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                                                           Planning and Pacing Guide



Chapter 1: Cosmic Questions
 Date       Activity Name        Time       Materials          What Students Do                    Engage                      Explore                        Explain                        Evaluate               Extend to Astrobiology
                                                           Write a position paper
             Challenge                                     about the legitimacy of
                                  25    none
         Where Do You Stand                                searching for life on other
                                                                                    Play a game to demon-                                                                         Put puzzle in its real-life
                                                                                                                     Solve a puzzle, identifying                                                              Research different ways of
              Activity 1                colored pencils,   Decipher a “mystery mes- strate that images are a                                      Astrobiology requires           context. Contrast different
                                 100                                                                                 patterns in visual and aural                                                             communicating across the
           Mystery Message              graph paper,       sage” puzzle             powerful way to convey                                        creative thinking               ways to contact extrater-
                                                                                                                     clues                                                                                    universe
                                                                                    information                                                                                   restrials
                                                                                                                                                Images convey information Contrast understandings
                                                           Examine several images        Look for life or evidence Identify elements in a large                                                          Put metaphor into the
              Activity 2                                                                                                                        effectively. The amount of based on observation with
                                  50    none               for evidence of life or       of life in desert and forest image by examining only                                                            context of looking for life
            Puzzling Picture                                                                                                                    data affects one’s ability to those based on interpreta-
                                                           habitable conditions          images                       small parts of it                                                                  on other worlds
                                                                                                                                                interpret                     tion
                                                                                                                     Relate features found on                                 Describe the features,
              Activity 3                                                                                                                           Metadata is an important                           Assess the role images,
                                                           Interpret images using        Interpret images of Mars    Earth to features seen                                   processes, and sequence
         Every Picture Tells A    50    none                                                                                                       component in the interpre-                         metadata, and Earth analo-
                                                           metadata                      and Europa                  in the Mars and Europa                                   of events shown in each
                Story                                                                                                                              tation of images                                   gies play in Astrobiology
                                                                                                                     images                                                   image
                                                                                                                                          Currently, there is no evi-
                                                           Examine the difference    Read about the character- Analyze a science and      dence for extraterrestrial Create a tabloid story,     Devise strategies for dis-
               Activity 4
                                 100    none               between science and pseu- istics of science and pseu- pseudoscience article    life. Unlike pseudoscience, pointing out what makes it tinguishing science from
         Extraordinary Claims
                                                           doscience.                doscience                   about the “Face” on Mars scientific explanations      pseudoscience              pseudoscience
                                                                                                                                          adhere to strict criteria
                                                                                                                                                                                                             Consider how the Drake
                                                                                                                                                                                  Estimate values for each
                                                           Estimate the number of      Define extraterrestrials. Identify the factors               Many factors influence the                                 Equation might be used to
              Activity 5                                                                                                                                                          term of the Drake Equation
                                                           worlds in our Milky Way Discuss whether they exist involved in estimating the           potential for extraterrestrial                            influence public opinion to
        How Many Worlds Might     50    calculators                                                                                                                               and calculate the chances
                                                           Galaxy that may have intel- and how one might find number of worlds in the               life. Firm data exist for only                            make a case for or against
             Harbor Life?                                                                                                                                                         of hearing from extrater-
                                                           ligent life                 out.                     universe that have life            a few of these factors.                                   the search for life on other
        Meeting The Challenge
                                  50    none
        Where Do You Stand?
             TOTAL TIME
                minutes          425
             class periods        9

                    1                                                                                                                           Planning and Pacing Guide — Astrobiology: An Integrated Science Approach
Chapter 2: Worlds in Our Universe
 Date        Activity Name          Time        Materials         What Students Do                  Engage                        Explore                       Explain                       Evaluate               Extend to Astrobiology
               Challenge                                      Develop an advertisement
        Location, Location, Loca-    25    none               for a world that can sup-
                  tion!                                       port life
                                                                                       Scan the Planetary Infor-        Play four games, each                                                                   Consider what the diver-
              Activity 1                                      Play four games to                                                                      There are nine planets and   Using Venn diagrams,
                                           Planetary Informa-                          mation Sheets to become          of which has students                                                                   sity of planet types in our
        How Well Do You Know                                  become familiar with the                                                                six large moons in our       group the planets and
                                    100    tion sheets, game                           familiar with the 9 planets      compare and contrast the                                                                solar system suggests
        the Worlds in Our Solar                               planets and moons in our                                                                solar system, each with      moons and explain their
                                           cards                                       and 6 large moons in the         solar system’s planets and                                                              about other planets in the
              System?                                         solar system                                                                            unique features              similarities and differences
                                                                                       solar system                     moons                                                                                   universe
                                                                                                                    Determine each planet’s                                      Position each planet in
                                                                                                                                                                                                                   Identify some of the impli-
               Activity 2                                                                 Estimate the size and     diameter and distance             Planets and moons are tiny the solar system model
                                           yarn, golf ball,   Make a solar system                                                                                                                                  cations for life of planetary
        What is the Scale of the     75                                                   placement of Earth around from the sun. Establish           objects compared to the and compare the size of
                                           index cards        model                                                                                                                                                size and distance from the
           Solar System?                                                                  a four-centimeter sun     a scale for solar system          distances between them the sun to the planets and
                                                                                                                    model                                                        their orbits
                                                              Make a display showing                                    Place star circles on an      The sun is a yellow star in
                                                                                                                                                                                                                   Determine the type(s)
                                                              the abundance of different                                axis. Determine the abun-     the middle of the color and Compare the sun to other
              Activity 3                   Star circles                                  Examine star circles to                                                                                                   of star to consider when
                                                              kinds of stars in the uni-                                dance of different kinds of   brightness spectrum. Star stars, and determine
        What Types of Stars Are      75    (color), butcher                              learn the characteristics of                                                                                              looking for habitable
                                                              verse and how tempera-                                    stars and how tempera-        color is a function of tem- whether it is typical or
          in Our Universe?                 paper                                         three to five stars                                                                                                        worlds. Estimate the size
                                                              ture, color, mass, and age                                ture, color, mass, and age    perature, and about 5% of exceptional
                                                                                                                                                                                                                   of the habitable zone
                                                              affect a star                                             affect a star                 stars are yellow
                                                                                                                                                      Low mass stars have long
                                                                                                                        Read about the life cycle
                                                             Create a presentation of                                                                 lives, becoming red giants
                Activity 4                                                             Brainstorm the different         of a low-mass and a high-                                  Predict the fate of Earth       Contrast the frequency of
                                           colored pencils, the birth, life, and death                                                                and white dwarfs. High-
         The Life Stories of Two     75                                                stages in the life cycle of      mass star and depict the                                   and our solar system as         star formation in regions
                                           drawing materials of a low-mass and a high-                                                                mass stars have brief lives,
                  Stars                                                                a star                           life cycle of each kind of                                 the sun ages                    with few and many stars
                                                             mass star                                                                                becoming supergiants and
                                                                                                                                                      ending as supernovae

                                                                                                                    Read about three different Elliptical and irregular                                     What does the fact that not
               Activity 5                                     Identify which kinds of     Brainstorm ideas about                                                                   Determine which types of
                                                                                                                    kinds of galaxies, analyze galaxies seem inappropri-                                    all galaxies or portions of
        What Types of Galaxies                                galaxies are experiencing   what a galaxy is and what                                                                galaxy and which regions
                                     50    none                                                                     images of each kind of     ate for life. Spiral galaxies                                galaxies are habitable sug-
        and Regions in Galaxies                               star formation and might    makes one kind different                                                                 within a galaxy are most
                                                                                                                    galaxy, and interpret what have zones conducive for                                     gest about the possibility
         Are Conducive to Life?                               be suitable for life        from another                                                                             conducive to life
                                                                                                                    is happening in each image life                                                         of life elsewhere?

                     2                                                                                                                           Planning and Pacing Guide — Astrobiology: An Integrated Science Approach
                                                                                                                                                                                             Consider how the propor-
                                                                             View an image showing a                                                              Use the number of galaxies
      Activity 6                                                                                                                   There are hundreds of                                     tion of galaxies actually
                                                  Estimate the number of     large number of galaxies Estimate the number of                                      in the image to estimate
How Many Galaxies Are   50    calculators                                                                                          billions of galaxies in the                               suitable for life influences
                                                  galaxies in the universe   in a very small portion of galaxies in the image                                     the number of galaxies in
     Out There?                                                                                                                    universe                                                  the probability of life in the
                                                                             the sky                                                                              the universe
Meeting the Challenge
                              colored pencils,
 Location, Location,    75
                              drawing materials
       minutes          525
    class periods        11

           3                                                                                                                    Planning and Pacing Guide — Astrobiology: An Integrated Science Approach
Chapter 3: Where Do Elements Come From?
 Date        Activity Name          Time       Materials             What Students Do                  Engage                     Explore                       Explain                        Evaluate               Extend to Astrobiology
                                                                 Make a display detailing
                                                                 how an atom of carbon is
                                                                 created, dispersed, incor-
         Carbon’s Ultimate Road      25    none
                                                                 porated into a planet, and
                                                                 made available to organ-
                                                                                                                          Collect samples. Examine                                                              Collect samples at other
                                           magnets, sand-                                                                                              Meteors, asteroids,          Articulate what microme-
                                                                 Collect micrometeorites,                                 them for micrometeorites.                                                             times of year. Relate the
               Activity 1                  wich bags, pie                                     Ask students the difference                              comets, and micromete-       teorites reveal about the
                                                                 remnants of the material                                 Use the number of micro-                                                              number of micrometeor-
        Searching for Microme-      125    tins, petri dishes,                                between meteors, aster-                                  orites are remnants of the   early solar system and the
                                                                 out of which the solar                                   meteorites in a sample to                                                             ites found each time to
                teorites                   microscopes,                                       oids, and comets                                         material out of which the    role dust and gas played in
                                                                 system was made                                          estimate the amount of                                                                the occurrence of meteor
                                           slides, cover slips                                                                                         solar system was made        its formation
                                                                                                                          material Earth receives                                                               showers
                                                                                       Brainstorm answers to             Construct models of six
                                                                                                                                                       All matter is made of        Describe limitations of         Give two reasons support-
                                           colored paper,                              the question, “What is the        kinds of atoms. Discern
               Activity 2                                    Make a model of the parts                                                                 atoms, which consist of      the model. Articulate what      ing the idea that matter
                                     50    hole punch, glue,                           universe made of?” and            the parts of an atom and
         The Fact of the Matter                              of an atom                                                                                protons, neutrons, and       makes one kind of atom          behaves similarly through-
                                           plastic bags                                generate a list of student        identify the kinds of atoms
                                                                                                                                                       electrons                    different from another          out the universe
                                                                                       ideas                             modeled
                                                                                                                         Use Velcro-covered mag-
                                                                                           Generate a list of student
                                                                                                                         nets to model the forces      The three fundamental
                                                                                           answers to the ques-                                                                                                     Explain why scientists are
                                                                                                                         within an atom, and relate    forces of nature—gravi-
               Activity 3                                        Make a model of the three tions, “How do protons,                                                                Sketch the steps two pro-         so interested in under-
                                           magnets, Velcro                                                               the model to the actual       tational, electromagnetic,
        Modeling the Forces in an    25                          forces holding an atom    neutrons, and electrons                                                                tons in a star go through         standing the structure of
                                           tape                                                                          forces within an atom         and nuclear forces—hold
                 Atom                                            together                  stay together? What holds                                                              to fuse                           elements and the forces
                                                                                                                         and how the forces work       atoms together and deter-
                                                                                           atoms, molecules and                                                                                                     governing them
                                                                                                                         together to make new ele-     mine their behavior
                                                                                           everything else together?”
                                                                                                                                                  New elements can be
                                                                 Analyze equations of                                                                                         Explain the fusion process
                                                                                            Work through an example Complete additional equa- formed when atoms fuse.                                               Describe how life on Earth
                Activity 4                                       fusion reactions to under-                                                                                   in terms of input and
                                                                                            of how a star forms helium tions showing how a star’s Because mass can be con-                                          benefits from the fusion
        The Nuclear Fusion Reac-     50    calculators           stand how fusion reactions                                                                                   output elements, noting
                                                                                            from hydrogen in a fusion fusion reactions can create verted to energy, the input                                       reactions occurring in the
            tion Inside Stars                                    inside stars create new                                                                                      that mass is lost in the
                                                                                            reaction                   different elements         mass can be different from                                        sun
                                                                 elements                                                                                                     process
                                                                                                                                                  the output mass

                     4                                                                                                                            Planning and Pacing Guide — Astrobiology: An Integrated Science Approach
                                                                                                       Use a confetti-filled bal-    High-mass stars blow
                                                                            Figure out apparent impos-
                                                                                                       loon to model the stages     apart in supernovae, which Articulate why all naturally Describe the different ways
       Activity 5                                 Design a classroom model sibility of creating ele-
                                                                                                       of a star’s life cycle and   eject material into space. occurring elements can       a supernovae has affected
 Tracing Our Roots to    25    balloons, confetti depicting the stages in a ments more massive than
                                                                                                       how heavy elements form      That material is later     only have been born inside or could have affected life
        Space                                     star’s life cycle         iron during normal fusion
                                                                                                       during a supernova explo-    recycled into new stars    stars                        on Earth
                                                                                                       sion                         and planets
Meeting the Challenge
Carbon’s Ultimate Road   100   drawing materials
       minutes           400
    class periods         8

           5                                                                                                                   Planning and Pacing Guide — Astrobiology: An Integrated Science Approach
Chapter 4: What is Life?
 Date       Activity Name         Time       Materials           What Students Do                  Engage                      Explore                      Explain                        Evaluate               Extend to Astrobiology

                Challenge                                Devise an experiment to
        Designing an Experiment    25    unknown samples test an unknown sample to
             to Test for Life                            see if it contains life

                                                                                                                                                                                Write a field guide docu-
                                                                                                                                                                                                                Debate the pluses and
                                                                                                                                             Biotic and abiotic factors         menting the site’s features
                Activity 1               thermometers,       Select a study site         Identify the biotic and   Map a study site. Observe                                                                    minuses of having humans
                                                                                                                                             interact. Organisms adapt          and explaining the interac-
           Life, A Long-Term      150    colored pencils,    and observe it over an      abiotic components in six and document the biotic                                                                      (versus robots) investigate
                                                                                                                                             to the abiotic factors in          tions between the site’s
              Observation                clipboards          extended period of time     “Mystery Site” images     and abiotic components                                                                       (a) an Earth-based site and
                                                                                                                                             their environment                  biotic and abiotic compo-
                                                                                                                                                                                                                (b) an extraterrestrial site
                                                                                                                                                  While there is no single
                                         plastic ant, silk                               Brainstorm a list of the     Use definition to group
                                                                                                                                                  definition of life, organ-     Refine the list of the char- Develop a definition of life
              Activity 2                 flower, live earth- Develop a working defini-     characteristics of life and cards into life and non-life
                                   50                                                                                                             isms share a basic set of     acteristics of life into a  to help you identify life
             Defining Life                worm, gummy        tion of life                 develop an initial definition categories, explaining each
                                                                                                                                                  characteristics and func-     working definition           elsewhere in the universe
                                         worms                                           of life                      placement
                                                                                                                                                                                                               Identify additional tests
                                         sand, sugar, active Determine whether any of    Observe the behavior of     Test three powders for                                     Evaluate the completeness that could show that the
                                                                                                                                                 There is no single test that
               Activity 3                dry yeast, antacid the three “mystery pow-      “sewer maggots” and         signs of life, using obser-                                of the current working         yeast is alive. Articulate
                                   75                                                                                                            can establish the presence
            Identifying Life             tablets, 1 can of ders” contain something       determine whether they      vations to support each                                    definition of life. Refine it if why biomarkers are easier
                                                                                                                                                 or absence of life
                                         Mountain Dew        alive                       are alive                   determination                                              necessary                      to detect than organisms

                                                                                                                                                                                                       Discuss whether all life
                                                                                                                     Create 12 habitats that     A habitable place must
                                                            Create different habitats                                                                                                                  or just Earth-based life
              Activity 4                 assorted materials                              Brainstorm what any         promote the growth of a supply water, raw materi- Identify sources of energy,
                                                            to establish that life needs                                                                                                               requires water, energy, raw
        What Does Life Need for   125    brought in from                                 organism must have in       variety of organisms. Iden- als, and energy. Life can water, and raw materials in
                                                            water, energy, and raw                                                                                                                     materials. Discuss how a
              Survival?                  home                                            order to live a long time   tify what each habitat has exploit different sources of each habitat
                                                            materials                                                                                                                                  world might make these
                                                                                                                     in common with the others energy and raw materials
                                                                                                                                                                                                       things available

         Meeting the Challenge
        Designing an Experiment   100    brine shrimp eggs
             to Test for Life
             TOTAL TIME
                minutes           525
             class periods         11

                    6                                                                                                                         Planning and Pacing Guide — Astrobiology: An Integrated Science Approach
Chapter 5: The Chemistry of Life
 Date        Activity Name          Time       Materials            What Students Do                Engage                       Explore                       Explain                        Evaluate               Extend to Astrobiology
                                                                Use understanding of
                                                                bonding, chemical reac-
                                                                tions, and the major mac-
                                     25    none                 romolecules to produce an
        Chemistry of Life Exhibit
                                                                exhibit. The exhibit stesses
                                                                the importance of carbon
                                                                to life on Earth

                                           vinegar, baking
                                           soda, limewater,
                                           beakers. For
                                                                                                                                                     Molecules offer atoms a       Explain how the periodic
                                           demos: 5 ml HCL, Make element models                                         Make models for the first
                                                                                                                                                     more stable arrangement       table organizes elements
                                           5 ml of ammonia that illustrate why atoms                                    18 elements and group                                                                  Describe why living things
              Activity 1                                                                  Observe 4 chemical reac-                                   than is possible were they    based on their chemical
                                           (concentrated), and molecules react and                                      them according to their                                                                use molecules rather than
        From Elements to Mol-       100                                                   tions that produce visible,                                to remain separate. Atoms     and physical properties,
                                           silver nitrate, NaCl, explore the logic of how                               structure. Relate atomic                                                               elements to construct and
                ecules                                                                    spontaneous changes                                        react chemically based on     and use it to predict which
                                           copper sulfate,       they are arranged on the                               structure to chemical                                                                  operate their bodies
                                                                                                                                                     the number of electrons in    elements will bond to form
                                           sodium carbonate, periodic table                                             reactivity
                                                                                                                                                     their outermost shells        molecules
                                           barium chloride,
                                           calcium acetate,
                                           alcohol, test tubes

                                           geranium leaves,
                                                                                                                                                                                                              How does photosynthe-
                                           isopropyl alcohol,                                                                                       Photosynthesis is a series
                                                                Investigate photosynthesis Discuss where photosyn-                                                                 What advantage might       sis introduce energy and
                                           baking soda, filter                                                           Conduct three experiments of chemical reactions that
                                                                by extracting pigments     thesis occurs in a plant                                                                photosynthesizers have     carbon into an environ-
              Activity 2                   paper, funnels,                                                              investigating different     convert light into chemical
                                    100                         from a leaf and by examin- and the key reactants and                                                               over organisms that derive ment? Why might photo-
            Photosynthesis                 petri dishes, hot                                                            parts of the photosynthetic energy. Pigments capture
                                                                ing two substances pro- products involved in the                                                                   energy from chemicals in synthesis not always be
                                           plate, iodine,                                                               process                     the energy in different
                                                                duced in photosynthesis process                                                                                    the environment?           appropriate for life in the
                                           starch, safety                                                                                           wavelengths of light
                                                                                                                                                                                                              solar system?
                                                                Identify the common com-
                                           food samples (hot                                                            Analyze nutrition labels                              Explain the role each kind Establish why habitable
                                                                ponents of the foods—car-                                                            Food is made up of mac-
                                           dogs, peanuts,                                                               for different food samples                            of molecule plays in nutri- worlds must include
               Activity 3                                       bohydrates, proteins, and Brainstorm reasons why                                     romolecules that provide
                                     50    cereal, raisins,                                                             and identify the kinds of                             tion. Trace the origin of    biogenic elements, the
        Food and Raw Materials                                  fats—by analyzing nutri- we eat                                                      organisms energy and raw
                                           nutrition panels                                                             molecules foods have in                               macromolecules and how components of macromol-
                                                                tion labels for different                                                            materials
                                           for each sample                                                              common                                                they cycle in the food chain ecules
                                                                food samples
                                           food samples,                                                                                             The proportions of car-       Contrast respiration and
              Activity 4                                       Burn food samples to     Predict which kind of food Burn food samples. Deter-                                                                  Show how photosynthesis
                                           corks, paper clips,                                                                                       bohydrates, proteins, and     photosynthesis and explain
         Energy and Essential        50                        determine which contains and which macromolecule mine which food contains                                                                      and respiration tap light
                                           matches, clock or                                                                                         fats determine the amount     how respiration releases
              Elements                                         the most energy          contains the most energy the most energy                                                                              energy and cycle carbon
                                           stopwatch                                                                                                 of energy in a food           energy from food

                     7                                                                                                                           Planning and Pacing Guide — Astrobiology: An Integrated Science Approach
                                                                                                           Construct models of
                                                                                                           various forms of carbon      Carbon atoms can bond                                       Consider what the
                                  gumdrops,                                                                                                                            Debate whether life needs
                                                                                                           and explain how the          to one another in the                                       advantages of being
       Activity 5                 toothpicks, or  Build models of carbon-       Discuss the atomic and                                                                 to be carbon-based and
                            75                                                                             different molecular          form of chains, rings, and                                  carbon-based implies
   Carbon-based Life              molecular model based molecules               molecular nature of carbon                                                             whether all forms of
                                                                                                           arrangements give            branching networks. Life                                    about the search for life
                                  kits                                                                                                                                 carbon are suitable for life
                                                                                                           each form of carbon its      on Earth is carbon-based                                    elsewhere
                                                                                                           Examine carbon’s and         Though silicon’s structure
                                  “Devil in the Dark”                                                                                                                                                Make the case that the
                                                                                                           silicon’s positions on the   is similar to carbon’s, its    Identify silicon’s significant
       Activity 6                 video (Star Trek),                            Watch science fiction video                                                                                           chemistry found on Earth
                                                      Debate whether life could                            periodic table and explain   structure limits the kinds     limitations as a molecule
Are There Alternatives to   100   “Silicon Avatar”                              clips about silicon-based                                                                                            is likely to be typical
                                                      be silicon-based                                     how silicon’s atomic         of bonds it can make           of life and why life is
       Carbon?                    video (Star Trek                              life                                                                                                                 of the chemistry found
                                                                                                           structure limits the kinds   and the strength of those      carbon-based
                                  Next Generation)                                                                                                                                                   throughout the universe
                                                                                                           of bonds it can make         bonds
 Meeting the Challenge            poster board,
Chemistry of Life Exhibit         drawing materials
        minutes             600
     class periods           13

             8                                                                                                                       Planning and Pacing Guide — Astrobiology: An Integrated Science Approach
Chapter 6: Cellular Basis of Life
 Date        Activity Name         Time       Materials            What Students Do                      Engage                      Explore                       Explain                        Evaluate               Extend to Astrobiology
                                                               Make models of two types
                                                               of cells that are the basis
                                                               of life on Earth. Write an
             Challenge                                         “executive summary” sum-
        How Small Can Life Be?                                 marizing what they have
                                                               learned about our current
                                                               understanding of the cell
                                                               as it relates to life on Earth
                                          prepared slides:
                                          volvox, plant
                                                                                                                                                                                       Explain what becomes
                                          guard cells,                                                                                                  All life on Earth uses the
                                                                                         List evidence that could be                                                                   possible when there is an Argue for and against
                                          human nerve cells,                                                         Visit stations and view 8-         cell as its basic structural
              Activity 1                                      Observe different kinds of used to convince someone                                                                      inside environment sepa- the idea that life on other
                                   100    bacteria, micro-                                                           10 different kinds of cells        unit. All cells share a
            Observing Cells                                   cells under the microscope that all living things are                                                                    rated from an outside envi- worlds will be made of
                                          scopes, slides,                                                            under the microscope               basic design. A cell’s form
                                                                                         made of cells                                                                                 ronment. Relate a cell’s    cells
                                          cover slips, methyl                                                                                           reflects its function
                                                                                                                                                                                       structure to its function
                                          cellulose, drop-
                                          ping pipettes
                                                               Identify which cell parts                                                                Prokaryotic cells are less Design a poster displaying          Articulate why it is impor-
               Activity 2                                                                 List information that would Match images of cell parts
                                                               belong with a prokaryotic                                                                complex than eukaryotic each kind of cell. Explain             tant for astrobiologists to
          From Prokaryotes to      100    tape, scissors                                  be good to know before with the appropriate kind
                                                               cell and which belong to a                                                               cells. Each cellular struc- why it is useful to classify       distinguish between the
              Eukaryotes                                                                  classifying cells           of cell
                                                               eukaryotic cell                                                                          ture has a specific function cells into different types         two types of cells
                                                               Investigate how quickly
                                                                                                                                                        Smaller cells have a large
                                          agar, phenothalien, dye penetrates different-                                                                                                Explain how small cell size Use the data collected in
                                                                                                Discuss whether suc-       Place different-sized agar   surface area to volume
                                          ammonia solu-        sized cubes as a way to                                                                                                 offers a survival advantage the activity to make the
               Activity 3                                                                       cess should be defined as cubes into a solution and      ratio, allowing them to
                                    50    tion, metric rulers, see how an object’s size                                                                                                in environments where raw case that prokaryotic cells
         On Being the Right Size                                                                greater numbers or greater compare the amount of        absorb and distribute
                                          safety glasses,      influences its ability to                                                                                                materials and energy are occurred on Earth before
                                                                                                complexity                 penetration in each cube     materials more efficiently
                                          plastic spoons       exchange materials with                                                                                                 limited                     eukaryotic cells did
                                                                                                                                                        than larger cells
                                                               the outside environment
                                                                                                                                                                                      Debate whether viruses are
                                                               Build a model of a virus                                                                 The lower limit to cell size                             Argue for and against the
                                          scissors, tooth-                                      Brainstorm the absolute                                                               alive and whether they, or
               Activity 4                                      and compare it with pro-                                                                 occurs when a cell is too                                idea that the structures
                                    50    picks, clay, glue,                                    minimum set of organelles Build a model of a virus                                    prokaryotes or nanobes,
             Getting Small                                     karyotic and eukaryotic                                                                  small to fit the structures it                            found in some Martian
                                          string                                                a cell needs to survive                                                               are the smallest form of
                                                               cells                                                                                    needs to live                                            meteorites represent life
                                                                                                                                                                                      life on Earth
          Meeting the Challenge
                                   100    none
        “How Small Can Life Be?”
              TOTAL TIME
                 minutes           425
              class periods         9

                     9                                                                                                                               Planning and Pacing Guide — Astrobiology: An Integrated Science Approach
Chapter 7: Evolution and Diversity
 Date        Activity Name          Time       Materials         What Students Do                 Engage                      Explore                         Explain                        Evaluate               Extend to Astrobiology
                                                             Collect data on variation in
                                                             a human trait and write a
               Challenge                                     short report that uses the
                                     25    PTC paper
          Variation in Humans                                data to speculate on how
                                                             the variation in the trait
                                                             might influence survival
                                                                                                                 Conduct two simulations           Well-adapted individuals
                                                                                                                 that model how popula-            have a set of traits that      Cite examples where
                                                                                        Discuss how slapping     tions change based on the         enable them to meet the        survival depends on the         Should the ability to con-
               Activity 1                  baggies, punchout Model natural selection by
                                                                                        mosquitoes influences the individuals that survive.         challenges posed by the        interplay between an            tend with change be added
         What Is Natural Selec-      50    dots, large sheets conducting two simula-
                                                                                        make up of the mosquito Examine how traits influ-           environment and are more       individual’s traits and the     to your working definition
                 tion?                     of paper           tions
                                                                                        population               ence which organisms              likely to produce offspring    prevailing environmental        of life? Why or why not?
                                                                                                                 succeed under a particular        than poorly adapted indi-      conditions
                                                                                                                 set of conditions                 viduals

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Show how a population
                                                             Collect and graph data                                                                In a population, each trait    Why might having varia-         might change based on
               Activity 2                                                                                             Collect and graph data
                                                             on four human traits and List traits that can differ in                               is widely distributed. A       tion in a population might      changes in the environ-
        What Are Populations and     50    graph paper                                                                on four easily measured
                                                             analyze how traits vary in a individuals in a population                              bell-shaped curve shows        be beneficial to that popu-      ment. Express the continu-
         How Do They Change?                                                                                          human traits
                                                             population                                                                            this general distribution      lation?                         ity of life as a function of
                                                                                                                                                                                                                  variation in a population
                                                                                                                  Culture bacteria to see
                                                                                                                  the effect of antibacterial      Fitness is a measure of                                   Identify the roles variation
                                                               Create several bacterial                           substances. Use differ-          how well suited an organ-      Show how the concept of and fitness have played
                                           agar, sterile petri                           Define fitness by discuss-
               Activity 3                                      cultures to compare how                            ences among the control          ism is to its environment.     fitness explains changes in in the continuity of life
                                    125    dishes, or pre-                               ing the flu epidemic of
        Are You Fit to Live Here?                              altered conditions affect                          and experimental plates to       Natural selection fine-         the peppered moth popula- on Earth as the Earth has
                                           made plates                                   1918
                                                               bacterial growth                                   identify a range of toler-       tunes populations so that      tion                       changed over the past
                                                                                                                  ance in the bacterial popu-      most individuals are fit                                   three billion years
                                                                                                                                                   By responding differently Place the evolved animals
                                                             Play a game that models                                                                                                                              Explain why the process
                Activity 4                                                                                          Play a game illustrat-         to selection pressures,      in their correct habitats.
                                                             how one species can         Relate the creature in                                                                                                   of developing new species
          How Can One Kind of                                                                                       ing how populations can        segments of a popula-        Suggest reasons why
                                     50    none              evolve into several differ- the game to modern-day                                                                                                   is crucial to producing a
          Creature Give Rise to                                                                                     change into new species        tion can become isolated, islands far from the main-
                                                             ent species by responding rodents                                                                                                                    diversity of life, both here
              Many Kinds?                                                                                           over vast amounts of time      which can result in the rise land often have species
                                                             to selection pressures                                                                                                                               on Earth and elsewhere
                                                                                                                                                   of new species               found nowhere else

                     10                                                                                                                         Planning and Pacing Guide — Astrobiology: An Integrated Science Approach
                                                                                                                                                                 Describe how natural
                                                                                                                                  The diversity of life we see   selection can produce           Debate whether evolution
                                                Design two models that                                                            today can be traced back       the many species found          by natural selection is
       Activity 5                                                           Brainstorm what factors   Make a graph-paper model
                                                illustrate how phylogenetic                                                       through many different         on Earth. How might you         unique to Earth. Explain
Where Did All the Life on   50    graph paper                               influence how quickly a    to show how life diversifies
                                                trees map relationships                                                           kinds of organisms to a        determine how recently          what it would take for a
  Earth Come From?                                                          population diversifies     from a common ancestor
                                                among organisms                                                                   few kinds of single-celled     two kinds of organisms          microbe to turn into an
                                                                                                                                  organisms                      shared a common ances-          intelligent extraterrestrial
 Meeting the Challenge
                            75    none
 Variation in Humans
        minutes             425
     class periods           9

             11                                                                                                                Planning and Pacing Guide — Astrobiology: An Integrated Science Approach
Chapter 8: History of Life on Earth
 Date        Activity Name           Time         Materials           What Students Do                    Engage                     Explore                      Explain                        Evaluate               Extend to Astrobiology
                                                                 Create storyboards for a
                                                                 proposed documentary
        WebQuesst: Life on Earth      25      internet access
                                                                 about the possibility of life
            (Xtreme Files)
                                                                 on other worlds
                                                                                                                                                                                                                Discuss what the rapid
                                                                                                                                                                                   Identify examples that
                                                                                                                         Sequence events from                                                                   appearance of prokaryotes
                                                                                                                                                         Living and non-living     illustrate how life responds
                                                                 Construct a timeline that                               the oldest to most recent.                                                             suggests about how easily
                                              Life Beyond Earth                              Brainstorm a list of events                                 systems have changed      to environmental changes.
               Activity 1                                        puts in chronological order                             Group them into themes                                                                 life develops and what the
                                      125     video, paperclips,                             in Earth’s history that                                     one another. Catastrophic Describe what Earth and a
        Timeline of Life on Earth                                40 key events in the his-                               related to the evolution                                                               delayed appearance of
                                              timeline cards                                 affected life on Earth                                      events have altered Earth possible ancestor looked
                                                                 tory of life on Earth                                   of life. Make a timeline to                                                            eukaryotes suggests about
                                                                                                                                                         and life on Earth         like at different times in
                                                                                                                         display the events                                                                     the appearance of complex
                                                                                                                                                                                   Earth’s history
                                                                                                                                                         Life requires a closed
                                                                 Assemble a variety of       List ingredients that would   Build 3 structures to inves-                                                            What conditions might
                                                                                                                                                        structure and a way to        Build models that illustrate
                                                                 structures that separate an be important to include       tigate the importance of                                                                have led to the origin of
                Activity 2                    a set of Legos                                                                                            pass information to off-      the challenges that must
                                                                 inside environment from when creating life in a test      having a reliable way to                                                                life on Earth? How might
         Origins: The Beginning       100     (large), bubble                                                                                           spring. Certain molecular     be overcome before non-
                                                                 an outside one to gain      tube. Debate whether cell     convey information. Inves-                                                              one determine whether
                  of Life                     solution                                                                                                  properties could help turn    living chemicals can func-
                                                                 insight into the origin of membranes or genetic           tigate self-assembly by                                                                 these conditions exist
                                                                                                                                                        non-living chemicals into     tion as a living system
                                                                 life and the first cells     material came first            working with soap bubbles                                                               elsewhere?
                                                                                                                                                        living systems
                                                                                                                                                         Photosynthesis dra-                                          Explain how understanding
                                                                   Observe photosynthetic                                  View a diverse collection
                                                                                                                                                         matically changed the     Outline some scenarios             the history of photosyn-
                                                                   organisms. Use the time-      Name as many kinds of     of photosynthetic organ-
              Activity 3                                                                                                                                 composition of Earth’s    for what Earth and life on         thesis and its affect on
                                              a variety of leaves, line to reveal how the        photosynthetic organisms isms. Identify events on
        Oxygen Changes Every-         100                                                                                                                atmosphere. Oxygen        Earth would be like now            oxygen accumulation on
                                              sticky tags          accumulation of oxygen in     as possible. Estimate how the timeline where life was
                thing                                                                                                                                    poisoned anaerobes and if photosynthesis had not             Earth might be important
                                                                   the atmosphere affected       abundant each one is      affected by the buildup of
                                                                                                                                                         enabled aerobic organisms developed                          in the search for life on
                                                                   life                                                    oxygen
                                                                                                                                                         to emerge                                                    other worlds
                                                                                                                       Plot three data sets on a Life can be seriously
                                            Deadly Impacts       Interpret three data sets                                                                                            Speculate about how life Explain how meteor
                                                                                                                       map and pinpoint the loca- affected by large meteorite
              Activity 4                    (optional), flat      to locate the impact crater Model an impact crater                                                                   on Earth might be different impacts can be beneficial
                                    100-150                                                                            tion of the impact crater impacts, which can alter
        Impacts and Extinctions             containers, flour,    that probably killed the    and define crater features                                                                today if the impact had not to life on a planet and
                                                                                                                       that probably killed the   climates by throwing dust
                                            corn starch or       dinosaurs                                                                                                            occurred                    harmful to life on a planet
                                                                                                                       dinosaurs                  into the atmosphere
                                            baby powder
         Meeting the Challenge
                                              posterboard (2’
        WebQuest: Life on Earth       100
                                              X 3’)
            (Xtreme Files)
             TOTAL TIME
                minutes             550-600
             class periods           11-12

                     12                                                                                                                             Planning and Pacing Guide — Astrobiology: An Integrated Science Approach
Chapter 9: What is Habitability?
 Date        Activity Name          Time       Materials         What Students Do                   Engage                        Explore                      Explain                        Evaluate               Extend to Astrobiology
                                                             Create a poster with
                                                             designs for two new
              Challenge                                      life-support modules for
        Modules for International    25                      the International Space
            Space Station                                    Station. One module will
                                                             house humans, the other
                                                                                          Brainstorm answers to                                                                    Compare the Chapter
                                                             Design a concept map that                                  Produce a habitability
                                                                                          the questions “What does                                    Any habitable world needs    9 maps (based on
                                                             shows how an organism                                      concept map that shows                                                               Explain at least two ways a
               Activity 1                  large sheets of                                life require?” and “How                                     to have an energy source     preconceptions) with
                                     50                      gets everything it needs                                   how an organism gets                                                                 world might provide each
        Habitability Concept Map           paper                                          might a world provide the                                   and provide liquid water,    similar ones students
                                                             from the world on which                                    everything it needs from                                                             required habitability factor
                                                                                          materials and conditions                                    raw materials                made in Chapter 12, after
                                                             it lives                                                   the world on which it lives
                                                                                          required by life?”                                                                       they study habitability
                                                                                                                                                                                                                   Explain why it is easier
                                                                                                                    Refer to the planetary            Habitable worlds have
              Activity 2                                                                                                                                                                                           to look for habitable
                                                             Rank the planets and                                   sheets in the appendix and        long-term stability, water, Identify the top three
         Which Planets and/or                                                            List ways to identify                                                                                                     conditions than for actual
                                     50    none              moons as likely, possible,                             evaluate the habitability of      temperatures conducive to candidates for life in the
         Moons Are Candidates                                                            habitable a planet or moon                                                                                                organisms. How would
                                                             or unlikely places for life                            the planets and moons in          life, and a source of energy solar system
              for Life?                                                                                                                                                                                            this fact influence a search
                                                                                                                    our solar system                  and raw materials
                                           termites, petri                                                                                                                         Create a display showing
                                                                                                                        Dissect a termite and make
                                           dishes, magnifying                             List the characteristics                                   A habitat must supply the     the challenges a termite        How might the fact that
                                                              Dissect termites and                                      a slide of the contents of
                                           glasses,                                       of a habitat. See if these                                 basic requirements of life.   gut poses for organisms         microscopic places can
              Activity 3                                      use microscopes to find                                    its gut. Make a card for
                                     75    microscopes,                                   characteristics are evident                                Microbes can adapt to any     living there and the            support life influence the
        Worlds Within Termites                                habitable environments in                                 each kind of gut organism.
                                           dissecting                                     in a termite colony and in                                 environment that provides     adaptations the organisms       definition of habitability
                                                              and on termites                                           Describe the habitability of
                                           needles, forceps,                              individual termites                                        life’s basic requirements     have for meeting the            and a search strategy?
                                                                                                                        a Winogradsky column
                                           saline solution                                                                                                                         challenges
                                                                                                                                                      Without an atmosphere,
                                                                                                                  Analyze Earth and moon
                                                                                        Locate the Earth and moon                                     the moon is subject to
                                                                                                                  images and discuss
                                                                                        on a diagram of the inner                                     extreme temperature          List five reasons that might
                                                             Contrast the habitability                            what they suggest about                                                                      Describe why temperature,
                                                                                        solar system, making the                                      swings and is unprotected explain why Earth has life
                Activity 4                                   of Earth and the moon by                             the habitability of both                                                                     radiation, and geologic
                                     50    none                                         point that the Earth and                                      from ultraviolet radiation. while the moon seems
         Is the Moon Habitable?                              comparing key habitability                           places. Read about the                                                                       activity are important to
                                                                                        moon are on the same                                          Because the moon is          lifeless. Rank them in
                                                             factors                                              temperatures, geologic                                                                       habitability
                                                                                        orbital track around the                                      geologically dead, it cannot order of importance
                                                                                                                  activity, and radiation
                                                                                        sun                                                           regulate its temperature or
                                                                                                                  levels on Earth and moon
                                                                                                                                                      circulate raw materials

                     13                                                                                                                          Planning and Pacing Guide — Astrobiology: An Integrated Science Approach
                                                                                   Complete the sentence                                                                                                    How many kinds of
                                                                                                               Design a six-week             Scientific research is a
        Activity 5                 radish seeds,         Design and conduct an     starting with: “Scientific                                                                Analyze and graph               science do astrobiologists
                                                                                                               experiment to test the        process that involves a
Habitability of Radishes -         potting soil, sand,   independent, long-term    research is…” Observe                                                                    experimental results and        use in the search for life
                             125                                                                               effect of a habitability      long-term commitment to
An Astrobiology Research           pots, paper cups,     investigation examining   seeds. Discuss what they                                                                 present findings in an oral      in the universe? What
                                                                                                               factor on the growth of       careful observation and
       Experience                  light sources         habitability factors      need to grow and which                                                                   or written forum                is common in all these
                                                                                                               radish seeds                  collection of data
                                                                                   factors are testable                                                                                                     sciences?
 Meeting the Challenge
Modules for International    100   none
    Space Station
         minutes             475
      class periods           10

             14                                                                                                                           Planning and Pacing Guide — Astrobiology: An Integrated Science Approach
Chapter 10: Finding Energy and Raw Materials on Habitable Worlds
 Date       Activity Name        Time       Materials            What Students Do                 Engage                        Explore                           Explain                        Evaluate               Extend to Astrobiology
                                                           Describe “features and
                                                           benefits” of sources
             Challenge                  Advertisement for of energy and carbon
        Energy and Carbon on      25    a world created in available for organisms
        Your Habitable World            Chapter 2          that might live on the
                                                           world students designed in
                                                           Chapter 2.

                                                                                                                                                       Light provides energy
                                                            Calculate the light intensi-                                                                                                                     If a habitable world has
                                                                                                                      Observe a demonstration          to organisms and can
                                        overhead            ties for the planets in our
              Activity 1                                                                                              of the inverse square law        help keep temperatures     Identify which worlds have to be in a star’s habitable
                                        projector, masking solar system and deter-       Discuss the importance of                                     within the range required enough light energy to be zone, howinfluence the
                                                                                                                                                                                                                         would this
          Shedding Light on a     50                                                                                  and calculate the light
                                        tape, meter sticks, mine which have enough sunlight to life on Earth                                                                                                 condition
               Planet                                                                                                 intensities for the planets      for water. Light intensity potentially habitable
                                        graph paper         light energy to be poten-                                                                                                                        number of habitable
                                                                                                                      in our solar system              diminishes as one moves
                                                            tially habitable                                                                                                                                 worlds in the universe?
                                                                                                                                                       away from the light source

                                                             Test how important light                                 Design and conduct an            Photosynthesis is the                                          How could life obtain its
                                        sprigs of elodea,    intensity is to photosyn- List ways that the intensity   experiment to test how           process by which light         Present results and relate      energy if it is underground
               Activity 2               test tubes, lamps    thetic organisms by mea- of light is important to life   different light intensities      is converted to products       experimental setup to how       or the intensity of
          Testing the Inverse    100    (40W), pond          suring the effect of varying                             affect the rate at which         useful to an organism.         intensity varies on other       the light reaching the
        Square Law with Elodea          water, test tube     light intensities on the rate on Earth                   Elodea produces oxygen           Light intensity affects the    worlds in the solar system      world is insufficient for
                                        racks                of photosynthesis                                        during photosynthesis            rate of photosynthesis                                         photosynthesis?

                                                                                        Identify alternative energy Design and conduct an                                             Where does the energy
                                        yeast, test tubes,   Design and conduct an      sources for life on worlds experiment to test how   Respiration and fermenta-                 stored in the sugar used Why is it unlikely that
                                        dropping pipettes,   experiment to test whether with insufficient light to                           tion enable organisms to                  by yeast come from? Draw respiration would be the
              Activity 3                                     chemical compounds can support photosynthesis or, sucrose, glucose,as a  and
                                 100    sucrose, glucose,                                                                                   tap chemical compounds                    a flowchart showing what only way for life to obtain
        Using Chemical Energy           lactose sugars,      provide an organism the that like early Earth, have lactose compare source for to satisfy their energy                   needs to be in place before its energy on a habitable
                                        large beaker         energy it needs            had too little time to evolve chemical energy       needs                                     an organism can use         world?
                                                                                        photosynthesis                                                                                chemical energy

                                        lemons, copper
                                        and zinc strips,                                                                                               Redox reactions convert Model how redox reactions What is the implication for
                                                                                                                      Model how electron
                                        wires with clips,    Build two models that                                                                     energy into a form that can provide the energy to form life elsewhere that there
              Activity 4                                     show how electron donors Build a lemon-clock to          acceptors and donor pairs
                                        LCD display,                                                                                                   be used by organisms; and ATP. Contrast how yeast are so many redox pairings
         Redox Reactions and     100                         and acceptors yield energy show that aenergy reaction
                                                                                                    redox             yield different amount of
                                        voltmeter,                                                                                                     they occur when electrons would grow in aerobic and that provide energy to life
           Energy for Life                                                              can supply                    energy, and discuss the
                                        batteries,           during a redox reaction                                                                   move between electron
                                                                                                                      data collected                                               anaerobic environments on Earth?
                                        cardboard, golf                                                                                                donors and acceptors
                                        balls, clothespins

                   15                                                                                                                               Planning and Pacing Guide — Astrobiology: An Integrated Science Approach
                              Winogradsky         Design an exhibit showing
                                                                                                                                       Life has several ways to Design an exhibit that
                              column(s) from      the variety of ways life on                             Research four ways life on
                                                                                                                                       tap Earth’s different carbon shows the different
     Activity 5               week 1, map         Earth obtains its carbon Identify the different kinds   Earth obtains its carbon                                                                  How can life on Earth
                                                                                                                                       and energy sources,          strategies organisms
Looking at Energy and   100   of the world,       and energy and how life of organisms living in a        and energy, and identify a                                                                serve as an analog for life
                                                                                                                                       with microbes exhibiting use to obtain carbon and
  Carbon Sources              thumbtacks, yarn,   elsewhere might get its     Winogradsky column          representative organism                                                                   on other worlds?
                                                                                                                                       the greatest diversity of    energy and where these
                              Habitable Worlds    carbon and energy using                                 for each strategy
                                                                                                                                       strategies                   organisms can be found
                              Web site            similar strategies
Meeting the Challenge
Energy and Carbon on    50    none
Your Habitable World
       minutes          525
    class periods        10

           16                                                                                                                     Planning and Pacing Guide — Astrobiology: An Integrated Science Approach
Chapter 11: Planetary Systems that Contribute to Habitability

 Date        Activity Name          Time       Materials             What Students Do                      Engage                      Explore                       Explain                        Evaluate               Extend to Astrobiology

                                                                 Write and illustrate a story,
                                                                 that can be understood
                                                                 and enjoyed by sixth grad-
         Children’s Story: Follow    25    none
                                                                 ers, about how planetary
                the Water
                                                                 systems contribute to
                                                                                                                                                            Water is a powerful
                                           goggles, ring         Conduct an experiment                                        Conduct an experiment                                      Explain why liquid water
                                                                                                                                                            solvent that dissolves and
                                           stand, 1000 ml        examining how water                                          examining how water                                        is important to life, using     Why do astrobiologists
               Activity 1                                                                                                                                   transports substances
                                           beaker, hot plate,    dissolves and transports Brainstorm reasons why              dissolves and transports                                   data from the experiment.       look for water or signs of
        Why is Water So Central      50                                                                                                                     and serves as a medium
                                           citric acid, baking   chemicals and construct water is important to life           chemicals, and create and                                  Use the model to show           water when looking for
                to Life?                                                                                                                                    for chemical reactions.
                                           soda, aluminum        and analyze a model of the                                   analyze a model of the                                     why a water cycle is            life?
                                                                                                                                                            A water cycle distributes
                                           foil                  water cycle                                                  water cycle                                                important to life on Earth
                                                                                                                                                            liquid water
                                                             Interpret images showing                                        Analyze images of the                                     Build a case for the pres-        How could you determine
               Activity 2                                    water-related features on           Brainstorm a list of fea-   surfaces of Mars, Europa,      Surface features on both ence of water on Mars and           whether a world might
        The Case for Subsurface            transparencies of Earth, Mars, and Europa             tures that might reveal the and Earth. Use guiding         Mars and Europa suggest Europa by using images               have subsurface water.
          Water on Mars and                images            and make a case for the             presence of liquid water on questions to interpret the     the presence of subsurface that show water-related           Why is the possibility of
               Europa?                                       presence of subsurface              a planet or moon            images and identify telltale   water                      features on Mars and              water on Mars and Europa
                                                             water on each body                                              signs of water                                            Europa and Earth analogs          so interesting?
                                                                 Make and analyze graphs
                                                                 to identify the role atmo-
                                                                                                 Plot planetary tem-                                                                 Describe the different roles
                                                                 spheres play in surface                                                                 Planets with atmospheres
               Activity 3                                                                        peratures against distance   Observe two demonstra-                                 an atmosphere can play in How might the presence or
                                           beakers, food         temperature. Observe                                                                    are warmer than expected.
        How Does an Atmosphere                                                                   from the sun, revealing      tions and complete a sheet                             making a planet or moon absence of an atmosphere
                                    100    coloring, graph       two demonstrations that                                                                 Greenhouse gases absorb,
        Influence a Planet’s Hab-                                                                 that atmospheres produce     contrasting greenhouse                                 habitable. Why is tem-       influence the search for
                                           paper                 examine heat and particle                                                               store, and reradiate energy
               itability?                                                                        higher-than-expected         and non-greenhouse gases                               perature such an important life?
                                                                 motion. State the role                                                                  from the sun
                                                                                                 temperatures                                                                        habitability factor?
                                                                 atmospheres play in habit-
                                                                                                                                                            Gases and liquids move
                                           vegetable oil,        Conduct a series of activi- Conduct a brief experiment Conduct six activities              because of differences in
                                                                                                                                                                                       List different ways to
              Activity 4                   alcohol, sugar,       ties that define density and with an unexpected out- examining how changes in               density. Convection is the                                   How might density influ-
                                     50                                                                                                                                                change the density of a
            What is Density?               balance, hot plate,   show the role it plays in come that defines density density cause changes in                transfer of heat based on                                    ence planetary cycles?
                                                                                                                                                                                       liquid or gas.
                                           250 ml beaker         convection                  operationally              gases and liquids                   the mass movement of

                     17                                                                                                                                Planning and Pacing Guide — Astrobiology: An Integrated Science Approach
                                                  Learn what is required for                            Read about what is          The more heat sources
                                                                                                                                                                       Rank the planets and            Why is it advantageous
                                                  a world to have planetary                             required for planetary con- and convective materials a
       Activity 5                                                                                                                                                      moons in the solar system       for a world to have several
                                                  convection cycles, and     Identify everyday examples vection cycles, and inven- world has, the more likely
How Do Planetary Cycles    50    none                                                                                                                                  in terms of the presence        kinds of heat sources and
                                                  determine which planets of convection                 tory the solar system’s     it is to have at least one
 Influence Habitability?                                                                                                                                                of planet-wide convection       several kinds of convective
                                                  and moons in our solar                                planets and moons for       environment suitable for
                                                                                                                                                                       processes                       materials available?
                                                  system have these things                              these factors               life

                                                                                                                                        A habitable zone contains                                      How can defining different
                                                                              Brainstorm and prioritize a   Make flow charts to exam-
       Activity 6                                 Determine the different                                                               worlds that can provide the Create a display show-             kinds of habitable zones
                                                                              list of factors required by   ine different habitability
  What are the Habit-            colored sticky   kinds of habitable zones in                                                           minimum factors required ing the prokaryotic and               help determine which
                           100                                                prokaryotic and eukaryotic    factors and determine their
 able Zone in Our Solar          notes,           our solar system and how                                                              by life. Its size depends on eukaryotic habitable zones        worlds in the solar system
                                                                              life. Define habitable zone    role in making a world
        System?                                   big each one is                                                                       the complexity of the life in our solar system                 to explore and how to
                                                                              as well as possible           habitable
                                                                                                                                        for which one looks                                            explore them?
 Meeting the Challenge
Children’s Story: Follow   100   none
       the Water
        minutes            575
     class periods          11

            18                                                                                                                       Planning and Pacing Guide — Astrobiology: An Integrated Science Approach
Chapter 12: Are There Habitable Worlds Elsewhere?

 Date        Activity Name            Time       Materials           What Students Do                  Engage                     Explore                       Explain                        Evaluate               Extend to Astrobiology

                                                                 Make trading cards for
                                             Habitable world
                                                                 organisms that might be
               Challenge                     advertisement
                                                                 found on the habitable
         Life on Your Habitable        25    and “features and
                                                                 world created in chapter
                 World                       benefits” sheet on
                                                                 2 and further defined in
                                             energy available
                                                                 chapter 10
                                                                                                                                                                                     Write a paragraph
                                                                                            Identify examples that       Design a concept map that   Many interconnected
                                                                                                                                                                                     contrasting the factors
                                                                 Design a concept map       clarify what is meant by     consolidates and clearly    factors affect habitability.                                  Which set or sets of
                 Activity 1                                                                                                                                                          and processes that make a
                                                                 that answers the question, saying that habitability     presents an understanding   However, the top                                              factors and processes
        Revisiting the Habitability   100    none                                                                                                                                    world habitable for simple
                                                                 “What must a world         factors or processes         of factors and processes    habitability factors are the                                  represent the minimum
              Concept Map                                                                                                                                                            and complex life. Reassess
                                                                 provide to support life?” are interrelated or           that make a world           availability of liquid water,                                 necessary for life?
                                                                                                                                                                                     the list of habitable planets
                                                                                            interconnected               habitable                   energy, and raw materials
                                                                                                                                                                                     and moons
                                                                 Play card games organized
                                                                 around the premise that                                                             There is evidence for
                                                                 if life can exist under     Play a card game with a     Play the card games Go      habitable conditions            Explain how life and           What is the evidence for
              Activity 2                     sets of Life on the extreme conditions on       special deck of 15 large-   Fish and Concentration      beyond Earth. Places            conditions on Earth can be     extraterrestrial conditions
        Extreme Life Card Game               Edge cards          Earth, then there may be sized extremophile playing     with a deck of 48           mirroring Earth’s life-         used as a model for life on    that may support
                                                                 organisms living under      cards                       extremophile cards          sustaining environments         other worlds                   extremophiles?
                                                                 similar conditions on other                                                         may harbor life

                                                                                                                                                     One can identify the terms
                                                                                                                                                     involved in determining if Estimate the number of     Which is more likely,
                                                                                                                         Identify the terms involved
               Activity 3                                        Estimate how many            Estimate the number of                                 there is life in the universe. worlds in the universe worlds with simple life
                                                                                                                         in estimating the number
        How Much Life Is There        100    none                extraterrestrial worlds in   corn flakes in the United                               The large number of stars with life by assigning      or worlds filled with
                                                                                                                         of worlds in the universe
           in the Universe?                                      the universe have life       States                                                 increases the probability probabilities or numbers to technologically capable
                                                                                                                         with life
                                                                                                                                                     that simple life exists        each term              beings?
                                                                                                                                                     elsewhere in the universe

         Meeting the Challenge
         Life on Your Habitable       100    none
              TOTAL TIME
                 minutes              425
              class periods            7

                      19                                                                                                                          Planning and Pacing Guide — Astrobiology: An Integrated Science Approach
Chapter 13: How Do We Search?
 Date        Activity Name          Time       Materials             What Students Do                 Engage                        Explore                      Explain                        Evaluate               Extend to Astrobiology

               Challenge                                         Write and submit a
            Proposal for an                                      proposal for building an
                                     25    none
        Observatory to Search for                                observatory to search for
             Intelligent Life                                    intelligent life

                                                                                                                                                       Radio waves cover a
                                           portable radio with Distinguish signals from      Play a game using clickers   Survey the radio dial,                                                                     Why is analyzing
                                                                                                                                                       range of bandwidths, but Contrast three images that
              Activity 1                   digital display,    noise and speculate about     to produce signals and       charting whether there                                                                     electromagnetic radiation
                                     50                                                                                                                intentional signals are      display the strength of
         Can We Find a Signal?             colored pencils, what kinds of signals            noise. Define signal and      is signal or noise at each                                                                 a good way to learn about
                                                                                                                                                       likely to be regular signals electromagnetic waves
                                           graph paper         intelligent life might send   noise                        frequency                                                                                  the universe?
                                                                                                                                                       at a specific bandwidth
                                                                                                                                                                                                                     How does our
                                                                                                                Model standing waves,                  A standing wave has a
                                           lengths of rope or Model a standing wave to List familiar sources of                                                                                                      understanding of the
               Activity 2                                                                                       calculate the speed of a               measurable amplitude,      Describe how waves can
                                     50    flexible springs, become familiar with the waves and the properties                                                                                                        universe and the search for
            Riding the Wave                                                                                     wave, and measure and                  wavelength, frequency, and convey information
                                           stopwatch          properties of waves      that characterize a wave                                                                                                      life depend on our ability
                                                                                                                describe wave properties               speed
                                                                                                                                                                                                                     to interpret waves?
                                                                                                                                                       Electromagnetic radiation
                                                                 Make a display of the                                 Make a chart of the                                           Contrast the properties and Why must some
               Activity 3                                                                    List as many kinds of                                     comes in many forms,
                                                                 electromagnetic spectrum                              different kinds of                                            scale of different kinds of observatories be placed in
           Understanding the               poster paper,                                     electromagnetic radiation                                 most of which we cannot
                                     50                          to become familiar with                               electromagnetic radiation                                     electromagnetic radiation. space while others work
            Electromagnetic                pushpins                                          as possible and devices                                   see. Each kind has a
                                                                 different types of EM                                 based on differences in                                       Identify instruments used well from the surface of
               Spectrum                                                                      used to detect each kind                                  unique wavelength and
                                                                 radiation                                             wavelength and frequency                                      to detect each kind         Earth?
                                           gas tubes
                                           (hydrogen,            Observe gases glowing                                                            Each elemental gas has a                                           Why might analyzing
                                                                                             Use a diffraction grating to
               Activity 4                  helium, neon),        inside tubes to see how                                                          unique spectral plot, which Draw plots of the five                  spectral signatures be
                                                                                             observe the spectral lines Match plots and photos of
         Cosmic Fingerprinting -     50    spectrum tube         spectral signatures can                                                          enables us to determine spectra that were viewed                   useful when studying the
                                                                                             of five different glowing five different spectra
          Using Spectral Lines             holder, diffraction   reveal the composition of                                                        the type of gas that created with the diffraction grating          atmospheres of other
                                           gratings, colored     the gas                                                                          the lines                                                          planets?
         Meeting the Challenge
            Proposal for an
                                    100    none
        Observatory to Search for
             Intelligent Life
              TOTAL TIME
                 minutes            325
              class periods          7

                     20                                                                                                                            Planning and Pacing Guide — Astrobiology: An Integrated Science Approach
Chapter 14: Searching for Extrasolar Planets
 Date        Activity Name           Time       Materials          What Students Do                    Engage                      Explore                       Explain                        Evaluate               Extend to Astrobiology
                                                              Examine dossiers for at
                                                              least two sun-like stars.
               Challenge                                      Using different observation
                                            extrasolar planet
           Can You Find the           50                      techniques, determine
           Extrasolar Planet?                                 whether a planet lies within
                                                              a habitable zone around
                                                              the suns
                                                               Analyze graphs of planets
                                                               transiting a star to see how                                                           When a planet transits its     Determine whether any
                Activity 1                                                                  Draw a graph of how the Interpret brightness                                                                             To be in the habitable zone
                                                               periodic changes in the                                                                star, the amount of light      of the extrasolar planets
           Observations of an               light bulb and                                  relative brightness of a     graphs of three transiting                                                                  of a sun-like star, what
                                      50                       amount of starlight can                                                                from the star decreases,       are in a habitable zone by
        Extrasolar Planet: Transit          base                                            light bulb changes as a ball planets and determine                                                                       orbital period should an
                                                               reveal the presence of an                                                              revealing the presence of      seeing if any have Earth-
                 Method                                                                     orbits it                    their period                                                                                extrasolar planet have?
                                                               orbiting planet, its period,                                                           an extrasolar planet           like periods
                                                               and distance from its star
                                                                                            Model a star-planet system
                                            two sizes of       Use a model and images                                                                                            Explain how a star’s
               Activity 2                                                                   to identify its center     Examine images to              A star’s wobbling motion
                                            Styrofoam          to understand how regular                                                                                         wobble reveals an orbiting How will detecting star
          Observations of an                                                                of mass and see how        determine the period of        can reveal a planet’s
                                      50    balls, shiskabob   changes in a star’s position                                                                                      planet and how the planet’s wobbles help astronomers
           Extrasolar Planet:                                                               distance and mass affect planets orbiting three           period, mass, and distance
                                            skewers, thin      can reveal the presence of                                                                                        mass influences a star’s find new solar systems?
          Astrometry Method                                                                 the location of the center hypothetical stars             from the star
                                            string or thread   an orbiting planet                                                                                                wobble
                                                                                            of mass
                                                                                                                                                      Stars moving toward a
                                                               Use models and spectral                                   Interpret the blue- and red-
                                                                                                                                                      viewer blue-shift their        Use blue- and red-shifting
               Activity 3                                      plots to see how a planet     Demonstrate a Doppler       shifting of spectral plots
                                            battery operated                                                                                          light, while stars moving      to determine the period      Contrast red- and blue-
           Observations of an                                  orbiting a star can change    shift by whirling a horn or and absorption lines to
                                     100    buzzer or horn,                                                                                           away red-shift their light.    of an orbiting planet and shifting as a way to detect
           Extrasolar Planet:                                  the star’s motion, altering   buzzer around on a long detect a star’s wobble and
                                            rope                                                                                                      The faster a star’s motion,    whether it is in a habitable extrasolar planets
            Spectral Method                                    the frequency and color of    rope                        the period and mass of the
                                                                                                                                                      the greater its blue- or       zone
                                                               its light                                                 orbiting planet
         Meeting the Challenge
           Can You Find the           75    none
          Extrasolar Planet?
              TOTAL TIME
                 minutes             325
              class periods           7

                     21                                                                                                                            Planning and Pacing Guide — Astrobiology: An Integrated Science Approach
Chapter 15: Exploring Planets and Moons
 Date       Activity Name          Time       Materials             What Students Do                  Engage                      Explore                         Explain                        Evaluate               Extend to Astrobiology
                                                                Complete a WebQuest
                                                                to design blueprints and
                                                                create a museum exhibit
        WebQuest: Exploring – A     25    Internet
                                                                that overviews some of the
         History of Discovery
                                                                missions that have allowed
                                                                us to explore space.
                                                                                                                                                       We explore the solar
                                          cafeteria tray,       Simulate the ways            Brainstorm ideas about      Simulate different
                                                                                                                                                       system using telescopes,                                       How could each
                                          assorted objects      we explore our solar         how we have gathered        exploration techniques by                                  Contrast the benefits
               Activity 1                                                                                                                              flybys, orbiters, landers,                                      exploration technique
                                    75    (film canisters,       system—telescopes,           information about the       observing a tray of objects                                and limitations of each
           Searching For Life                                                                                                                          and crewed missions, each                                      contribute to the search for
                                          coins, marbles,       flybys, orbiters, landers,    planets and moons in the    several times under                                        exploration technique
                                                                                                                                                       of which returns a different                                   life in the solar system?
                                          gum, cards, etc.)     and crewed missions          solar system                different conditions
                                                                                                                                                       kind of information

                                                                Make a timeline to contrast
                                          string, meter         the interplay between                                    Produce two timelines     Our understanding of        Describe how science                   Which techniques that
                                                                                            List what students know
               Activity 2                 sticks, paperclips,   science and science                                      showing how our scientific Mars has changed with the fiction ideas about Mars                  have helped us understand
                                                                                            about Mars and how they
            A Case Study in         75    audio tape of War     fiction by comparing the                                  understanding and our     acquisition of new data. relate to our scientific                   Mars have also helped us
                                                                                            think this information was
           Exploration: Mars              of the Worlds or      occurrences of scientific                                 fictional ideas of Mars    Science fiction reflects this understandings of the                  understand other worlds in
                                          Web site              discoveries and science                                  have changed over time changing understanding planet                                         the solar system?
                                                                fiction stories about Mars

                                                                                             Compare the behavior        Analyze visual, thermal,
                                                                Interpret three kinds                                                                                            Describe the advantages
                                          ice cubes, dry                                     of water ice and dry        and elevation data for        Combining different types
               Activity 3                                       of data returned by                                                                                              of using multiple versus For what kinds of
                                          ice, coffee cans,                                  ice. Model how a laser      the Martian ice cap to        of data is important when
        Orbiters: Looking at the   150                          orbiters to show how                                                                                             single types of data when observations are orbiters
                                          rubber bands,                                      altimeter works by creating experience how each           trying to understand a
             Martian Poles                                      these spacecraft help us                                                                                         trying to understand a    best suited?
                                          paper towels                                       and measuring mystery       type of data informs our      distant world
                                                                understand other worlds                                                                                          planet
                                                                                             landscapes                  understanding
                                                                Model the kinds of tests
                                                                a lander can carry out       Brainstorm what            Test three mystery             Life gives off by-products Describe the kinds of data
                                          peroxide, beef                                                                                                                                                              What are some advantages
              Activity 4                                        by testing samples for       conducting more            powders to determine           that can be used to identify the Viking landers were
                                          liver, yeast,                                                                                                                                                               and disadvantages of
        Landers: On the Martian     75                          life and comparing their     experiments on the surface whether any contain life.      its presence. Multiple       able to obtain and how
                                          manganese                                                                                                                                                                   sending a lander to the
               Surface                                          experiment with those        might be able to teach us Develop a plan to respond       testing helps address the false positives affected the
                                          oxide, test tubes,                                                                                                                                                          surface of a planet?
                                                                conducted by the Viking      about the Martian ice caps to false positives             problem of false positives missions
                                          wooden matches

                    22                                                                                                                              Planning and Pacing Guide — Astrobiology: An Integrated Science Approach
                                                                                                                                    Crewed missions
                                                                                                                                                                                                   What types of questions
                                                                              List some of the risks   Research the material        return high quality data       Build a case for or against
                                                   Debate the potential risks                                                                                                                      can each kind of mission
        Activity 5               video: Journey                               and benefits of crewed    needs and the risks and      but present logistical         crewed missions and
                                                   and benefits of a Mars                                                                                                                           answer, and which
The Future: What Next on   200   to Mars, Internet                            missions and sample      benefits of a crewed          problems. Sample returns       sample returns and
                                                   sample return and a                                                                                                                             kind returns the most
         Mars?                   access                                       returns, including       mission and a sample         can reveal a lot about         present the arguments in
                                                   crewed mission to Mars                                                                                                                          information per dollar
                                                                              contamination issues     return                       distant worlds but raise       class
                                                                                                                                    issues of contamination
 Meeting the Challenge
WebQuest: Exploring – A    75    Internet access
 History of Discovery
        minutes            675
     class periods          14

            23                                                                                                                   Planning and Pacing Guide — Astrobiology: An Integrated Science Approach
Chapter 16: The End is the Beginning
 Date       Activity Name          Time         Materials            What Students Do           Engage             Explore                         Explain                        Evaluate               Extend to Astrobiology

                                                                 Select a final project
                                                                 from four provided to
         Exhibit What You’ve         25     none
                                                                 exhibit understanding of

                                                                                                         Generate ideas for a                                          Use rubric to evaluate
              Activity 1                                         Design an astrobiology-                 mission, conduct research,                                    how well each aspect is
                               200-400 or                                                                                                                                                        Summarizes many aspects
        Design an Astrobiology            varies                 related space exploration               and develop a proposal                                        addressed. Have a “funder
                                 more                                                                                                                                                            of the astrobiology story
               Mission                                           mission                                 that will convince funders                                    panel” review all the
                                                                                                         to finance the mission                                         proposals
                                                                 Conduct an experiment                   Improve on one of the
                                                                                                                                                                       Produce either a written
               Activity 2                                        that synthesizes the                    curriculum activities,
                                                                                                                                                                       report or a scientific
          Individual Research 200-400 or                         course’s inquiry strand                 take an activity in a new                                                                Summarizes many aspects
                                         varies                                                                                                                        poster. The scoring rubric
        Project (using Habitable more                            and demonstrates mastery                direction, or pursue a                                                                   of the astrobiology story
                                                                                                                                                                       contains the project’s
                Worlds)                                          of the scientific research               question of personal
                                                                                                                                                                       evaluation criteria
                                                                 process                                 interest
                                                                                                         Brainstorm potential
                                                                                                         topics, review the
                                                                                                                                                                       Submit the completed
               Activity 3                                        Write a science fiction                  Short Story Sketch
                                200-400 or                                                                                                                             story. The scoring rubric       Summarizes many aspects
        Writing an Astrobiology            varies                story with an astrobiology              and Template, read the
                                  more                                                                                                                                 contains the project’s          of the astrobiology story
         Science Fiction Story                                   theme                                   Backgrounder and sample
                                                                                                                                                                       evaluation criteria
                                                                                                         stories, and produce one
                                                                                                         or more drafts
                                                                                                         Discuss the focus
                                                                 Produce a work of art and
                                                                                                         questions and decide how                                      Create an Astrobiology
                                                                 a one-page overview of
               Activity 4                                                                                to illustrate their answers                                   Space Art exhibit. The
                                 200-400 or                      their creation that reflects                                                                                                           Summarizes many aspects
         Creating Astrobiology              varies                                                       in a work of art. Observe                                     scoring rubric contains
                                   more                          their understanding of a                                                                                                              of the astrobiology story
               Space Art                                                                                 samples of space art.                                         the project’s evaluation
                                                                 topic or series of topics in
                                                                                                         Create one or more rough                                      criteria.
        Meeting the Challenge
         Exhibit What You’ve                varies by activity
             TOTAL TIME
                minutes           225-425
             class periods          4-8

                    24                                                                                                               Planning and Pacing Guide — Astrobiology: An Integrated Science Approach

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