Volume 3, Number 2 (April by owm23003


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   Ambient                                                                   Newsletter
May, nineteen ninety nine                                                             Volume three, Number two
                                                ound Water

    Assessing Sources of Nitrate in Springwaters,
    Suwannee River Basin - by Brian G. Katz, USGS, Tallahassee
    A cooperative study between the      (3H) to assess the residence time       of 11.0 and 12.1 per mil, indicating
    U.S. Geological Survey (USGS)        of spring waters and water from         the likelihood of an organic (ani-
    and the Suwannee River Water         the Upper Floridan aquifer.             mal waste) source of nitrate.
    Management District is evaluating                                            These two wells are located near
    sources of nitrate in water from     Numerous studies have shown             dairy and poultry farms, where
    selected springs and zones in the    that the nitrogen isotope composi-      leachate from animal wastes may
    Upper Floridan aquifer in the        tion of nitrate dissolved in ground     contribute nitrate to ground water.
    Suwannee River basin. A multi-       water can indicate the source of        Mean delta 15N values are 6.9
    tracer approach, which consists of   the nitrate. Nitrogen isotope ratios    per mil and 5.2 per mil for
    the analysis of water samples for    (15N/14N) are commonly ex-              springwaters discharging from
    naturally occuring chemical and      pressed as delta 15N values             Lafayette and Suwannee Coun-
    isotopic indicators, is being used   relative to a standard. Low delta       ties, respectively. Slightly lower
    to better understand sources and     15N values between 0 to 3 per mil       values for springwaters from
    chronology of nitrate contamina-     (parts per thousand) generally          Suwannee County may reflect the
    tion in the middle Suwannee River    indicate an inorganic nitrate           higher contribution of nitrate from
    region. In July 1997 and August      source (synthetic fertilizer);          synthetic fertilizer use.
    1998, water samples were col-        whereas higher delta 15N values
    lected and analyzed from 24          (10 to 20 per mil) typically indicate   Residence times for ground water
    springs and two wells for major      an organic (animal waste) source        discharging to springs in the basin
    ions, nutrients, and dissolved       of nitrate. Delta 15N values that       (based on measurements of
    organic carbon (DOC). These          fall between 3 and 10 per mil           CFCs) range from approximately
    water samples were also analyzed     likely are indicative of mixed          10 to 25 years. Springs that
    for selected environmental iso-      inorganic and organic sources of        discharge ground-water with
    topes [18O/16O, D/H, 13C/12C,        nitrate or a soil organic nitrogen      residence times of more than 20
    15N/ 14N] to determine sources of    source. Delta 15N values of NO3         years tended to have low NO3-N
    water and nitrate. To better         in water from the 24 sampled            concentrations (0.7 to 0.8 mg/L);
    understand when nitrate entered      springs range from 2.7 to 10.6 per      whereas springs that discharge
    the ground water system, water       mil and most are indicative of a        ground water with short residence
    samples were analyzed for chlo-      mixed source. Water from two            times of approximately 10 years
    rofluorocarbons (CFCs; CCl3F,        wells sampled in Lafayette County       tended to have much higher NO3-
    CCl2F2, and C2Cl3F3) and tritium     have higher delta 15N-NO3 values        N concentrations (26 to 37 mg/L).

        Florida Ambient Water Quality Monitoring Network
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The multi-tracer approach being used in this study, which inte-
grates chronologic, chemical, and isotopic analyses of ground
                                                                            1998 Quality
water, is a first step in better understanding the sources and fate of   Assurance Summary
nitrate in ground water. The relation between the concentration of
nitrate in ground water and the amount of nitrogen that is added to
a ground water basin is affected by hydrogeologic, land-use,             At the January 1999 Quarterly
climatic and several other factors. Variations in the nitrogen con-      Ambient Monitoring (QAM) Meet-
tent of water that enters the subsurface over time are related to        ing held in Plantation Key, Penn
changes in land use practices, the distribution and effectiveness of     Craig presented a summary of the
natural remediation processes (such as denitrification), and the         1998 Ambient Monitoring
distance, direction, and time between recharge to and discharge          Network’s quality assurance
from ground water. Other information that is being used to deter-        activities. The presentation dis-
mine sources and chronology of nitrate contamination in this study       cussed a variety of activities,
area includes the delineation of contributing areas for selected         including training, field audits,
springs, an assessment of the relative contribution of past agricul-     performance sample results, and
tural practices and changes in land use, and an estimation of            equipment blanks. The presenta-
loadings of nitrate to ground water over time.                           tion indicated success in most
                                                                         quality assurance aspects, al-
                                                                         though the equipment blank
                                                                         results indicate that corrective
                                                                         action may be needed for some
                                                                         agencies. For a copy of the 1998
                                                                         report, please contact the Ambient
                                                                         Monitoring Section at (850) 921-
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Florida Bay Research and New State Map Projects
by Thomas M. Scott, Florida Geological Survey
Discussions of ongoing research        is a reinterpretation of the State’s   able to view the fossil coral reef of
in Florida Bay and mapping             geomorphology in light of the new      the Key Largo Limestone. The
projects of the Florida Geological     geologic map.                          site is interesting from a historical
Survey were presented at the                                                  perspective for the mining of
Quarterly Ambient Monitoring           The STATEMAP mapping effort,           limestone during the construction
Meeting in Islamorada January          funded by the United States            of the Flagler Railroad in the early
26-27, 1999. Included in the           Geological Survey (USGS) on a          1900’s and the mining of decora-
mapping discussion were the new        50-50 cost sharing basis, focused      tive “Key Stone”. This is a site
State geologic and geomorphic          on the Homestead 1:100,000             well worth visiting when in the
maps and the mapping effort in         quadrangle during the first two        Keys.
southern Florida under the aus-        years of funding under the Na-
pices of the National Geologic         tional Geologic Mapping Act.           REFERENCES:
Mapping Act, STATEMAP compo-           Mapping was undertaken utilizing       Brooks, H.K., 1982, Geologic Map of
nent.                                  in-house data, new cores, and          Florida: Center for Environmental and
                                       field investigations including         Natural Resources, University of
The interpretation of Florida’s        helicopter flights into the Ever-
near-surface geologic framework        glades and Big Cypress areas.          Vernon, R.O., and Puri, H.S., 1964
has undergone revisions since the      The final product included a           Geologic map of Florida, Florida
last geological map of Florida         surface sediments map, a bed-          Bureau of Geology Map Series 18.
published by the Florida Geologi-      rock geology map and a number
cal Survey (FGS) (Vernon and           of cross sections.                     White, W. A., 1970, The geomorphol-
Puri, 1964, scale of 1:2,000,000).                                            ogy of the Florida peninsula: Florida
Brooks (1982) independently            The FGS has assisted the USGS          Bureau of Geology Bulletin 51, 164 p.
published an interpretation of the     in efforts to determine the ecosys-
state’s geology at a scale of          tem history of Florida Bay. Since      For more information contact Tom
1:500,000. During the last ten         February 1995, samples of sedi-        Scott at the Florida Geological
years, the FGS has been prepar-        ments, flora and fauna have been       Survey, 903 W. Tennessee St.,
ing a revised version of the State     collected twice a year, in February    Tallahassee, FL 32304-7700, or
geologic map incorporating these       and July, at 26 sites in the Florida   e-mail him at:
new concepts. The draft map            Bay portion of the Everglades          scott_t@dep.state.fl.us
(scale 1:750,000), text and cross      National Park. Also, a number of
sections were presented for            shallow cores have been taken for
discussion and debate. The map         analyses. Preliminary results of
included a number of new or            the on-going studies are available
revised lithostratigraphic units. In   as Open-file Reports from the
addition, a novel approach to          USGS. These can be accessed
mapping the shell-bearing Plio-        via the USGS’s web page at http://
Pleistocene sediments was              geology.er.usgs.gov/gmapeast/fla/
discussed.                             home.html.

A revised map of Florida’s geo-        On Wednesday morning, of the
morphology, which is in prepara-       meeting, the group took a field trip
tion, was presented for consider-      to the newly dedicated Windley
ation by the group. In part, it is a   Key Fossil Reef State Geologic
revision of White (1970). It is also   Site where the participants were
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Status Network Surface Water Reconnaissance
by Tom Biernacki
The implementation of the Inte-        has a navigation accuracy of five         or tax collector databases are now
grated Water Resource Monitor-         meters and offers three different         available on the Internet. It will
ing (IWRM) Network for surface         navigation modes. After success-          help to take your notes from the
and ground water will require the      fully navigating to a site, either by     field, which may include land-
reconnaissance of randomly             map or GPS, you will want to              marks and such, to identify the
selected sites in the status net-      gather landowner and landmark             properties in question. Once the
work. Ground water reconnais-          information. You will also want to        owner information is obtained you
sance will be addressed in a           take good notes of how to return          will want to start the process of
future issue of this newsletter.       to the site and whether or not the        sending out the permission letters.
Regarding surface water, recon-        site meets criteria for being             This may be an iterative process
naissance is a three-step process.     sampled. Staff should bring a             so be prepared to start far in
It includes checking the sites on      camera, as photographs of the             advance of the scheduled sam-
maps in the office, field inspection   site will be extremely beneficial if      pling.
of sites to verify if they meet the    the random location does not
inclusion criteria for sample          meet the inclusion criteria. A            Once the permission letters are
collection, and collecting land-       picture is truly worth a thousand         returned, make sure they are kept
owner information to obtain            words and greatly assists in              in a safe place. Another good idea
permission for site access.            documenting site conditions.              may be to carry a copy of these
                                                                                 letters with you when you return to
Rreconnaissance starts in the          The final step after completing           sample, just to remind the owner
office. The visual inspection of       both the office and field portions        that he did give permission.
the selected sites on accurate         of the reconnaissance is obtaining        Public relations are a concern so
maps may lead to their exclusion       the landowner information. While          it’s best to be prepared and your
from the sampling list. For ex-        in the field you will find it difficult   sampling will go smoothly.
ample, a site may be coded as a        to get landowner information
large lake, but in actuality, it’s a   except for at a few sites. The            The reconnaissance of status
small stream. This task will need      local county property appraiser’s         network sampling sites will con-
to be repeated by the contractor.      office will have plat maps or tax         tinue throughout the cycles of
Again, the key for making this         rolls from which you can get the          IWRM. Following a three-stepped
type of decision is to have accu-      landowner information. Many of            approach should make it a task
rate maps. The reasons for the         the county property appraiser and/        that’s well worth the time.
exclusion of any sites must be
documented. Care should be
taken when excluding sample
sites while in the office.

Field reconnaissance involves
navigating to the selected sites.
One can navigate using the maps
created in office, ideally assisted
by a Global Positioning System
(GPS) unit. Most Florida Depart-
ment of Environmental Protection
(FDEP) contractors will be using
the Trimble Pro XR GPS, which
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An Internet Application Highlighting the FDEP Surface
Water Temporal Variability (SWTV) Monitoring Network
by David Ouellette
A recently developed World Wide
Web publication highlights the
FDEP’s SWTV Network. The
SWTV Network consists of 80
lake and stream stations moni-
tored monthly for a variety of
surface water quality indicators.
The stations were chosen to
monitor basin outflows and out-of-
state inflows. Many of the stations
are proximal to flow-gaging
stations maintained by the USGS.

The web report provides site
information for each station in the
network, as well as a digital
photograph and sketch map of
each location. In addition, links to
the water quality data and associ-
ated USGS real-time flow data are
provided. The page will consist of
two interactive frames: a location
map of all stations (which are
linked to individual station pages)
in the left frame, and the detailed
station pages in the right. The
report opens with a brief descrip-
tion of the purpose and history of
the network. This is displayed in
the right frame. The detailed
report pages are loaded by click-
ing on the location marker on the
map, in the left frame.

This publication is expected to go
on-line by May 1, 1999. When
completed, it can be reached
through the AMS Home Page
located at :
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May Quarterly Ambient Meeting Information
by Cindy Cosper
The next QAM Meeting is scheduled for May 11-13 in Cedar Key,
Florida. The meeting will be held at the Lions Club on the corner of
6th Street and F Street, which is 1/4 to 1/2 mile from the various lodg-
ings that are available.

Cedar Key is a small island fishing community at least 40 miles from
any other small community. The town is a good place for bicycling and
walking, and there are lighted public tennis courts. In addition, there
are quite a few art galleries, two museums, and several good seafood
restaurants. Fishing from the town dock is popular, and rental boats
are available for fishing or shoreline excursions. Cedar Key fills up on
the weekend and room prices go up, but two lodgings, Island Place
and Cedar Cove may let you stay the weekend for the weekday rate.
Several lodging options are available.

Island Place - Fairly new, furnished condos with full kitchen, pool,
sauna, and Jacuzzi. These condos, with a queen size bed in the
bedroom, a lower bunk in the hall, and a sofa bed in a living
room, can sleep up to four people. There are eight interior
rooms night. Call 1-800-780-6522 to make reservations.

Cedar Cove - Older, more basic, refurbished condos
with full kitchens, pool, weight room, marina, and restau-
rant. There are several room designs that can sleep
from two to six. Rates are $75-95/night, special 3-night
deal for $174. Call 1-800-366-5312 to make reserva-

Cedar Key Bed & Breakfast - Very nice, antique
furnished, 115 year old home. Rates start at $65/night
and this includes breakfast. Call 1-800-453-5051 for

Mermaid Cottages are available for the economy
minded. They are on the left just before the bridge into
Cedar Key. They are rustic, with kitchens, sleep 2-4
and cost between $40-65/night. Call 352/543-5949.

Other options include the Dockside Motel at $49 to $69/
night (pH. 352-543-5432); the Park Place Motel at $65
to $80/night (pH. 352-543-5737), and the Island Hotel
at $75 & up (pH. 352-543-5111) may still be open.

For the September 21-23 QAM Meeting we have
contacted the Holiday Inn Sunspree in Daytona Beach
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                               DRAFT Agenda
                    Quarterly Ambient Monitoring Meeting
                        May 11-13, 1999 in Cedar Key

                                   Tuesday, May 11, 1999

1:00      Short Course
          “Measuring Changes and Evaluating
           Monitoring Outcomes”                             Sam Upchurch, ERM-S

5:00      ADJOURN

                                Wednesday, May 12, 1999

8:30      Short Course (Continued)

10:30     Business Meeting
              DEP Lab Issues                                Paul Hansard, DEP
              Ambient Monitoring QA Plan                    Paul Hansard
              GWIS3 CD ROM Distribution                     Paul Hansard
              Evaluation of STORET Data Base                Brian Katz, USGS

12:00     LUNCH

1:00      Business Meeting (Continued)
              TV Data Submittals                            Jay Silvanima, DEP
              Continued Drilling of Monitoring Wells        Gary Maddox, DEP
              Contracts for SFY 1999-2000                   Gary Maddox
              Ground Water TV Network                       Gary Maddox and
                                                            Rick Copeland, DEP
               DRASTIC CD ROM Distribution                  Gary Maddox
               Status Network Reconnaissance Issues         Gary Maddox and
                                                            Tom Biernacki, DEP
               Head of Tide Line                            Dave Adams and
                                                            Rick Copeland, DEP
               Definition of Target Populations             Rick Copeland
               Glossary of Terms                            Dave Adams
               Habitat Assessment Training
                    and Biological Monitoring               Rick Copeland

4:30      ADJOURN

5:30      Clam or Oyster Hike                               Cindy Cosper, DEP

                                   Thursday, May 13, 1999

8:30      Special Topics and IWRM
              Springs of the Suwannee River Basin           David Hornsby, SRWMD
              Effects of Land Use on Shallow
               Ground-water Quality in Southern Florida     Anne Bradner, USGS
              Implementing a Watershed Approach             Tom Singleton, DEP and
               to Water Resource Protection                 Daryll Joyner, DEP
              TMDL Assessments Status                       Jan Mandrup-Poulsen, DEP
              Progress in Tier III Monitoring               Donnie McClaugherty
              Aquifer Vulnerability Mapping                 Allen Stodghill, DEP and
                                                            Mark Dietrich, DEP
          Discussion                                        Rick Copeland

12:00     ADJOURN

Note 1 - If attendees are interested in kayaking, information on rentals will
be available at the meeting. Prices range from $14. to $22. per one half day.

Note 2 - Seahorse Key is closed due to bird nesting.
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    Ambient Monitoring Section
       Florida Department of
     Environmental Protection
       2600 Blair Stone Road
           Mail Stop 3525
  Tallahassee, Florida 32399-2400

Ambient Newsletter
The Ambient Newsletter is published three times per year by the Ambient Monitoring Section of the Division of Water
Facilities, Florida Department of Environmental Protection.

Send address changes to:
Mary Geuin at the address above or,
via e-mail to: geuin_m@dep.state.fl.us or,
via telephone at (850) 921-9422

Editors/Ambient Monitoring Staff
Dave Adams, David Ouellette, Rick Copeland, Cindy Cosper, Paul Hansard, Gary Maddox, Joe North, Mary Paulic, Jay
Silvanima, Tom Biernacki, and Mary Geuin
Contact us at: (850)921-9424 or by email at: last name_first initial@dep.state.fl.us

David Ouellette

Mary Geuin

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