machine.
                                        • The political machine provides immigrants with help in
                                        establishing stable lives in cities.
                                        • These immigrants are then encouraged or even coerced into
                                        participating in corrupt voting practices during city elections, by
                                        which politicians involved in the political machine would be
                                        elected to city office.
                                        • This politician would then hire a company involved with the
                                        political machine to perform/build some public work for an
                                        outrageous price. The mayor/other politicians would then split
                                        the remainder. This process is called graft.
                              ii. Thomas Nast ridicules Tweed in the New York Times through his
                                   cartoons.
                              iii. Samuel Tilden, a New York attorney, prosecutes and puts Tweed
                                   behind bars.
                     e. The ‘Whiskey Ring.’
                              i. Excise tax coming in for whiskey would be kept by corrupt tax
                                   collectors.
                     f. Secretary of War Belknap pocketed about $24,000 by selling old supplies to
                     Native Americans through the Bureau of Indian Affairs.
             3.   The Election of 1872.
                     a. Liberal Republicans turn against Grant, and nominate, without the support of
                         the Republican mainstream, the editor of the New York Tribune, Horace
                         Greeley.
                     b. Democrats nominate Greeley as well, even though he had dissed Democrats
                         in his newspaper.
                     c. This was a nasty, smear filled election, but the ‘Bloody Shirt’ pulls through,
                         Grant wins.
                     d. Greeley’s life is ruined by the election. Loses election, wife, mind, job, life.
                         Bummer!
             4.   The Panic of 1873.
                     a. Speculation and over-expansion, coupled with bad loans, and ventures that
                         just didn’t come through, cause a financial crash, again.
                     b. Some wanted inflation to alleviate the situation, and began to argue for
                         printing of more Greenbacks, to the dismay of Conservatives, who, through
                         Grant and the U.S. Treasury , had already withdrawn about $100 million
                         worth of greenbacks from circulation. The per capita money supply actually
                         went down from 1870 to 1880.
                     c. In 1875, Congress passes the Resumption Act, which forces the government
                         to withdraw more greenbacks and to redeem all currency at face value in
                         gold.



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                      d. Free-Silver issues.
                              i. In the 1870s, the Treasury stupidly continues to insist that silver is
                                   only worth 1/16 per unit the cost of gold.
                              ii. Silver miners stopped selling to the government to protest this.
                              iii. Congress, in response, stops making silver dollars in 1873.
                              iv. When new silver strikes come in 1873, prices go down and silver
                                   miners wanted the government to buy silver in large quantities.
                                   Advocates of inflation jump on the bandwagon.
                              v. Free-silverites continue to assail the government, and in 1878, the
                                   Bland-Allison Act is passed, which authorized the government to buy
                                   and coin between $2-4 million dollars each month.
            5. The Stalwarts and the Half-Breeds.
                     a. Politics are very volatile, with majorities in both houses switching often.
                         Politics have little do with principle during this period.
                     b. Politics did, however, get very partisan, because of differences in the style
                         and constituency of parties.
                              i. Republicans were associated with puritan values and wealth.
                              ii. Democrats often pandered to the immigrant class, which drew
                                   heavily from Roman Catholics.
                              iii. Republicans typically controlled the Midwest and the Northeast, and
                                   counted on the vote of freedmen in the South.
                              iv. Republicans also drew on formal Civil War veterans, represented by
                                   the GAR (Grand Army of the Republic).
                     c. Stalwarts, lead by Senator Roscoe Conkling, stick with the spoils system in
                         civil service.
                     d. Half-Breeds, .led by James G. Blaine of Maine, argue for some civil service
                         reform. Blaine was rather corrupt and brutal himself though.
      B. THE ELECTION OF 1876 AND THE PRESIDENCY OF RUTHERFORD B. HAYES.
            1. The House, in a special resolution, warns Grant not to run for a 3rd term. Everybody
                knew he was an inept idiot.
            2. Republicans, caught in a battle between Stalwarts and Half-Breeds, nominate
                Rutherford B. Hayes, who few had heard of before.
            3. Democrats nominate Tilden.
            4. Results are disputed in Louisiana, South Carolina, and Florida, where both
                Republican and Democratic results are submitted from each state.
            5. The Constitution provisioned that the HOR and Senate would count the votes, the
                outcome depended on who counted them.
            6. To avoid the crisis, the Electoral Count Act is passed, creating a commission of 5
                members of the HOR, 5 Senators, and 5 Supreme Court Justices
            7. When Justice David Davis, an independent, resigned because of election to the
                Senate, he is replaced by Republican Justice Joseph P. Bradley.
            8. The commission accepts the Republican results, and Democrats are ticked off.
            9. Conflict is avoided by the Compromise of 1877, by which Hayes is given the election
                in return for several concessions to Democrats.
                     a. Democrats would profit from patronage in the Hayes Administration, ie
                         getting public appointments.
                     b. The government would subsidize construction of a southern transcontinental
                         railroad. This did not come through it later years.
                     c. Most importantly, federal troops would be withdrawn from the last states
                         where they remained, Louisiana, and South Carolina, effectively ending
                         Reconstruction.
            10. Hayes has a somewhat puritannical reputation, but does little for the country.
            11. When labor disorders break out in 1877, Hayes stands by big business.
            12. After the transcontinental railroads complete construction, many Chinese laborers
                went back to China.



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                      a. Those who don’t are often persecuted by the likes of Denis Kearney.
                      b. Congress tries to pass a Chinese Exclusion Act in 1879, but Hayese vetoes
                         it.
      C. JAMES GARFIELD/CHESTER ARTHUR
            1. Election of 1880.
                    a. Republicans.
                              i. The Republicans nominate Half-Breed James Garfield for President
                                  and Stalwart Chester Arthur for VP to avoid deadlock.
                              ii. The GOP platform calls for a high protective tariff and mildly
                                  suggests civil service reform.
                    b. The Democrats nominate Winfield Hancock, another Civil War general.
                    c. Republicans pour money into the election, and Garfield barely wins, despite
                         allegations of his involvement in the Credit Mobilier scandal, which involved
                         illegal embezzlement of public funds in the construction of the
                         Transcontinental Railroad.
            2. James Blaine is made Secretary of State.
            3. ‘The Battle of Albany.’
                    a. The corrupt NY customs collector, an important civil position, is thrown out
                         by Garfield, and a Half-Breed is installed in office.
                    b. Conkling actually tries to install a Stalwart into the office, but is
                         unsuccessful.
            4. Charles Guiteau, a Stalwart angry about not receiving a federal appointment in
                return for his support for Garfield, shoots Garfield. Arthur is President of the U.S.,
                but to the disappointment of Stalwarts, he sticks to Blaine’s Half-demands for reform.
            5. The Pendleton Act of 1883.
                    a. This act eliminated the buying and selling of civil service posts.
                    b. A merit system for civil service appointments is established, under which
                         applicants for chosen classified offices would have to take a merit based
                         examination to compete for the job.
                    c. This is revolutionary, as it is the first earnest attempt at Civil Service Reform
                         in the United States,
            6. Arthur also promotes the development of a modern navy. RED FLAG!
      D. THE PRESIDENCY OF GROVER CLEVELAND.
            1. The Election of 1884.
                    a. James Blaine is nominated by the Republican Party, and inspires scandal
                         through corrupt business deals. (aka ‘Burn this letter.’) Some Republican
                         split from the party, and vote for Cleveland. They are known as mugwumps.
                    b. Democrats turn to reformer governor of New York, Grover Cleveland.
                         Cleveland also inspires scandal, however through his affair with a widow,
                         which produced an illegitimate child, which he had taken financial
                         responsibility for
                    c. The campaign is dirty and mean.
                    d. Blaine stupidly calls the Democrats the party of Rum, Romanism, and
                         Rebellion, angering Irish voters in New York, and giving Cleveland a narrow
                         margin of victory.
            2. Cleveland, though a believed in the merit system, eventually gives to partisan
            demands and fires 2/3ds of the civil service, replacing them with Democrats, among
            them some former Confederates.
            3. Cleveland, for the most part, was a firm believer in laissez-faire capitalism.
            4. Cleveland, in his desire for reform, vetoed many GAR pension bills, which reeked of
                graft. (BAILEYISM)
            5. Cleveland was a firm believer in a lower tariff.
                    a. Cleveland found the $145 million government surplus embarassing, and
                         found himself between spending the money on ‘pork-barrel’ programs or on
                         cutting tariffs.



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                             b.Cleveland asked Congress for a lower tariff several times, but is not
                               successful, and this becomes a central issue in the upcoming election.
                             WHICH OF ALL THESE ELECTIONS WAS CLEAN?
        E. THE PRESIDENCY OF BENJAMIN HARRISON (1889-1893)
                   1. Harrison surrounds himself with Republican politicos.
                              a. James Blaine is named Secretary of State.
                              b. Theodore Roosevelt was named to a Civil Service Commission.
                   2. The ‘Billion Dollar Congress’ and Czar Reed.
                              a. Reed pushed through his agenda by manipulating House rules, thus avoiding
        crippling stalemates, changing quorom calls and getting rid of filibusters.
                              b. The Pension Act of 1890 gave pensions to all Union Civil War veterans and
                   vastly increased the amount of money the government spent on early
        assistance programs.
                              c. The Sherman Antitrust Act was passed under this administration.
                              d. The Sherman Silver Purchase Act of 1890/McKinley Tarriff
                                        1) Silver miners, unhappy with prices provided for under the Bland-
                   Allison Act, pushed for massive purchases of silver by the government.
                                        2) Farmers, at the same time, were pushing for free silver policies.
                                        3) Under the Sherman Silver Purchase Act, the government agreed for
                              the Treasury to buy 4.5 million ounces of silver monthly, paid for by
                   notes reedeemable in silver or gold.
                                        4) Support was gathered for the bill by Republicans by pushing through
                              the McKinley Tarriff, which raised the average tariff to about 50%.
                                                   i. Tariffs were raised on agricultural and industrial goods.
                                        5) Farmers agreed to support the tariff, while Republicans, in return,
                              agreed to support the new silver policy. RED FLAG
        RUDOLPH! RECIPROCAL TRADE?
                                        6) The bill actually made life more difficult for farmers, because of
                   higher prices, and did little to protect farmers, as they didn’t need
        protection. (American grain prices were far lower than those of
        European competitors)
                                        7) In the election of 1890, the House was overrun with Democrats
                   because of the unpopular tarriff.
                   3. The Election of 1892.
                              a. The Republicans nominated President Harrisson.
                              b. Populists, running their first Presidential candidate, ran James B. Weaver,
        and declared their proposed policies in the Omaha Platform.
                                        1) Coinage of of silver, with a value ratio to gold of 16 to 1.
                                        2) A graduated income tax.
                                        3) Public ownership of railroad, telephone, and telegraph systems.
                                        4) An 8 hour working day.
                                        5) Political reforms.
                                                   i. Initiative.
                                                   ii. Referendum.
                                                   iii. Secret Ballots.
                                                   iv. Direct election of Senators.
RED FLAG RUDOLPH!
                              c. The Democrats nominated Grover Cleveland.
                              d. The Homestead Lockout, a labor conflict between a Carnegie steel plant and
                   its workers, shamed the government because of the violent involvement of
        Pinkerton detectives.
                              e. Cleveland won the election, with Weaver coming in with an impressive 3rd,
                   winning 22 electoral votes.
                              f. The Populists show as strongly as they might have, because white farmers
                   were paranoid about the fact that the Populist party attracted a large number of
        blacks.
        F. GROVER CLEVELAND’S SECOND ADMINISTRATION:
                   1. Economic collapse arrives with the Panic of 1893, which becomes a depression.
                              a. Causes of this Panic.
                                        1) Our good friend overspeculation is one of them.
                                        2) Current Agricultural Depression.
                                        3) Free silver advocates scare European banks to withdraw assets and
                   loans in the United States.




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                               b. A massive series of business failures left 20% of the country unemployed.
                                          1) ‘General’ Jacob Coxey leads a march of the unemployed on
                               Washington, and is arrested promptly upon arrival.
                               c. People, losing confidence in the economy in the dollar, rush to redeem
          greenbacks, many originally put into circulation, for gold.
                                          1) The U.S. Treasury Gold Reserve shrinks below $100 million, and
                    Cleveland calls a special sesssion of Congress with the intentiion of
          repealing the Sherman Silver PurchaseAct.
                                                     i. A debate ensues, and William Jennings Bryan makes his
                                          famous speech.
                                                     ii. The Sherman Silver Purchase Act is repealed.
                               d. J.P. Morgan, after negotiation with Cleveland, agrees, with a consortium of
                    bankers to loan $65 million to the U.S. Treasury, and makes a commission of
          $7 million dollars. Although restores confidence in the dollar, it is embarrassing                            to
Cleveland and angers the population at large.
                               e. By 1894, the Country has a deficit as opposed to the previous surplus.
                               f. Because of the depression, Republicans win the legislative elections of1894.
                    2. The Pullman Strike (1894).
                               a. Eugene V. Debs, and the American Railway Union, strike against the Pullman
                    Palace Car company in Chicago
                               b. Governor Altgeld, the liberal governor of Illionois, did not take any action.
                               c. Grover Cleveland and Attorney General Olney want to use federal troops,
                               d. Troops are sent in when strikers ignore a federal injunction, and the strike is
                    crushed. Debs’ jail time is key to transfroming him into a Socialist leader.
                    3. The Wilson-Gorman Tariff (1894).
                               a. Cleveland, wishing to introduce real tariff reform, argued for a moderate
          protective tariff with a graduated income tax.
                               b. Lobbyists tack on about 600 amendments, and the tariff is not significantly
                    reduced.
                               c. The only redeeming quality of the tariff to Cleveland, the graduated income
                    tax, is ruled unconstitutional by the Supreme Court in 1895.
                    5. The Election of 1896.
                               a. William McKinley, of McKinley tariff fame, is advocated by Republican insider
          Marc Hanna, who pays off some of McKinley’s business debts.
                                          1) Hanna believed that government should assist business, but not
                    regulate or impede it.
                                          2) The Republican Platform is anti-silver, and pro-tariff, despite the fact
                               that McKinley had been somewhat of a silverite.
                               b. Democrats, angry at Cleveland for conservative policies, nominate William
          Jennings Bryan, who steals the show at the Democratic Convention with his                                     ‘Cross of
Gold’ speech.
                                          1) Bryan’s platform.
                                                     i. A graduated income tax.
                                                     ii. Free Silver (16:1)
                                                     iii. Against a high tariff.
                                                     iv. Against anti-union court injunctions.
                                          2) Some Democrats defect to the Republican party because of silver.
                               c. William Jennings Bryan is also nominated by the Populist party.
                               d. Marc Hanna organizes a massive campaign.
                                          1) Hanna organizes conservatives who are scared of free silver policies
                    and raises an enormous amount of funds fot he campaign.
                                          2) This money is spent printing propaganda.
                               e. Bryan travels around the country giving speeches, but is hurt by a rise in
          grain prices.
                               f. Industrialists side with McKinley and use intimidation tactics, threatening pay
                    cuts, to encourage employees to vote for McKinley.
                               g. McKinley wins the election, carrying the east and farmers in the northern
          section of the Midwest, who did not have mortgages.
                               h. This election was the last time agricultural and money issues dominated an
                    election, ond marked the beginning of a new Republican era.
                               i. Soon after McKinley’s inauguration, the Dingley tariff, almost as high as the
                    McKinley tariff, is passed.
                               j. McKinley appoints Theodore Roosevelt Assistant Secretary of the Navy.




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V. FOREIGN RELATIONS DURING THE GILDED AGE (THROUGH TR)
        A. THE NEW MANIFEST DESTINY
                   1. Motivations.
                              a. Social Darwinism preaches survival of the fittest. As applied to foreign
        affairs, this meant that many felt that it was our right and prerogative to
        colonize/dominate the world.
                              b. Ethnocentricism, as exemplified by the idea of the ‘White Man’s Burden’, was
        used as justification for cultural subjugation and enlightening so called
        primitives to our economic ideas.
                              c. International Capitalism as applied to the birth of American imperialism.
                                         1) Overproduction creates the need to find new markets.
                                         2) Demand for Raw materials.
                                         3) Demand for cheap labor.
                              d. Desire by Christian sects to spread religion through missionary activities.
                              e. Imperial prestige and the desire of international competition.
                              f. In some cases, political idealism and the desire/myth of bringing democracy
                   to ‘oppressed’ people.
                   2. Influential literature of the New Manifest Destiny.
                              a. Yellow Journalism, notably that of Pulitzer and Hearst, created interest in
        foreign issues.
                              b. Alfred Mahan’s The Influence of Sea Power upon History, 1660-1783 argued
                   for naval superiority as the key to world domination.
        B. THE BELLIGERENT FOREIGN POLICY OF JAMES BLAINE.
                   1. Near war in the Samoa islands.
                              a. Germany, shows an interest in Pago Pago, a strategic coaling station, which
                   the United States wants as well.
                              b. British and American fears about German naval expansion almost lead to
        naval war, but is averted when Britain, the United States, and Germany,                                            establish
Samoa as a protectorate of all 3 nations over Samoa, with the United                                    States retaining Pago Pago.
HELP RUDOLPH!
                   2. When two United States sailors from the U.S.S. Baltimore are linched in Valparaiso
        (1891), war almost occurs between the United SWtates and Chile, lead by President
        Balmaceda. REA MAKES BLAINE LOOK GOOD! ?
                   3. 11 sailors are lynched in New Orleans in 1891, and war is only averted when the
        United States agrees to pay compensation.
                   4. Tension with Canada over seal hunting in the Pribilof islands almostleads to war.
        C. THE FOREIGN POLICY OF GROVER CLEVELAND AND SECRETARY OF STATE RICHARD OLNEY
                   1. The Crisis in Venezuela.
                              a. A very vague boundary existed between British Guiana and Venezuela.
                              b. Gold is discovered in the disputed region between 1895 and 1896.
                              c. President Cleveland, through Olney, declares to the British that their territorial
        demands would constitute a violation of the Monroe Doctrine.
                                         1) Britain ignored the notice and denied the relevance of the Monroe
                              Doctrine.
                                         2) Cleveland, in response, pushed through Congress a plan under which
                   a commission of experts would draw the border line, and then the
        United States would enforce such a boundary, and war seemed
        imminent.
                                                    i. However, Britain did not want to endanger Canada or its
                                         merchant marine.
                                                    ii. Britain, at the time, had unfriendly relations with France,
                                         Russia, and Germany.
                                                    iii. When Kaiser Wilhelm II of Germany praised the Boers for
                                         capturing a British raiding party, British Anger was deflected to
                              Germany, and war was averted.
                   2. Rebellion in Hawaii.
                              a. After a missionary era, Hawaii became economically dominated by white
        planters, notably Sanford Dole of pineapple fame.
                              b. A commercial trade agreement (1875) and a treaty guaranteeing the right of
        the United States to keep a naval base at Pearl Harbor extend United States
        domination of the islands.
                              c. Planters organize a successful revolt in 1893.
                                                    1) Queen Liliuokalani, by argueing for native rule in Hawaii,
                                         angered the planters.



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                                                2) The McKinley Tariff made many planters anxious to be part
                                      of the United States
                                                3) A Treaty of Annexation is sent to the United States Congress,
                           but by the time it was brought up as legislation, the 2nd
      Cleveland Administration had begun.
                                                4) Cleveland, after discovering that most Hawaiians were
                           against annexation, withdrew the treaty from Congress.
      D. REVOLT IN CUBA AND THE SPANISH AMERICAN WAR.
                 1. Violence erupts in Cuba.
                           a. High American Tariffs cripple the sugar market in Cuba, the center of the
      island’s economy.
                           b. A tyranical Spanish regime, which raked profits off of peasants and farmer,
                 further aggravated the situation.
                           c. Rebellion erupts, and the participators, known as insurrectos, adopted a
      scorched policy.
                 2. American sympathy arises for the insurrectos.
                           a. United States business men had about $50 million invested in Cuba as well
                           as annual trade amounting to about $150 million.
                           b. Democratic leanings are condusive to support for the Cubans.
                 3. The situation worsens with the arrival of General ‘Butcher’ Weyler, who starts herding insurrectos and
                 innocent Cubans into virtual rereconcentration camps. (1896)
                 4. Hearst and Pulitzer newspapers sensationalize the Cuban situation in a circulation war.
                           a. Hearst sends the artist Frederic Remington to document attrocities in Cuba.
                           When he reports that there were none, Hearst is reported to have said, “You
                           furnish the pictures and I’ll furnish the war.”
                5. The U.S.S. Maine, sent to Cuba to protect United States interests, explodes in Havana harbor in 1898,
                 leading to the eruption of hostilities.
                           a. U.S. Naval officials conclude that the explosion was caused by a mine.
                           b. Spanish officials concluded that the explosion was an accident.
                           c. Admiral Rickover proved in 1976 that the explosion was indeed an accident.
                           d. The yellow press again sensationalizes the matter, and the country turns overwhelmingly for
                           war.
                           e. Ironically, United States diplomats in Madrid had already convinced Spanish officials to agree
                           to end to reconcentration and an armistice with the rebels.
                           f. McKinley was reluctant to go to war, as business did not want to rock the boat, but asks
                           Congress for a war declaration on April 11, 1898, for several reasons.
                                      1) Public Pressure is enormous.
                                      2) McKinley doubted that the supposedly unreliable Spanish would              comply
                           with American Demands.
                                      3) McKinley was afraid that William Jennings Bryan would use Cuba as ammunition in
                                      next election.
                                      4) McKinley’s major doubt about declaring war lay with his desire to avoid upsetting
                                      Marc Hanna and the business interests supporting the Republican Party, as they were
                                      not for war.
                                      5) Congress, along with the war declaration, adopts the Teller Amendment, that
                                      declared that the United States would give Cuba independence if the United States
                                      won the war.
                 6. Although Spain had a larger navy and army, they were both mismanaged to the extent that the smaller
                 United States armed forces had a relatively easy time defeating them.
                 7. American forces seize Guam before Spanish authorities there realize that a war is going on.
                 8. The invasion of the Philippines.
                           a. While Secretary of the Navy Long was away for a weekend, assistant secretary TR ordered
                           Admiral Dewey, in Hong Kong, to attack the Philippines if war broke out.
                           b. Dewey complied, and in May, 1898, he sunk the Spanish fleet that was in Manila harbor.
                           c. Dewey had along with him the Philippine resistance leader Emilio Aguinaldo, who had been
                           exiled to China for his rebellious activities.
                           d. Due to the fact that no American army had yet arrived on the Philippine islands, Dewey could
                           not begin a land invasion of the Philippines.
                           e. German and British fleets are dispatched to the same harbor.
                                      1) The German fleet tried to ignore an American blockade, provoking Admiral Dewey.
                                      2) The British fleet was blatantly friendlyw with the American fleet.
                           f. The Philippines are not conquered until American troops arrive in August, 1898, a day after
                           the armistice had been signed.
                 9. McKinley signed a resolution of annexation for Hawaii after it passed through Congress.



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              10. The invasion of Cuba.
                        a. Spanish Admiral Cervera is sent to Cuba with his fleet, and digs in at Santiago Harbor.
                        b. General William Shafter leads American land forces in Cuba.
                        c. The ‘Rough Riders.’
                                  1) This was a patriotic volunteer group organized by TR, who left his post in the
                                  McKinley administration to fight.
                                  2) The ‘Rough Riders’ hijack a military transport and use it to get to Cuba.
                                  3) The group is commanded by Colonel Leonard Wood.
                                  4) This group is rather incompetent, and loses most of its horses on the way to Cuba.
                        d. Shafter easily lands in Cuba, and defeats the Spanish at the well known battles of El Caney
                        and San Juan Hill. The ‘Rough Riders’ took part in both of these battles.
                        e. American forces destroy the Spanish fleet in Santiago Harbor.
              11. After defeating the Spanish in Cuba, and the army, led by General Nelson Miles, seizes Puerto Rico.
              12. Negotiations in Paris. (1898)
                        a. Guam and Puerto Rico are ceded to the United States.
                        b. Cuba is made independent.
                        c. Diplomatic conflict over the Philippines.
                                  1) At first, McKinley was unsure if keeping the Philippines would be a wise decision.
                                  Several issues were at play.
                                             i. The Philippines were far away, and difficult to defend.
                                             ii. The United States had little truly strategic need for the Philippines.
                                             iii. Britain, however, pressured the United States to keep the Philippines in
                                             order to avoid the possibility that German naval expansion might threaten
                                             the Philippines and lead to military conflict.
                                  2) Once McKinley decides to insist upon the Philippines, the Spanish object, citing the
                                  fact that the Philippines were actually captured after the armistice.
                                  3) Eventually an agreement is reached, under which the United States pays Spain $20
                                  million for the Philippines.
              13. Debate over the war and the emergence of anti-imperialism.
                        a. An Anti-Imperialist League forms, counting among its members several noted personalities.
                                  1) Mark Twain.
                                  2) Samuel Gompers.
                                  3) William James. ( ‘a squalid war’)
                                  4) Andrew Carnegie.
                        b. Andrew Carnegie, in the midst of debate over the Philippines, offers to buy independence for
                        the Philippines, but his offer is spurned.
                        c. William Jennings Bryan, to the surprise of many, supports the treaty, and through his
                        influence with several Democratic members of the Senate, secures its passage. (1899)
      E. ISSUES REGARDING TERRITORY TAKEN IN THE SPANISH AMERICAN WAR.
              1. Puerto Rico.
                        a. The Foraker Act (1900) gives a form of self government to Puerto Rico.
                        b. Puerto Ricans are given U.S. citizenship in 1917.
              2. Cuba.
                        a. Health improvements under the military government of General Leonard Wood.
                                  1) Dr. Walter Reed, by using soldier volunteers, isolated the stegomyia mosquito as
                                  the carrier of yellow fever, which plagued Cubans as well as American soldiers.
                                  2) A clean up effort is undertaken to destroy breeding places of this mosquito, leading
                                  to the elimination of yellow fever in Havana.
                        b. Withdrawal and the Platt Amendment.
                                  1) American forces withdraw from Cuba in 1902.
                                  2) The United States forces into the Cuban constitution the Platt Amendment.
                                             i. Cuba is not allowed to make alliances or diplomatically compromise their
                                             independence to any nation.
                                             ii. Cuba will not go into excessive debt.
                                             iii. The United States reserves the right to land troops in Cuba to maintain
                                             order.
                                             iv. Cuba provides the United States with coaling and naval stations.
                                                          •Guantanamo Bay, the location of an American base that still exists
                                                          on Cuban soil, was a provision of the Platt Amendment.
              3. The Philippines.
                        a. Emilio Aguinaldo, who had unified Filipinos to overthrow the Spanish, now led a rebellion
                        against the United States, who he feels betrayed the Philippine Islands by not granting them
                        independence.




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                           b. A war ensues, and among attrocities committed by American soldiers is the creation of camps
                           very similar to the reconcentration camps that had existed in Cuba under General Weyler.
                           c. The rebellion is crushed when Aguinaldo is captured in 1901.
                           d. McKinley creates a Philippine Commision to deal with policy in the region, led by William Taft,
                           who develops a condescending but benevolent view of the Philippines.
                                      1) The Commision’s recommendation leads to road construction, health programs, and
                                      educational improvements, all paid for with American dollars.
                4. The status of territories in the Union.
                           a. Questions arose over the extent to which the Constitution and tariff laws applied to
                           conquered tierritory.
                           b. In a series of rulings known as the ‘insular cases,’ the Supreme Court declares that
                           Constitutional rights and United States law do not necessarily extend to conquered territory
      F. CHINA.
                1. China’s age old policy of isolation fails.
                           a. Britain forces China open by promoting the sale of opium in China, culminating in the Opium
                           Wars, which humiliate China, and result in prostrating the Chinese government to European
                           demands.
                           b. China is defeated by Japan in war (1894-5), and as a result, European powers get a foothold
                           in China through socioeconomic ‘spheres of influence.’
                                      1) The weak and corrupt Manchu government of China can not control the European
                                      powers.
                2. The ‘Open Door’
                           a. McKinley’s Secretary of State John Hay was worried about European domination of China for
                           several reasons.
                                      1) McKinley and many Americans were worried about what practically amounted to the
                                      dissolution of the Chinese antion.
                                      2) More importantly, McKinley did not want all of the economic opportunies of China in
                                      the hands of European powers. Free trade and American prosperity were important
                                      motives.
                           b. In 1899, McKinley sent the ‘Open Door’ note to the dominant foreign powers in the world.
                                      1) In this note, Hay proposed free trade and equal access to China.
                                      2) Italy accepts the policy unconditionally.
                                      3) Japan, Germany, Britain, and France all accept the policy, but their compliance is
                                      contingent on every other country involved following the policy.
                                      4) Russia, trying to protect Manchurian railroad interests, gives a cryptic, though
                                      implicitly negative, response.
                                                 i. Hay interprets the answer as one of approval and declares victory for the
                                                 Open Door.
                           c. The policy is ignored at the time and does not become important until later, in the 20th
                           century.
                3. The Boxer Rebellion.
                           a. In 1900 a group of Chinese nationalists, known as the ‘Boxers,’ marches on Beijing, with the
                           intention of forcing foreign powers to respect Chinese rights.
                           b. A multinational army of occupying powers (Japan, Russia, Britain, France, Germany, and the
                           United States) suppresses the rebellion.
                           c. China is forced to pay indemnity charge of $333 million dollars.
                           d. The U.S. returns $18 million to China, and some of this money is used to send talented
                           Chinese students to the United States. (Among these students were some future leaders of the
                           Chinese Revolution)
      G. THEODORE ROOSEVELT’S RISE TO THE PRESIDENCY.
                1. McKinley, with no challenger to speak of, is nominated as the Republican presidential candidate in
                1900.
                2. TR, who had been elected governor of New York after the Spanish American war, was creating trouble
                for local political bosses, was easily nominated for the vice-presidential slot.
                3. William Jennings Bryan is nominated by the Democrats, and runs as on anti-imperialism and the moot
                issue of free silver.
                4. Voters voted their pocketbooks in this time of prosperity, and McKinley is easily reelected.
                5. McKinley is murdered by an anarchist in 1901, and TR takes over as President.
      H. THEODORE ROOSEVELT’S ‘BIG STICK’ FOREIGN POLICY. (Stick Stick bo bick bananafana fo fick fie fie fo, oh
      wait I better not go on)
                1. The Panama Canal.
                           a. The United Sates is alerted to the necessity of expediting the construction of a canal in
                           Central America when the battleship Oregon is forced to go around the tip of South America to




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                      get from the Pacific to Cuba. This is amplified by the acquisition of new territories in the
                      Caribbean and the Pacific.
                      b. The Hay-Pauncefote Treaty (1901) with Britain allows the United States to begin canal
                      construction and have exclusive control over the canal, negating the Clayton-Bulwer Treaty.
                      c. The debate over where to build the canal.
                                1) The deLessups company, which had built the Suez Canal and had failed to build one
                                in Panama because of yellow fever, was going out of business.
                                2) Philippe Bunau-Varilla, an engineer for this company, lowered the priuce of the
                                company’s holdings from $109 million to $40 million.
                                3) In the U.S. Gonress, debate raged over whether the canal should be built in
                                Panama, or the newly proposed route, which went through Nicaragua.
                                          i. Many were concerned over volcanic activity in Nicaragua.
                                          ii. When Mount Pelée erupted, Bunau-Varilla sent stamps picturing the
                                          explosion to every Senator.
                                          iii. Marc Hanna argues the engineering advantages of the Panamanian route
                                          to the Senate, and in 1902, this route is accepted.
                      d. Securing land to built the canal.
                                1) As Panama was part of Columbia, negotiations had to be undertaken with the
                                Columbian government.
                                          i. A Columbian agent in Washington negotiates an agreement under which a
                                          6 mile wide zone is leased indefinitely to the United States for $10 million
                                          and a yearly renewal payment of $250,000.
                                          ii. The Columbian Senate does not approve the measure, feeling that more
                                          money was due. In later years, it became apparent the the Columbian
                                          Senate would have approved the lease if $15 million more had been offered.
                                2) Bunau-Varilla, not wishing to profit off of what remained of the company’s holdings,
                                orchestrates revolution in Panama, wrought mainly by members of the fire department
                                and Columbian mercenaries. (1903)
                                3) Bunau-Varilla, despite his French citizenship, signs the Hay-Bunau-Varilla Treaty,
                                underwhich a 10 mile wide canal zone is granted to the United States for the same
                                price.
                      e. Building the canal.
                                1) Work is begun in 1904, and is finally brought in order by the engineer Goerge
                                Goethals. The canal is completed in 1914.
                                2) Sanitation is ensured by the effots of Colonel of William C. Gorgas. (MALARIA OR
                                YELLOW FEVER?)
             2. The Roosevelt Corollary.
                      a. Many Latin American nations, notably the Dominican Republic and Venezuela, were
                      continually behind in debt payments to European nations.
                      b. In 1903, German warships sank two Venezuelan ships and bombarded a town.
                      c. Roosevelt, fearing that the Monroe Doctine might lose meaning in face of European
                      imperialism, Roosevelt adopts a policy known as the ‘Roosevelt Corollary.’
                                1) When Latin American nations would fall into situations of bad credit, the United
                                States would militarily intervene, then take charge of customs collection, and finally,
                                pay off the debts incurred.
                                2) The motivation for this policy was to make the Monroe Doctrine proactive as
                                opposed to reactive, preventing European intervention with American military force
                                and imperialistic policy.
                                          i. This policy is first used in the Dominican Republic, where the United States
                                          takes over tariff collection in 1907.
                                          ii. In 1906, U.S. Marines were landed in Cuba when revolution seemed to be
                                          on the verge.
             3. Japanese/American Relations.
                      a. The Russo-Japanese War.
                                1) Causes
                                          i. Russia had occupied Manchuria in 1900, creating a Russian sphere of
                                          influence.
                                          ii. Russia continually delayed withdrawal, obviously trying to finish the trans-
                                          Siberian railroad and cement a grip on the region.
                                          iii. Japan desired Manchuria as a farming region and as a source of raw
                                          materials for industrialization.
                                          iv. Also, the trans-Siberian RR would terminate at Vladivostok, and the
                                          Japanese wanted control of the crucial port city. RUDOLPH, WHO
                                          ACTUALLY HAD VLADIVOSTOK BEFORE THE WAR?



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                                     2) Battles.
                                                i. Japan launches a sneak attack on a Russian fleet at Port Arthur.
                                                ii. Japan wins all major land battles.
                                                iii. Japan sinks the Russian fleet at Sushima.
                                     3) Negotiations.
                                                i. Japanese authorities, running out of manpower and financial resources,
                                                covertly ask TR to sponsor peace negotiations
                                                ii. TR organizes a conference at Portsmouth, NH. (1905)
                                                iii. Japan demands the strategic island of Sakhalin and a huge indemnity,
                                                while Russia refused to acknowledge their imminent defeat.
                                                iv. Roosevelt negotiatied an agreement under which Japan received no
                                                indemnity and the southern half of Sakhalin.
                                                v. Both sides are somwhat disappointed with the results.
                                                           •The Japanese had expected Roosevelt to take their side, as he had
                                                           agreed to negotiate at their behest in the first place.
                                                           •Russians begin to understand why negotiations were arranged
                                                           and feel bitter about being cheated of what they felt was a possible
                                                           military victory.
                                                vi. In addition to this, TR defuses at potentially dangerous situation between
                                                Germany and France over Morocco at a conference in Algeciras, Spain. For
                                                this and the Russo-Japanese negotiations, TR gets the 1906 Nobel Peace
                                                Prize.
                           b. Japanese immigration to the United States.
                                     1) Many Japanese come to the West Coast of United States due to the economic strife
                                     caused by the Russo-Japanese War. (about 70,000 by 1906)
                                                i. Compared with European immigrants on the East Coast, Japanese
                                                immigrants had no powerful advocacy group due to the lack of industry in
                                                California.
                                                ii. As a result, bitterness of over wage competition by ‘natives’ of California
                                                was not alleviated by anyone with political or ecoomic power.
                                     2) After the 1906 earthquake, the San Francisco School Board, due to lack of space,
                                     ordered that Asian children attend special schools.
                                                i. The Japanese government, which considered all Japanese living abroad
                                                wards of the Japanese nation, takes serious offense.
                                                ii. The situation is resolved by TR through a secret agreement with the
                                                Japanese government, known as the ‘Gentlemen’s Agreement.’
                                                           •Japan impedes the attempts of those trying to emigrate to the
                                                           United States by not issueing passports.
                                                           •TR forces, through verbal threats and negotiation, the San
                                                           Francisco School Board to repeal the policy being discussed.
                           c. Roosevelt, worried that Japan might take his intervention as a manifestion of fear of Japan,
                           sent the United States battle fleet on a ‘goodwill’ tour.
                                     1) The fleet is painted white, hence its name, ‘The Great White Fleet.’
                                     2) This was the classic ‘Big Stick,’ an impressive show of force.
                                     3) Some were worried that the fleet might provoke a Japanese military response, but
                                     the fleet is given a huge welcome in Tokyo, where thousands of Japanese
                                     schoolchildren greet the fleet, waving American flags and singing ‘The Star Spangled
                                     Banner.’
                                     4) This tour leads to the Root-Takahira Agreeement of 1908
                                                 i. The United States and Japan agree to respect each nation’s territory in the
                                                 Pacific.
                                                 ii. Both countries recognize the ‘Open Door’ in China.
VI. PROGRESSIVISM.
        A. THE BIRTH OF THE PROGRESSIVE MOVEMENT
                 1. Who were they?
                          a. Progressives were primarily middle class men and women.
                          b. Progressives felt pinched by the growing upper and lower classes.
                          c. New Left writers, like Gabriel Kolko, argue that the Progressives were in fact protecting
                          conservative American capitalism from socialist reform.
                          RED FLAG RUDOLPH!
                          c. OFten, the Progressive movement absorbed remnants of the farming and ‘free-silver’ crowds.
                 2. What did they want?
                          a. Political Reform was needed in order to achieve the other aims fo the Progressive movement.




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                                   1) Ballot initiatives in which the people could directly approve/disapprove of a new law
                                   after a sufficient number of people sign a petition.
                                   2) Referendums in which the people could vote for or against laws already approved by
                                   state bodies.
                                   3) The ability to recall public officials who the people were not happy with through a
                                   vote.
                                   4) Direct Election of Senators, as opposed to being elected by the state legislatures.
                                   5) Eliminating graft and corruption.
                                              i. Cities would be switched to a city manager system of government, in which
                                              a town council hires professionals to manage the town.
                                              ii. Public disclosure of city contracts was also wanted, as this would prevent
                                              contract manipulation by party bosses.
                                   6) The Secret Ballot.
                                   7) Progressives wanted direct primary elections.
                                   RED FLAG RUDOLPH!
                        b. Using the government as a tool for socioeconomic justice.
                                   1) Safety and Sanitation codes in the workplace. (ie no immigrants or dogs in your hot
                                   dog)
                                   2) Regulation of utilities, transportation, and other areas in which trusts or monopolies
                                   had been formed.
                                   3) Issues pushed by unions.
                                              i. Workingman’s Compensation.
                                              ii. Minimum Wage/Maximum Workday.
                                              iii. Unemployment Insurance.
                                              iv. Pensions.
                                              v. Improved Working conditions.
                                   4) Environmental protection and reform.
             3. Progressivism at the state level.
                        a. Bob La Follette, Progressive Republican governor of Wisconsin.
                                   1) La Follette successfully took on lumber and railroad trusts in Wisconsin.
                                   2) La Follette created a mechanism for regulating public utilities with teh help of
                                   college professors in Wisconsin.
                         b. Hiram Johnson, Republican governorr of California, helped clean the California state
                         legislature of the influence of the Southern Pacific Railroad company.
             4. The ‘muckrakers’,journalists and authors who pushed for Progressive goals with their journalistic and
             literary attacks on big business.
                        a. McClure’s, Cosmopolitan, Collier’s, and Everybody’s were publications that often featured
                        ‘muckraking’ articles.
                        b. The muckraker’s themselves. (Hold your horses)
                                   1) Ida Tarbell took on Nelson Rockefeller’s Standard Oil in “The History of the Standard
                                   Oil Company”, published in McClure’s. Although this was done to avenge her father’s
                                   ruin at the hand of Rockefeller, the article was very accurate.
                                   2) Lincoln Steffens attacked political corruption in “The Shame of the Cities.”
                                   3) Jacob Riis, a Danish immigrant and New York Sun reporter, authored an exposé on
                                   poverty in his book How the Other Half Lives.
                                   4) Henry Demarest Lloyd attacked Standard Oil in Wealth Against Commonwealth.
                                   5)Thorsten Veblen attacked the materialistic attitude of the upper class in his book,
                                   The Theory of the Leisure Class.
                                   6) John Spargo attacked child labor practices in The Bitter Cry of the Children.
                                   7) David G. Phillips accused the Senate of being dominated by corporate interests in
                                   “The Treason of the Senate,” published in Cosmopolitan.
                                   8) Thomas Lawson, a self-made millionaire, attacked his own in “Frenzied Finance,”
                                   published in Everybody’s.
                                   9) Ray Stannard Baker discussed race issues in Following the Color Line.
                                   10) Upton Sinclair’s The Jungle was an attack on the meat packing industry, with its
                                   unsanitary working conditions and horrifically unclean products. (Bailey wrote about
                                   him twice)
                                              i. Public outroar ensues.
                                              ii. TR read the book, and ordered an investigation.
                                                          •The investigation confirmed the accusations.
                                                          •As a result, the Meat Inspection Act of 1906 is passed, which
                                                          orders inspection of meat being distributed across state lines.
                                                          •The bill was paired up with the Pure Food and Drug Act of 1906,
                                                          which regulated labeling of medicine and food.



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      B. THE PRESIDENCY OF THEODORE ROOSEVELT, TR
               1. TR talked about a ‘Square Deal’ for capital, labor, and the public.
               2. TR was in many ways riding the Progressive bandwagon, never fully embracing Progressive reform.
               3. TR’s action’s as a Progressive.
                         a. TR’s Trust busting.
                                    1) TR was not against the idea of trusts.
                                              i. TR thought business consolidation on a national scale was efficient and
                                              desirable.
                                              ii. TR did not think that all trusts were bad. In his eyes, there were ‘good’
                                              trusts and ‘bad trusts’, bad trusts being businesses without a social
                                              conscience.
                                    2) TR pushes through several antitrust suits, notably agains the Northern Securities
                                    Company, a railroad holding company owned by J.P. Morgan and James J. Hill.
                                    3) The beef trust was declared illegal in 1905 by the Supreme Court, due to TR’s trust
                                    persecution.
                                    4) More trusts were actually formed during TR’s administration than were ‘squelched.’
                                    (25 indictments)
                                    5) TR approved the expansion of J.P. Morgan’s U.S. Steel (buying Tennesse Coal and
                                    Iron Company)
                                    6) Railroad reform.
                                              i. The Elkins Act of 1903.
                                                          •Railroad companies and shippers could be fined for giving and/or
                                                          taking special rebates.
                                              ii. The Hepburn Act of 1906.
                                                          - Free passes are outlawed.
                                                          - The ICC (Interstate Commerce Commission) is expanded.
                                                          - The ICC is now allowed to declare railroad rates to be illegal and
                                                          require new rates.
                         b. Labor Relations.
                                   1) Strike in Pennsylvania coal mines (1902)
                                              i. Coal miners, unhappy with wages and working conditions, walk off the job
                                              in the middle of the winter, when coal reserves are low to begin with, and
                                              sustained output is crucial to the nation’s wellbeing.
                                              ii. The lack of heating, and in some cases, electrical power (RED FLAG
                                              RUDOLPH) cripple the country, putting schools, other public facilities, and
                                              factories in a desperate situation.
                                              iii. TR, realizing that the situation was out of control, invites members of
                                              both sides to the White House to wave a little bit of that ‘Progressive big
                                              stick.’
                                              iv. TR gets aggravated at the arrogant George Bayre, from the management
                                              side, who doesn’t even see the need to arbitrate.
                                              v. When TR threatens to operate the mines with federal troops, management
                                              gave in and agreed to settle.
                                                          • Workers get a 10% pay boost.
                                                          • Hour cut RED FLAG RUDOLPH
                                                          • The miner’s union is not recognized as a legitimate bargaining
                                                          agent.
                                    2) TR starts the Department of Commerce and Labor, which includes the Bureau of
                                    Corporations, an investigatory organization that examined interstate businesses.
                         c. Environmentalism.
                                    1) Although not the originator of the environmentalist movement, TR was the first to
                                    make it a national policy concerm of considerable magnitude.
                                    2) TR was friends with John Muir (treehugging ecoterrorist of the past)
                                              i. Muir was a true environmentalist, argueing for preserving free land and
                                              letting it lie in a natural state.
                                              ii. TR was a conservationist, which meant that he believed in preserving and
                                              regenerating resource for human benefit.
                                    3) What TR did for the environment.
                                              i. The Newlands Act of 1902 to use money made from the sale of dry
                                              western land and use the money for irrigation projects.
                                                          • The project would be repaid with money made by farmers who
                                                          were theoretically productive because of irrigation.
                                                          • Giant Dams and water managment projects were part of this
                                                          effort, notably the Roosevelt Dam, which is in Arizona.



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                                                         • Roosevelt set aside about 125 million acres of forest land into
                                                         federal preserves.
                                                         • Roosevelt’s policy centered on resource management of timber
                                                         and grazing land, and water sources.
                                                         • TR drastically expanded the national park system.
               4. Note to the reader. TR never dealt with the tariff issue, because of his Republican support.
               5. The Panic of 1907.
                         a. As Roosevelt enforced Progressive policy, businesses got nervous.
                         b. The lack of a versatile, readily expandable currency (STUPID GOLD STANDARD) could not
                         keep up with growth.
                         c. Unsecure bank loans and speculation worsen the situation
                         d. This was a short panic, but led directly to one important reform.
                                     1) The Aldrich-Vreeland Act allowed banks to issue currency backed by collateral in
                                     emergency situations.
               6. The election of 1908.
                         a. TR, having promised not to run for reelection after the 1904 election, did not run.
                         b. TR basically pushes his picked successor, William Howard Taft, through the Republican
                         convention.
                         c. The Democrats nominate Bryan, again. (Momma always said...)
                         d. Guess who loses, again. (Hint: Taft is the new president, by a landslide)
                         e. Roosevelt, to the happiness of many business leaders, went hunting in Africa for a few years,
                         killing lions and other assorted exotic animals.
      C. THE PRESIDENCY OF WILLIAM HOWARD TAFT
               1. Taft, unlike Roosevelt, is no Public Relations whiz, and is not able to control Congress. Though in some
               ways more Progressive than TR, this is often put out of our collective mind due to his lack of ability to
               communicate effectively.
               2. Taft was thoroughly opposed to the ‘big stick’, and preferred economically oriented foreign policy,
               known as ‘Dollar Diplomacy.’
                         a. Components of ‘Dollar Diplomacy.’
                                     1) Orienting foreign policy around the interests of Americans with money invested in
                                     other countries.
                                     2) Using investments as a tool of foreign policy. (Kind of circular, eh?)
                         b. Motivations for dollar diplomacy,
                                     1. Avoid ‘The Big Stick.’
                                     2. Help out investors.
                                     3. Invest to act on strategic concerns of the United States, notably keeping countries
                                     like Germany out of Latin America when debt payments were behind and financial
                                     situations awere chaotic. (Basically most of the time)
                         c. Taft is forced to use force several times when Honduras, the Dominican Republic, Cuba, and
                         Nicaragua destabilized.
               3. Taft embarassed himself when an attempt to buy out the Manchurian railroads, fearing violation of the
               Open Door, from Russia and Japan backfires.
               4. Taft actually was much more of a trustbuster than TR, resulting in 44 indictments.
                         a. Taft’s prosecutions lead to the dismantling of Standard Oil (1911).
                         b. Taft infuriated TR when he brought an antitrust suit against U.S. Steel Corporation.
                         c. Taft successfully took on the American Tobacco Trust (1911).
               5. The Payne-Aldrich Tariff
                         a. Taft was a true Progressive in the tarriff arena, unlike TR.
                         b. In March 1909, Taft calls Congress into a special session.
                         c. A lower tariff is passed, but logrolling led by conservatives eliminates any substantial change.
                         d. Taft signs the bill, thinking that some reform is better than no reform, and infuriates many
                         Progressive.
               6. The Ballinger-Pinchot Controversy. (1909-10)
                         a. First of all, Taft was an avowed conservationist who almost outdid TR’s conservationist
                         achievements.
                                     1) The Bureau of Mines.
                                     2) More water management.
                         b. Secretary of the Interior Ballinger opened up government land in Wyoming, Montana, and
                         Alaska to private real estate interests
                         c. Gifford Pinchot, leader of the Division of Forestry, chewed out Ballinger for doing this.
                         d. Taft dismissed Pinchot for insubordination, infuriating environmentalists.
                         e. Ballinger was found innocent of wrongdoing by a congressional commitee, but the committee
                         also found that he acted contrary to government policy. He resigned in 1911.
               7. The splitting of the GOP and the 1912 election.



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                         a. The Cannon Controversy.
                                     1) Reactionary Republicans in the house were led by Speaker Joseph Canon.
                                     2) Progressives lead a successful attempt to castrate his power. Taft, though
                                     disapproving of Cannon, did not aid in the Progressive effort, and angered many
                                     Progressives as a result.
                         b. TR comes back from Africa.
                                     1) TR is infuriated by what he sees as Taft’s divergence from his policies.
                                                i. Ballinger-Pinchot.
                                                ii. U.S. Steel breakup.
                                     2) TR proposes a controversial and more involved implementation of Progressive
                                     ideals, ‘The New Nationalism’. These mirrored the ideas of Herbert Croly in The
                                     Promise of American Life.
                                                i. Consolidation and integration of businesses and labor unions.
                                                ii. Expansion of goverment regulation.
                                                iii. Womens’ suffrage.
                                                iv. Minimum wage laws.
                                                v. Social insurance.
                                                vi. Some redistribution of income through taxes.
                         c. Due to internal bickering, Republicans lose a majority in the house and lose 10 seats in the
                         Senate in the election of 1910.
                         d. The formation of the Progressive Party.
                                     1) The National Progressive Republican League is formed, with La Follette assumed to
                                     be a shoe-in for presidential candidate. (1911)
                                     2) TR, with the support of several governor, nudges La Follette out of this spot.
                                     3) At the Republican Convention in 1912, a showdown arises between supporters of
                                     TR and Taft. TR’s crowd unsuccessfully tried to block the seating of Taft supporters at
                                     the convention, and then refuses to vote, handing the nomination to Taft.
                                     4) TR and other Progressives form the Progressive party, metting for their 1st national
                                     convention in Chicago. (1912)
                                                 i. TR is easily nominated.
                                                 ii. Hiram Johnson is nominated for the vice-presidency.
                         e. The rise of Woodrow Wilson to the Democratic nomination.
                                     1) Woodrow Wilson was a professor of on government and President of Princeton
                                     University.
                                     2) In 1910, at the prodding of New Jersey party bosses, ran for governor, but
                                     subsequently turns his back on these bosses, cleaning up and reforming New Jersey
                                     with Progressive policies.
                                     3) Wilson was nominated at the Baltimore Democratic Convention in 1912, after
                                     William Jennings Bryan switched to his side.
                                     4) Wilson, in response to TR’s ‘New Nationalism,’ offered a set of policies known as
                                     ‘The New Freedom.’
                                                i. Fragmentation of trusts.
                                                ii. Competition as a source of benevolent capitalistic activity, as long as it is
                                                unhampered by monopolies or trusts.
                         f. The split in the Republican Party ensures Wilson upcoming victory.
                         g. Wilson wins the election with a popular minority.
                         h. The overwhelming majority combined Progressive votes for Wilson and Roosevelt indicate the
                         political situation in the country at the time.
                         i. Eugene Debs, notably, wins 8 electoral votes as candidate of the Socialist party.
      C. THE PRESIDENCY OF WOODROW WILSON
               1. Wilson the person.
                         a. Wilson was the first person from Confederate states to be President since Zachary Taylor.
                         b. Wilson sympathized with the South as far as the civil war.
                         c. Wilson was a believer in Jeffersonian ideals.
                         d. Wilson was somewhat stubborn, and had difficulty dealing with people when he disagreed
                         with him.
                         e. Wilson was in some respects an elitist intellectual.
                         f. Wilson, however, was somewhat racist, and allowed further segregation of the Treasury
                         Department and the Postal Service, though protests halted further segregation.

                2. Wilson, in his new incarnation of Progressivism, attacks the ‘Triple Wall of Privilege,’ which banks,
                trusts, and tariffs.
                          a. Tariff Reform.




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                                 1) Wilson calls Congress into special session to discuss the tariff (1913) and actually
                                 spoke in person before the Congress.
                                 2) The House passes the Underwood Tariff Bill.
                                            i. Tariffs were reduced by as much as 25%.
                                            ii. An graduated income tax of 1% on personal incomes of over $3000/4000,
                                            going up to a 7% tax on incomes past $500,000 was passed, RED FLAG
                                            RUDOLPH!, made constitutional by the 16th Amendment. Revenue from the
                                            income tax quickly outgrew tariff revenues.
                                  3) The bill is manipulated in the Senate by lobbyists, but Wilson waged an speech
                                  campaign, and as a result, the bill is passed, relatively intact, as the Underwood-
                                  Simmons Tariff. (In case y’all were wonderin’, Simmons was the guy who sponsored it
                                  in the Senate)
                       b. Bank Reform.
                                 1) The country has an inelastic currency, meaning that it is hard for money to get
                                 quickly where it is needed in times of depression or recession.
                                 2) A commission, led by the Republican Senator Aldrich, suggested what amounted to
                                 a new Bank of the United States.
                                 3) Democrats were generally against such a large bank, and proposed a system of
                                 banks, regulated by the government.
                                 4) Louis D. Brandeis accented the difficult banking situation in his book Other People’s
                                 Money and How the Bankers Use It. (1914)
                                 5) Wilson, in yet another speech, argues for a system to that proposed by some
                                 Democrats, which leads to the passage of the Federal Reserve Act. (1913)
                                            i. 12 regional reserve districts are set up, and each has a central bank.
                                            ii. The central banks were by member banks in the region.
                                            iii. A Federal Reserve Board is set up, which has the power to set interest
                                            rates for Federal Reserve loans. This rate is called the discount rate, as it is
                                            less than the rate member banks charged the public.
                                            iv. The Federal Reserve Board, through the Treasury Department, issues
                                            currency, in the form of Federal Reserve Notes, which is backed 60% by
                                            commercial collateral and 40% by gold.
                       c. Trust Busting.
                                 1) The Federal Trade Commission Act of 1914.
                                           i. Created the Federal Trade Commision, which investigated interstate
                                           businesses for unfair business practices.
                                            ii. The FTC act never specifically defines unfair trade practices.
                                            iii. However, among those practices investigated were mislabeling, bribery,
                                            false advertising, and anticompetitive practices.
                                   2) The Clayton Anti-Trust-Act of 1914.
                                            i. Interlocking Directorates are outlawed.
                                            ii. Holding Companies are outlawed.
                                            iii. Ownership of stock by competitive companies in each other is outlawed.
                                            iv. Price discrimination is outlawed.
                                                       •Charging high rates in regions where a company has total control
                                                       fo the market.
                                                       •Charging abnormally lower prices to destroy competition in areas
                                                       where smaller businesses are in competition with alrger ones.
                                            v. Corporate officers are held accountable for violations of anti-Trust laws.
                                            vi. All unions were exempted from antitrust suits, drawing praise from
                                            Samuel Gompers.
             3. Other Progressive stuff stuff stuff stuffffff Wilson did.
                      a. The Federal Farm Loan Act (1916) provided cheap loans to farmers.
                      b. The Warehouse Act (1916) allowed farmers to take out loans with staple crops as
                      collateral/security. RED FLAG RUDOLPH!
                      c. The La Follette Seamen’s Act of 1915.
                                  1) Decent wage amd treatment standards were set on American merchant vessels.
                                  2) However, this destroyed the American merchant marine’s ability to compete.
                       d. The Workingmen’s Compensation Act (1916) grants compensation to federal employees
                       during times of disability. Kurr-mcGillicuddy Act What what what what
                       e. The Adamson Act (1916) uguarantess an 8 hour workday for workers on interstate railrod
                       lines.
                       f. Louis Brandeis is appointed the first Jewish Supreme Court Justice. (1916)
                       g. The Child Labor Act (1916) made illegal the interstate sale of products made by children
                       under the age of 14 or 16, depending on product. This act is ruled unconstitutional in 1918.



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                           h. Constitutional Amendments during Wilson’s term.
                                      1) The 16th Amendment legalized federal income taxes.
                                      2) The 17th Amendment provides for the direct election of Senators.
                                      3) The 18th Amendment prohibited the use or sale of liquour. (repealed in 1933)
                                      4) The 19th Amendment gave women the right to vote.
VII. WILSONIAN FOREIGN POLICY AND WWI.
        A. CARIBBEAN FOREIGN POLICY.
                1. Wilson hated the Big Stick.
                2. Wilson ended special government support for American investors in Latin America and China. This
                causes bankers to pull out of a loan to China organized by Taft. He hated ‘Dollar Diplomacy.’
                3. William Jennings Bryan, a declared anti-imperialist, was Wilson’s Secretary of State.
                4. The Panama Canal Tolls Act (1912), which allowed the U.S. to avoid paying tolls on the Panama Canal,
                is repealed, making Britain happy.
                5. The Jones Act (1916) gave the Philippines territorial status and declared that they woudl be given
                independence when a stable government was put in place.
                6. Potential conflict with Japan.
                           a. A law is passed in California declares that Japanese settlers are prohibited from owning land.
                           b. Japan becomes very very angry, as they saw all Japanese expatriates as wards of the state.
                           We already said this, but you probably weren’t paying attention, so we thought we would say it
                           again so you wouldn’t come after us with a sling blade after the AP exam.
                           c. Bryan eases the situation by negotiating with the lecture.
                7. Wilson, despite his anti bigstickism, sent marines to Haiti to protect the U.S. interests there. He also
                ordered government supervision of debt collection.
                8. Wilson also sent marines to the Dominican Republic.
                9. In 1917, the U.S. buys the Virgin Islands, fearing that the Germans would use them as a halfway
                station if they took over Denmark. This purchase costs $25 million, and is the most expensive territorial
                purchase the United States ever made.
        B. CHAOS IN MEXICO.
                1. American investment in Mexico grows. Even Hearst got a piece of the action, buying a ranch bigger
                than Rhode Island.
                2. Porfirio Diaz, an autocratic ruler, is put out of office in a democratic election, in which Francisco
                Madera, a socialist, is elected President. RED FLAG RUDOLPH! REA SAYS THAT MADERO
                OVERTHREW DIAZ.
                3. General Huerta, a Native American, kills Madero, a Berkeley graduate. (GO BEARS!)
                4. Many Americans, fearing for their investments, call for intervention, but Wilson inaugurates a process
                of ‘watchful waiting.’
                5. This policy proves futile, and Wilson starts supplying Huerta’s opponeents, Venustiano Carranza and
                Francisco ‘Pancho’ Villa.
                6. American sailors are arrested at Tampico in 1914. When they are released, Wilson asks for permission
                to intervene from Congress.
                7. However, before Congress can act, the U.S. navy seizes the port of Vera Cruz to prevent Germany from
                supplying Mexico with munitions and other supplies.
                8. The ABC powers (Argentina, Brazil, Chile) negotiate a settlement under which Huerta hands power over
                to Carranza, who was no friend of the U.S. either.
                9. Pancho Villa flees to the Mexian-American border, and plays the part of border rogue for several years.
                10. Villa kills 16 U.S. citizens on a train at Santa Ysabel.
                11. Wilson, with the permission of Carranza, sends General John Pershing, with 6000 troops, to capture
                Villa and end his campaign. He never catches him. This was pointless.
        C. WORLD WAR I BEGINS IN 1914.
                1. The Build-Up to World War I.
                           a. Bismark unifies Germany under Kaiser Wilhelm I.
                                      i. Bismark leads a series of wars against neighboring nations.
                                      ii. This campaign culminated in the Franco-Prussian War, where Germany took the coal
                                      rich region of Alsace-Lorraine and consolidated Bavaria in the German Empire.
                                      iii. Bismark, realizing that France would want revenge in the future, undertakes a
                                      successful diplomatic crusade to isolate France.
                                      iv. France does, however, find an ally in Russia. (‘The Duel Entente’)
                                                 •France agrees to pay the cost of construction for the Trans-Siberian
                                                 Railroad.
                                                 •Russia agrees to back France in any future war with Germany.
                           b. Wilhelm II comes to the throne, fires Bismarck, and undertakes a campaign of naval
                           expansion and imperial competition, notably with Britain.




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                     c. The Ottoman Empire disintegrates, and Russia begins a policy of ‘pan-Slavicism’, supporting
                     newly independent Slavic nations who felt that various parts of Austria-Hungary belonged to
                     them. Notable is Serbia’s feeling about Bosnia.
                     d. Austria and Germany form the Duel Alliance.
                     e. The Dual Entente becomes the Triple Entente by adding England.
                     f. The Dual Alliance becomes the Triple Alliance when Italy joins. Italy drops out in 1913.
                     g. Turkey joins the Triple Alliance and takes Italy’s place.
                     h. The Triple Alliance is known as the Central Powers.
                     i. The Triple Entente become the Allies.
                     j. Much of the tension is a result of capitalistic imperial competion on a worldwide scale.
                                1) Desire for markets.
                                2) Desire for cheap labor.
                                3) Desire for natural resources.
                     k. The heir to the Austrian throne, Franz Ferdinand, was on a goodwill visit to Sarajevo, in
                     Bosnia, and is shot by Gavril Princip. He dies.
             2. The War consumes Europe.
                     a. Austro-Hungarian officials, aware of Germany’s promise to back the country up, send an
                     ultimatum to Serbia, under which Austro-Hungarian investigators would participate in the trial of
                     the accused murders of Franz Ferdinand.
                                1) Serbia refuses, demanding international arbitration, and Austria Hungary declares
                                war on Serbia.
                                2) Germany follows suit.
                     b. Russia mobilizes, and despite last minute letter writing between Nicholas II of Russia and
                     Kaiser Wilhelm, cousins by the way, Germany declares war on Russia.
                     c. When France refuses to declare neutrality, Germany declares war on France.
                     d. Belgian Neutrality and the Von schliefen Plan.
                                1)The German general Von schliefen proposes plan under which Germany would
                                quickly knock France out and then fight a one front, as opposed to two front, war with
                                Russia.
                                2) Germany, despite Belgian protests, uses Belgium as a stepping stone to France.
                                3) The British send reinforcements northwest of Paris, known as the BEF. RED FLAG,
                                WHAT DOES BEF STAND FOR?
                                4) The Van schliefen Plan, actually being implemented by the General Van Moltke,
                                begins successfully, but ends otherwise.
                                          i. The French had fortified their border with Germany, but none almost
                                          nothing to protect from a possible invasion through Belgium.
                                          ii. Von Moltke, worried that the French will make an attack near the German
                                          border, takes troop away from his right flank.
                                          iii. As a result, a stalemate is reached at the 1st Battle of the Marne.
                     e. The entrenchification of Europe.
                                1) Outdated Napoleonic Tactics mix poorly with modern warfare.
                                          i. Machine guns, grenades, gas attacks, modern artillery, and towards the
                                          end of the war, tanks, flamethrowers, and planes, magnified tremendously
                                          the killing power of mankind.
                                          ii. In the face of these new tools of destruction, the tactic of attacking the
                                          center, or strongest point in a line, became useless. As troops charged, they
                                          would be mowed down, and the minority that made it close to the enemy
                                          line would be killed by the funneled crossfire of machine gunners posted on
                                          opposing edges of a trench portion.
                                                      •Retreat ensues, and people batten down in trenches.
                                                      •Sometimes commanders would try to flank the enemy, but enemy
                                                      commanders anticipated this. As a result, stalemated
                                                      confrontations would result from these attacks as well, leading to
                                                      the horizontal expansion of trenches.
                                2) Even when minor breakthroughs were achieved, the occupation of a new trench
                                would only bring troops into fresh conflict with opposing troops in the next layer of
                                trenches.
                                3) Communication trenches linked all the trenches to each other and their
                                headquarters. RED FLAG RUDOLPH!
                                4) Trenches, due to their very nature, served as great places for water to collect.
                                          i. Dead bodies were rarely removed promptly.
                                          ii. Rats and other harbingers of disease lived in trenches.
                                          iii. All in all, trenches were unsanitary, disease-ridden, disgusting places.




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                                5) Barbed wire was often laid as a trap during the night by small detachments of
                                soldiers, who as a result of their own work woudl sometimes have trouble getting back
                                to their own trench and be trapped near enemy lines. As soon as both sides caught
                                on, flares and artillery would be deployed at night as a preventative measure. Even
                                when these soldiers did find their way back to a trench, it could end up being in a
                                trench of the other side, and in these cases, soldiers would almost surely die.
                                6) Often a vicious cycle would develop in which artillery barrages would force troops
                                into underground shelters, which due to crowding, quickly became targets for gas
                                attacks. Often gas masks would fail, but in any case, this would force soldiers back
                                into the trench, where artillery barrages would proceed to kill more. RED FLAG
                                RUDOLPH!
                                7) A huge network of trenches (about 600) miles went from Switzerland to the English
                                Channel. RED FLAG RUDOLPH!

             3. America gets drawn into the war.
                      a. The roots of American neutrality, to some extent, lay with the fact that many people whose
                      parents came from the Central Powers lived in the country.
                      b. Trade issues and the developing conflict between Germany and the United States.
                                1) American bankers provide loans to the Allies, which are then used to buy American
                                war supplies and other goods, causing a flurry of economic activity.
                                2) Central Powers, especially Germany, are unable to buy American goods because of
                                this British blockade.
                                           i. American business circumvented this blockade by shipping goods to
                                           Germany through a neutral nation, notably Denmark.
                                           ii. British authorities eventually demand an end to this policy, known as
                                           continuous voyage.
                                           iii. We comply. RED FLAG RUDOLPH!
                                3) German submarines, known as U-boats, begin to be used in a submarine war on
                                ships in a zone around Britain in February 1915.
                                           i. U-boats are Germany’s response to the blockade.
                                           ii. Germany initially begins with a promise not to sink neutral ships.
                                           iii. Germany, however, reneges on this promise, when the Lusitania is sunk.
                                           (1915)
                                                       • The German embassy forewarns passengers on this ship about
                                                       the possibility of being sunk.
                                                       • Germans torpedo the British passenger ship the Lusitania, about
                                                       1200 people are killed, right off the coast of Ireland.
                                                       • Germany claims, truthfully, that the ship was carrying arms to
                                                       Europe, which it was.
                                                       • Wilson is angry, but wants to avoid war, so he sends a series of
                                                       diplomatic notes to Germany.
                                                                  - William Jennings Bryan can not deal even with this
                                                                  measured approach, and doesn’t sign these notes.
                                                                  - TR, a rambunctious war type, calls for intervention in
                                                                  the form of war.
                                           iv. When a British passenger liner, the Arabic, is sunk in August 1915,
                                           Germany finally agrees not to sink unarmed passenger ships without warning
                                           at Wilson’s request.
                                                       • This is a rather ridiculous arrangement, as fo ra submarine to
                                                       warn a ship of its impending doom, it has to surface.
                                                       • When you surface, if the other ship is armed, you can be shot,
                                                       and instantly sunk.
                                           v. Germany breaks the pledge when a U-boat sinks the French passenger
                                           ship, the Sussex.
                                                       •Wilson is steamin’ mad, and threatens to break off diplomatic
                                                       relations with Germany unless Germany agrees not to shink ships
                                                       without warning. A breakoff of diplomatic relations would
                                                       practically preclude war.
                                                       •The Germans accept this agreement, called the Sussex Pledge,
                                                       but in return, Germany asks Wilson to try to convince Allies to
                                                       remove the blockade.
                                                       •The blockade is never removed.
                      c. The election of 1916 temporarily draws attention from the war.
                                1) The Progressives nominate TR, who is eager for war.



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                                 2) The Republicans, despite some support for TR, nominate Charles Evans Hughes, a
                                 former governor of New York, to appease more conservative Republicans. They have a
                                 platform that condemns Wilson’s progressive domestic policy, and his supposedly timid
                                 foreign policy.
                                 3) Wilson is nominated by the Democrats, and runs on a campaign to keep the country
                                 out of war, which is rather ironic.
                                 4) Wilson earnestly believes that Hughes will beat him, and when Hughes takes the
                                 East on election day, Wilson believes he has lost. Wilson wins, though, with the help
                                 of the Midwest and West, especially California.
                      d. Final provocation and the arrival of war.
                                 1) Germany, which at this point has a strong position, proposed a peace conference to
                                 the Allies. When Wilson starts meddling and negotiating terms of the actual
                                 conference, the British cooperate, but Germany asks that Wilson not be there.
                                 2) Germany declares unlimited submarine warefare in January, 1917.
                                 3) Wilson breaks diplomatic relations with Germany, awaiting a blatant act of war.
                                 4) The ‘Zimmerman’ Note.
                                            i. German foreign secretary Zimmerman sends a note to Mexico’s
                                            government, asking for an alliance with Germany, in March, 1917.
                                            ii. Zimmerman, in return, proposes helping Mexico recover the Arizona,
                                            Texas, and New Mexico.
                                 5) Germany attacks 4 unarmed U.S. merchant ships in March, 1917.
                                 6) Russia falls to a Revolution in March, 1917. The new provisional goverrnment, led
                                 by Prince Alexander Karensky, vows to keep fighting, and its seemingly democratic
                                 nature encourages Americans to ally with Russia. RED FLAG RUDOLPH!
                                 7) Wilson asks congress for a declaration of war on April 2, 1917.
             4. America at home during the war.
                      a. Industry.
                                 1) The Council of National Defense, consisting of 6 cabinet members and a 7 member
                                 advisory commission of union and business leaders, was formed before the war.
                                 (1916)
                                 2) The United States had engaged in a moderate build up of the military before the
                                 war.
                                 3) The War Industries Board (WIB) was created by the Council of National Defense in
                                 July, 1917.
                                            i. This was lead by stock market investor Bernard Baruch.
                                            ii. This board was supposed to control raw materials, production, prices, and
                                            labor for the war effort.
                                            iii. The board was supposed to pay high prices to businesses for products to
                                            stimulate the economy.
                                            iv. The WIB is not that powerful, and is quickly abandoned after the war.
                                 4) Women were enticed into the war effort as men went abroad, though to an extent,
                                 they returned to their predominantly homemaking capacity in the economy after the
                                 war.
                                 5) Samuel Gompers’ AFL supported the war.
                                 6) The National War Labor Board, with William Taft as chairman, regulates labor
                                 disputes.
                                 7) Union membership doubled during the war to 5 million people.
                                 8) In 1918, the government seizes the railroads, and they’re put into the hands the
                                 U.S. Railroad Administration, lead by William McAdoo. McAdoo was also Secretary of
                                 the Treasury. The railroads are run for the public benefit.
                                 9) The U.S. launches a mssive shipbuilding effort, constructing concrete vessels, as
                                 well as refitting seized enemy ships in American harbors.
                      b. Herbert Hoover, who had led a humanitarian effort to feed Belgium when it was being rolled
                      over by German tanks, is approved head of the new Food Administration.
                                 1) Hoover rejected rationing programs, favoring a voluntary approach.
                                 2) Hoover organized efforts such s wheatless Wednesdays and meatless Tuesdays to
                                 preserve food.
                                 3) Alcahol was restriced, helping save grain supplies.
                                 4) All in all, farm production is about about 25%, and food exports to the Allies triple.
                      c. The Fuel Administration, led by Harry A. Garfield, runs an energy conservation effort, also
                      voluntary.
                      d. Financing the War.
                                 1) Large numbers of bonds are sold kown as Liberty Bonds. These cover 2/3ds of the
                                 war expenses.



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                                 2) The Revenue Act of 1918, which is not effective until 1919, charges 6% on personal
                                 annual incomes up to $4000, and 12% for incomes pas this level.
                       e. Propaganda.
                                 1) George Creel is head of the Committee on Public Information, formed in 1917. (A
                                 San Jose native)
                                 2) A massive campaign, involving about 150,000 writers combines printed propagana
                                 with voluntary censorship by the independent newspapers.
                       f. The Espionage and Sedition Acts.
                                 1) The Espionage Act of 1917 forbids non patriotic activities, such as draft dodging,
                                 spying, or inciting rebellion. This is often used against striking labor unions.
                                 2) The Sedition Act of 1918 made criticism of the government, associated
                                 organizations, and symbols illegal.
                                 3) The IWW (Industrial Workers of the World), led by ‘Big Bill’ Haywood, become
                                 target of persecutions authorized by these acts .
                                 4) Eugene Debs spends time in jail because of these acts.
                       g. Wartime paranoia often leads to frightening persecution of people of German descent.
                       h. African Americans, to an extent far less than in World War II, begin to migrate North to take
                       jobs in war factories.
                                 1) About 500,000 African Americans go North during the war.
                                 2) Violent race riots plagued the nation in 1917.
                       i. The Selective Service Act was passed in May, 1917, with great difficulty, and cuased a rapid
                       increase in the size of the army. Exemptions were made for workers in key industries.

             5. Russia withdraws from the war effort.
                       a. To the dismay of many Russians, the provisional revolutionary government continues the war
                       effort.
                       b. Germans arrange to have the Communist leader Vladimir Ulyanov back to Russia, and a
                       successful Communist takeover of power occurs.
                       c. Russia soon signs the Treaty of Brest Litovsk (1918), which ends the Russian involvement in
                       the war,
                       d. Russia soon plunges into a civil war between Communists and their rivals, and the United
                       States takes a conspicuously anti-Communist role, aiding the ‘Whites’, rivals of the Communists.
                       e. America assists in an invasion of Archangel, in northern Russia, to prevent no longer needed
                       war supplies from being taken by German armies.
                       f. In a Siberian expedition, American troops rescued marooned Czech Armies, seized Bolshevik
                       supplies, and prevented Japan from moving into the area.

             6. American Involvement in the War.
                      a. Wilson’s goals for the war.
                                 1) Make the world a safe place for democracy.
                                 2) ‘A war to end war,’ referring to Wilson’s plans for major diplomatic changes in the
                                 world
                      b. Wilson makes a speech to Congress in January, 1918, putting forth his ‘Fourteen Points’ for
                      diplomatic change in an effort to urge continuation of the war effort by the allies. Some of
                      these were:
                                 1) No secret treaties.
                                 2) Freedom of the seas.
                                 3) Lower tariffs/economic barriers.
                                 4) Disarmament.
                                 5) Change in colonial policies both in the interests of the colonizing and the colonizers.
                                 6) Self-determination for ethnic groups.
                                 14) A League of Nations to provide international security.
                      c. American soldiers were known as doughboys, as for unknown reasons they seemed rather big
                      fans of donuts.
                      d. In 1918, American soldiers begin arriving en masse in France, used initially as replacements
                      and fill ins for gaps in the French and British lines.
                      e. U.S. soldiers, in a heated series of engagements, turn the tide of the war.
                                 1) American soldiers participate in counteroffensive against the Germans, the Second
                                 Battle of the Marne, which marks the beginning of the German retreat.
                                 2) American soldiers are crucial to pushing German soldier’s out of St. Mihiel.
                                 3) General Pershing, now with his own European army, was in charge of the front
                                 stretching from Switzerland to more northerly French lines.
                                 4) The Meuse-Argonne offensive marked the high tide of American involvement in the
                                 war.



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Written by Daniel Grin, Marko Buric,
Aaron Azlant, and Todd Fisher
                        f. Germany surrenders, the Kaiser is overthrown, and an armistice is signed on November 11,
                        1918.
             7. Political bickering and The Treaty of Versailles.
                        a. Wilson makes an appeal to voters to elect a Democratic majority in both houses in the
                        election of 1918, but the effort backfires, with Republicans taking narrow margins in both
                        houses,
                        b. Wilson went to Paris for negotiations, excluding Republican Senators from the delegation.
                        Most notable among these was Henry Cabot Lodge, an isolationist who had a well known
                        personal rivalry with Wilson.
                                   1) Wilson was a hero in much of Europe.
                                   2) Several European leaders dominated the negotiations.
                                             i. Georges Clemenceau of France, who wants total humiliation of Germany.
                                             ii. David Lloyd George, who wants at the very least, financial humiliation of
                                             Germany.
                                             iii. Vittorio Orlando wanted Austrian property near Trieste.
                                             iv. Notably absent were representatives from Russia, which was a mess in
                                             every possible respect at this point in history.
                                   3) Wilson briefly returned to the U.S, and then returned to Paris.
                                             i. A war guilt clause, forcing Germany to take sole blame for the war, is
                                             included in the treaty, a blatant violation of Wilson’s 14 points. This guilt
                                             clause is the basis for the humongous reparations forced on Germany by the
                                             Allies.
                                             ii. Several major territorial changes are incorporated into the treaty.
                                                          • Alsace-Lorraine was returned to France, which fits with Wilsonian
                                                          self determination, as it was a French-speaking region.
                                                          • Germany has to demilitarize the Rhineland, a protective measure
                                                          desired by the French.
                                                          • The Saar Basin, also a disputed region, was put under a League
                                                          of Nations mandate for 15 years. This region was populated mostly
                                                          by Germans. (France gets a Security with Britain and America
                                                          instead)
                                                          • The Sudetenland, which bordered Czechoslovakia and was
                                                          populated primarily by ethnic Germans, was given to
                                                          Czechoslovakia to bolster defenses. Another violation of self
                                                          determination.
                                                          • A region of Germany is given to Poland to provide access to the
                                                          sea. This area is known as the Polish Corridor, and is also
                                                          populated primarily by ethnic Germans, another violation of self
                                                          determination.
                                                          vi. Several German islands in the Pacific are ceded to Japan.
                                                          • Iraq is put under a League of Nations protectorate run by the
                                                          British.
                                                          • Syria is put under a League of Nations protectorate run by the
                                                          French.
                                                          • Japan is given economic control of the Shantung Peninsula in
                                                          China, which had been part of the German economic sphere of
                                                          influence. This peninsula is overwhelmingly Chinese, which is why
                                                          Japan is forced to agree to return the peninsula to China in the
                                                          future.
                                             iii. Germany is forced to disarm. The German air force is destroyed. France
                                             and Britain take the Germany navy.
                                             iv. The League of Nations, an attempt at international collective security
                                             agency.
                                             v. Wilson sacrifices many other of the 14 points to preserve the League of
                                             Nations.
                                             vi. The conditions of this treaty, to a large extent, helped cause the economic
                                             turmoil and bitterness that culminated in the Nazi rise to power in World War
                                             II. If Germany had not been so thoroughly dismantled, Germany might have
                                             made a notable economic recovery after the war, and the much larger strife
                                             of World War II might have been avoided.
                        c. Wilson returns to the U.S., where despite popularity with the public, The Treaty of Versailles
                        runs into opposition from hostile isolationists in the Senate.
                                   1) Henry Cabot Lodge organized a group of 39 Senators to interfere with the passage
                                   of the treaty. They were sometimes called ‘The Batallion of Death.’



32
Written by Daniel Grin, Marko Buric,
Aaron Azlant, and Todd Fisher
                                         i. Lodge filibusters and stalls in the Senate, delaying a vote on the pact.
                                         ii. Wilson goes on a national speaking tour, despite his failing health. Wilson
                                         is trailed by isolationist opponents. He collapses while giving a speach in
                                         Colorado (1919).
                                                    • Wilson has a stroke when back in Washington.
                                                    • Wilson is incapacitated for several months.
                                         iii. Lodge articulates14 objections to the treaty, which Wilson rejects despite
                                         the overall preserved integrity of the Treaty. Wilson urges Democrats to
                                         vote against the deal and it fails, despite the fact that most of the Senate
                                         and most Americans favored it.
                                                    • Isolationists were particularly conerned with provisions in the
                                                    treaty that would bind the United States to help member nations of
                                                    the League of Nations that were under attack.
                              2) The Treaty is brought up for a vote in 1920.
                                         i. Wilson again stubbornly urges Democrats to vote against it, as it still has
                                         the Lodge Reservations attached.
                                         ii. A majority still votes for the treaty, but not the required 2/3ds majority.
                    d. The Election of 1920.
                              1) Wilson hopes to use the election as a ‘solemn referendum’ on the Treaty of
                              Versailles.
                              2) Republicans nominated Warren G. Harding of Ohio, practically unheard of till then,
                              for President, and the conservative Calvin Coolidge of Massachusetts for vice
                              President.
                              3) Democrats nominate James M. Cox of Ohio for President, and Franklin Roosevelt for
                              vice president.
                              4) Republican ambiguity on the League of Nations allowed the party to draw people
                              from both sides of the issue.
                              5) Harding wins with a decently sized plurality.
                              6) Eugene Debs, still in President, draws in almost a million votes for President.
                              7) Why is Wilsonian Progresivism, to an extent, rejected?
                                         i. Bailey says that people were tired of idealism, self sacrifice, and
                                         intellectualism in the Presidency.
                                         ii. As Harding later put it, people wanted a return to ‘normalcy.’
                    e. American lack of involvement in the League of Nations removes the necessary muscle to
                    enforce League policy. Harsh treatment of Germany posed potential problems in the future.
                    With the SecurityTreaty with France tabled in the U.S. Senate, France began construction of a
                    massive set of defenses along the German border, known as the Maginot line, and around and
                    around we go.




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