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 Chapter 8 WCDMA Network Management System

8.1 Overview

             The concept of WCDMA Network Management System (NMS) construction is based
             on the TMN management framework, and later integrates the TOM theory presented by
             TMF. The building of 3G NMS is generally based on the 3GPP 32 series protocols. The
             following are some common NMS-related protocols:

             32101-311 protocol: Describes the basic principles and requirements of 3G
             telecommunication management;

             32102-311 protocol: Describes the 3G management framework;

             32104-311 protocol: Describes the 3G performance management;

             32105-311 protocol: Describes the 3G billing;

             32106-301 protocol: Describes the 3G configuration management;

             32111-301 protocol: Describes the 3G fault management;

             33102-340 protocol: Describes the 3G security management (security framework);

             33103-320 protocol: Describes the 3G security management (security guide);

             According to the TMN management framework, the WCDMA NMS may be divided into
             the following layers: network element (NE) management layer, network management
             (NM) layer, service management layer and business management layer. The network
             management trends toward an overall multi-management-layer solution that addresses
             network management, the service management and the enterprise management.

             No matter whether the solution considers the network management on a whole or by
             the management layer, our top priority is to pinpoint the management functions of each
             management layer, the information model and the standardization of the up/down
             inter-working interfaces, and gradually shift our research focus to upper layers. The
             upward shift of our focus will change the research mode. Generally, the TMN
             management framework is designed in a bottom-up manner, so a very stable suite of
             specifications is available for TMN at the NE management layer and the NM layer.

             On upper management layers, the NMS enables operators and end users to carry out
             customized management. Network management is far more than simple network
             equipment maintenance and operation. In a broad sense, it also includes the network
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             optimization, planning and decision management, service support management,
             customer service center and customer relationship management (CRM) under new
             business models.

             This document introduces the basic knowledge of TMN and the basic concept of TOM,
             as well as the main service features of 3G NMS. As the NE device management and
             the networking model are crucial during early 3G network construction, this document
             also discusses the ideas for NMS construction on the equipment management layer.


8.2 NMS Basic Principle

8.2.1 Introduction to the TMN

             1. Basic Concepts of the TMN

             TMN is the abbreviation of Telecommunication Manager Network. The TMN supports
             the    management       of    telecommunication        networks     and    services     by
             transmitting/storing/processing information.

             The TMN can manage various types of telecommunication networks and the network
             elements such as analog/digital network, the public network/private network, the
             switching system/transmission system, the telecommunication software, the network
             logic resources (like the circuit/route/service) and auxiliary supporting systems (like the
             power system and the air-conditioning system).

             The TMN is the telecommunication network management standard presented by ITU-T.
             As a part of the telecommunication supporting network, TMN is separate from the
             telecommunication service in principle.

             2. Basic Model and Features of the TMN

             1)    Introduction to the TMN architecture
             The TMN consists of multiple layers with each layer corresponding to a different
             management mode. The basic model of the TMN is shown as the figure below:




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                                             Figure 8-1 Chart of the TMN Architecture

             NEF: Network Element Function
             EML: Element Manager Layer
             NML: Network Manager Layer
             SML: Service Manager Layer
             BML: Business Manager Layer
             According to the figure above, the TMN consists of different management layers,
             interconnected via an interface. The TMN is a bottom-up network system with products
             as the core. The layers are described as follows:
                 Business Management Layer
             Providing support for service-oriented decision functions, such as report statistics and
             performance trend analysis.
                 Service Management Layer
             Providing the customer-oriented management functions to manage the services
             offered to the customer and to collect the accounting information and the feedback
             information of the network service quality.
                 Network Management Layer
             Providing network-oriented operation and management, such as network traffic
             monitoring and fault monitoring.
                 Network Element Management Layer
             Delivering equipment-oriented operation and maintenance.
                 Network Element Function
             As the basis of the TMN O&M system, the OM system at the NE side provides NE
             operation and maintenance, and upper interfaces with the TMN.
             2)   Features of the TMN Architecture
                 Built from bottom up with products as the core;


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                 Based on interoperation between devices with the ultimate objective of unified
                  management over the equipment of different vendors;
                 Defines corresponding interface and information model;
                 Focuses on the NEF-EML-NML relationship, giving priority to OMS (operation &
                  maintenance system) support in terms of service, while the SML and the BML in
                  the model are not addressed.

8.2.2 Introduction to the TOM Model

             In 3GPP, the description of the NMS is based on the TMN model of ITU-T as well as
             ideas of the TOM model presented by TMF. Especially in versions higher than 3GPP
             (R5), it comes even closer to the TOM model. The following is about the model.

             TOM (Telecom Operations Map) is a new generation of the NMS model put forward by
             the TMF (Telecommunication Management Forum), which is a non-profitable
             organization committed to providing leading, strategic and practical solutions to
             improve the communication service management and operation quality. In addition, it
             develops the programmed market-based solutions to address the major problems
             arising in connection with OSS integration and business procedure automation. It has
             384 members from large companies, organizations and associations, including service
             providers, software solution suppliers, computer/network equipment suppliers and
             customers using communication services.

             Simply speaking, the TOM involves such vertical processes as service implementation,
             service assurance and service billing as well as one cross-carrier process. Horizontally,
             it also includes such layers as care, service development & operation, and network
             development & operation. The customer care layer includes five parts: sales, order
             processing, troubleshooting, customer QoS management and bill payment (i.e. billing).
             The layer for service development and operation also comprises five parts: service
             planning and development, service configuration, service problem management,
             service QoS management and rating/discounting. The layer for network development
             and operation consists of another five parts: network planning and development,
             network provisioning, network inventory management, network maintenance &
             restoration and network data management.

             Architecture of the TOM is as follows:




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                                                       Customer
                                                                                                                               I
                                                                                                                               N
                                Customer Interface Management Processes                                                        F
                                                                                                                               O
                                                                                                                               R

                      Fulfillment                                Assurance                       Billing                       M
                                                                                                                               A
                                                            Problem            Customer QoS                                    T
                    Sales        Order Handling                                                  Invoicing and
                                                            Handling            Managment                                      I
                                                                                                  Collections
                                                                                                                               O
                                                                                                                               N
                                                  Customer Care Processes
                                                                                                                               S
                                                                                                                               Y
                                                                                                                               S
                                                                                                                               T
                                                            Service                                                            E
                    Service         Service                                    Service Quality
                                                           Problem                               Rating and                    M
                 Planning and     Configuration                                 Managment
                                                          Management                             Discounting                   S
                 Development

                                Service Development and Operations Processes                                                   M
                                                                                                                               A
                                                                                                                               N
                                                                                                                               A
                                                                                                                               G
                                                                                                                               E
                                                            Network                                                            M
                   Network          Networ k                                      Network
                                                           Inventor y                            Network Data                  E
                 Planning and     Provisioning                                 Mainteneance &                                  N
                                                          Management                             Ma nagement
                 Development                                                    Restoration                                    T

                                Network and Systems Management Processes                                                       P
                                                                                                                               R
                                                                                                                               O
                                                                                                                               C
                                Network Element Management Processes                                                           E
                                                                                                                               S
                                                                                                                               S
                                                                                                                               E
                                                  Physical Netw ork and Information                                            S
                                                            Technology

                                                                                                                 GB910-V2 .0




                                                   Figure 8-2 Architecture of the TOM


             In the WCDMA NMS, the O&M layer relies heavily on the building of the TMN
             O&M network system (NMF-EMS-NMS), while the accounting management, the
             business forecast and the network service provision are based on the TOM
             model.


8.2.3 Introduction to the WCDMA NMS

             1. Goals of the WCDMA NMS

                To manage the equipment of different vendors, including the management system
                 itself;
                To simplify the UMTS network management;
                To support the communication between the UMTS NE and the UMTS OS or
                 between the UMTS OSs via the standard interfaces;
                To reduce the cost of the UMTS network management;
                To provide the capability of flexible and fast service configuration;
                To provide comprehensive fault management capability;

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                To simplify the operation and maintenance with local or remote O&M functions;
                To allow for the exchange of the network management and the accounting
                 information between the network manager and the service provider, and the
                 exchange of information with different networks, including other UMTS networks
                 and non-UMTS networks;
                To support and control the growth of resources, and with scalability, to satisfy the
                 requirements of smooth expansion according to the development of network
                 services;
                To provide a security management mechanism based on the whole UMTS NMS;
                To provide flexible billing and accounting management, and to support the
                 account settlement between the UMTS and the non-UMTS networks;
                To provide transaction notification; for example, the change in the property of an
                 NE may cause some changes to this NE or other NEs. These changes are
                 one-time changes and should be reported as events;
                To provide the capability of restoring the UMTS system.

             2. Introduction to the 3G NMS architecture

             With a good operation support system, the operator can fully understand the operation
             status of the network equipment and the network service quality, and deploy the
             services efficiently, thus improving its operation and maintenance efficiency and
             service quality as well as the competitiveness.

             Based on the TMN and TOM architectures, the WCDMA NMS provides relevant NMS
             frameworks.

             The basic framework of the NMS described in 3GPP is shown as the figure below. The
             UMTS Operation System in the figure also adopts a hierarchical structure (LA, logic
             layer architecture), which may be considered an equivalent to the equipment system at
             the EML/NML layer of the TMN framework. The Enterprise systems is the information
             system used in the communications system, which has no direct or substantial
             connection with communication services. It includes the call center, the fraud detection
             and prevention system and the billing system.




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                    within the Operations System of a 
                     UMTS Organisation A                             Organisation B



                                       Enterprise
                                        Systems

                                        2

                                                       same role


                             4                            3
                                     LLA               other role




                           UMTS Operations                                Operations
                                  System                                    System

                                        1
                                            NE3
                          NE1     NE2

                                 NEn
                                         Network
                                        Elements



                                         Figure 8-3 Architecture of WCDMA NMS


             Interface 1: The interface between the NE and the OS. Generally, it means the interface
             between the NE and the EML. If the NE itself provides a network management interface,
             it also refers to the interface between the EML and the NML.

             Interface 2: The interface between the OS and the Enterprise system. It may be
             considered as the interface between the OS layer and the service provisioning system,
             similar to the interface between the NML layer and the upper layers in TMN.

             Interface 3: It means the interface between OSs. It may be the OS interface between
             the UMTS networks, or the interface between a UMTS network and a non-UMTS
             network, such as the PSTN or other networks;

             Interface 4: It indicates the interface among the layers of an OS, similar to the interface
             between the EML and the NML.

             According to the figure above, the 3G NMS is designed to provide a complete, open
             and scalable operation support system to support the UMTS network and develop
             services.




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             3. Comparisons between the 3G NMS and the 2G NMS

             The NM functions of a traditional 2G mobile network are based on the TMN network
             management framework, and focused on the service functions of the equipment O&M
             layers. In the main, it provides management functions in five areas as defined by ITU:
                 Performance Management
                 Fault Management
                 Configuration Management
                 Accounting Management
                 Security Management
             As a network management product, it must provide centralized operation and
             maintenance based on the network-wide equipment, so the NMS generally needs to
             provide such functions as centralized topology management and centralized operation
             & maintenance. These are the basic functions of the OMS of the 2G NMS.

             According to the management objectives of the 3G NMS above, there is no substantial
             difference between the 3G NMS and the 2G NMS. In terms of architecture and service
             functions, the 3G NMS adheres to the characteristics of the 2G NMS. However, the
             WCDMA network is more complex than the 2G network. Below are some differences
             between the 2G NMS and the 3G NMS.
             1)   The architecture of the 3G NMS is more reasonable than that of the 2G NMS
             The 2G NMS is designed based on the idea of TMN network management, so the
             operation and maintenance layer (O&M layer) is fairly perfect. However, it is deficient in
             the entire operation layer (OSS layer), where services are not well integrated.

             The 3G NMS is intended to deliver an integrated operation network based on
             numerous management theories such as TMN and TOM, combining the features such
             as network maintenance, management, service deployment and operation, to develop
             an integrated support system solution.
             2)   More openness between networks
             In the 2G NMS, the standards of the interfaces between the NE and the EMS, between
             the EMS and the NMS, and among different networks vary largely, making it difficult to
             develop an integrated O&M network system. As a result, it is difficult for operators to
             keep fully informed about the NMS operation status and deploy services quickly by
             establishing an unified O&M network system given multiple equipment vendors,
             different standards and complex structures.

             The 3G NMS pays more attention to interface standardization and normalization,
             guiding the standardization of the interfaces between the NE and the EMS, or between
             the EMS and the NMS, and between the O&M layer and the OSS layer, to develop an
             integrated O&M solution.
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             In addition, the sharing of information among UMTS networks, or between a UMTS
             network and a non-UMTS network is also addressed in the 3G NMS. All this relies on
             interface standardization.
             3)   Wide application and recommendation of the CORBA technology
             In the 3G NMS construction, it is strongly recommended to adopt a CORBA
             technology-based architecture with an object-based description of the network
             structure, to shape a unified O&M idea. It is also recommended to take the CORBA
             interface standard as the standard for NMS interface on the layers of the O&M network
             system for the normalization of the interfaces.

             In addition, the CORBA technology brings a distributed network structure in real sense,
             making it easier for future network expansion and service development.
             4)   More perfect service features
             In addition to the 2G NMS feature, the 3G NMS provides more service features such as
             network-wide software management, OoS management and location management.
             The details will be described in the introduction below.

             4. The 3G NMS serves to manage a diversity of service areas through different layers

             Overall management over the operation of 3G services calls for a large amount of
             complicated systems engineering. Its features include:
                 Multiple managed network layers, each of which has a variety of devices, and
                  these devices may be provided by different vendors;
                 The business mode of the 3G service is much more complicated than that of the
                  traditional voice service, involving varied services and service providers and
                  multi-vendors;
                 The network structure and the equipment type varies with the network system, and
                  even the same kind equipment in different systems calls for different services;
                 Different vendors use different technologies on their equipment, for example,
                  some vendors adopt the ATM technology, while some adopt the IP technology;
                 The wireless service itself has some complex features, such as cell management,
                  roaming management and mobility management. All these features make the 3G
                  service management intricate;
                 Each network equipment layer of the 3G service environment comprises five parts:
                  access equipment (i.e. mobile phone/terminal), wireless access network, core
                  network, service release network and content & service. To fully support the 3G
                  service operation, we need to manage these devices;
             Thus, the 3G NMS manages various service areas through different layers as shown in
             the figure below:


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                                    Figure 8-4 Structure of NMS layers


             In addition, mobile network management must attain the objectives of greater customer
             satisfaction but lower cost:
                 - Providing highly-personalized communication service
                 - The growth of individual subscribers exceeding that of enterprise subscribers
                 - Segregating the roles of service provider and network operators between the
                  home environment and the service network entity.
                 - One-stop charging for all services


8.3 Introduction to the Service Features of the 3G NMS

             The service features of the 3G NMS include:
                 Performance management
                 Roaming management
                 Fraud management
                 Position management
                 Fault management
                 Security management
                 Software management
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                 Configuration management
                 Accounting management
                 Order management
                 Quality of Service (QoS) management
                 User equipment management

8.3.1 Performance Management

             Throughout the life cycle of the 3G network, both the logic and the physical
             configurations must be more or less modified to optimize network resources. All these
             modifications are made through network configuration and network engineering.

             Many routine maintenance activities and future network planning of the 3G network
             require basic decision data, that is, network load and qualify of service. To generate
             such data, it is required to measure the performance of the NEs that make up the
             network, and then transfer these data to the external operation support system for
             further analysis.

             3GPP’s performance management function area is intended to measure the cross-3G
             network performance (i.e. ranging from the access layer to the service provisioning
             layer) and collect the performance measurement data. It defines the management of
             the measurement plan for the element manager system, the generation of the NE
             measurement results and the transfer of results to one or more operation support
             systems. Below are the objectives:
                 To define a standard measurement set
                 To define universal management technologies for measurement maintenance &
                  management and result accumulation;
                 To define the method of batch transfer of the measurement results on the
                  management interfaces;
             For details, please refer to 3GPP TS32.104.


8.3.2 Roaming Agreement Management

             In order for subscribers to use the services provided by a non-home service provider, a
             roaming agreement/contract should be reached between the home service provider
             and the non-home service provider. The roaming agreement can either be an
             agreement between two operators (known as “bilateral agreement”), or a “clearing
             house” (known as “multilateral agreement”). Under the roaming agreement, the home
             service provider is the customer, while the non-home service provider acts as the
             supplier.



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             Regardless of whether a bilateral or multilateral roaming agreement, it must at least set
             out the following terms:
                 Tariff/price
                 Interconnection between signaling and service
                 Bill interchange format and plan
                 Troubleshooting
             The roaming agreement will affect many aspects of the network and the operation
             management infrastructure, like the follows such as service implementation, service
             assurance and service charging in the operation system.


8.3.3 Fraud Management

             Frauds as well as measures to detect and guard against these frauds are not unusual
             for any network. However, mobile and roaming services together make the fraud
             detection and prevention even more complex and urgent. Things would become even
             worse when the mobile service provider does not know how to locate the fraudulent
             customer during roaming. The roamer is not a customer of the service provider, so the
             service provider has no information enough to check whether a fraud exists.

             On the other hand, the service provider could hardly control the roamer’s activities,
             such as credit card overdraft and service suspension. In such a situation, the customer
             can commit a fraud on the network of another service provider, that is, the home service
             provider has to count on the fraud detection level of the roaming service provider. This
             means, to a great extent, neither the home service provider nor the roaming service
             provider can control the subscriber properly.

             Typical fraud management over the mobile network provides at least the following
             functions:
                 To classify the subscribers according to the level of fraud risk, which is based on
                  demographic statistics and credit information;
                 To revise the risk level according to the utilization and the payment (in real time or
                  near real time);
                 To detect and sample the frauds in real time or near real time;
                 To take measures to suspend the service, even when the customer is roaming on
                  a network other than the home network;
                 For visiting customers (the roamer), the roaming service provider may consult the
                  home network provider or the international knowledge base to assess the potential
                  fraud, so as to decide whether to allow the roamer to access the network.
             The fraud management service addresses the following three areas: fraud detection,
             fraud termination and fraud prevention.


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8.3.4 Configuration Management

             A real 3G network consists of various devices of different suppliers, and the operator
             should manage these network devices properly to guarantee QoS (quality of service)
             the customers has expected. The most important thing is the standardization of 3G
             system configuration management, so that the networks of multiple providers can more
             or less operate properly and effectively.

             1. Requirements of the 3G network configuration management:

                  To enable operators to make configurations as fast and accurately as they could,
                   so as to avoid long-time wait and complex configuration;
                  To ensure the configurations will not cause any adverse impact on the NEs that
                   need no configuration.
                  To provide a mechanism to prevent the configurations from affecting the
                   communication-related services.
                  To provide a mechanism to avoid data inconsistency, e.g. record the revision
                   reason or restore the updated data.
             In brief, these principles involve security, data validity and consistency as well as
             resource maintenance.

             2. For configuration management, the system is expected to provide the following
                 capabilities for the operator:

             The management system provides the following capabilities through its service
             components:

             -Modify system , change the network to meet the operator’s requirements
                  Create NE/network resource;
                  Delete NE/network resource;
                  Modify NE or network resource;
             - Monitor the system, obtain an overview of current software, equipment and data;
                  Information inquiry;
                  Information reporting;
                  Control over the response/reporting;

8.3.5 Fault Management

             The fault management comprises a series of (sub-) processes such as fault detection,
             fault location, fault reporting, fault correction and fixing. These (sub-) processes are
             distributed on different management layers, but most procedures (like fault detection,

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             fault location, fault correct and fault fixing) are mainly located on the NE and the NE
             management layer so that the network equipment is capable of “self-healing”.

             Logically, the network data management function is about how to collect and use the
             performance and service data. When the NE gets faulty, the fault management feature
             of the NE management layer is the leading responder, while the network and the
             system management layer makes a preventive response.


8.3.6 Accounting Management

             The 3GPP billing data mainly describes the following:
                Planning and formatting bills of the 3G core network (circuit packet switching and
                 IP multimedia) node and the service node (multimedia short message service).
                 Please refer to [14].
                For call state data generation, billing event and other service requirements, please
                 refer to 3GPP TS 22.115.
                CDR format and file transfer mechanism formally described in ASN.1 language.
             For the specific billing requirements of each 3G area, please refer to 3GPP TS 22.115
             and TS 32.105.For the specific billing data of each area, please refer to 3GPP TS
             32.205, TS 32.215, TS 32.225 and TS 32.235.


8.3.7 Software Management

             In the 3G network, the software management covers host software management
             processes and software fault management. The host software management processes
             consist of software request, receiving, installation, monitoring, documentation,
             database update and feedback to the supplier. The sub-process is also applicable to
             the whole software release and the installation of patches for defective software of the
             NE/element manager system. The software fault management focuses on the
             monitoring and troubleshooting of network faults resulting from software failure.

             1. Host software management process

             It refers to the management of new software and patch release. It is very important to
             ensure high QoS of the network without interrupting existing services during new
             software integration on the network. The main steps of this process are:
                Delivery of the software by the supplier
                To deliver the software to the NE/element manager system for local storage
                To verify the validity of the software to ensure the software is not misused
                To activate the software
                To verify the validity of the software to ensure the software can run properly
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                 To accept or reject (in the case of changes to software of previous versions) the
                  software according to the verification result

             2. Software fault management

             The software fault management involves the following steps:

             - To check software fault/failure on the network

             - To analyze the problems, to determine the root cause of software failure and the
             necessary corrective measures. The measures that may be taken include:
                 To roll back to previous version through loading or activation
                 To load and activate correct software
                 To restart current software

8.3.8 Security Management

             Similar to the 2G network, the security management feature of the 3G network is also to
             guard the system against malicious attacks, in order to ensure stable network operation.
             Generally, the network security is ensured by an ideal authentication mechanism. This
             function is in fact the application of the service layer or the application layer.

             It should be noted that the 3G network trends towards full-IP network, so the IP security
             assurance mechanism is even more important for the security of 3G network. Generally,
             the O&M IP network is considered unsafe due to its scale, complexity, limited physical
             security and the possibility of remote access through dialup or Internet. Thus, the only
             way out for security is to logically isolate the O&M IP network from the Internet. Largely,
             the IP infrastructure is secured with basic IP features, such as the address mechanism,
             DNS, DHCP, BOOTP and the firewall. These features mainly serve to protect the
             network layer.


8.3.9 QoS Management

             In the 2.5G/3G network, the QoS management mainly provides two functions: QoS
             policy provisioning and QoS policy monitoring. The QoS policy provisioning refers to
             the process of configuring and maintaining the selected NE according to the QoS policy
             generated on the basis of the SLAs and the observed network performance. The QoS
             policy monitoring is the process of collecting the QoS performance statistics and the
             alarm data. The collected performance data is used to generate the analysis report,
             based on which the network will be changed or upgraded.

             In the 2.5G/3G network, the network domains must interact to achieve end-to-end
             service quality for end user applications. To achieve the QoS required by a network

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             operator, all the NEs from various network infrastructure suppliers should be configured
             in the same way, adding to the complexity of interaction. NEs must be configured with
             many QoS functions, such as admission controller, policy manager, shaper, queue
             manager and scheduler. To configure these heterogeneous networks to provide
             expected QoS, the operator needs a management solution satisfying the following
             high-level requirements:
                 Automation of management tasks
                 Centralized management to reduce the types of management interfaces
                 Abstracting and simplifying the management data
                 End-to-end network provisioning
                 Consistent and unified provisioning over all NEs
                 To allow interoperation between the NE and the OSS, a standard-based solution
                  is needed
                 Scalability of the solution for large networks




                               Figure 8-5 Structure of the Qos Management


             1. QoS policy provisioning on the NML layer

             The QoS policy provisioning on the NML layer serves to provide network-level
             operation support for network-wide policy management points. It includes the following
             functions:
                 To be the user interface for the network policy maintenance


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                 To be the master network policy base to store all the network policies of all
                  domains
                 Capability to assign policy data to the EML policy server
                 To detect global policy conflicts
             The policy base adopts the LDAP-based directory to store the policy information.

             2. QoS policy provisioning on the EML layer

             The QoS policy provisioning on the EML layer provides NE management function for
             the policy management point of the network domain. A domain refers to a network
             section that contains devices used to implement logic-related functions. Among
             network domains are the access network, the core network and the transmission
             network.

             QoS policy provisioning on the EML layer provides the following functions:
                 To be the optional user interface for the policy maintenance of the EML layer
                 To be the particular policy base of the EML layer
                 To assign the policy data to the policy decision point
                 To detect local policy conflicts
             It is clear that the optional EML-level user interface for policy maintenance is necessary
             on the small networks without network-level policy provisioning support system.

             It should be noted that the EML-level policy base includes the policy used in this
             domain, as well as the general network policy across domains.

             3. Policy Decision Point (PDP) and Policy Enforcement Point (PEP)

             The Policy Decision Point (PDP) is the point to determine the policy of the policy
             enforcement point under the network’s control. So, the PEP is a function in the network
             node, while the PDP may be an independent functional entity that resides in a
             standalone policy server (like the application server). The PDP will make decisions
             according to the policy information in the policy base.

             The Policy Enforcement Point (PEP) is the functional part of the network element that
             implements the policies defined in the policy management system. It includes the
             following functions:
                 To store the data related to the local policy
                 To enforce the policy according to the network conditional command
                 To support the policy mechanism of differential services
             At the beginning, the PED will request the PED of its parent node to download all the
             policy data necessary for the operation.


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             4. QoS monitoring

             In the 2.5G/3G network, the QoS monitoring functionality is intended to collect/process
             such data as performance statistics, utilization data and QoS-related faults. For
             end-to-end QoS monitoring, the QoS monitoring process should be included in the NE,
             the network element management layer and the network management layer. Alarms
             and performance data are collected at the NE layer, while the convergence, reporting
             and analysis of alarm data and performance data are performed at the network element
             management layer and the network management layer.

             The process of QoS monitoring provides the following functions:
                 To manage QoS fault information from NEs
                 To query QoS performance data from NEs
                 To collect and process utilization data
                 To analyze the key QoS parameters to generate a QoS report
                 To audit/analyze the collected QoS parameters by comparing them with the
                  expected values.
             In fact, the above service features required in the 3G NMS may not be provided at a
             specific service layer. To deliver a specific service feature, several layers or even
             various networks must work together, share information and invoke services among
             one another, to develop an integrated solution. The principle of 3G network
             construction is to build an open, multi-layer and highly scalable network with an
             integrated architecture.


8.4 Introduction to Common NMS Interfaces

8.4.1 Reference Models for Common NMS interfaces

             Generally, the interfaces between the NE and the OS within a UMTS network include:
                 The interface between the NE and the NE management layer;
                 The interface between the NE management layer and the network management
                  layer;
                 The Interface between different NMSs;
             A reference model for common 3G NMS interfaces is shown as the figure below:

             The NMS interface Itf-N may be the interface between NM and EM or between the NM
             and the NE.




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                                    NM                   EM                       NE




                                              Itf-N
                                                         Notification IRP
                                                         Basic CM IRP
                                                         Alarm IRP
                                                         Performance IRP


                       Figure 8-6 Network Managing NEs through the Equipment Management Layer




                                         NM                              NE




                                                       Itf-N
                                                                   Notification IRP
                                                                   Basic CM IRP
                                                                   Alarm IRP
                                                                   Performance IRP


                                       Figure 8-7 Network Directly Managing NEs


             As NM equipment of EML layer, iManager M2000 provides interfaces with the NE and
             the upper NMS. The interface with the NE may be called southern interface, which is
             usually an internal MML interface. The interface with the upper NMS may be called
             northern interface, which is usually a standard interface or an interface negotiated with
             the upper NMS (the third-party NMS). Among the common NMS interfaces are the
             CORBA interface and the core database interface.


8.4.2 Common NMS Interfaces

             1. CORBA interface

             1)   Introduction to the CORBA
             The Common Object Request Broker Architecture (CORBA) is a solution proposed by
             the Object Management Group to meet the ever increasing demands for the
             collaboration capability of software and hardware. With ORB, the customer may easily

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             use the server object methodology, no matter whether the servers are located on the
             same computer or accessed via a network. ORB captures and invokes, and then finds
             out an object to deliver the request. Then, it transfers parameters and methods and
             finally returns the result. When ORB is used, a protocol is defined using the application
             interface, which is implemented by the Interface Definition Language (IDL).Customers
             neither know where the object is nor what language is used for its implementation, nor
             the OS and anything else irrelevant to the object interface.
             2)   Importance of the CORBA interface
             At present, the telecom NMS tends to embrace integrated technologies. As one of the
             leading NMS technologies, TMN gives a good idea for the construction of integrated
             NMS. However, TMN does not go into detail when it comes to how to construct a
             management system and how to provide interoperability among the management
             systems. Luckily, CORBA has now become a mature distributed object-oriented
             technology. Given the open telecom market environment, CORBA is tailor-made for
             fast service construction and the effective management of resources and services. In
             the field of NMS, to integrate the TMN with the CORBA technology is the most ideal
             solution up to date to building a comprehensive NMS.

             Now, both the International Standardization Organization (ISO) and the International
             and Regional standardization Organization have treated the CORBA interface as an
             important interface in the filed of telecom NMS.ITU-T takes the CORBA interface as a
             way to provide general Q interfaces. The interfaces defined by TMF are basically
             CORBA interfaces. The 3G interfaces defined by 3GPP are mostly CORBA interfaces
             together with CMIP interfaces. Thus, the CORBA interface may be considered a leader
             in the field of telecom NMS.

             2. Core Database Interface (Core DB)

             The Core Database Interface means that the visited party (like M2000 system) makes
             known the structure and fields of related database in the system, allowing a third-party
             vendor to visit and access the database directly.

             Such interface mode is widely applied to interconnection with the upper NMS.
             Third-party vendors usually develop application programs for access according to the
             open database. Generally, write operation is not allowed to. The method features fast
             interconnection and easy interface negotiation. Its disadvantage is the security problem
             with the released undertaking high risks.

             Before the CORBA interface standard is fully operational, open core database is also
             common for interconnection with the upper NMS.




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