Volume 1, Number 2 (April

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Ambient                                                                       Newsletter
April, nineteen ninety seven                                                           Volume one, Number two
                                               Gr
                                                 ound Water

Integrated Water Resource Monitoring Update
by Rick Copeland
     In the January issue of this         ♦ Consider Florida’s fresh water         ♦ Work closely with the
newsletter, reference was given to the    bodies, aquifers, and estuaries.         Department’s Aggressive Statewide
establishment of a Division of Water      ♦ Consider the interrelationships        Monitoring Program.
Facilities, Integrated Water Resource     between surface water, ground water,          A design network committee,
Monitoring Network. The Ambient           biology and sediments.                   formed from the various Water
Monitoring (AM) Program has been                                                   Facilities Programs in December,
instructed to take the lead in estab-
                                          ♦ Use ancillary data such as
                                          atmospheric deposition, land use and     1996, addressed these issues. One
lishing it.                                                                        of the first tasks of the committee was
     When the network is fully opera-     land cover whenever necessary.
                                                                                   to reduce the many questions and
tional, the Division will be able to      ♦ Use monitoring data in an elec-        comments into a manageable number
monitor our water resources from a        tronic format.                           of issues which the Integrated Net-
more holistic perspective. One of the     ♦ Assist in the assessment of            work would need to address. The
major objectives of establishing an       hydrologic basins and Ecosystem          mmittee accomplished these tasks by
Integrated Network is to minimize or      Management Areas (EMAs).                 February, 1997. The major issues are
eliminate duplication of the Division’s   ♦ Monitor all EMAs in a systematic       listed below:
monitoring efforts. This will result in   manner.                                  ♦ Establish a ground water quality
more efficient monitoring and ulti-       ♦ Not only use a skeletal design for     index. The index will represent an
mately reduce the monitoring costs of     all EMAs to the extent practical, but    indication of      the environmental
the Division.                             also address the unique water quality    “health” (condition) of ground water.
     Since last summer, the AM staff
have attended numerous meetings
                                          issues in the different EMAs.            ♦ Revisit and revise the surface
with individuals in the various pro-
                                          ♦ Consider time constraints and          water quality index if needed.
grams within the Division. The            resources by using a flexible monitor-   ♦ Establish a sediment environmen-
purpose of each of the meetings was       ing approach which allows for both       tal health index if feasible.
to generate a menu of questions           low intensity monitoring in relatively   ♦ Establish an Ecosystem Manage-
which the network should be de-           unimpacted areas and high intensity      ment Area (EMA) Environmental
signed to answer. All told, over 200      monitoring efforts in problem areas.     Health Index if feasible.
questions and comments were               ♦ Coordinate with and use data           ♦ Determine the statistical strata
generated.                                from other monitoring programs.          (geomorphology, land use, etc.) which
     From the numerous meetings it        ♦ Consider the needs and interests       will be used in EMA assessments.
was clear that the integrated network     of other monitoring programs wherein     The strata represent relatively homo-
will need to:                             the goals of the integrated network do   geneous sampling units for the
♦ Consider regulatory and non-            not conflict with, nor replace, the      Integrated Network.
regulatory concerns.                      goals of other monitoring programs.      ♦ Establish a point-and-click water
♦ Examine permitted, non-permit-          ♦ Minimize the re-design of the          resource data base.
ted, plus point and non-point source      various monitoring activities whenever   ♦ Establish the ability to determine
pollution.                                possible.                                descriptive statistics at monitoring



    Florida Ambient Water Quality Monitoring Network
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Integrated Network, continued from page 1
stations or groups of stations in the     when it finds or is informed of environ-   ♦ Determine the extent and severity
point-and-click data base.                mental problems. The chart would           of the problem once problems are
♦ Establish method(s) for selecting       detail the pathways into and out of        discovered.
targeted water bodies such as             other pertinent programs, both inside      ♦ Correlate the problem with
minimally impacted sites, references      the Department, such as the Division       possible causes.
sites, contaminated sites, etc.           of Waste Management, and outside
                                          the Department.
                                                                                     ♦ Determine the cause and effect
♦ Establish protocols for obtaning                                                   relationship of the problem.
and storing pertinent stage and           ♦ Establish procedures for monitor-
                                          ing the effectiveness of Best Manage-
                                                                                     ♦ Establish the capability of deter-
discharge data for both existing data                                                mining the influences of ground water
and future data.                          ment Practices and other improve-
                                          ment plans.                                on surface water and vice versa in
♦ Establish a program dictionary                                                     selected areas during EMA assess-
and define terms such as “ambient”,       ♦ Obtain and use atmospheric, land         ments.
“water basin”, “watershed”, “baseline,”   use and land cover data in an elec-             As the next step, the committee
etc. in line with legal definitions in    tronic format.                             will produce a mission statement for
DEP rules.                                ♦ Assess the impact of major               the integrated network and establish
♦ Establish preliminary methods to        categories of land uses on water           goals and objectives. It will then
compare the results of various            quality.                                   determine the short term and long
monitoring tools which will be used in    ♦ Assist in conducting Pollution           term tasks of the network plus
EMA assessments. For example, if          Load Reduction Goals (PLRGs) and           develop work plans which describe
one monitoring tool concludes that a      Total Maximum Daily Load (TMDL)            how individual tasks will be achieved.
water body is contaminated, use           evaluations when appropriate.              We will present the steps to you in
another tool to verify the first.         ♦ Develop computer models when             this newsletter as they are completed.
  ♦ Establish a Division of Water
Facilities flow path chart. The chart
will represent the process of what
                                          appropriate.
                                          ♦ Determine the percentage of
                                          water bodies which meet standards.
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each Water Facilities Program does
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Chemical Data Evaluation                                             by Brian Katz, U.S.G.S.
     The U.S. Geological Survey and
FDEP are cooperating on a project to
assess the integrity of chemical data
collected by the Surface Water
Ambient Monitoring Program
(SWAMP).
     Water samples have been
collected at more than 300 sites in the
existing network by several agencies
that use a variety of collection and
preservation procedures. Chemical
constituents in these water samples
have been analyzed by laboratories
that use varied analytical methodolo-
gies with different analytical detection
limits and reporting conventions. The
level of consistency in sample collec-
tion and analytical methods, and the
degree of variation in quality-assur-
ance and quality-control procedures
have provided the impetus for a
detailed review of the State’s surface-
water quality data.
     To address these issues, chemi-
cal data for surface-water samples
are being retrieved and reviewed for a
subset of approximately 150 stations
from the statewide fixed-station
network. The selected stations will be
distributed geographically so that the
major watersheds of the State will be
represented. In addition, chemical
data will be reviewed for all surface-
water sites in the St. Marks River
watershed to coincide with an ongoing      ♦ Ionic charge-balance error, and         of chemical data collected statewide
FDEP study of the St. Marks River          ♦ Unusual concentration relations         as part of SWAMP.
ecosystem management area.                 among certain constituents, and                 The data screening and review
     Depending on the completeness         consistency of reporting conventions.     will lead to more consistent method-
of chemical consituents reported for             As part of the review of the        ologies for collecting and analyzing
each water sample, several screening       program methodology, a question-          data and will contribute toward the
tests will be used to evaluate the         naire will be distributed to the five     evaluation of meaningful trends in
gross validity of the chemical data.       water management districts and six        surface-water quality over time. For
♦ The ratio of calculated to mea-          FDEP district offices to compile          example, a comparison of surface
sured dissolved solids,                    detailed information on sampling          water quality from one basin to
                                                                                     another and an opportunity to relate
♦ The ratio of dissolved solids to         methodologies, analytical methods
                                                                                     differences in water quality statewide
specific conductance,                      and detection limits for chemical
                                           constituents, and quality assurance       to environmental variables, such as
♦ The ratio of total of                                                              the predominant type of land-use in
milliequivalents per liter for either      procedures. This study represents a
                                           first step in providing a framework for   the basin, hydrogeology, interactions
cations or anions to the specific                                                    with ground water, and other basin
                                           improving the quality and consistency

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conductance, and                                                                     characteristics.
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Apalachicola-Chattahoochee-Flint/Alabama-
Coosa-Tallapoosa (ACF/ACT) Rivers Comprehen-




     The ACF/ACT Comprehensive          42,400 square mile area including two          The ACF system has a 19,600
sive Study
Study (Comp Study) is the result of
conflicts between water users in
                                        major river basins: the Alabama
                                        River, formed by the confluence of the
                                                                                  square mile drainage area. Headwa-
                                                                                  ters are in the Blue Ridge Mountains
by Mary Paulic At issue are
these two river basins.                 Coosa and Tallapoosa Rivers (ACT),        for the Chattahoochee River and in
the equitable apportionment of water    and the Apalachicola River formed at      the vicinity of the Atlanta Airport for
and the dissatisfaction by many users   the Florida/Georgia line by the           the Flint River, before flowing south-
with the Corps of Engineers manage-     confluence of the Chattahoochee and       ward to the Gulf of Mexico. A total of
ment of the two basins. The goal of     Flint Rivers (ACF).                       6 Corps dams/reservoirs and 11
the study is to provide a forum and a        The ACT system has a 22,800          private dams/reservoirs exist for the
mechanism for the states and the        square mile drainage area. It starts in   previously mentioned water needs.
Corps to manage the water resources     southeast Tennessee and flows             Regulation of water flow is heaviest
of these two basins.                    southeasterly to central Alabama.         on the Chattahoochee River, is very
     The Comp Study has four equal      Water courses along the way are           limited on the Flint river, and is
partners: the States of Florida,        heavily regulated by dams/reservoirs      nonexistent below the Woodruff Dam
Alabama, and Georgia and the Corps      for hydropower, water supply, naviga-     at the Georgia/Florida border.
of Engineers. It encompasses a          tion, and recreation needs.
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      The Comp Study was born out of         Paulic is responsible for water quality    tance, pH, and phytoplankton. All
litigation over water use. Growth and        issues. Outside peer review of             three models will be applied only to
increased demand for water (particu-         technical work is the responsibility of    the freshwater portions of these
larly in the Atlanta area) along with        the Technical Review Panel.                systems, as far south as Sumatra,
droughts in the 1980s intensified                 When completed the Comp Study         Florida. A separate three dimensional
disputes between the states and with         will have determined and defined the       model has been built to simulate the
the Corps. As early as 1982, the             extent of water resources, both            hydrodynamics of Apalachicola Bay.
Corps received requests from Geor-           ground water and surface water, in              The interstate coordination
gia municipalities outside Atlanta for a     these two basins, evaluated alterna-       mechanism and conflict resolution
reallocation of water from hydropower        tive ways to apportion these re-           element has taken the shape of a
to drinking water supply at Lake             sources to the benefit of all users, and   federal-interstate compact. A sepa-
Lanier (Chattahoochee River north of         established an interstate mechanism        rate compact has been negotiated for
Atlanta) and Carter Lake and Lake            for resolving issues.                      each of the major basins. The
Allatoona in the ACT basin. In effect             The Comp Study addresses              compacts, upon approval, establish a
water would be transferred from the          fifteen major elements grouped             basin commission with representation
ACT to the ACF basin. The Corps              around four broad categories:              from the appropriate states and a
completed a reallocation report in May       ♦ process support,                         federal partner.
1990.                                        ♦ water resource availability,                  The federal partner represents all
      Three days later Alabama sued                                                     federal agencies with an interest or
the Corps citing the inadequacy of
                                             ♦ water demands, and                       statutory authority in the basins. Each
the Corps’ review of environmental           ♦ comprehensive management                 state has one vote, but the federal
impacts and violation of state water         strategies.                                partner is a non-voting member. The
rights. Florida joined the lawsuit                Process elements include popula-      compact must be approved by
because the Corps’ actions violated          tion and employment forecasts and          December 31, 1997 and to date has
the Coastal Zone Management Act              ensuring public participation. Water       been ratified by Georgia and Alabama
and the Corps’ own rules for review of       demands were developed for agricul-        and passed by the Florida Senate.
environmental impacts. Negotiations          ture, environment, recreation, munici-          The centerpiece of the compact is
to resolve the conflict outside litigation   pal and industrial, navigation, power,     the negotiation of a water allocation
began in September, 1990 and                 Apalachicola River and Bay, and            formula that determines how much
culminated in the partners signing a         water quality. Projections of de-          water will need to be provided at state
Memorandum of Agreement (MOA)                mands, excluding the Apalachicola          lines. The federal partner has the
in January, 1992. The MOA, the               River and Bay and water quality, were      authority to accept or not accept the
partners agreed to inactivate the            estimated for 10, 20, and 50 years         allocation formula. If agreement
lawsuit, commit to work together to          into the future.                           cannot be reached on the allocation
evaluate the available resources of               Under comprehensive manage-           formula, then the compact is nullified.
the two basins through the Comp              ment, a basin-wide model was               The states have until December 31,
Study, and establish a coordination          developed using the ‘STELLA’ plan-         1998 to prepare an allocation formula
mechanism to resolve future disputes         ning model that can simulate water         for federal review.

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to avoid litigation.                         management in each system. This
      The Comp Study has a mutli-            model will be used to evaluate and
leveled management structure. The            screen alternative scenarios (i.e.
top level is the Executive Coordination      changes in demand or construction of
Committee (ECC) which is respon-             new reservoirs) for the allocation of
sible for study policy and manage-           water resources to different users.
ment decisions. Virginia Wetherell                A hydrodynamic model has been
represents Florida. Interstate and           built, the HEC5, that simulates flow
intrastate coordination and oversight        and routing and will provide a more
of technical content are managed by          complete evaluation of flow changes
the Technical Coordination Group             under alternative water use scenarios.
(TCG). Douglas Barr, Executive               A water quality model, HEC5Q, will
Director of NWFWMD, is Florida’s             take the flow data from the HEC5 and
representative. Several task forces          simulate water quality changes for
and working groups exist to address          temperature, nutrients, dissolved
specific elements of the Study. Mary         oxygen, dissolved solids, conduc-
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Bioassessment: Tools and Applications
by Jim Hulbert, DEP Central District
     In 1989, in an effort to help states   ture and function (total taxa, number     ing network. This watershed assess-
comply with the biological portion of       of mayflies, stoneflies, caddisflies      ment will use an ecological database
the Clean Water Act, EPA developed          taxa, number of midge taxa, %             (e-BASE) to integrate a diversity of
the first of a series of bioassessment      dominant taxon, % two-winged flies,       data using interpretive graphics,
protocols, the “Rapid Bioassessment         Fla. index, % filterers).                 photographs, raw data, sampling point
Protocols for Use in Streams and                 A similar tool, the Lake Condition   maps, etc.
Rivers”. The Florida DEP has signifi-       Index (LCI), is being developed for            These tools will go a long way
cantly modified this protocol into a tool   lakes, to be followed by ones for         toward the understanding of relation-
for the assessment of nonpoint-             estuaries and wetlands. The               ships and the “behavior” of water,
source pollution problems in Florida        Bioassessment and Hydrologic              what the eminent biologist René
streams, the “Stream Condition Index”       Survey Section in the Bureau of           DuBois called “the knowledge of
(SCI).                                      Water Resource Protection is con-         place” or “genius of place”. This tools
     The SCI is based on the bottom-        necting land (biology, geology) and       will also be a model on how to
dwelling macroinvertebrate assem-           water through use of tools such as the    conduct integrated monitoring and
blages and consists of the integration      SCI and LCI.                              interpretation across the state.
of 7 metrics (biological characteristics
that change in predictable ways with
human influence). The metrics used
                                                 The bioassessment tools are
                                            being applied in the St. Marks River
                                            Watershed Assessment as part of
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represent measures of                       applied Ecosystem Management
macroinvertebrate community struc-          through an integrated basin monitor-



Modeling the Hydrodynamics of Karstic Land-
locked Lakes by W. L. Evans, III
    Fluctuations in lake levels are              Hydraulic conductivity estimates     is more representative of lake evapo-
known to involve seepage beneath            of lake sediment cores were used to       transpiration.
lakes. The effective-head gradient,         estimate seepage through the lake             This model was applied to Lake
hydraulic conductivity, and the hyp-        bottom by using a weighted average        Jackson near Tallahassee, Florida, a
sometry govern lake level decline due       approach. As lake levels are fluctu-      closed lake system formed by karstic
to seepage by acting across the lake        ated, the equivalent areal hydraulic      processes.

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bottom. The conductivity and hyp-           conductivity varied. A second order
sometry are constant for geologically       polynomial was derived to describe
short periods of time, and the head         the variation in . From the estimates,
gradient is determined by the lake          seepage flow, and seepage through
level. Thus, as a lake level declines,      the lake bottom were modeled.
the hydraulic gradient decreases, and            Seepage flow, as a primary
the rate at which the level of a lake       function of declining lake level,
declines is a function of its level.        behaved exponentially. Seepage, as
    After accounting for the effects of     a function of seepage flow and lake
potential evapotranspiration (PET)          hypsometry declined linearly with
and delayed recharge, fluctuations in       declining lake level. Lake PET was
lake level should resemble a series of      estimated from the modeled seepage
exponential decay curves whose              and is approximately double that of
parameters reflect basin hypsometry         the pan evapotranspiration data. This
and lake-bottom conductivity.               result suggests that the modeled PET
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WELL REDEVELOPMENT
PROJECT
    Jody the St. Johns River
by Last year,Lee, SJRWMD                    redevelopment, and 3 did not clear.      (FMRI) in St. Petersburg. Bob King,
Water Management District began a           We think the 3 that did not clear were   STORET Modernization Project
project to redevelop wells in the DEP       not completed at proper depths, and      Manager, presented the modernized
GWQM network that had a history of          we dropped them from the network.        STORET prototype. It is set to come
high turbidity. High turbidity levels can   The redeveloped wells that we            out some time in April of this year.
make sampling and chemical analysis         sampled so far this year have re-        Anyone wanting to obtain a beta test
difficult. Turbidity is often caused by     mained clear. We feel our project        version of the modernized STORET
improper well construction or the lack      was a great success.                     should contact Bob at (202) 260-7028

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of adequate development after                                                        or email:
construction.                                                                        king.robert@epamail.epa.gov.
     Through statistical analysis, we                                                     Users should know that they will
determined that 25% of SJRWMD                                                        need to purchase PC Oracle or
wells in the network had turbidity                                                   download a 60-day free trial version
levels above 50 turbidity units. One of                                              from the Oracle home page on the
the goals of the project was to reduce
the turbidity levels in these wells to      STORET                                   internet (www.oracle.com) to test the
                                                                                     beta version. Users will also need to
below 10 turbidity units which was the                                               be running Windows 95 or O/S 2.
median level for all of our wells in the
network. We identified 23 wells to
                                            Modernization                            The new STORET, once fully tested
                                                                                     and distributed, may also be run
redevelop in our central segment that       by Kenneth Cossin                        without PC Oracle if users call into
would be part of this year’s sampling                                                STORET via modem.
schedule since wells are sampled in              Florida is right on the heels of
three year cycles.                          change when it comes to water quality    STORET Modernization Timetable
     We recorded field measurements         data storage. The modernized
every 15 minutes during redevelop-          version of STORET (STORET X) is          April, 1997: Release of beta test
ment. A well was considered devel-          due out around the end of 1997. So,      version of modernized STORET
oped when either:                           everyone should be preparing for
♦ Field turbidity measurements              growing pains.                           November 1997: Begin migration of
stabilized within 5% over two con-               The new system will eliminate the   data from old STORET to new
secutive readings,                          old parameter codes and remark           STORET
♦ The well had been redeveloped a           codes and, instead, have users
minimum of 4 hours for a shallow well       choose options from pull-down            1st Quarter 1998: Begin production
or 8 hours for a deep well, or              menus. EPA plans to distribute a         release of new STORET
♦ Field turbidity readings did not          stand-alone copy of STORET to each
                                            user which will run independently of     December 31, 1999: Shut down of
change more than 5% during the first                                                 old STORET system
                                            the main system in Research Triangle
1 1/2 hours of redevelopment.
     We placed the four hour limit on
shallow wells since a replacement
                                            Park, NC. Users will periodically
                                            upload their data from their STORET
                                            data base to either a state-wide
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shallow well could possibly be in-
                                            STORET data base or directly to the
stalled for less than continued rede-
                                            system in North Carolina. DEP has
velopment. In any case, we did not
                                            not decided yet whether it will have
redevelop any well longer than 8
                                            the resources to operate a state-wide
hours.
                                            STORET to which users will upload
     We performed this project in
                                            their data.
August and September, 1996. Of the
                                                 Recently, DEP hosted a STORET
23 wells redeveloped, 17 cleared to
                                            modernization workshop at the
below 10 turbidity units, 3 cleared
                                            Florida Marine Research Institute
substantially from levels prior to
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Fashioning Harmony through Integration
by Kenneth Cossin
     The success of the Ambient                                                                          and ground
Monitoring Program depends on a                                                                          water sampling
wide variety of professional experts                                                                     was an easy
from different agencies and disci-                                                                       transition from
plines. Each contributes special skills                                                                  performing only
and knowledge to the various facets                                                                      ground water
of the program.                                                                                          sampling.
     In the January, 1997 issue of the                                                                   “There is not
Ambient Newsletter, we promised to                                                                       much of a
profile these integral program compo-                                                                    difference,
nents and the individuals who make                                                                       because the
them work. In this issue, we highlight                                                                   sample preser-
the Ambient Ground Water Quality                                                                         vation is the
Monitoring Program (AGWQMP) of                                                                           same. Also,
the Southwest Florida Water Manage-                                                                      learning the
ment District (SWFWMD). This                                                                             surface water
group is unique among the many            water and surface water quality          sampling was easy, because I already
agencies participating in the statewide   monitoring. The successes at             knew how to sample wells.” Mark
Ambient Network because, despite          SWFWMD provide proof that the            also says that performing both types
their name, they handle both ground       recent merger of the surface water       of sampling adds variety and excite-
                                                  and ground water programs        ment to his work.
                                                      at DEP makes good                 The integrated program began in
                                                      sense.                       1993 at the SWFWMD. There were
                                                           Across the board,       several initial reasons for integrating
                                                      field samplers, data         the programs, but there are two main
                                                      managers, and program        reasons that stand out. According to
                                                      managers have many           Eric DeHaven, a professional geolo-
                                                      good things to say about     gist with the SWFWMD, there were
                                                      the integrated program at    problems with funding for the ground
                                                      SWFWMD. Roberta              water program, because most of the
                                                      Starks, an environmental     money came through contract with
                                                      specialist with the          DEP. Secondly, according to Gregg
                                                      SWFWMD states,               Jones, Manager of Water Quality at
                                                      “Sampling both ground        the SWFWMD, “Merging the surface
                                                      water and surface water      water and ground water programs
                                                      is good, because every-      increased the profile of the District.”
                                                      one gets a better view of    In other words, the District was able
                                                      the interconnectedness.”     to fund more of the new program’s
                                                      All those involved see       needs than when they were solely the
                                                      how changes in surface       former Ground Water Program.
                                                      water can affect ground           There are many unforeseen pros
                                                      water, and vice versa.       that came out of the merger of the
                                                           Mark Pike, a field      two programs. One of the biggest
                                                      technician with the          benefits is the sharing of knowledge
                                                      SWFWMD, performs the         and resources between ground water
                                                      water quality sampling for   and surface water. Through sharing,
                                                      the integrated program.      each discipline learns from the other
                                                      Mark tells how performing    and incorporates useful tools that may
                                                      both the surface water       otherwise be used solely within that
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discipline. Also, this sharing broad-    page. There are a lot of issues at
ens the perspective of the scientists    stake especially with the water
involved in the integrated program.      concerns we have in Florida today.”
     Some of the more subtle advan-           The merger is also helping
tages are an understanding by field      overcome obstacles such as differ-
staff of both kinds of sampling equip-   ences in data management and
ment, increased knowledge and            quality assurance (QA) protocols.
                                         Having different data bases for
                                            ground water and surface water
                                              can create a data management
                                                nightmare. The merger solves
                                                  this problem by creating one      “Having an integrated
                                                     combined location for data
                                                       storage. Additionaly,        program puts every-
                                                          differences in QA
                                                            protocols are re-
                                                                                    one on the same page.
                                                             duced through          There are a lot of is-
                                                              program integration
                                                              by merging sam-       sues at stake especially
                                                              pling procedures.     with the water con-
                                                                  The SWFWMD
                                                           regards their            cerns we have in
flexibility of                                          AGWQMP program to
sampling staff,                                       be remarkably beneficial
                                                                                    Florida today.”
increased communi-                                 and a great success for
cation among staff, and emphasis                 everyone from field technicians
of the importance of ground water and    up to program managers.

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surface water interactions. Gregg
Jones sums up the positive aspects
rather nicely, “An integrated program
opens a whole new dimension for
technical and professional staff
through seeing the interactions
(between ground water and surface
water) in diverse waterbodies.”
     The staff in the Water Quality
Program at the SWFWMD feel that
the integrated program is a natural
way of doing water quality. Mark Pike
feels, “We should have been inte-
grated all along. Everyone’s doing the
same thing.” Eric DeHaven adds
some other logical and natural
occurrences of an integrated pro-
gram: “There already is a ground
water procedure in place, so adding
surface water was not a problem.
The differences in equipment and
sampling procedures are small. Also,
there was minimal additional equip-
ment purchases.” Roberta Starks
feels that, “Having an integrated
program puts everyone on the same
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1996 Water Quality Assessment for the State of
Florida- Section 305(b) Report by Mary Paulic
      The 305(b) report provides an         Florida has 52 major basins or                  The TSI evaluates nutrients,
overview of water quality in Florida.       hydrologic units. Each of these            chlorophyll, and transparency to
It is divided into two major volumes -      basins is divided into numerous            determine a water bodies ability to
the Main Report and Technical               watersheds. The term watershed as          fuel algal growth.
Appendix for each of five regions in        defined in the 305(b) is synonymous             The 1994 Nonpoint Source
the state. The Technical Appendices         with water body. It is the smallest        Assessment Survey provides a
summarize water quality data by             surface drainage area that can be          qualitative ranking of water quality as
individual waterbody and provide a          delineated based on topography and         good, threatened, fair, or poor based
ranking of good, fair, or poor. These       hydrology.                                 largely on professional judgment.
designations loosely translate to                The next step is to compile data.          Macroinvertebrate data collected
“meets use”, “partially meets use”,         Primary sources of data were               by Hester-Dendy and ponar dredge
and “does not meet use.” “Use”              STORET, DEP biological database,           were used to calculate a diversity
infers the designated use applied by        the 1994 Nonpoint Source Assess-           index and number of taxa. Water
Florida’s surface water quality stan-       ment Survey, and the fish consump-         bodies with diversity and taxa number
dards and criteria. The Main Report         tion advisory listings. Because we         ranked less than or equal to the 20th
summarizes water quality statewide          use STORET, many other agencies            percentile were assigned a poor
by water body type. It also provides        contribute to this report, truly making    quality, while those ranked at least in
an overview of pollution control            it a Florida report rather than a DEP      the 70th percentile were assigned
programmatic information, aquatic           report. On average, between 1,500          good quality.
life/public health problems, causes         and 2,000 unique stations are                   For conventional pollutants, for
and sources of pollution, and summa-        sampled each year in Florida.              example dissolved oxygen, the water
rizes restoration/rehabilitation efforts.        The construction of a water           body received a good water quality
      The Clean Water Act (Section          quality ranking requires the blending      ranking if there were fewer than 10%
106) requires states to assess the          of six different indicator groups.         exceedances of state standards over
quality of their navigable waters and       These include water chemistry data         the past three years. If the percent of
report the results (Section 305[b]) to      evaluated to produce either a Water        exceedances fell between 11 and
EPA. The first reports were produced        Quality Index (WQI) for rivers/streams     25%, then water quality was fair. And
in 1975, then every two years thereaf-      or a Trophic State Index (TSI) for         if there were more than 25%
ter starting in 1976.                       lakes and estuaries, 1994 Nonpoint         exceedances, water quality was poor.
      The 305(b) is an important aspect     Source Assessment Survey, quantita-             A similar approach was used for
of the nation’s and Florida’s water         tive biological data, exceedances of       metals, toxics, and bacteria with a
pollution control efforts. It is the        state standards for conventional           smaller number of allowable
principal means by which water              pollutants, exceedances of standards       exceedances. Only one sample could
quality information can be translated       for toxics and metals, and application     exceed standard for metals and toxics
to the general public, EPA, and             of fish consumption advisories.            to be rated good quality if less than
Congress. Within Florida, Chapter           These different indicator groups           10% was fair and greater than 10%
62-40 (F.A.C.) names the 305(b)             represent different uses of Florida        was poor. If a water body had been
report as a primary source of water         waters and collectively provide a more     issued a limited fish consumption
quality assessment information. The         comprehensive assessment.                  advisory then it was rated fair quality,
information compiled in the 305(b)                 An individual assignment of         whereas if a fish consumption ban
report has been used to select SWIM         good, fair, or poor ranking was made       applied, it was rated poor. If no fish
priority waters, prepare the State’s        for each of the six indicator groups.      consumption advisories applied, then
TMDL list, and develop ecosystem            For the WQI, a water quality ranking       the assumption was made that the
management area plans.                      is calculated by averaging rankings        water body met its use as a fishable
                                            for dissolved oxygen, transparency,        water.
    How do we make an assessment            biological diversity, coliform bacteria,
of water quality? The first step is to      nutrients, and oxygen demanding
define the unit that will be assessed.      substances.
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     The overall water quality ranking
was calculated by averaging the six
indicator groups with the exception of
water bodies where either chemical or
biological data indicated extremely
poor quality. Each rank of good was
assigned a value of 1, fair was ranked
3, and poor was ranked 5. These
values were averaged together such
that a mean of 1-2 is good, 2-4 is fair,
and 4-5 is poor.
     One of the following algorithms
was applied for water bodies indicat-
ing extremely poor water quality. If
water chemistry and biological data
indicated very poor quality, then the
water body was assigned a poor
ranking. If the average of the WQI,
biological indicator, and Nonpoint
Source Assessment indicated that the
water body did not meet its use, then
a rank of poor was the final determi-
nation.
     The 1996 report assessed 23% of
river miles, 92% of lake areas, and
90% of estuarine areas. Thus, we
conclude that 21% of river miles, 86%
of lake areas, and 85% of estuarine
areas, for all state waters, meet or
partially meet their designated use.
There were adequate data to perform
ten year trends on 627 waterbodies.
Of that number, 71% showed no
change, 19% were improving, and
10% were declining.
     Important causes of water quality
problems were identified as siltation,
low dissolved oxygen, and nutrients
for rivers. For lakes, they are nutri-
ents and algal blooms, and, for
estuaries, they are nutrients, siltation,
and habitat alteration.
     Human activities were also
identified as sources that caused
water quality problems. These
included agriculture runoff, construc-
tion activities, and urban runoff for
rivers. For lakes, they are agricultural
runoff, urban runoff, and point
sources. For estuaries, they are
urban runoff, construction activities,
and land disposal of waste (including
septic tanks).

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First Quarterly Meeting Highlights
      We have several important                Kenneth Cossin discussed the              Bernoulli exchanges occur three
presentation abstracts summarizing        modernization of the STORET               times a year at our quarterly meet-
what happened at the last quarterly       system. He also showed a time table       ings. Future exchanges of electronic
meeting in Crystal River, February,       of when EPA will complete the beta        information will be done via FTP
1997.                                     prototype and, ultimately, the final      across the internet once all contract-
      Paul Hansard discussed the          STORET X system.                          ing agencies have access to the
status of the Generalized Well                 Dave Adams gave an update on         World Wide Web.
Information System (GWIS3) devel-         ground water quality monitoring result         Until then and until our enhanced
opment. GWIS3 will operate under          files.                                    web site is on-line, we will continue to
Windows95, and we are optimizing it            The Ambient Monitoring Section       use Bernoullis. We can now also
for use with CD-ROM. We are               has given provisional status to 62        handle 100MB Zip disks for file
designing GWIS3 to accommodate            project data sets since last updated      exchange.
surface water data in addition to         on August 23, 1996 (approx. 4MB of             Richard Wieckowicz talked
ground water data. GWIS3 will also        data). We also have given release         about flow and water elevation
support increased retrieval and           status to 70 project data sets in the     measurement problems. He offered
report-writing capabilities. Release      same project period representing          several alternatives to building a flow
date for GWIS3 is scheduled for           about 11MB of data.                       record:
June, 1997.                                    Gary Maddox presented an             ♦ Increase the number of USGS
      Jay Silvanima presented the         update on our progress in locating        flow stations statewide,
findings of the Ground Water Quality      one unconfined well per four township     ♦ Use more DEP and other state
Monitoring Program’s (GWQMP’s)            areas. Statewide, we need to install or   employees for flow measurements,
equipment, field, and analyte-free        locate about 55 additional wells in
water blanks for the period November,     order to complete this portion of the
                                                                                    ♦ Establish a large network of
1995 - November, 1996.                    network:                                  citizen “volunteers” to record water
                                                                                    elevations,
      Jay noted the following:            ♦ 29 unconfined wells are needed
♦ Compounds were detected in              in NWFWMD;
                                                                                    ♦ Correlate flows from existing
                                                                                    stations, and
blanks,                                   ♦ 1 unconfined well is needed in
♦ Analyte-free water blanks yielded       Alachua County;
                                                                                    ♦ Use models to predict present
                                                                                    and historical flows.
detections of nitrogen, cadmium,          ♦ 13 surficial aquifer wells are               We will establish this flow network
calcium, copper, iron, lead, sodium,      needed in SJRWMD;
and zinc, and                                                                       in conjunction with the statewide
                                          ♦ 12 surficial aquifer wells are          integrated monitoring network. The
♦ Lab detection limits are exceeding      needed in SFWMD.                          St. Marks River Basin will be used as
the certification limits of the 0.45 um        Draft county maps and associated     an initial testing ground for the
filters being used by the GWQMP.          dBase files for all remaining DRAS-       alternatives outlined above.
     Jay’s concluded the following:       TIC aquifer vulnerability coverages            Penn Craig talked about data
♦ The program’s analyte-free              are complete in AutoCad format. Final     reliability. Penn stated that reliable
waters are not truly analyte free given   edge-matching is in progress for the      data is best described as data that
current detection limits,                 last six Floridan aquifer system          exhibit both good accuracy and good
♦ The GWQMP’s equipment                   county maps. These ARC/Info cover-        precision. Precision refers to data that
(including filters) are contributing      ages will be added to the DEP’s GIS       is reproducible, that is, data points
some contaminants to our blanks,          Map Library when complete.                that are closely clustered together.
♦ More constituents are detected in            ARMASI, Inc., under contract with    Accuracy refers to data that is identi-
our blanks and water samples as           DEP, is preparing final shaded CAD        cal or nearly identical to the true
detection limits decrease with ad-        coverages to be used for paper and        value. However, there are four
vances in technology, and                 electronic publication. We hope to        conditions that further characterize
                                          publish statewide DRASTIC on CD-          any given data point or data set in
♦ We need to continue monitoring          ROM in the near future. Paper copies
GWQMP blanks to identify concerns                                                   relation to both the precision and
                                          of individual county DRASTIC maps         accuracy of the data.
and recommend corrective actions on       will be available by the end of this
an agency-by-agency basis.                year.
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♦
♦
     imprecise and inaccurate,
     accurate but imprecise,             Survey Says...
♦
♦
     precise but inaccurate,
     accurate and precise.
                                         Quarterly Ambient Meeting Survey
     Penn concluded from his reliabil-   by Cindy Cosper and Kenneth Cossin
ity analyses that the Ambient Monitor-
ing Program’s data collected in the            The Southwest Florida Water          ♦ The least interesting and useful
field during the 1996 sampling year      Management District and Department         information was evaluated as, to our
are reliable.                            of Environmental Protection spon-          delight, “nothing”. Everyone found the

S                                        sored the first Quarterly Ambient
                                         Meeting of the new year on February
                                         12-14, 1997 in Crystal River, Florida.
                                                                                    contents of the meeting to be interest-
                                                                                    ing and useful to some extent.
                                                                                    ♦ Suggested improvements for
                                         Our meeting was a great success.           future meetings were ideas such as
                                               We asked meeting attendees to        field trips, more attention to surface
                                         fill out meeting surveys. Out of the       water issues, easier to read slides,
                                         106 attendees, 30% responded to the        shorter talks, and more frequent
                                         survey. Here are the results:              breaks.
                                         ♦ Overall evaluation of time sched-        ♦ Suggested topics for future
                                         uled for topics, presentation contents,    meetings were Surface Water/Ground
                                         overall evaluation of presenters and       Water Integration, DEP’s Role in
                                         speakers, quality of handouts and          Surface Water, Pesticides in Soils,
                                         meeting facility, and socialization time   demos of data analysis models,
                                         were all evaluated as GOOD.                Sediment Sinks, Food Chains,
                                         ♦ The most interesting and useful          professional papers and more water
                                         information was evaluated to be Sam        management district projects.
                                         Upchurch’s short course on the             ♦ Other suggestions made were to
                                         Physical Concerns with Regards to          provide coffee and snacks, have
                                         Ground Water and Surface Water             longer lunches, keeping courses at
                                         Interactions.                              beginning or end of meetings, and
                                                                                        asking for late hotel check-out
                                                                                                  times.
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                                                                                Lodging:
                     2nd Quarterly Ambient Monitoring Meeting                         Sea Turtle Inn
                                                                                      One Ocean Boulevard
                                  May 19-21, 1997                                     Atlantic Beach, FL 32233
                       The Sea Turtle Inn, Atlantic Beach, FL                         (904)247-7402
                                  Monday, May 19, 1997                          Rates: $65 + tax/night ocean view
                                                                                       $129 + tax/night oceanfront
    1:00 PM           Business Meeting of the Ambient Monitoring Program
          Introduction                           Rick Copeland, DEP             Reservations and information
          Well Grid Update                       Gary Maddox, DEP                     (800)874-6000
          Bernoulli Exchange                     Gary Maddox, DEP
          DRASTIC Update                         Gary Maddox, DEP
                                                                                Please Remember to mention that you
          Water Sampling Training Courses        Penn Craig, DEP, and
                                                 Paul Hansard, DEP              are attending the DEP meeting
          Data Management Issues                 Paul Hansard, DEP              when making reservations.
          OGWIS                                  Paul Hansard, DEP
          QA Issues                              Jay Silvanima, DEP, and
                                                                                Locale:
                                                 Penn Craig, DEP
          Tasks for Upcoming Contracts           Rick Copeland, DEP             The Sea Turtle Inn is located 40
                                                                                minutes from Jacksonville International
    5:30 PM ADJOURN                                                             Airport and about 20 minutes from
                                                                                downtown.
                                  Tuesday, May 20, 1997                         Nearby attractions include Buccaneer
                                                                                Trail, Fort Caroline, Fort Clinch,
    8:30 AM SHORT COURSE                                                        Hanna Park, Jacksonville Landing,
          Ground Water-Surface Water Interactions Sam Upchurch, ERM-S, and      Adventure Landing, Jax Beach Fish-
           with Regards to Chemistry              Brian Katz, USGS              ing Pier, Seawalk Plaza, and the
                                                                                Alhambra Dinner Theatre.
    5:30 PM ADJOURN
                                                                                Transportation:
                                Wednesday, May 21, 1997                         Bob’s Limo Service is available for
                                                                                transport to and from the airport.
    8:30 AM Joint Meeting - Ground Water, Surface Water and Biology             (800)849-4262
                          “Tools” for Monitoring
                                                                                Limo reservations must be made two
          Introduction                           Rick Copeland, DEP
          Ground Water Quality Monitoring        Gary Maddox, DEP               days in advance, $31 per person, $5
            Network Tools                                                       each additional person (can split cost).
          Lafayette County VISA Overview         Cindy Cosper, DEP, and
                                                 Brian Katz, USGS
                                                                                Provide the limo service with your
          GWIS Demonstration                     Kenneth Cossin, DEP
          An Approach for Identifying Metal                                     airline names, flight numbers, and
            Contamination                        Tom Seal, DEP, and             dates/times of arrivals. Pick up/drop
          in Fresh Water Sediments               Peter Wilkens, DEP             off point is at the airport ground
          Flow and Discharge Measurements        Rich Wieckowicz, DEP
                                                                                terminal booth.
          Surface Water Quality Networks         Mary Paulic, DEP, and
                                                 Asia Ceric, SJRWMD
          Integrated Monitoring Network          Rick Copeland, DEP             Questions:
          Ground Water/Surface Water Analytes    Mary Paulic, DEP               Contact Cindy Cosper at (904)921-
                                                                                9420, SunCom: 291-9420, or email:
          LUNCH
                                                                                cosper_c@dep.state.fl.us
          Brief Overview of the Development of   Ellen McCarron, DEP
            New Bioassessment Tools within DEP
          Comments on the DEP Bioassessment      Mike Barbour, TetraTech Inc.
            Tools from a National Perspective
          Integration of the DEP Bioassessment   Tom Singleton, DEP
            Tools in DEP Programs

    5:00 PM ADJOURN
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                                                                                                                                                                            Sea Turtle Inn
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              Thv‡ÃIvpu‚yh†                                                                                                              C‚yvqh’ÃCh…i‚…
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              Thv‡ÃIvpu‚yh†                                                                                                              C‚yvqh’ÃCh…i‚…
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                               Tƒ…vtÃByr                                                                                                     ThÃQhiy‚
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                               Tƒ…vtÃByr                                                                                                     ThÃQhiy‚
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    Ambient Monitoring Section
       Florida Department of
     Environmental Protection
       2600 Blair Stone Road
  Tallahassee, Florida 32399-2400




Ambient Newsletter
The Ambient Newsletter is published three times per year by the Ambient Monitoring Section of the Bureau of Water
Resource Protection, Florida Department of Environmental Protection.

Send address changes to:
 Mary Geuin at the address above or,
via e-mail to: england_m@dep.state.fl.us or,
via telephone at (904) 488-3601

Editorial
Kenneth Cossin, Editor in Chief

Assistant Editors/Ambient Monitoring Staff
Dave Adams, Rick Copeland, Cindy Cosper, Penn Craig, Mary Geuin, Paul Hansard, Gary Maddox, Ray Malloy, Joe
North, Mary Paulic, David Ouellette, Jay Silvanima, and Rich Wieckowicz
Contact us at: (904)488-3601 or by email at: last name_first initial@dep.state.fl.us

Photography
Kenneth Cossin and Gary Maddox

Layout/Graphics
David Ouellette, Kenneth Cossin & Pam Clarke

Circulation
Mary Geuin

				
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