Recycling and Waste Reduction by gox16621



Between State Fiscal Years 1990 and calendar year 1996, recycling and waste reduction had been
steadily increasing in Florida. In calendar year 1996, the amount of material recycled and the
recycling rate have increase from calendar year 95. It should be noted once again that the method of
data collection for recycled materials
had changed (starting in CY 95) from a
state fiscal year to a calendar year.                               tate unicipal S W
                                                          Figure7: S M             olid aste
                                                                             RecyclingandDisposal per Capita
In general, over the past several                                                (July1, 1989- D       ber
                                                                                                 ecem 31, 1996)
years, the State has been reducing                           2.00                                     1.73   1.75
                                                                                              1.63                     1.63    1.65
the amount of MSW annually being                             1.80     1.54             1.54
disposed. MSW is considered                                  1.60
                                                             1.40 0.21      0.24            0.50     0.63   0.70
disposed if it is combusted in one of                                                0.44                            0.61     0.65
the State’s waste-to-energy facilities or                *
buried in one of the State’s class I, II,        Tons 1.00
III or C&D landfills. In calendar year                              1.33    1.27
                                                             0.60                    1.10   1.13     1.10
1996, the amount of total material                                                                          1.05     1.02     0.99
collected for recycling and disposal                         0.20
increased. Figure 7 demonstrates how                         0.00
the tons disposed in Florida per capita                            1990*** 1991*** 1992*** 1993*** 1994*** 1995*** 1995**** 1996****
                                           *Total H =Total Tons.
have shown a general decline since          **D                    om
                                               isposed=Landfilled+C busted
                                          ***S Fiscal Y    ear
SFY 1990. Over the same seven year        ****Calendar Y ear

period, the amount of recycled
materials and total MSW managed per capita have been increasing. Detailed county information
may be found in Appendix B, Table 1B.

Table 3 shows the relative progress of the State towards reducing the disposal of MSW per capita.
When comparing calendar year 1996 to state fiscal years 1988 through 1993, the State had waste
reduction per capita by 26.6 percent, 26.3 percent, 24.2 percent, 19.1 percent, 11.5 percent, and 10.2
percent respectively.

In 1993, the legislature attempted to change the recycling goal to a waste reduction goal. However, the
final revised statutory language was somewhat unclear as to whether there was still a recycling goal or if it
had been replaced by a waste reduction goal. The statute gave no base year from which to measure waste
reduction progress, and it did not specify if it should be on a per capita basis.

Consequently, starting in 1993, DEP asked the counties to start reporting their waste reduction per capita
progress along with their recycling progress which they had been reporting annually since 1988. Based on
this data, the unadjusted statewide recycling rate was 37 percent by the end of calendar year 1995 and 40
percent by the end of calendar year 1996. Because the 1988 statute set a cap on how much certain materials

          Table 3: Waste Reduction Progress in Florida
                              (Jul. 1, 1987 - Dec. 31, 1996)
State of Florida

1. BASE YEAR #1: July 1, 1987 - June 30, 1988

     A. Total MSW disposed                                     16,313,495 Tons
     B. Population (Official April 1, 1987 figure)             12,043,588 People
     C. MSW/Capita: 1A/1B =                                         1.35 Tons/Capita

2. BASE YEAR #2: July 1, 1988 - June 30, 1989

     A. Total MSW disposed                                     16,746,873 Tons
     B. Population (Official April 1, 1988 figure)             12,417,606 People
     C. MSW/Capita: 2A/2B =                                         1.35 Tons/Capita

3. BASE YEAR #3: July 1, 1989 - June 30, 1990

     A. Total MSW disposed                                     16,778,833 Tons
     B. Population (Official April 1, 1989 figure)             12,797,318 People
     C. MSW/Capita: 3A/3B =                                          1.31 Tons/Capita

4. BASE YEAR #4: July 1, 1990 - June 30, 1991

     A. Total MSW disposed                                     16,155,448 Tons
     B. Population (Official April 1, 1990 figure)             13,150,027 People
     C. MSW/Capita: 4A/4B =                                          1.23 Tons/Capita

5. BASE YEAR #5: July 1, 1991 - June 30, 1992

     A. Total MSW disposed                                     14,814,761 Tons
     B. Population (Official April 1, 1991 figure)             13,195,952 People
     C. MSW/Capita: 5A/5B =                                          1.12 Tons/Capita

6. BASE YEAR #6: July 1, 1992 - June 30, 1993

     A. Total MSW disposed                                     14,854,514 Tons
     B. Population (Official April 1, 1992 figure)             13,424,416 People
     C. MSW/Capita: 6A/6B =                                          1.11 Tons/Capita

7. CURRENT YEAR: Jan. 1, 1996 - Dec. 31, 1996

     A. Total MSW disposed                                     14,322,121 Tons
     B. Population (Official April 1, 1996 figure)             14,411,563 People
     C. MSW/Capita: 7A/7B =                                          0.99 Tons/Capita


     A. Base Year #1 to Current Year:                  [(1c-7c)/1c]x100=       26.6%

     B. Base Year #2 to Current Year:                  [(2c-7c)/2c]x100=       26.3%

     C. Base Year #3 to Current Year:                  [(3c-7c)/3c]x100=       24.2%

     D. Base Year #4 to Current Year:                  [(4c-7c)/4c]x100=       19.1%

     E. Base Year #5 to Current Year:                  [(5c-7c)/5c]x100=       11.5%

     F. Base Year #6 to Current Year:                  [(6c-7c)/6c]x100=       10.2%

                                                                                        FDEP 8/19/98
could count towards the goal, the adjusted statewide recycling rate for calendar year 95 and 96 was 33 and
34 percent respectively. In other words, if the Legislature wanted Florida counties to reach a 30 percent
recycling goal, it appears that 22 counties had met the goal by calendar year 1995, with 5 counties at 29
percent and 10 counties between 25 and 28 percent. For calendar year 1996, 24 counties had met the
goal, with 3 counties at 29 percent and 16 counties between 25 and 28 percent (see Appendix B, Table 6B).

However, if the Legislature wanted Florida counties to reach a 30 percent waste reduction goal, for calender
year 1996, the goal was met by 21 counties using 1987-88 as the base year, 20 counties using 1988-89 as
the base year, 20 using 1989-90 as the base year, 16 counties using 1990-91 as the base year and 10 counties
using 1991-92 as the base year. On a statewide basis, Florida has never exceeded a waste reduction rate of
27 percent using the same base years listed above. For detailed county waste reduction information, refer to
Appendix B, Table 2B.

It is important to remember that for these purposes, the waste reduction calculations compare the
amount of waste that is landfilled and combusted over time. This is really waste disposal reduction.
Thus, even though the amount of waste generated per capita may increase (as it has in Florida prior
to this last reporting period), good recycling programs (such as those in many of Florida’s counties)
can result in less waste per capita being landfilled or combusted.


•   Adjusted vs. Unadjusted Recycling Rates

In Florida, one must distinguish between adjusted and unadjusted recycling rates. The unadjusted
recycling rate is the weight of recycled MSW divided by the total weight of all MSW. The adjusted
recycling rate, which is used to determine if a county has reached the State’s mandated 30 percent
recycling/waste reduction goal, is less straightforward. Florida Statute 403.706(4)(a) requires that
no more than one-half of the goal can be met by a combination of certain special wastes: yard trash,
white goods, C&D debris, tires and process fuel. (Process fuel is composed of pre-treated yard
trash, wood and paper waste used in process boilers.) In other words, those counties that are
recycling a relatively high percentage of those special wastes must adjust their recycling rate to
determine how close they are to the goal.

To determine the adjusted recycling rate, first calculate the total weight of those special wastes that
were recycled, and then divide that by the total weight of all MSW. If the result is less than 15
percent, no adjustment is needed. If the result is greater than or equal to 15 percent, take the
unadjusted recycling rate percent, subtract the percent of special waste recycled, and then add 15
percent. The result will be the adjusted recycling rate.

•   Materials Recycled

In calendar year 1995, more than 8.6 million tons of MSW material collected in Florida was recycled.
For calendar year 1996 about 9.4 million tons of MSW material collected in Florida was recycled.
Table 4 shows the collection and recycling tonnage for the 18 material categories and

     Table 4: Florida Municipal Solid Waste Collected and Recycled
                                                            (Jan. 1, 1996 - Dec. 31, 1996)
                                         MUNICIPAL                                               MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE RECYCLED
                                 SOLID WASTE COLLECTED 1
        MATERIALS                               PERCENT                                                                               PERCENT      MATERIAL
                                    TONS       OF TOTAL                       PUBLIC            PRIVATE                 TOTAL        OF TOTAL     RECYCLING
                                    PER        TONS PER                        TONS              TONS                   TONS           TONS         RATE 2
                                   YEAR          YEAR                        RECYCLED          RECYCLED               RECYCLED       RECYCLED     (PERCENT)
1. Newspapers                            1,223,606                     5.2           352,561           193,903             546,465          5.8            44.7
2. Glass                                   639,562                     2.7           100,696            44,519             145,215          1.5            22.7
3. Aluminum Cans                           148,061                     0.6            13,104            25,067              38,171          0.4            25.8
4. Plastic Bottles                         251,135                     1.1            26,439            14,550              40,989          0.4            16.3
5. Steel Cans                              252,748                     1.1            70,793            21,658              92,452          1.0            36.6
6. C & D Debris                          5,489,514                    23.1           307,411         2,557,425           2,864,836         30.4            52.2
7. Yard Waste                            3,379,647                    14.2         1,064,783           679,902           1,744,685         18.5            51.6
8. White Goods                             234,348                     1.0            35,667            83,894             119,561          1.3            51.0
9. Tires                                   156,885                     0.7            28,362            30,496              58,859          0.6            37.5
10. Other Plastics                         940,579                     4.0             1,107            11,399              12,507          0.1             1.3
11. Ferrous Metals                       2,035,248                     8.6           127,944         1,357,802           1,485,747         15.8            73.0
12. Non-Ferrous Metal                      453,874                     1.9             7,664           164,986             172,650          1.8            38.0
13. Corrugated Paper                     1,994,685                     8.4            71,909           907,989             979,898         10.4            49.1
14. Office Paper                           638,035                     2.7            16,514           129,910             146,425          1.6            22.9
15. Other Paper                          2,100,148                     8.8            53,310            97,522             150,832          1.6             7.2
16. Food Wastes                          1,219,340                     5.1             1,164            75,451              76,615          0.8             6.3
17. Textiles                               590,335                     2.5               338            26,845              27,183          0.3             4.6
18. Miscellaneous                        1,998,160                     8.4            88,592           397,321             485,913          5.2            24.3
19. Process Fuel 3                             N/A                    N/A            104,687           130,098             234,785          2.5           100.0

             Total                 23,745,911                       100.0         2,473,047        6,950,738            9,423,784         100.0            39.7
    Municipal solid waste collected is the total recycled, landfilled and combusted.
    Unadjusted recycling rate.
    Process fuel is composed of yard, wood and paper waste used in process boilers.
    Process fuel is not included in the total. The tonnage collected has been counted in other material categories.

                                                                                                                                                    FDEP 8/19/98
process fuel for calendar year 1996. The amount of material recycled during this year by the private
sector recyclers was more than twice that recycled by the public sector recyclers. The highest
individual material recycling rates were for yard wastes and C&D debris at about 53 percent, white
                                                                                   goods at almost 52 percent
                       Figure 8: M aterials Recycling and Disposal in Florida      and ferrous metals (not
                                          (Jan.1,1996 - Dec. 31, 1996)
                                                                                   including steel cans) at
        C & D Debris
                                                                                   about 73 percent. Food
          Yard Trash
                                                                                   wastes at almost 6 percent,
    Corrugated Paper                                                               other paper at 7 percent,
         Other Paper                                                               textiles at about 1 percent,
         Newspapers                                                                and other plastics at about
                                                                                   2 percent had the lowest
        Food Wastes
                                                                                   individual recycling rates.
                                                                                   Figure 8 graphically
      Ferrous Metals
                                                                                   compares the amounts of
        Other Plastic
                                                                                   materials disposed and
         Office Paper                                                              recycled. Figure 9, depicts
                Glass                                                              the proportion of each
              Textiles                                                             material recycled based on
  Non-Ferrous Metals
                                                                          Disposed the total amount of
       Plastic Bottles
                                                                                   material recycled in
                                                                                   Florida. In terms of
        White Goods
                                                                                   tonnage, C&D debris and
          Steel Cans
                                                                                   yard trash account for
      Aluminum Cans                                                                about 48 percent of all
                 Tires                                                             materials recycled in the
              0         1          2         3         4          5         6      State. The total tons
                                                           Million Tons
                                                                                   collected and recycled,
including the recycling rate, for the 18 material types and process fuel are listed by county in
Appendix B, Table 3B (Minimum 5), Table 4B (Special Wastes) and Table 5B (Other Wastes).

•   Recycling Rates

From SFY 1989 to CY 1996, the State has shown a steady increase in the percent of MSW
recycled. In calendar year 1996, the unadjusted recycling rate increased from 37 percent for the
previous reporting period to 40 percent. Figure 10 shows that from SFY 1990 to 1996, Florida
experienced a 167 percent increase in the unadjusted recycling rate for total MSW. Additionally,
Figure 7 depicts a steady increase in the tons per capita of material recycled in the State, from 0.21
tons per capita in SFY 1990 to 0.65 tons per capita in calendar year 1996. This is equivalent to a
209 percent increase over the 6 year period.

Figure 11, compares the recycling goals and deadlines for 41 states and the District of Columbia.
The various state goals range from 60 percent for New Jersey to 20 percent Maryland. It should not
be automatically assumed that a higher numerical goal in one state is actually harder to reach than a
lower goal in another state, because the various states have different ways of calculating progress
towards their goal. For example, some states allow automobile recycling to count towards their
goal, while others (including Florida) do not. Over the past several years, various States and the

     Figure 9: Florida Municipal Solid Waste Managed and Recycled
                                       (Jan. 1, 1996 - Dec. 31, 1996)

                        17%                                                                       C & D Debris
                                                                      Other Paper
                                                                                                                               Other Plastic
                                                         Non-Ferrous Metals
                                                                                                                                 Food Wastes
                                                         Process Fuel                                                               0.8%
                                                                                                                                   Corrugated Paper
                                                              2.5%                                                                         10.4%
                                                       White Goods
                                                                                                                                    Office Paper
                                                                                                                                 Plastic Bottles
                                                       Ferrous Metals
                                                           15.8%                                                              Newspapers
                                                                        Aluminum Cans
                                                                             0.4%   Glass                    Yard Trash
                                                                                    1.5% Steel Cans            18.4%

               MSW MANAGED           40%                                            % of MSW RECYCLED
             (23.6 MILLION TONS)                                                     (9.4 MILLION TONS)

USEPA have attempted to standardize recycling and waste reduction accounting processes amongst
the states. This effort has been thwarted because numerous state statutes define solid waste terms
and formulas in various ways. A comparison of county adjusted and unadjusted recycling rates are
shown in Figures 12 and 13. Counties that have 15 percent or less of their recycled material coming
from the special wastes materials category will have no difference between the rates. Those
counties with a large discrepancy between the adjusted and unadjusted recycling rates indicates a
large amount of special waste materials being recycled.

Appendix B, Table 6B, shows the adjusted and unadjusted recycling rates and the recycling rate for
the minimum 5 materials for each of the 67 counties in Florida for calendar year 1996. The counties
are listed in descending order of their adjusted recycling rates. In calendar year 1995, Pinellas
County lead with an adjusted recycling rate of 45 percent. In calendar year 1996, Pinellas and
Hillsborough County lead with an adjusted recycling rate of 41 percent. For calendar year 1996,
24 counties have met the goal, with 3 counties at 29 percent and 15 counties between 25 and 28
percent. Of those meeting the goal, 2 counties had greater than 40 percent, 4 counties achieved
between 35 and 39 percent and the remaining 16 counties had recycled between 30 and 34 percent.
On a Statewide basis, the adjusted recycling rate was 34 percent. See Appendix B, Table 6B, for
                                                                         Figure 10: Annual Adjusted and
•   Recycling in 1997
                                                                  Unadjusted Recycling Rate In Florida
For calendar year 1997, the                                                     ( July 1, 1989- December 31, 1996)
                                                                                                              40          40
counties have projected a 3                                40
                                                                  Difference Between Adjusted and
                                                                  Unadjusted Recycling Rate              37          37
percent increase in MSW
                                        Percent Recycled

                                                                  Adjusted Recycling Rate
                                                           35                                       31
collected and a 6.3 percent                                                            27
increase in MSW recycled.
The statewide unadjusted                                                      21
recycling rate is projected to                             20
slightly increase from 40                                  15
percent in 96 to 41 percent                                10
in 97. County detailed                                      5
information is listed in                                    0
Appendix B, Table 7B (a                                         1990* 1991* 1992* 1993* 1994* 1995* 1995** 1996**
three-page table).               *State Fiscal Year
                                                                                        State Fiscal Year
                                 **Calendar Year

•   The County Goals

Florida Statute 403.706 established two goals for counties with populations greater than 50,000 to
meet by the end of calendar year 1994. (Counties with less than 50,000 people are exempt from the
goals as long as they provide their residents the “opportunity to recycle”). As mentioned above, the
counties are required to meet a 30 percent adjusted recycling rate for all MSW. The other goal is to
recycle 50 percent of each of the “Minimum 5 Materials”: newspaper, glass bottles, aluminum cans,
plastic bottles and steel cans.

The county goals could not be achieved without the 376 city and institutional recycling programs
which work with their respective counties. In calendar year 96, the counties reportedly gave some.

   Figure 11: State Recycling / Waste Reduction Goals
                                          and Deadlines
                                                      Goal      Deadline

New Jersey            60%                                                1995

West Virginia*              50%                                                                                  2010

Michigan                    50%                                                                           2005

Nebraska*                   50%                                                                    2002

South Dakota*               50%                                                               2001

California                  50%                                                             2000

Colorado                    50%                                                             2000

Hawaii                      50%                                                             2000

Indiana*                    50%                                                             2000

Iowa*                       50%                                                             2000

New Mexico                  50%                                                             2000

New York                    50%                                                             2000

Oregon                      50%                                                             2000

Maine                       50%                                                      1998

Minnesota                   50%                                               1996

Washington                  50%                                          1995

Massachusetts                46%                                                            2000

D.C.                          45%                                      1994
                                  40%                                                         2001
North Carolina*
                                  40%                                                       2000
                                  40%                                                       2000
                                  40%                                                       2000
New Hampshire*
                                  40%                                                       2000
North Dakota*
                                  40%                                                       2000
                                  40%                                                1998
                                  40%                                  1994
                                        30%                                     1997
South Carolina
                                        30%                              1995
                                          25%                                                 2001
                                          25%                                                      2002
                                          25%                                   1997
                                          25%                                   1997
                                          25%                                 1996
                                          25%                                 1996
                                          25%                            1995
                                          25%                            1995
                                          25%                            1995
                                          25%                            1995
                                          25%                          1994
                                          25%                   1992
                                          25%                                               2000
                                              20%                      1994

                                              Source: Biocycle, May 1997

*State Waste Reduction rather than Recycling Goal.                                                                      8/19/98
                                                     1                          2
                       Figure 12: County Adjusted and Unadjusted Recycling Rates
                                        For Populations Over 50,000
                                             (Jan. 1, 1996 - Dec. 31, 1996)


Palm Beach













Indian River


 Saint Lucie



Santa Rosa








Saint Johns


      Martin                                                                  Adjusted Recycling Rate


                                                                              Difference Between Adjusted
                                                                              and Unadjusted Recycling
     Marion                                                                   Rates




               0   5     10   15   20   25      30       35   40     45       50    55    60   65       70   75

                                             MSW Recycling Percent
                                                                                                             FDEP 8/19/98
                     Figure13: County Adjusted                  and Unadjusted 2 Recycling Rates
                                                     For Populations Under 50,000
                                                              (Jan.1, 1996 - Dec. 31, 1996)













                                                                                                Adjusted Recycling Rate


                                                                                                Difference Between Adjusted
  Jefferson                                                                                     and Unadjusted Recycling Rates









   De Soto




                 0         5         10         15         20        25          30        35         40         45         50         55         60
                                                                MSW Recycling Percent

         Populations of 50,000 or less must provide its residents with the opportunity to recycle in lieu of the 30 percent adjusted recycling rate goa
         The unadjusted recycling rate is represented by the total bar length.

                                                                                                                                                       FDEP 8/19/98
                                                  Figure 14: Recycling in Florida's Counties
                                                             (Jan 1, 1996-Dec. 31, 1996)
                                                                                                                                                                                                       CO.            Counties with a population > 50,000 which
                                                                                                                                                                                                                      have met the 30% recycling goal.
                              SANTA     OKALOOSA
                                                                                                                                                                                                       CO.            Counties with a population > 50,000 which
                                                                                                                                                                                                                      have not met the 30% recycling goal.

                                                                                                                                             IA 3

                                                                      BAY                                                   SUWANNEE

                                                                                                                                                              RD CLAY                                                 Counties with a population < 50,000 which

                                                                                                                                                            FO                  ST.                    CO.
                                                                                                                                                          AD                   JOHNS
                                                                                                                                                                                                                      have recycling rates of 30% or greater.
                                                                                                                                                    ALACHUA       PUTNAM
                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Counties with a population < 50,000 which
                                Counties With Population Greater than 50,000
                                                                                        1                                                                                                                             have recycling rates < 30%.
          County           Recycling            Population             Population                  Recycling (%)                                              MARION               VOLUSIA
                           Rank(Adj.)             Rank                                         Unadjusted Adjusted
     1.   Dade                            8                     1               2,043,316                       30     30
     2.   Broward                         6                     2               1,392,252                       38     32                            CITRUS                            SEMINOLE
     3.   Palm Beach                      7                     3                 981,793                       52     31
     4.   Hillsborough                    1                     4                 910,855                       41     41                                                          ORANGE
     5.   Pinellas                        1                     5                 881,383                       48     41
     6.   Orange                          2                     6                 777,556                       51     38
                                                                                                                                                     PASCO                                                     BREVARD
     7.   Duval                           3                     7                 728,437                       47     37                                                               OSCEOLA
     8.   Polk                            6                     8                 452,707                       28     28                            HILLSBOROUGH
     9.   Brevard                        10                     9                 450,164                       44     28                                                 POLK
    10.   Volusia                         5                    10                 407,199                       33     33     PINELLAS                                                                       INDIAN
    11.   Lee                             3                    11                 383,706                       39     37                                                                                     RIVER
    12.   Seminole                        6                    12                 329,031                       32     32                                                                         OKEECHOBEE
    13.   Pasco                           5                    13                 309,936                       35     33                               MANATEE
                                                                                                                                                                                                               ST. LUCIE
    14.   Sarasota                        6                    14                 305,848                       70     32                                                              HIGHLANDS
    15.   Escambia                       11                    15                 286,301                       27     27
    16.   Manatee                        11                    16                 236,778                       29     27
    17.   Marion                         11                    17                 229,260                       27     27                 SARASOTA
    18.   Leon                            8                    18                 221,621                       40     30                                              CHARLOTTE
    19.   Alachua                         7                    19                 202,140                       48     31                                                                                       PALM BEACH
    20.   Collier                        11                    20                 193,036                       45     27                                                  LEE
    21.   Lake                            8                    21                 182,309                       30     30
    22.   Saint Lucie                     7                    22                 175,458                       35     31
    23.   Okaloosa                       12                    23                 165,319                       30     26                                                                                        BROWARD
    24.   Bay                            12                    24                 142,159                       26     26                                                               COLLIER
    25.   Osceola                        10                    25                 139,724                       34     28
    26.   Charlotte                       7                    26                 129,468                       47     31
    27.   Clay                           18                    27                 125,431                       20     20                                                                                         8/19/98
    28.   Hernando                        5                    28                 119,931                       33     33
    29.   Martin                         14                    29                 114,464                       29     24
    30.   Citrus                          4                    30                 107,889                       38     35
    31.   Indian River                   13                    31                 102,211                       38     25
    32.   Saint Johns                     9                    32                 101,729                       29     29
    33.   Santa Rosa                     10                    33                  98,491                       33     28
    34.   Monroe                         14                    34                  83,789                       42     24
    35.   Highlands                       9                    35                  77,996                       29     29                                                                                                                          FDEP
    36.   Putnam                          7                    36                  70,287                       31     31                                                                                                                         5/28/98
    37.   Columbia                       12                    37                  52,565                       26     26
    38.   Nassau                         16                    38                  51,097                       22     22
          State                          NA                    NA              14,411,563                       40     34
1   1996 populations used by FDEP to allocate Recycling and Education grants for the1997 -1998 grant cycle.
2   The Legislature established a goal of 30 percent by the end of 1994 for counties w ith a population over 50,000.
3   Columbia County is exempt from large county status by Florida Statutes.
of the 196 participating cities $5,930,765 to help fund their recycling programs. As of June 1997,
the counties reportedly gave the cities and institutions $7,027,521 to fund their recycling programs.

Thus, greater than 30 percent of the total Recycling and Education grant funds expended went to
city and institutional recycling programs. It is interesting to note that as many as 103 or 53 percent
of the cities in Florida with recycling programs have some form of mandatory recycling
requirements. See Appendix F, Table 2F for more details. Overall, 24 counties had achieved a 30
percent recycling rate or better for calendar year 1995. Figure 14 shows the 38 counties that were
required to meet the State mandated goals based on their official 1996 populations. It also shows
that 20 of these counties had achieved the 30 percent recycling goal as of December 31, 1996.
Four additional counties with populations under 50,000 achieved the recycling goal as well. Most
noteworthy of these are the three counties that make up the New River Solid Waste Association,
Baker, Bradford and Union.

In calendar year 1996, none of the 67 counties have met the 50 percent recycling goal for all
the minimum 5 materials (newspaper, glass & plastic bottles, and aluminum & steel cans).
However, 41 percent of all the counties have achieved the goal for one or more materials, 12
percent for two or more materials, and 3 percent for three or more materials. Table 5 shows the
percent of the counties that have achieved the 50 percent minimum five recycling goal in Florida.

       Table 5: Florida Counties Meeting the Goal for the Minimum 5
           Minimum 5         Newspaper        Glass      Aluminum         Plastic      Steel
           Materials                          Bottles      Cans           Bottles      Cans
     # of Counties               18             5             7             1           10
     % of Counties               27             7            10             1           15

Figures 15 and 16 gives a statewide perspective of the recycling rates for the minimum 5 materials
as reported by Florida’s Counties and Industry. These figures show the amount required for the
State, as a whole, to meet the 50 percent level for those materials.

Recycling rate data provided by industry frequently varies from the recycling figures the
Department compiles from counties. While recycling estimates are usually comparable, the amount
of material estimated to be generated by industry usually varies significantly from the total amount
of material estimated to be collected by the counties. This results in industry estimates of recycling
being higher than county estimates for what should be the same recycling rates. This can be seen in
Table 6. The counties collection tonnage for the five listed materials is almost 39 percent greater
than that reported as generated by industry. At the same time, the recycled tonnage reported by the
counties is 29 percent greater than industry’s figures. The differences in the data result primarily
from the different ways in which the information is collected. Because of their scope and the way
that the data are compiled, industry estimates of recycling rates for aluminum cans, steel cans, glass
bottles, plastic bottles, and newspaper are considered to be more accurate on a statewide basis while
county data are considered accurate on a countywide basis for all 19 material types.

Table 6: Industry and County Comparisons of Minimum 5 Materials
                                  Industry                          Counties
      Material              Tons       Tons    %    Tons Collected Tons Recycled % Recy.
                         Generated Recycled Recy.       1996           1996       1996
Newspaper2                  808,500    440,000   54     1,223,606        546,465      45
Glass3                      582,092    102,616   18       639,562        145,215      23
Aluminum Cans4               94,166     51,075   54       148,061         38,171      26
Plastic Bottles5            248,700     49,000   20       251,135         40,989      16
Steel Cans4                 110,743     70,490   64       252,748         92,452      37
Min. 5 Total              1,844,201    713,181  39      2,515,112        863,292      34
  County numbers are from calendar year 1996 for 1997 R&E grant applications using information supplied by certified recyclers.
  Newspaper calculations for industry are taken from “Evaluation of Florida Newspaper Generation and Recovery, July 1993 through
June. 1994” prepared by Franklin Associates, Ltd.
  Glass figures for industry are taken from “State of Florida 1991 Glass Container Recovery Rate Study” prepared by R.W. Beck and
Associates, August 1992.
  Industry calculations for aluminum by CMI and steel cans by STI are from the 1994 ADF program , FDEP.
  Industry plastic figures are from “1993 Florida Post-Consumer Plastics6 Recycling Rate Study” prepared by R.W. Beck and
Associates (included in Florida Packaging Council 1993 Annual Report). Unadjusted Recycling Rate.

Industry estimates convert product sales information into a total weight of material generated and
then divided into the amount of material recycled. The amount of material recycled is determined
by end user data, which helps eliminate double counting resulting from recyclables frequently
crossing county boundaries. Processing of recyclables involves several steps, and usually involves
facilities in several different counties. Counting recyclables at the state, rather than county level,
also makes it easier to account for imports, exports, and contaminants.

County estimates of material generated are almost always based on waste composition studies,
which statistically estimate material tonnages using limited sampling of all disposal loads ( i.e., the
amount of a material in the waste stream from empirical studies conducted at disposal facilities).
Even detailed field studies provide only a snapshot of the waste at a point in time, and they are
dependent on proper statistical sampling for their results, rather than actual sales generation data.
These results are reported to the Department, and compiled to determine statewide recycling rates.

When documenting recycling rates to the DEP, the aluminum and steel industries subjected their
data to stricter scrutiny than the other industry recovery data. These standards include accounting
for imports, exports and residue, and obtaining independent verification of the reported data. The
Department also reviewed the reports to ensure sound methodologies and data calculations. For
both aluminum and steel, the Department issued final findings of the actual state recycling rates.
Other recovery rate figures are provided for informational purposes only, and are not necessarily
validated or supported by the Department.

For calendar year 1996, the Department used a combination of private sector reports generated
pursuant to the Certification of Recyclers rule (note the Certification of Recyclers section which
follows) and County data to determine recycling tonnages and rates. Table 8B, Appendix B, shows
the progress of the Florida’s counties from SFY 1991 to the end of calendar year 1996 towards
meeting the 50 percent goal for the minimum 5 materials. Most counties have indicated a steady
improvement from year to year in their recycling rates. Others have experienced some setbacks.

                               Figure 15: Minimum 5 Materials Recycling Rates
                                       as Reported by Florida's Counties
                                                  (Jan. 1, 1996 - Dec. 31, 1996)

            1,200                Total Collected

                                 Amount Required to Reach
            1,000                the State's 50 % Goal
                                 Amount Recycled
Thousand Tons 800

             600                                                                640              547

                                         253                251
                     148                                      85
                      36                  34                                    145
                      38                                      41
                     Aluminum Cans         Steel Cans         Plastic Bottles            Glass         Newspapers

                               Figure 16: Minimum 5 Materials Recycling Rates
                                           as Reported by Industry
                                                        (As of July 1, 1995)

                                Total Collected
                                Amount Required to Reach
                                State's 50 % Goal
                                Amount Recycled
Thousand Tons 800

             600                                                                582

             400                                                                   188

             200                                              75

                      51                  71
                     94                                                         103
                    Aluminum Cans(1)      Steel Cans(2)       Plastic Bottles            Glass     Newspapers(3)

              (1) Exceeded the State goal by 4,000 tons
              (2) Exceeded the State goal by 15,500 tons
              (3) Exceeded the State goal by 35,700 tons

                                                                                                                    FDEP 8/24/98
• Cost of Recycling
As part of the reporting requirements to be eligible to receive annual State Recycling and Education
Grants, each county must summarize the costs associated with their respective recycling programs.
Tables 7 and Table 9B in Appendix B present recycling program costs on a Statewide average and
on a county by county basis respectively (as reported by each of Florida’s 67 counties). The costs
are broken down into several categories including: equipment and buildings, operating services,
planning/engineering studies, and public education. These categories are further broken down into
whether these costs are associated with the public (government) or private sectors (business).

Table 7: County Recycling Program Cost Summary
                 Cost Categories                                                  Dollars Spent and Encumbered
                                                                        R&E Funds           Local Funds                                                      Total
Equipment & Building
   Public Sector                                               3,743,131                              7,182,942                                     10,926,072
               sub-total                                       3,743,131                              7,182,942                                     10,926,072
Operating Services
   Public Sector                                               7,474,605                              28,674,287                                    36,148,892
   Private Sector Contracts                                    7,785,078                              53,599,674                                    61,384,751
               sub-total                                       15,259,683                             53,599,674                                    97,533,643
Planning/Eng. Studies
   Public Sector                                               171,069                                128,423                                       299,492
   Private Sector Contracts                                    248,106                                369,776                                       617,882
               sub-total                                       419,175                                498,199                                       917,374
Public Education
   Public Sector                                               2,695,614                              4,695,221                                     7,390,835
   Private Sector Contracts                                    350,429                                998,421                                       1,348,850
               sub-total                                       3,046,043                              5,693,642                                     8,739,685
 Total Public Costs                                            14,084,419                             40,680,872                                    54,765,291
 Total Private Contract Costs                                  8,383,613                              54,967,870                                    63,351,483
                 Grand Total Used                              22,468,032                             95,648,743                                    118,116,774
                 Costs Per Capita                              1.56                                   6.64                                          8.20
                                                                           11                                                       12
                   Remaining R&E Funds Not Used :                                                             Grant Award :
                               301,968                                                                          22,770,000
  Information in this table includes compiled cost data provided by the counties for both the county governments and the participating municipalities found within its borders.
  Includes all dollars spent or committed via a purchase order by the local governments on recycling programs during the county fiscal year.
  Includes any local revenues (non-R&E grants) such as tip fees, advalorem taxes, special assessments, recycling fee via waste disposal bill, material sales revenue etc.,spent
on the recycling program.
  Funds spent and encumbered for the acquisition of recycling equipment and recycling facilities.
  Publicly funded and operated entities such as a county or city governments, regional planning councils, public universities, s chool boards, etc. May include contracts or
purchase orders with public entities.
  Funds spent and encumbered for the acquisition of services relating to the collection, processing, marketing and sales of recycled material.
  Privately owned and operated entities, including non-profit organizations, contracted or retained through a purchase order to provide services or products to the local
government for its recycling program.
  Funds spent and encumbered for the acquisition of planning and/or engineering products or services relating to the recycling program.
  Funds spent and encumbered for the acquisition of educational products or services for schools or the general public relating to the recycling program.
   Based on the 1996 Governor's Office population estimate.
  The total R&E grant award for the county fiscal year. This figure must equal R&E Used + Not Used.
   All remaining R&E grant funds not spent or encumbered during the county fiscal year.

For the county fiscal year 1996-97 (October 1, 1996 through September 30, 1997), total Recycling
and Education (R&E) funds used Statewide equaled $22,770,390 which, divided by the State’s
estimated 1996 population equals $1.58 per capita. Total recycling program related funds expended
by local governments not including the State grant funds in SFY 1997-98 was $95,648,743, or $6.59
per capita. Combined State R&E grant funds and local government recycling program
expenditures totaled $118,116,774 for an overall per capita cost of $8.19. The total amount of
both R&E grant and local funds expended through the public sector was reported to be $54,765,291
while the total funds expended through the private sector was reported to be $63,351,483.
Therefore, 66% of all recycling dollars spent by local government is estimated to have been
passed through to the private sector.

Table 7 also indicates that Equipment and Building category total costs are about 9% of the
$118,116,774 grand total costs reported for recycling programs throughout Florida while Operating
Services costs represent 82%, Planning and Engineering Studies costs represent less than 1%, and
Public Education costs represent nearly 7% of the grand total recycling program costs Statewide.

Appendix B, Table 9B in presents similar data to that found in Table 7, but broken down by each
county. This table also presents the approximate Statewide ratio of total State provided R&E funds
expended versus local government expenditures on recycling programs. This information indicates
that local governments throughout Florida are spending about $4.50 of their own dollars for
every $1 they receive in State R&E grant funds on a Statewide average basis. These ratios
fluctuate dramatically on a county by county basis however.

•   Curbside Recycling and Recycling Participation

As of June 1996, the counties reported that there were 285 curbside recycling programs in the State
collecting over 21 different types of materials. These programs employed predominantly three types
of materials collection: commingled at the curb by residence, sorted by material type at the curb by
residents or at time of collection by the collection personnel, or by a blue bag process. The average
cost per household for curbside recycling in the State was about $2.63 per month.
As of June 1997, there were 299 curbside recycling programs in the State collecting over 21
different types of materials. The average cost for curbside recycling in the State was down 10
percent at $2.39 per household. See Table 10B, Appendix B for more details.

Residential: In 1996, curbside recycling was available to 73 percent of the single family homes and
63 percent of the multi-family units in Florida. Of those units with curbside recycling available,
participation was 69 percent for single-family homes and 71 percent for multi-family units. The total
participation rate, which is based on all homes in the county, including those where services are not
available, was 51 percent for all single family homes and 45 percent for all multi-family units.

                       Figure 17:   Number of Single Family Homes Where
                                    Curbside Recycling is Available                                Figure 17 shows the trend from SFY 1990-
                                          (July 1, 1989 - December 31, 1996)                       1996 for the number of single family homes
                                                     2.7    2.7
                                                                   3.0      3.0   2.9   3.1        with available curbside recycling. Between
                           2.5                2.3                                                  1990 and 1996, there was a 55 percent
       Million Homes

                           2.0                                                                     increase in the availability of curbside
                                                                                                   collection in the State. In calendar year
                                                                                                   1996, about 3.1 million single-family homes
                           0.0                                                                     had curbside recycling available.
                                 1990* 1991* 1992* 1993* 1994* 1995* 1995** 1996**
                                                        State Fiscal Year
                                                                                                   Detailed county information is listed in
    *State Fiscal Year, **Calendar Year
                                                                                                   Appendix B, Tables 11B and 12B.

Commercial: Scheduled recycling service was available to 50 percent of commercial
establishments, while on-call service was available to 33 percent. Of those commercial
establishments that had scheduled service available, 49 percent participated. Of those commercial
establishments that had on-call service available, 40 percent participated. Of all the commercial
establishments in the State, including those with no recycling service available, the total
participation rate was 24 percent for scheduled collection and 13 percent for on-call collection.
Detailed county information is listed in Appendix B, Table 13B.

•          Recycling and Florida’s Economy

The Florida Department of Commerce (FDC), in coordination with FDEP, spent part of the summer
and fall of 1995 gathering data about how recycling activities translate into jobs and income for
Floridians. The basic question was....”what is the contribution of recycling to Florida’s economy?”

Preliminary findings from FDC’s work indicated that over 13,000 men and women were employed
in some recycling capacity in Florida and almost 95% of these jobs were in the private sector. This
means that more people in Florida were employed in the recycling industry than in the mining or
primary metals industries. In addition, it indicated that Florida’s recycling industry employees
enjoyed a comfortable standard of living. The annual wage of a full-time recycling employee in
1995 was estimated to average just over $21,000.

These findings indicated that recycling activity throughout Florida have required a significant
investment of time and resources by the private and public estimated $2.7 billion has
been invested in Florida’s recycling infrastructure since 1988-89.

Certification of Recyclers
The Certification of Recyclers rule (62-722, F.A.C.) is currently in effect pursuant to the
requirements of 403.7046, F.S. This rule became effective on January 1, 1995. There were five
public meetings and a public workshop held for the purpose of establishing consensus among the
regulated community, local government and the State concerning this new rule.

The primary intent of this rule is to establish a recycler certification program for obtaining accurate
information on the quantities and county of origin of the following 13 recovered materials being
handled in Florida:

•   Paper:                                              •   Non-Ferrous Metal:
       Newspaper                                               Aluminum Cans
       Corrugated Cardboard                                    Other Non-Ferrous
       High Grade Office Paper
       Mixed Paper                                      •   Ferrous Metals:
                                                                Steel Cans
•   Plastic:                                                    Other Ferrous
        Plastic Bottles
        All Other Plastic                               •   Glass

• Rubber (Included in the miscellaneous                 •   Textiles
category of recycled materials for this report)

One of the major challenges in drafting this rule was assuring accuracy of the reporting process. The
Counties must have good information in order to determine their compliance with the mandated
recycling goals. In the past, one possible source of error in recycling rate data was due to the double
counting of material between counties since the data was dependent on voluntary reporting by the
private sector.

A Technical Advisory Committee was established and determined that a handler of recovered
materials (as defined) must be certified and provide an annual report, for the preceding year,
directly to DEP once a threshold of 600 tons per year is exceeded for any one, or combination of
materials types. This includes dealer/processors and end users, or generators that by-pass
dealer/processors and ship 600 tons or more directly out of state or to Florida end users. The report
must include quantities for each recovered material handled by county of origin. All reported
information from private recyclers are aggregated and kept confidential. Counties may require that
the same data reported to the State annually must be reported directly to them on a quarterly basis
starting with the third quarter of 1996.

For the calendar year 1997, there are 205 recyclers that have been certified. The certified
recyclers have listed over 400 facilities which handle recovered materials as defined above. It
should be noted that the business entity or recycling company itself must be certified and not each
individual facility. A list of the Florida’s certified recyclers can be found in Appendix B, Table 14B.

•   Existing and Proposed Recycling Facilities

Florida has a total of 43 Materials Recovery facilities (MRFs), and 137 Recovered Materials
Processing facilities (RMPFs). RMPFs process materials that have been cleaned by MRFs or
collected directly from residential or commercial generators that have source separated recycled
materials. The State has 680 drop-off centers for materials to be recycled and 184 buy back centers.
A list of Florida’s existing and proposed recycling facilities, and other related service centers can be
found in Appendix B, Table 15B.

Composting Florida’s                                                                   Organics

•   The Material

A very simple definition of organic is: pertaining to the vegetable or animal world. In nature, these
materials are broken down by natural processes into humus. Compost results from these processes.
The regulations governing composting of solid waste are found in Chapter 62-709, Florida
Administrative Code (F.A.C). For purposes of these rules, compost is defined as solid waste which
has undergone biological decomposition of organic matter, and has been disinfected using
composting or similar technologies, and has been stabilized to a degree which is potentially
beneficial to plant growth and which is used or sold for use as a soil amendment, artificial top soil,
growing medium amendment or other similar uses. A mature compost bears little resemblance to the
organic material it originated from.

Compost can be used in many ways such as a soil amendment, artificial top soil or growing medium
amendment. While compost contains some plant nutrients, it is not typically considered a fertilizer.
Some benefits from using compost include retaining soil moisture and nutrients, improving soil
aeration, returning nutrients to the soil, and suppressing soil-borne pests. Using compost products is
considered recycling, and may be the oldest form of recycling.

•   Potential Volume

While leaving grass clippings on the lawn and backyard composting should be encouraged, local
governments must still manage large amounts of organic material. The compostable fraction in the
municipal solid waste (MSW) stream includes food, paper and yard trash. Of the 23.7 million tons
of MSW generated in the reporting period, these organic solid wastes accounted for about 11.15
million tons, or 47% of this stream. If all this material was processed into usable compost, the yield
would be about 5.6 million tons of compost. Yard trash alone accounts for 3.4 million tons, or 14%
of the MSW stream. Per county annual reports, approximately 1.7 tons of yard trash (7.3% of the
MSW stream) was processed into compost or mulch in 1996.

•   Composting Facilities and Department Policy

As of December 1997, there were 10 permitted composting facilities in Florida located in nine
counties. In addition, there is discussion about a research demonstration and development permit
for a vermicomposting facility. This facility is considering adding vegetative waste from the food
preparation industry into its operation. Except for the vermicomposting facility, these composting
facilities utilize a windrow process at different turning frequencies, or an in-vessel treatment
followed by a windrow process.

The permitted facilities, listed in Table 8, compost a variety of organic wastes, including mixed
MSW, food waste, residue from an ethanol facility, scallop industry waste, packing cull or manure.
This list of composting facilities does not reflect the number of exempt composting facilities (i.e.,
yard trash composting facilities exempted per Department policy, small facilities and normal farming

operations), the number of sludge composting facilities that include yard trash in their operations,
nor the number of yard trash mulching facilities.

                            Table 8 : Solid Waste Composting Facilities
   County                    Facility                     Process         Material       Capacity               Notes
Broward         Gulfstream Park Racing Association       Windrow           MAN               300 T/D
                Pompano Park Harness Track               Windrow           MAN          195 Cu Yd/D Closed
                Bedminister Seacor Services Miami        In-vessel         MSW               522 T/D Const. permit issued 02/05/96
Dade            Clean Organic Waste Compost Pilot        Windrow             *            1,600 T/Yr
Franklin        Franklin County Compost Facility         Windrow            **              2,600 Cu
Gulf            City of Port St. Joe Compost             Windrow               MSW     600 Cu Yd/Yr
Hillsborough    Bush Gardens Composting Facility         Windrow               MAN      4,000 Cu Yd YT, clean wood & manure
                                                                                       at any time on
Okeechobee      Black Gold Compost Company              Windrow                MAN           153 T/D
Orange          RCI District Compost Facility           Windrow                 ***             8 T/D
                Stevenson’s Vermicomposting          Vermicomposting           ****                    Discussing RD&D permit
Polk            Bartow Ethanol Plant Compost            Windrow                *****         200 T/D
Sumter          Sumter Co. Vol. Reduction &             In-vessel              MSW            60 T/D Using Bedminster digestor

               YT:          Yard trash
               MAN:         Manure
               MSW:         Municipal solid waste
               *            Source separated food & paper, packing cull & YT
               **           Seasonal depending on scallop industry
               ***          Food waste with YT & manure
               ****                    Vegetable waste from food preparation
               *****        Ethanol plant residuals with YT

•      Yard Trash Processing Facilities - Best Management Practices (BMP)

Associated with the Department policy to exempt yard trash composting facilities from permitting
requirements, the Department contracted (through the Center for Solid and Hazardous Waste
Management) with the Florida Organics Recyclers’ Association to develop BMPs for yard trash
processing facilities in 1995-1996. The document is entitled “Recycling Yard Trash: Best
Management Practices Manual for Florida”. A copy may be requested by contacting the Solid
Waste Section - see Appendix E, (DEP SOLID & HAZARDOUS WASTE STAFF) for the address
and telephone number. There is no charge at this time for the manual. The manual may also be
accessed from the Department’s web site at:

The Department envisions the manual’s purposes as offering advice on how to set up new facilities,
helping facilities avoid or solve problems, and distinguishing between recycling and disposal. It
provides industry-generated and peer-reviewed operating recommendations for yard trash
processing facilities in Florida. The guidebook is not intended to be a technical “how to” reference,
but is does outline items that need to be considered and address in setting up and operating these
facilities. The recommendations in the manual are not regulations, but should assist facilities in
operating in a safe and environmentally sensitive manner.

Pollution Prevention
Pollution Prevention is a process improvement that eliminates, conserves or reuses materials which
are the source of pollution. It achieves positive financial, environmental and worker health results.

Pollution prevention increases efficiency of business operations and results in lower raw material
and labor costs. It eliminates long-term cradle-to-grave liabilities, hazardous waste management
fees, and expenses associated with pollution control. Pollution prevention can also decrease worker
exposure to toxics and clean-up costs resulting from improper disposal of hazardous substances.

• Legislative Background
The 1988 Florida Legislature determined that the most efficient method to protect public health and
the environment from the improper management of hazardous waste was to reduce the volume and
toxicity of hazardous waste generated. The Pollution Prevention Program was established within
the Florida Department of Environmental Protection to reach this goal.

The Florida Pollution Prevention Act of 1991 set a statewide policy of pollution prevention and
reduction at the source. It also expanded the Department’s technical assistance, directed all state
and local agencies to pursue prevention strategies, allowed financial and proprietary data collected
during on-site technical assistance visits to be kept confidential, and created the Florida Pollution
Prevention Council. The Council met for two years and its final report contained a number of
recommendations for increasing pollution prevention in Florida.

• Pollution Prevention Program
The Pollution Prevention (P2) Program offers non-regulatory assistance to help citizens, businesses,
and industries prevent pollution at the source. Since its inception, the P2 Program has assisted over
300 Florida businesses in eliminating or reducing hazardous waste and toxic releases to Florida’s
environment. Seven Statewide P2 Engineers with extensive industrial experience assist the P2
Program staff in providing this service. Most of the program’s efforts focus on small businesses
because they have fewer resources to research and implement pollution prevention options. The
Program’s many outreach services include response to direct inquiries, participation in workshops
and trade association forums, and on-site pollution prevention assessments. Publications include a
newsletter, as well as fact sheets, and articles for trade journals.

In 1996, the P2 Program was appointed to integrate eleven pollution prevention goals outlined in the
Ecosystem Management Implementation Strategy (EMIS) into all DEP programs, and to shift
programmatic emphasis from pollution control to pollution prevention. P2 Program staff
subsequently conducted training sessions in all DEP District Offices.
Continued implementation is underway in the form of a team approach involving representatives
from all interested DEP divisions, programs and district offices. Two subteams are currently
working on products that will assist regulatory programs and district offices to integrate pollution
prevention assistance into their permitting and compliance activities. Future meetings will focus on
incorporating pollution prevention opportunities into rules and increasing P2 Projects in

Pollution prevention training is currently being provided to local governments with funds from the
USEPA 1995 Pollution Prevention Incentives for States grant. A newly formed Florida Pollution
Prevention Roundtable, coordinated by the P2 Program, is an offshoot of this training. The goals of
the Roundtable are to coordinate pollution prevention efforts in the state, improve the transfer of
information, and maximize local efforts.

The P2 Program hosts an annual Statewide Pollution Prevention Conference which features
speakers from large industry, small businesses, the military and government. The theme of this
year’s June 2-5 conference is “Building Partnerships for a Green and Profitable Florida”.

Toxics in Packaging
Heavy metals such as lead, cadmium, mercury and hexavalent chromium have historically been
used in packaging and packaging components to enhance color and durability of printed surfaces.

Damage to the environment and public health can occur when packages are disposed and the heavy
metal content leaches out contaminating soils and surface and groundwaters.

Chapter 62-723, F.A.C. was promulgated with the intent to prevent and minimize hazards to the
public and the environment by reducing the use of heavy metals in packaging in accordance with
Section 403.7191, Florida Statutes. Additionally, the rule was written such that it is not to impede or
discourage the expanded use of recycled materials in the production of packaging and its

Legislation for this rule was passed in 1993 as Section 28 of Chapter 93-207 Laws of Florida.
Chapter 17-723, F.A.C., was adopted by the Florida Department of Environmental Protection and
became effective on July 1, 1994. This rule was repealed by the Department in 1996 and is no
longer in effect. However, the requirements of the law, Chapter 93-207 Laws of Florida, are still in
effect and being enforced by the Department.

The legislation specifies that heavy metals in packaging will be phased out over a period of 2 years.
After July 1, 1996 no package or packaging component can exceed a total combined concentration
of lead, cadmium, mercury and hexavalent chromium greater that 100 parts per million by weight
(0.01 percent). An exemption to this rule is provided for health and safety as required by Federal or
State law or where there is no feasible alternative.

Since the law was passed, several companies from outside the State of Florida have applied for and
received exemptions from the law based on health and safety considerations. These exemptions are
in effect until January 1999.


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