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Intro GSM

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									Fault Management - NOC   1
 GSM Technology & Introduction
 Security System
 GSM SATELINDO Network & Coverage
 Network Problem & Troubleshooting




               Fault Management - NOC   2
GSM Technology &
  Introduction



      Fault Management - NOC   3
GSM : Global System for Mobile-
       Communication


System for mobile communication based on
  a Pan-European standard, and using 2 x 25
  MHz in 900 MHz frequency band




                  Fault Management - NOC      4
            Perkembangan GSM                          [1]

TAHUN PERKEMBANGAN
1982  -Terbentuk badan kelompok kerja GSM (Group Special Mobile)
       melalui Conference of European Posts and Telegraphs
       (CEPT) dgn liputan di Eropa
      -Penempatan frekuensi pada 900 MHz
1985  Badan kelompok kerja GSM membagi tugas dalam 3 bagian:
            - definisi layanan
            - subsistem radio
            - aspek jaringan keseluruhan
1986  Badan tetap inti terbentuk
1987  -Memorandum of Understanding (MoU)
            13 operator jaringan bertujuan memasang jaringan
            GSM di tahun 1991
      -Penetapan standar Air Interface GSM 900
            Uplink: 890 - 915 MHz, Downlink: 935 - 960 MHz


                             Fault Management - NOC                5
             Perkembangan GSM                           [2]

TAHUN PERKEMBANGAN
1988  -ETSI (European Telecommunications Standards Institute)
       meliputi proyek CEPT ini
      -GSM merupakan bagian dari ETSI
1990  Akhir dari GSM fasa I
1991  Pilot GSM Network di didemonstrasikan di Geneva
1992  -Jaringan D1 (Jerman) komersial terpasang & merupakan
       jaringan GSM pertama di dunia
      -Perjanjian International Roaming pertama antara Finlandia &
       Inggris
      -Operator jaringan Australia merupakan operator non Eropa
       yg menanda-tangani MoU
      -Alokasi frekuensi baru GSM 900 ke versi DCS 1800
             Uplink: 1710 - 1785 MHz, Downlink: 1805 - 1880 MHz
1993  -Mulai saat itu GSM adalah Global System for Mobile
       Communication

                               Fault Management - NOC                6
             Perkembangan GSM                          [3]

TAHUN PERKEMBANGAN
      -GSM menjadi standar di seluruh dunia
      -Terdapat 36 jaringan GSM yg beroperasi
      -Satelindo didirikan tanggal 29 Januari, tapi efektif mulai
       beroperasi tahun 1994
1995  -Terdapat 120 jaringan GSM yg beroperasi di seluruh dunia
       dengan lebih dari 12 juta pelanggan
      -Anggota MoU berjumlah lebih dari 150 anggota yang terdiri
       dari 90 negara
      -Standar GSM fase 2 selesai dibuat, demonstrasi fax, video,
       dan komunikasi data via GSM
      -Adaptasi standar PCS 1900 & pada bulan November GSM
       dengan frekuensi 1900 MHz beroperasi di Amerika
1996  -GSM menguasai 30% pangsa pasar telekomunikasi wireless
1998  -Jumlah pelanggan GSM per 31 Desember 1997 adalah 66 juta
       lebih dengan 256 operator jaringan yang meliputi 110 negara

                              Fault Management - NOC                 7
                     GSM Network
                                 RSS     NSS

               BTS                         HLR AuC                PSTN


                        BSC                   M                   PDN
         BTS                                  S
                                              C
MS                         BSC                                   Other PLMN
                                           EIR    VLR
               BTS
                                                                 Other MSC
OMS
                        OMC-R                        OMC-S

MS = Mobile Station               PLMN   = Public Land Mobile Network
BTS = Base Transceiver Station    PSTN   = Public Switched Telephone Network
BSC = Base Station Controller     ISDN   = Integrated Service Digital Network
MSC = Mobile Switching Center     PDN    = Public Data Network
                                 Fault Management - NOC                         8
           Network Element                         [1]
1. RSS (Radio Sub-system)
    - MS (Mobile Station)
        ME     Mobile Equipment
        SIM    Subscriber Identity Module
    - BSS (Base Station Sub-system)
        BTS    Base Transceiver Station
        BSC Base Station Controller
2. NSS (Network & Switching Sub-system)
        MSC Mobile Switching Center
        HLR    Home Location Register
        VLR    Visitors Location Register
        AuC    Authentication Center
        EIR    Equipment Identification Register




                          Fault Management - NOC         9
          Network Element                         [2]
3. OMS (Operation & Maintenance Sub-system)
                OMC-R Operation Maintenance Center for BSS
                OMC-S Operation Maintenance Center for NSS
                OMC-T Operation Maintenance Center for
                Transmission
4. Additional Platform
        VMS Voice Mail System
        SMS Short Message System
        ATS     Audio Text Server
        PRC Primary Pulse Clock
5. Transmission
        Microwave PDH & SDH
        Fiber Optic
        HDSL
        X25
        VSAT
        Sea Cable
                         Fault Management - NOC              10
GSM Frequency Allocation



  Uplink
                    Downlink



                                     BTS
MS

Frequency uplink   : 890 - 915 MHz ~ 125 channel
Frequency downlink : 935 - 960 MHz ~ 125 channel


                    Fault Management - NOC         11
                  GSM 900 & 1800
       (Global System for Mobile-Communication)

 Sistem Komunikasi Bergerak berdasarkan Pan European Standard.
 Menggunakan pita frekwensi 2 x 25 MHz in 900 MHz :
        Frekwensi uplink        : 890 - 915 MHz
        Frekwensi downlink : 935 - 960 MHz
  Satelindo : 890 - 900 & 935 - 945 Mhz
 Menggunakan pita frekwensi 2 x 75 MHz in 1800 MHz :
        Frekwensi uplink        : 1710 - 1785 MHz
        Frequency downlink : 1805 - 1880 MHz
  Satelindo : 1717.6 - 1722.6 & 1812.6 - 1817.6 Mhz




                       Fault Management - NOC                     12
      Frequency Re-Use
LIMITED BANDWIDTH, WIDE SERVING AREA
                 FREQUENCY RE-USE

                 5
            2           1
       1         3              7
            7           6                 4
       6         4              5
            5           2                 1
       2         1              3
            3           7
                 6


                 Fault Management - NOC       13
                 Co-Channel
Co-Channel adalah suatu kondisi dimana terdapat
  2 channel dengan frekwensi yang sama pada
  area yang sama yang dapat menyebabkan
  interferensi (biasanya pada downlink direction),
  dimana level interferer berada pada 0 s/d 12 dB
  dibawah level cell A

          - 70 dBm            - 82 dBm (~ - 70 dBm)
                                          interferer
                 ch.25   ch.25

               Cell A    Cell B
        Cell B akan menginterferensi Cell A


                         Fault Management - NOC        14
               Adjacent Cell
Adjacent Cell adalah suatu kondisi dimana terdapat
  2 channel dengan frekwensi yang berdekatan
  pada area yang sama yang dapat menyebabkan
  interferensi (biasanya pada downlink direction),
  dimana level interferer lebih kuat minimal 6 dB

               - 70 dBm     - 64 dBm
                                            interferer
                  ch.25     ch.26

                 Cell A     Cell B
        Cell B akan menginterferensi Cell A


                          Fault Management - NOC         15
        How is the call established ?

                            Downlink

                         Uplink

                                   MS B
   Uplink


       Downlink



MS A                                   PSTN Switching
                   BSS      NSS


                    Fault Management - NOC              16
           Location Update

 Mobile is registered in VLR according to its
  location area
 Mobile need to re-register itself every time
  he find new location area
 BTS will always broadcast signal that
  contain many information including
  location area code




                   Fault Management - NOC        17
Type of Location Update



 Normal Location Update
 Periodic Location Update
 IMSI Attach Location Update




             Fault Management - NOC   18
      How is the call kept ?


   Radio measurement
   Cell reselection (Hand over)
   Power control
   DTX (Discontinuous Transmission)




                 Fault Management - NOC   19
         What is „Hand Over‟ ?

 An attempt to keep the call on going by
    changing the cell
   During conversation, mobile will always
    “listen” to its neighbors
   Decision/Algorithm of HO is done by BSC
   Some parameter can be set to direct the
    hand over
   One point of network optimization


                    Fault Management - NOC    20
   Hand Over Type & Cause
 Type of Hand Over
   Intra cell
   Intra BSC
   Inter BSC/Intra MSC
   Inter MSC
 Hand Over Cause
   Downlink Quality
   Uplink Quality
   Downlink Level
   Uplink Level
   Better Cells
                Fault Management - NOC   21
                                   Hand Over Type

                          MSC 1                               MSC 2




        BSC 1                                         BSC 2                     BSC 3




     Cell A               Cell B     Cell C           Cell D           Cell E   Cell F
              Channel Y
  Channel X




Intra Cell HO              Inter BSC HO Intra BSC HO Inter MSC HO
                                              Fault Management - NOC                     22
Security System




      Fault Management - NOC   23
          Security System


 Authentication
 Confidential Function
    Customer Identification Protection
    Encryption / Ciphering
 IMEI Checking




                  Fault Management - NOC   24
       Authentication



 SIM Card Validation Process
 Refer to Ki, A3 & A8 Algorithm




              Fault Management - NOC   25
  Customer Security Identity


 To protect MS during traffic channel
  occupied (radio channel)
 Using TMSI to replace IMSI




                  Fault Management - NOC   26
       Encryption / Ciphering


 Scramble function of information on Air-
  Interface (MS - BTS)
 Involving Ki, RAND & Algorithm A8
 Process result : Kc (Ciphering Key)




                   Fault Management - NOC    27
GSM SATELINDO Network
     & Coverage



         Fault Management - NOC   28
        GSM SATELINDO Service
 VMS (Voice Mail System)
 SMS (Short Message Service)
 Data Fax (GPRS have been tested yet but not
    commercial yet)
   International Roaming
   V@ccess
   WAP
   Call Waiting, Call Hold, Call Forward
   CLIP (Calling Line Identification Presentation)
   CLIR (Calling Line Identification Restriction)
   Dual band GSM 900 & DCS 1800

                         Fault Management - NOC       29
            GSM SATELINDO
 Additional Platform :
  6 SMSC and 13 VMS
 International Roaming :
  Agreement with 79 Countries (200 operators) in
  the world
 GSM SATELINDO‟s product :
    MENTARI & MENTARI PLUS (Pre Paid Card)
    SATELINDO GSM & MATRIX (Regular / Post
      Paid Card)



                      Fault Management - NOC       30
                                                                         SATELINDO Coverage

                                                                                                                                                                                                                     Alcatel   Siemens
BANDA ACEH


             MEDAN




                       PEKANBARU
                                             BATAM
                                                                                                                                                                                                            MSC        9         11
                                                                                                                                        MANADO


                                                                 PONTIANAK
                                     JAMBI
                     PADANG                                                                                           PALU


                                                                                                                                                                                                                      108        30
                                                                                    PALANGKARAYA

                                                                                                                                                                                                            BSC
                                                                                                      BALIKPAPAN



                              BENGKULU   PALEMBANG                                                                                                                                             JAYAPURA
                                                                                                                              KENDARI
                                                                                         BANJARMASIN                                              AMBON


                                             LAMPUNG




                                                                                                                                                                                                            BTS      3766       1316
                                                                                                                   MAKASSAR

                                                       JAKARTA       SEMARANG
                                                           BANDUNG
                                                                                  SURABAYA
                                                                     YOGYAKARTA                BALI

                                                                                                   MATARAM



                                                                                                                                  KUPANG
                                                                                                                                                                                                          Repeater     23        6
                                                                                                                                                             DESIGN BY : FARAH SALADINI
                                                                                                                                                                            Cellular NPD-RNP
                                                                                                                                                             Print : 19/04/2000




                                                                                                                                                                                                           Cu Inst   6034       1803

                                                                                                                                                                                                          VLR Subs   1537 K    400 K
             ALCATEL - SIEMENS AREA

                                                                                                                                                 Fault Management - NOC                                                                  31
                                                       SATELINDO Network
                                                                                       Regional Area


BANDA ACEH


             MEDAN




                                             BATAM
                       PEKANBARU
                                                                                                                                        MANADO


                                                                 PONTIANAK
                                     JAMBI
                     PADANG                                                                                           PALU
                                                                                    PALANGKARAYA      BALIKPAPAN



                              BENGKULU   PALEMBANG                                                                                                                                          JAYAPURA
                                                                                                                              KENDARI
                                                                                         BANJARMASIN                                              AMBON


                                             LAMPUNG

                                                                                                                   MAKASSAR

                                                       JAKARTA       SEMARANG
                                                           BANDUNG
                                                                                  SURABAYA
                                                                     YOGYAKARTA                BALI

                                                                                                   MATARAM



                                                                      Ind.                                                        KUPANG

                                                                     Central
      Sumbagut Sumbagsel West Java                                                           Ind. East                                       Jabotabek    DESIGN BY : FARAH SALADINI
                                                                                                                                                                         Cellular NPD-RNP
                                                                                                                                                          Print : 19/04/2000




                                                                                                           Fault Management - NOC                                                                      32
               GSM SATELINDO
    Regional
                          35 BSC + 2117 BTS + 5 MSC
  JABOTABEK
   Regional                24 BSC + 466 BTS + 1 MSC
   West Java
    Regional
                            31 BSC + 769 BTS + 4 MSC
Indonesia Central

   Regional
                           32 BSC + 912 BTS + 4 MSC
Indonesia East

   Regional
                            8 BSC + 357 BTS + 3 MSC
  Sumbagsel

    Regional                8 BSC +461 BTS + 3 MSC
   Sumbagut

                    Fault Management - NOC             33
Network Problem &
 Troubleshooting



       Fault Management - NOC   34
      Poor / Bad Speech Quality
Poor Speech Quality : saat pembicaraan, kualitas
suara memburuk dimana salah satu atau kedua
sisi sulit untuk mengerti percakapan yang
berlangsung

Bad Speech Quality : saat pembicaraan, kualitas
suara memburuk dimana salah satu atau kedua
sisi tidak dapat mengerti percakapan yang
berlangsung

Gejala : suara terputus-putus / pingpong, tang ting
tung, suara seperti robot, kaleng, bebek, air, noise,
suara periodik seperti “clang”

                        Fault Management - NOC          35
                  Call Drop
Call Drop : terputusnya hubungan saat pembicaraan
sedang berlangsung (abnormal call released)

Gejala :
Saat pembicaraan sedang berlangsung, hubungan
telepon baik secara tiba-tiba maupun didahului oleh
kasus bad/poor speech quality menjadi terputus.
Pada sisi yang tidak mengalami call drop terdengar
peringatan “Your call is being interrupted, please try
again later” atau “Maaf pembicaraan anda
terganggu, cobalah beberapa saat lagi”



                       Fault Management - NOC            36
                No Network
No Network : kondisi dimana pelanggan tidak
dapat menerima sinyal / service dari SATELINDO
karena level penerimaan MS dibawah ambang
minimum (-02 dBm)

Gejala :
 Saat idle maupun membuat call terlihat tampilan
  Network Search, No Service, No Network, No
  Access, Network not Available, Network not
  Allowed
 Tidak ada tampilan indikator sinyal
 Apabila pada daerah tersebut ada jaringan
  operator lain yang lebih baik levelnya maka akan
  muncul tampilan “Select Network”
                      Fault Management - NOC         37
 No Outgoing Call / Assignment
No Assignment : kondisi dimana jaringan tidak
dapat merespons permintaan call setup dari MS
atau dengan kata lain pelanggan tidak dapat / sulit
membuat call
Gejala :
 Saat membuat call terlihat tampilan Call Ended,
  No Connection, Network Busy, Network Overload
 Terdengar nada “tulalit”




                      Fault Management - NOC          38
            No Incoming Call
No Assignment : kondisi dimana MS tidak dapat
dihubungi
Gejala :
Orang yang menelpon mendengar peringatan
“nomor yang anda tuju sedang tidak aktif atau
berada di luar servis area, cobalah beberapa saat
lagi”, atau ”the number you wish to contact can
not be reached at the moment, please try later”




                      Fault Management - NOC        39
    Cross-Connect & Cross-Talk
Cross-Connect : kondisi dimana si penelpon
menelpon seseorang namun terkoneksi ke orang
lain yang bukan dimaksud

Cross-Talk : kondisi dimana si penelpon menelpon
seseorang namun dalam pembicaraan kedua belah
pihak terdengar suara orang lain




                     Fault Management - NOC        40
                   Echo
Echo : kondisi dimana suara yang diucapkan oleh
penelpon terdengar kembali oleh si penelpon




                     Fault Management - NOC       41
 Problem dapat terjadi saat hubungan antara: [1]

1. MS - PSTN

            1

                2


 MS                           BTS BSC MSC                PSTN Switching

                                             3                            4
  1. Uplink Quality / Level
  2. Downlink Quality / Level
  3. Hardware Problem
  4. Hardware pada sisi PSTN

                                Fault Management - NOC                        42
 Problem dapat terjadi saat hubungan antara: [2]

2. MS A – MS B


            1                                                    2

                                                             1
                2


  MS A                                                   3            MS B

AREA “A”                                                             AREA “B”
  1. Uplink Quality / Level
  2. Downlink Quality / Level
  3. Hardware Problem


                                Fault Management - NOC                          43
 Problem dapat terjadi saat hubungan antara: [3]


Solusi :
 Matikan dan hidupkan handphone, kemudian
  coba “di call” sekali lagi (Location Update
  manual)
 Perbaiki posisi SIM Card
 Cross check SIM Card dan handphone




                      Fault Management - NOC       44
                GLOSSARY [1]
   AGCH    :   Access Grant Channel
   AUC     :   Authentication Center
   BCCH    :   Broadcast Control Channel
   BIE     :   Base Interface Equipment
   BSC     :   Base Station Controller
   BSS     :   Base Station Subsystem
   BTS     :   Base Transceiver Station
   CCCH    :   Common Control Channel
   CI      :   Cell ID
   CPR     :   Common Processor
   CU      :   Carrier Unit
   DTC     :   Digital Trunk Controller
   EIR     :   Equipment Identification Register
   FACH    :   Fast Associated Control Channel
   FHU     :   Frequency Hopping Unit
   FU      :   Frame Unit
   G-MSC   :   Gateway MSC
                       Fault Management - NOC       45
                 GLOSSARY [2]
   HLR      :   Home Location Register
   IMEI     :   International Mobile Equipment Identity
   IMSI     :   International Mobile Subscriber Identity
   ISDN     :   Integrated Service Digital Network
   LAC      :   Location Area Code
   ME       :   Mobile Equipment
   MS       :   Mobile Station
   MSC      :   Mobile Switching Center
   MSISDN   :   Mobile Station ISDN Number
   NSS      :   Network & Switching Subsystem
   OMC-R    :   Operation & Maintenance Center for RSS
   OMC-S    :   Operation & Maintenance Center for NSS
   OMU      :   Operation & Maintenance Unit
   PCH      :   Paging Channel
   PDN      :   Public Data Network
   PIN      :   Personal Identification Number
                         Fault Management - NOC             46
                GLOSSARY [3]
   PLMN    :   Public Land Mobile Network
   PSTN    :   Public Switched Telephone Network
   RACH    :   Random Access Channel
   RSS     :   Radio Subsystem
   SACCH   :   Slow Associated Control Channel
   SDCCH   :   Stand Alone Dedicated Control Channel
   SIM     :   Subscriber Identity Module
   SM      :   Sub Multiplexer
   SW      :   Switch
   TC      :   Transcoder
   TCH     :   Traffic Channel
   TCU     :   Terminal Control Unit
   TS      :   Time Slot
   VLR     :   Visitors Location Register
   V-MSC   :   Visited MSC


                       Fault Management - NOC           47
Fault Management - NOC   48

								
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