Starter activity what are your wider reading preferences

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					            VIDEOCONFERENCING AND WIDE READING PACK

    Using videoconferencing to promote to create a community of
                readers through book conversations

          PROGRESSION                           STAGES IN THE PROCESS              SUGGESTED APPROACHES


Year 7 is characterised by:                                                      interviews to establish attitudes to
• revising and securing Key Stage                 1.What kind of reader am         reading
   2 learning
                                                   I? Choosing the books         self reflection – picturing the reader
• developing an understanding of                                                   idea; what kind of reader am I?
   the features of particular types of                                           what good readers do: which reader
   texts                                                                           strategies do you use
                                                                                 teacher / pupils introduce a range of
                                                                                   books; pupils make choices
17. read a range of recent fiction texts
                                                                                 students talk about previous books
independently as the basis for
developing critical reflection and
                                                                                   they‟ve enjoyed
personal response, e. g. sharing views,
keeping a reading journal ;
                                                                                 initial video conference: what kinds
                                                                                   of readers are we?
                                                                                 email contact to discuss reading
Year 8 is characterised by:                                                        preferences
• investigating, exploring and
   experimenting, combining and
   integrating in order to develop
   new understanding
• applying the skills they have                                                  likes, dislikes, puzzles and patterns
   learned in new contexts and                                                   developing ways of summarising
   forms                                                                           aspects of the book
• reflecting on their own learning                                               introducing the narrative pleasure
                                                       2. First responses          chart

12. record and review the development of
their independent reading, and identify
ways of increasing its scope and                                                 video conference based on likes,
challenge;                                                                         dislikes, puzzles and patterns
                                                                                   agenda (short story)


Year 9 is characterised by:
• developing a critical stance to
   their own use of language and
   that of others                                                                developing questioning skills: open
• being able to identify, analyse,                                                 and closed questions
   explain and comment on writers‟                                               speaking frames
   choices                                        3. Book conversations –        using the narrative pleasure chart as
• being able to compare effects in               questioning & responding          the agenda for a book conversation
   similar and dissimilar texts                                                  hot seating (authors, characters,
• building towards the skills                                                      publishers, readers)
   required for Key Stage 4                                                      drama approaches
                                                                                 simulation activities: book
                                                                                   promotion; marketing; judging
13. review and develop their own reading
                                                                                   awards
skills, experiences and preferences,
noting strengths and areas for
development;



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                                                                       series of video conferences

Stage 1: Getting to know the readers




                                  Reading questionnaire

 Do you enjoy reading and what type of books do you read most often at home?
 How much reading do you do outside school? Do your parents help with reading
  at home and do they talk about books with you?
 Do you talk about your reading outside school?
 Who recommends books for you to read and have you enjoyed those books?
 Do friends contribute in any way to your choice of reading?
 What other influences affect your choice of reading e.g. television or film links?
 Do you think that you‟ll continue to read as much as you do now when you get
  older?
 Why do you think it‟s important to read widely and outside school as well as
  inside?
 Is it helpful to write about the books you read e.g. through book reviews?
 What is your favourite book?




Adapted from a series of questions used by HMI (2004) during an enquiry into wider
reading.




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                                                                          Stage 1: what kind of reading am I?

                                       Picturing the reader
This needs a sheet of paper and a set of statements about the characteristics of readers (e.g. I
often read in bed, I can often predict what will happen in a story, I prefer stories to information
books). Pupils put their names in the middle of the sheet, cut out the statements that describe
them as readers and stick them on the sheet. The closer to the centre of the sheet, the more
important the more they apply to the reader concerned.



  I read quickly.                                             I talk about books with other people.


  I read slowly.                                              I sometimes feel happy or sad when I
                                                              read.


  I skip boring parts.                                        I picture the places, the people and
                                                              events in the books I read.


  I read aloud.                                               I read in bed.


  I read silently.                                            I prefer silence when I read.


  I read alone.                                               I can often predict what will happen in
                                                              a story.


  I prefer reading while listening to                         I prefer stories to information books.
  music.


  I read with other people.                                   I prefer information books to stories.


  I get easily distracted when I read.                        I stop reading if I don‟t like a book.


  I often get "lost" in a book.                               I always finish a book whether I like it
                                                              or not.


  I could never read a book more than                         I often look at the ending when I am
  once.                                                       in the middle of reading a book


  I think about books after I've finished                     I often re-read my favourite books.
  reading them.


  I never look at the end of the book
  when I am in the middle of reading it.

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                                                                             Stage 1: what kind of reader am I?
Reading strategies – things we do in our heads as we read fiction
 adapted from NATE group reading
Using prior knowledge
Making links with other books I‟ve read; drawing on what I already know about this
topic, theme

Seeing images
Can you picture what is happening? Can you describe these images to the other
people?

Hearing a voice through the text
Whose voice do you hear? How does it alter as the story moves on? How do the
central characters sound? Do you hear the noises of the action? 

Predicting what will happen
Can you work out where the plot is heading?

Asking questions
Why is she doing that? What does this mean? What is the author doing here?

Summarising
What‟s happened so far? What would I tell someone else about what I‟ve read so far?

Empathising
Putting yourself in someone else‟s shoes e.g. I know just how they feel

Making inferences - reading between the lines & filling gaps
Can I work out what this character is like from what they say and do?

Re-reading
Go back over the best bits, check your suspicions, enjoy it again. Sometimes you need
to re-read when you don‟t fully understand what‟s happening.

Interpreting patterns
Readers who can infer and deduce, see the patterns; they make links between different parts
of the text; they strive to make sense out of the seemingly random nature of events.

Making judgements
Evaluating what you‟re reading e.g. This is a most confusing plot. This character is
unbelievable because….. I can‟t put this book down because…..

Re-interpreting
Keep checking and evaluating your ideas. Rework them.

Relating to your own experience
This reminds me of when….

Relating to previous reading/viewing experiences
This novel is very different from other books I‟ve read by this author; this book represents
war very differently from films I have seen.

Relating to the social, historical and cultural background
How were things different 20, 50, 100 years ago? How are things done differently in
different countries, by different classes of people?

Skimming: to get a general impression of what the text is about before you read it
closely.
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                                                                       Stage 1: what kind of reader am I?




                                           Good Readers

 What do you do if you get stuck and come across
  something you don't understand?

 What makes a good reader? Think about good readers
  you know and list what you think good readers are able
  to do.

 What do good readers do when they find something
  hard to understand?

 What advantages do good readers have?

 How do people become better readers?




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                                                                        Stage 2: first responses

Likes, Dislikes, Puzzles &
Patterns
Recording your ideas
Divide a double page into four columns:

Likes                        Dislikes                     Puzzles      Patterns




As you read, make lists under each of the headings. Do this very briefly in
short headlines to remind you of particular things about the book.


Likes
                    List anything you like about the book: things which
                    particularly catch your attention, impress you, make you
                    laugh, make you want to go on reading.


Dislikes
                    List anything you dislike: things which annoy you, make you
                    cross, put you off, make you skip parts.


Puzzles
                    List anything which puzzles you: things you find strange or
                    difficult to understand; things which you've never found in a
                    book before; things you're not sure about; things which might
                    have more than one meaning.


Patterns
                    List any patterns or connections you find: words or phrases
                    which are repeated; kinds of events which keep happening,
                    for instance, someone getting into trouble all the time; kinds of
                    characters; kinds of settings; any connections between
                    different parts of the story (e.g. links between the beginning
                    and the middle, the middle and the end).


Evaluation

                    When you have finished the book and your lists, see if you
                    can make any links between the columns. Draw lines between
                    things which are connected or where you have listed the same
                    things in different columns.

                    Use your lists to talk to somebody else about your book.
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Stage 2 – first responses                                                         Puzzles and patterns
                        Likes                                          Dislikes                     Puzzles   Patterns




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Stage 2 – first responses

         Likes                       Dislikes                      Puzzles     Patterns
                                                                                                         Opening                     PLOT                  Ending
                                                                                                                                series of events




                                                                                                                                CHARACTER


                                                                                                                                   SETTING
                                                                                                                                  time & place




                                                                                                                                     MOOD




                                                                                                                                     STYLE



                                                                                                                                    THEMES
                                                                                                                                 ideas & issues




                                                                                                                                  VIEWPOINT



Use different colours to draw lines from each idea in your list to match the different elements in fiction on the right. Some ideas may be linked with two or more
elements.



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Stage 2 – first responses

                                            Book Gossip
(Based on Aidan Chambers’ approach outlined in You Tell Me. Here he outlines 3 phases of sharing opinions on
books and reading: Sharing enthusiasms – Sharing puzzles – Sharing connections)



                                      Sharing enthusiasms

When friends start talking about books, it‟s usually because one of them
wants to share their enthusiasm. The enthusiasm usually focuses on:
 likes - enthusiasms about elements of the story that have pleased and
  attracted, surprised and impressed them and made them want to go on
  reading
 dislikes – aversions to elements of the story that have displeased them,
  elements of the story that put them off reading for one reason or another

Try using the following phrases to start you off:
Have you read…
       It’s about...
Did you like the part where…
       Did you think it was funny/sad when…
What especially caught your attention?




                                           Sharing puzzles

Readers will often express dislike for elements of the story that have puzzled
them; things they have found difficult to understand. This is how meaning is
made – as friends talk about the puzzle, an agreement will be reached about
what that book or text might mean.

Try using the following phrases to start you off:
What did it mean when…
       Did you understand that bit when…
What did you think of…
       Did you find… convincing…
Did you think… was realistic…
       Was there anything you thought strange?
Did the writer want us to like…?
      I didn’t understand why….




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                                       Sharing connections
Readers solve puzzles and difficulties by finding connections between
elements in a book or a text e.g. elements of language, events, characters,
symbols. Readers learn to look for details that tell them what kind of story or
text they have in front of them.

Try using the following phrases to start you off:
… that reminded me of…
       When … happened, it make me think of…
It was very different to…
       Did you notice the link between ……. and …….?
The writer kept repeating …... and this ….




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Stage 2: first responses


Summarising

1. Capturing characters
Being able to summarise is a key skill in developing understanding of text: grasping
ideas, deciding what is most significant in a passage.

An effective approach to summary also involves vocabulary development.

Show pupils how they can capture a character in labels, short and long (noun
phrases and extended noun phrase). These labels can give a variety of information.
Demonstrate how this works by using yourself as an example and/or a character
from a well-known text:

 Name the character: The wolf (from Little Red Riding Hood)
 Add an adjective about appearance: The grey wolf
 Add another adjective about appearance: The slim, grey wolf. Offer an
  alternative to slim e.g. scrawny. Discuss overtones, author‟s viewpoint.
 Add a phrase after the noun - appearance: The scrawny, grey wolf with fearsome
  teeth
 Change the information you‟ve given about the wolf to focus on character (e.g.
  how the writer wants us to see the character) rather than appearance: The
  malicious wolf with evil intentions.

Pupils can try this about themselves before having a go at „capturing a character‟.
The character word hoard may be a useful prompt.


2. Capturing key events
Talk through the process and show how to build up a „label‟ which summarises
important events in the narrative:

          her journey through the woods (when she was waylaid by the wolf)
          stalking by the wolf
          the wolf‟s elaborate disguise as her grandmother
          the deliberate tricking of Red Riding Hood
          the dramatic rescue by the woodman




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Stage 2: first responses      Questions to think about as you read – Bookmark



                                               Things to think
                                               about as I read
                                                   today


                                       What has caught my
                                        attention as I have been
                                        reading today?

                                    Is there anything that has
                                     puzzled me?

                                    What patterns or
                                     connections have I
                                     noticed ?

                                    Have there been any
                                     words or phrases that I’ve
                                     liked?

                                    Has anything happened
                                     in the book during
                                     today’s reading that has
                                     happened to me or
                                     reminded me of
                                     something?

                                    Which details have
                                     stayed in my mind most
                                     vividly today?

                                    What will my friends
                                     like/dislike about the
                                     section I’ve read today?




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      Stage 2: first responses


   PLOT: how and why does it hold
                                                   NARRATIVE                                  CHARACTERS: which characters
                                                                                              interest you most? Which do you
   your attention?
                                                   PLEASURE                                   identify with and why? Which do you
                                                                                              dislike and why?

                                                    CHART
                                                             TITLE



                                                           AUTHOR


                                                            GENRE
   simple            complicated                                                              goodies                  baddies
   slow moving        fast moving                                                             likeable                unlikeable
   gripping           tedious                                                                 winners                  losers
   true-to-life      far-fetched


                                                                                                   SETTING: What atmosphere is
ENDING: what makes the ending                                                                      created by the settings? How do
satisfying or unsatisfying?                                                                        they engage your attention, help
                                                                                                   you understand the characters?




happy                unhappy                                                                       physical setting (e.g. landscape,
predictable                                                                                        cityscape); historical period;
          surprising                                                                               season/weather; community setting;
disappointing        satisfying                                                                    cultural setting
                                            + associations, reminders, feelings, opinions



     IDEAS/THEMES: what are the main                                                 VIEWPOINT: who tells the story? Is it told
     themes/ideas in the text? What interests                                        through different people‟s eyes? Does
     you about the ideas/themes?                                                     the narrator have opinions about the
                                                                                     characters?




                                                                                     third person narrator; first person
                                                                                     narrator; all-seeing narrator; different
               (see theme checklist)                                                 narrators
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Stage 3: book conversations


Exploring the nature of questioning
           closed questions:
                 o    how many chapters does it have?
                 o    isn‟t the book very boring (+negative slant)
           open questions
                 o    could you explain why the book ends as it does?
                 o    how does the character change throughout the book?
           pupils formulate possible questions in pairs drawing on the Developing
            questioning ideas (below)
           whole class feed-back and comment.




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        Stage 2/3: book conversation

                         Developing Questioning Skills for Book Talk


                 Literal questions                                                Literal questions
 Recall questions                                                Comprehension questions
 These questions are used to help us remember or                 These questions enable us to show an
 check factual details.                                          understanding of the main points of a text. We can
                                                                 summarise, give examples or outline key points.
 Examples:
  What is the setting?                                          Examples:
  When did the events happen?                                    What do you think is happening here?
  Who are the main characters?                                   What might this mean?
  What are they like?                                            Which part of this chapter/ novel best shows
  Where did they live?                                              the character‟s feelings?
  Where in book would you find …?                                What is the message of this text?
                                                                  Which part of the book do you think is most
                                                                     effective?


              Higher-order questions                                            Higher-order questions
 Application questions                                           Analysis questions
 These questions are used to help us apply what                  These questions are used to identify implicit
 we have learned to a new situation. We can                      meanings; to analyse mood, setting, characters,
 transfer knowledge and make links between texts                 style, structure and other key aspects of texts; to
 and stories we have read.                                       provide evidence for comments/opinions.

 Examples:                                                       Examples:
  Can you think of another story or drama                        Does the writer approve of the actions of X?
     which has a similar theme? How do the                           How do you know?
     writes deal with the themes?                                 How do you know that X is a good/evil
  Do you know another story or drama which                          character?
     deals with the same issues?                                  How does the writer shape your response to
  What kind of stories usually have openings                        [aspect] in this text?
     like this one?                                               Can you explain why….?
  How do dramas like this one usually end?

               Higher-order questions                                          Higher-order questions
 Synthesis questions                                             Evaluation questions
 These questions ask us to take an idea from                     These questions ask us to make judgements
 one situation and use it somewhere new. We                      about what we have analysed and explain our
 have to retrieve and collate information from                   reasons. We can compare and contrast, we can
 different sources. This can lead us to construct                evaluate a text, but we must use reasoning and
 arguments or opinions or make predictions.                      evidence.

 Examples:                                                       Examples:
  Given what you know about … what do you                        What makes this a successful novel?
     think …?                                                     Does the ending work?
  Where else in this text or in other texts have                 Could any part of it be more effective?
     you come across this idea?                                   How might readers respond to …?
  What would this character think about …?                       What is the writer‟s purpose here?
  How would you expect X to behave here?


drawing on Bloom’s taxonomy and the materials in Questioning, in Pedagogy and Practice, DfES
2004




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                                   Hot seating the author
Hot –seating is an activity where one member of the group takes on the role of
a character and the other members of the group plan and ask questions while
the pupil answers in role.

Language prompts for questions to the author:
      Try using speculative language in your questions:
              Do you think that…?
                    Could it have been the case that…?
                    Could it possibly be that…?
      Don‟t ask questions which can be answered with just „yes‟ or „no‟. Try
          using words such as “why” or “how” to open up your questions
      If you don‟t understand an answer, ask the author to say more about
          this element; to develop it or to clarify their answer




Language prompts for the author:

      Try using speculative language in your answers
                    Perhaps…
                    It‟s possible that…
                    I might have…
                    Maybe…
      Don‟t answer questions with just „yes‟ or „no‟, develop your answer by
          explaining why you wrote in that way
         If you don‟t know an answer – try to explain why this might be the case
          – maybe you wanted to keep your reader guessing, for example.




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Stage 3 – book conversations

Exploring story through drama techniques

Paired improvisation:
    Explore character motivation/thoughts at key moments within the narrative

Freeze frame and thought tracking:
    Begin with a group improvisation of an incident at the start of the story.
     Freeze frame the action and thought track what they can see, hear, smell
     and think .
    Set up a group improvisation at the end of the story. Freeze frame the
     action. Thought track what they can see and how they feel at this point.

Flash back/flash forward:
 Why did incidents/pivotal moments in the narrative occur?
 What would have happened if … Speculate on choices made in the
  narrative
 What will happen in the future as a result of the incidents in the narrative?
  How might the characters talk about the incidents in later years?

Hot seating:
    Questions for the author
    Questions for the characters




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Stage 3 – book conversations

From Tell Me, Aidan Chambers, (Chapter 14, page 85)

          Every book possesses its own peculiarities: of language, of form, of content, and the
          mix of these that gives it its particular identity. In a human being we‟d call this
          personality.

          What we hope is that readers will discover these particularities for themselves as they
          discuss a text.


How long do you think it took the story to                  Whose story is this?
happen?



Are there parts of the story that took a
long time to happen but were told about                     Where did the story happen?
quickly or in a few words? And are there
parts that happened very quickly but took
a lot of space to tell about?


Who was telling – narrating – the story?                    Was there anyone not mentioned in the
Do we know? And how do we know?                             story but without whom it couldn‟t have
                                                            happened?



Think of yourself as a spectator. With
whose eyes did you see the story? Did                       Which characters interested you most?
you only see what one character in the
story saw, or did you see things
sometimes as one character saw them,
and sometimes as another, and so on?


Did we ever get to know what the
characters were thinking about? Were
we ever told what they were feeling? Or
was the story told all the time from
outside the characters, watching what
they did and hearing what they said, but
never know what they were thinking or
feeling.




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Have you read any other texts like this?                    When you first saw the book, even before
                                                            you read it, what kind of book did you
                                                            think it was going to be? Now you‟ve
                                                            read it, is it what you expected?


What will you tell your friends about this                  How many different stories/kinds of story
book?                                                       can you find in this story?



Have you read this book before? If so,                      While you were reading, or now when
was it different this time?                                 you think about it, were there words or
                                                            phrases or other things to do with the
                                                            language that you liked? Or didn‟t like?



If the writer asked you, what could be                      Has anything happened happens in this
improved in the book, what you say?                         book every happened to you?




When you were reading, did you „see‟ the                    Was this a book you read quickly, or
story happening in your imagination?                        slowly? In one go, or in separate
                                                            sessions? Would you read it again?



Are you surprised by anything someone                       When you think about the book now,
else has said about this book?                              what is the most important thing about it
                                                            for you?



Does anyone know anything about the
writer? Or about how the story came to
be written? Or where? Or when? Would
you like to find out?




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                                                                       Appendix 1
Progression: independent reading from
           Year 6 to Year 9
Year 6
R8. to use a reading journal effectively to raise and refine personal
responses to a text and prepare for discussion

R3. to articulate personal responses to literature, identifying why
and how a text affects the reader

R4. to be familiar with the work of some established authors, to
know what is special about their work, and to explain their
preferences in terms of authors, styles and themes




Year 7
R17. read a range of recent fiction texts independently as the basis
for developing critical reflection and personal response, e.g.
sharing views, keeping a reading journal




Year 8
R12. record and review the development of their independent
reading, and identify ways of increasing its scope and challenge




Year 9
R13. review and develop their own reading skills, experiences and
preferences, noting strengths and areas for development




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                                                                                                      Appendix 2


    DO WE TEACH OUR PUPILS HOW TO?…..




                                         Use libraries and
                                  catalogues
                              Use search engines, key words                   Know about
                                                                              text types and genres
                         indexes, contents and page layout
                                                                             Know how books are organised
                       Make informed reading choices                         Understand the reading process
                       Use a range of reading strategies                     Understand how writers‟ intentions
                       Scan, skim and close read the text                    influence their language choices
                       Predict using a range of clues                        Understand how texts reflect their contexts
                       Decide on the relative usefulness of books,                   Understand the audience and
                       web sites, databases, articles                                 purpose of different texts
                       and visual media                                                   Understand how language and
                         to their reading                                                       style have changed
                                               Transfer and
                          purpose                                           Know                  Differentiate fact
                                         apply reading skills                                         from opinion
  Demonstrate positive                   independently                      what,
                                                                            know about              Monitor their own
   attitudes to reading                                                                             comprehension
                                                                               and
Develop Reading
                                                         Skills &                 understand
stamina and keep trying
 Empathise                     Attitudes                strategies Knowledge &
                                                                     understanding
                                                                              Knowledge &
Articulate values and          and                                           understanding
beliefs in relation to                                                                                 Develop a love of books
                               feelings         Feelings,                   why             - Use
                                                                           Creativity                  Become imaginatively
what has been read             as readers       attitudes                                Imagination
                                                                               &                        engaged as a reader
Recognise that they                             & values                                   -Pursue     Criticise with the confidence
carry with them a                                                          enjoyment      purposes
                               Response                                                                that comes from evidence
cultural background            to the                                                    -Be original Gain satisfaction from the
which affects their            attitudes                                                -Judge value challenge of more complex
response to a text                                        Independence                                texts
                                and values
  To be open minded                                                                                    Display originality in making
                                   of writers
        when reading or                                                                                links and meanings
              researching                                     Develop                                  Carry out original research
      Appreciate that                                     self-awareness                           Defend individual
        reading can                                        self-reliance                           Interpretations of texts
                                                          and motivation                           Evaluate texts and the
        change your
                                                                                                   experience of reading
        attitudes                                                                                  Show intellectual
         See reading as                Draw on prior knowledge and experience
                                                                                                   curiosity and ingenuity
          a life skill                 Know what they want to find out or read
                                                                                                   in investigating new
                                       Explain what they know and like
                                                                                                   reading sources
                                       Deal with set backs and difficulties as readers
                                       Know what has been learnt and what needs to be
                                       learnt next
                                       Extend the range and depth of personal reading
                                       Generate questions as well as answer them
                                       Take responsibility for their own reading
                                       development and be explicit about their progress




  unpublished material from the KS3 National Strategy




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Bibliography

Tell Me             Aidan Chambers                Thimble Press 1993 0 903355 42 6




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