plan_south_central _08-34_ by MarijanStefanovic

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									SOUTH CENTRAL
 DURHAM PLAN




  DURHAM CITY-COUNTY PLANNING DEPARTMENT
                 Durham City Council
                       Sylvia S. Kerckhoff
                             Mayor


Howard Clements, III     Erick W. Larson, II       Sandra Ogburn
 Virginia Engelhard        John A. Lloyd         Isaac A. Robinson
  Kimball Griffin           Skip London             Lorisa Seibel
   Frank Hyman         Floyd B. McKissick, Jr.     Dianne Wright


      City Clerk            City Manager             City Attorney
  Margaret M. Bowers       Orville W. Powell     William I. Thorton, Jr.
SOUTH CENTRAL
   DURHAM
    PLAN




  Adopted by Durham City Council
          April 17, 1995




   DURHAM CITY-COUNTY PLANNING DEPARTMENT
                                                                                                                                        South Central Durham Plan



                                     Table of Contents
INTRODUCTION .............................................................................................................. 1
    THE PURPOSE OF THE PLAN ........................................................................................................... 1
    THE PLANNING PROCESS ............................................................................................................... 2
         Data Collection ............................................................................................................................................. 2
         Citizen Participation .......................................................................................................... ............................ 2
    ORGANIZATION OF THE PLAN ....................................................................................................... 4
EXISTING CHARACTER ................................................................................................ 7
    THE DEVELOPMENT OF SOUTH ..................................................................................................... 7
    CENTRAL DURHAM .......................................................................................................................... 7
    EXISTING CONDITIONS ................................................................................................................. 11
         Demographic Characteristics ..................................................................................................................... 11
         Environmental Characteristics .................................................................................................................... 11
         Land Use Characteristics ........................................................................................................................... 18
         Transportation Characteristics .................................................................................................................... 22
         Economic Characteristics ........................................................................................................................... 33
         Housing Characteristics .............................................................................................................................. 36
         Summary of Issues ..................................................................................................................................... 40
THE PLAN ....................................................................................................................... 43
    THE COMPREHENSIVE ELEMENT ................................................................................................ 43
         The Environment ........................................................................................................................................ 43
         Land Use .................................................................................................................................................... 44
         Transportation ............................................................................................................................................. 45
         Community Facilities and Services ............................................................................................................. 45
         Economic Development .............................................................................................................................. 45
         Housing ....................................................................................................................................................... 46
    THE STRATEGIC ELEMENT ............................................................................................................ 46
         Environmental Issue .................................................................................................................................... 46
         Land Use Issue ........................................................................................................................................... 49
         Transportation Issue ................................................................................................................................... 55
         Community Facilities and Services Issue .................................................................................................... 58
         Economic Development Issue .................................................................................................................... 58
         Housing Issue ............................................................................................................................................. 59
IMPLEMENTATION ........................................................................................................ 63
    PLAN ADOPTION ............................................................................................................................. 63
    PLAN UTILIZATION ......................................................................................................................... 63
    PLAN IMPLEMENTATION .............................................................................................................. 64
    CONCLUSION .................................................................................................................................. 64
APPENDIX ....................................................................................................................... 65
    Dirt Streets in South Central Durham ..................................................................................................... 65
    Durham Architectural and Historic Inventory in South Central Durham ................................................... 66
    Durham County Historic Inventory in South Central Durham .................................................................. 67
    Action Plan .................................................................................................................... ....................... 69



                                                                                  iii
South Central Durham Plan

List of Maps
    Durham Planning Areas ........................................................................................................................... 3
    Key Areas .............................................................................................................................................. 5
    Past Redevelopment Projects .................................................................................................................. 9
    Special Areas ....................................................................................................................................... 13
    Historic Inventory ................................................................................................................................. 17
    Existing Land Use ................................................................................................................................. 19
    Existing Zoning ..................................................................................................................................... 21
    Thoroughfares and Traffic Concerns ...................................................................................................... 25
    Assisted Housing Developments ............................................................................................................ 39
    Future Land Use Map .......................................................................................................................... 51
    Proposed City-initiated Zoning Changes ................................................................................................ 53
List Of Tables
    Planning Advisory Committee ................................................................................................................. 2
    Key Population Indicators ..................................................................................................................... 11
    Existing Land Use ................................................................................................................................. 18
    Existing Zoning ..................................................................................................................................... 20
    Major Roadway Capacity Analysis ....................................................................................................... 24
    Trails and Greenways ........................................................................................................................... 28
    City Sidewalk Construction Program ..................................................................................................... 30
    Parks and Recreational Facilities in South Central Durham ..................................................................... 32
    Public Schools Serving South Central Durham ....................................................................................... 33
    Occupations of the Civilian Work Force ................................................................................................ 35
    South Central Durham Non-residential Investment ................................................................................. 37
    Number and Type of Dwelling Units ...................................................................................................... 38
    Federally Assisted Housing Development .............................................................................................. 40
    Housing Investment ............................................................................................................................... 40
    South Central Durham Housing Investment ............................................................................................ 41
    Future Land Use ................................................................................................................................... 49




                                                                             iv
                                                                                                         South Central Durham Plan




                                       INTRODUCTION

The focus of this Plan is an area referred to as South              In the inner-city areas, removing the scars of urban renewal is
Central Durham, one of fifteen areas that combine to                still a challenge and a priority.
comprise Durham City and County’s total planning juris-
diction (see Durham Planning Areas Map). The South
Central Durham planning area is bounded by the Durham
Freeway on the north and east, So-Hi Drive, Research
Triangle Park, and Cornwallis Road on the south, and
Cornwallis Road, Roxboro Street and the American To-
bacco Company Spur of the Durham South Carolina
Railroad on the west. Some residential neighborhoods in
the planning area are Bryant Heights, Burton Park, Cam-
pus Hills, Emorywood Estates, Hillside Park, Lincoln
Hospital, Oakmont, Southeast Park, St. Theresa and
various subdivisions near the former Southern High School.
Other key areas include North Carolina Central Univer-
sity, Durham Technical Community College, Lincoln Com-
munity Health Center and the Research Tricenter (see                The concerns of residents in both areas differ. In the
Key Areas Map).                                                     inner-city areas, which have been subjected to decades of
                                                                    urban redevelopment activities, removing the scars of
The South Central Durham planning area is bounded by the            urban renewal is still a challenge and a priority. In spite of
Durham Freeway on the north and east.                               these activities, residents are still concerned about the
                                                                    general improvement of their neighborhoods and better
                                                                    economic opportunities. In rural areas, industrial activity
                                                                    is increasing. There, residents are concerned that their
                                                                    environment will change dramatically and become domi-
                                                                    nated by heavy traffic, big trucks and big buildings. Indeed,
                                                                    many thoroughfare improvements have been planned and
                                                                    made to encourage more industrial development. A plan
                                                                    that manages this change can help residents, the City and
                                                                    the County to realize the benefits of this future growth.

                                                                    THE PURPOSE OF THE PLAN
                                                                    The South Central Durham Plan is designed to compre-
                                                                    hensively review and address the current conditions and
                                                                    future growth in the planning area. It identifies a variety
The South Central Durham planning area contains both
                                                                    of general, long-range goals and sets forth a series of
urban and rural areas ranging from older, inner-city neigh-
                                                                    corresponding policies, designed to guide decision-making
borhoods to farmsteads. While the population is predomi-
                                                                    processes on South Central Durham over the next twenty
nantly black, there is a small white population living in the
                                                                    years. The plan also establishes an intermediate planning
rural outlying areas. Virtually all of the area is within the
                                                                    methodology in the form of specific policies and implemen-
city limits. Proposed major public expenditures for schools,
                                                                    tation strategies for the next five to ten years. These
roads and services will have a significant impact on the
                                                                    measures address more current issues, problems and
future character of these areas.
                                                                    concerns.

                                                                1
South Central Durham Plan

In rural areas, industrial activity is increasing.                 spectrum of planning issues, which this planning process
                                                                   would be addressing, were identified by the PAC in
                                                                   August, 1991. By February, 1992, the PAC had held a
                                                                   series of meetings that specifically dealt with the issues the
                                                                   PAC had previously decided to discuss. At the same time,
                                                                   the planning staff outlined and addressed a series of
                                                                   comprehensive issues that fit into one of the following
                                                                   categories: 1) the environment, 2) land use, 3) transporta-
                                                                   tion, 4) community facilities and services, 5) housing, and
                                                                   6) economic development.

                                                                   On March 18, 1992, the Joint City-County Planning Com-
                                                                   mittee, which is composed of representatives from the
                                                                   City Council, Board of County Commissioners, the City
                                                                   and County Managers, the Chairman of the Durham
                                                                   Planning Commission and the Planning Director, approved
The South Central Durham Plan addresses issues and                 a change in the planning process for small area plans.
provides guidance for the City on planning and develop-            These changes were made with the goal of speeding up the
ment. This plan is intended to be used in tandem with the          planning process by allowing staff to prepare all the draft
2005 Comprehensive Plan, which sets policy for guiding             policy recommendations and then meet with the PAC for
growth patterns, priorities, and improvements on a wider           their review and comment, instead of meeting monthly to
scale that can also affect South Central Durham.                   develop each set of recommendations.

                                                                   Staff prepared a full draft plan and reviewed it with other
THE PLANNING PROCESS                                               planning staff and with other departments in City. PAC
                                                                   review of the draft plan was begun in March, 1994 and
Data Collection                                                    several meetings were held to complete the review.
                                                                   Following the PAC’s review, recommended changes
The Durham City-County Planning Department began to                were made and a meeting was scheduled to review the
collect data on South Central Durham early in February             plan with the South Central Durham community. This
1989. This data was used to prepare a preliminary                  document was then submitted to the Planning Commission
demographic and planning profile of South Central Durham
and to assist in drafting the existing conditions section of       Table 1: Planning Advisory Committee
this plan. Data sources from which this information was
obtained included 1990 U.S. Census, City and County
                                                                   Name                                 Representation
building permit activity, field surveys conducted by the
                                                                   Gerald Shanklin, Chair        Hayti Development
planning staff, as well as information provided by other                                         Corporation
departments and governmental agencies.                             Dr. E. Lavonia Allison        Elmira and Lincoln Hospital
                                                                   James N. Ballentine           Southeast Park
Citizen Participation                                              Thomas M. Davis               Campus Hills
                                                                   Hazel Godwin                  Few
The staff of the City-County Planning Department held a            James L. Harrington, Sr.      Oakmont
public meeting to discuss the process for preparing a small        Lester A. Heyward             Emorywood Estates
area plan for South Central Durham on March 26, 1991.              Dorothy L. Huey               Delchester
Citizens present at this and several other meetings that           Shirley Long                  At-Large
                                                                   Willie C. Lovette             Emorywood Estates
followed endorsed the plan’s development and agreed to
                                                                   (Deceased)
select representatives to serve on the South Central               Paul Watkins                  South Alston Avenue
Durham Planning Advisory Committee (PAC). By June                  Elton W. Yancey               Campus Hills
1991, residents and other citizens interested in the future        B. T. McMillon                North Carolina Central
of South Central Durham had submitted their planning                                             University
concerns to the planning staff and had selected represen-
tatives to serve on the PAC (see Table 1). A broad
                                                               2
                                                                                DURHAM PLANNING AREAS
                                                                                0 DOWNTOWN DURHAM
                                                                                1 NORTH CENTRAL DURHAM
                                                                                2 EAST CENTRAL DURHAM
                                                                                3 SOUTH CENTRAL DURHAM
                                                                                4 SOUTHWEST CENTRAL DURHAM
                                   15                                           5 WEST DURHAM
                                                                                6 NORTHWEST CENTRAL DURHAM
                                                                                7 NORTH DURHAM
                             (
                             /
                             501                                                8 NORTHEAST DURHAM
                                                                                9 SOUTHEAST DURHAM
                                                                               10 TRIANGLE TOWNSHIP
                                                                               11 SOUTH DURHAM
                                                                               12 SOUTHWEST DURHAM

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                  57
                                                                               14 LEBANON TOWNSHIP
                                                                               15 MANGUM TOWNSHIP


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South Central Durham Plan

and City Council for adoption and implementation.

ORGANIZATION OF THE PLAN
The South Central Durham Plan is organized into four
sections: Introduction; Existing Character; The Plan, and
Implementation. Introduction identifies the plan's overall
direction, purpose, format, and the process through which
it was derived. The Existing Character of South Central
Durham presents a review, analysis and summary of
South Central Durham’s existing conditions. The Plan
contains two components, a comprehensive element and
a strategic element, with the latter presenting a full set of
strategies, policies, and suggested programs designed to
provide guidance for South Central Durham’s develop-
ment over the next five to ten years. Implementation
identifies the framework within which these strategies,
policies, and programs should be carried out.




                                                                4
                                  SOUTH CENTRAL DURHAM




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KEY AREAS
S   RESIDENTIAL


                                                                                                                W
      1 BRYANT HEIGHTS
      2 BURTON PARK
      3 CAMPUS HILLS
                                                                                                                D
      4 COLLEGE PARK
      5 COLLIER ESTATES
      6 DELCHESTER COURT
      7 DUNSTAN
      8 ELMIRA
      9 EMORYWOOD ESTATES
     10 HILLSIDE
     11 LINCOLN HOSPITAL
     12 OAKMONT
     13 RED OAK
     14 St THERESA                                                                                                  N

W   NON-RESIDENTIAL
     A DURHAM TECHNICAL                                             CITY LIMIT LINE                             W              E

       COMMUNITY COLLEGE                                            RTP BOUNDARY
     B EXPRESSWAY COMMERCE CENTER
                                                                                                                    S                          DURHAM CITY-COUNTY PLANNING
     C NORTH CAROLINA                                                                                                                          Durham, North Carolina
       CENTRAL UNIVERSITY                        0                          3000                          6000 Feet                            December 1994
     D RESEARCH TRICENTER                                                                                                                      Amended: September 2002
South Central Durham Plan




                             EXISTING CHARACTER

South Central Durham’s existing character reflects the               North Carolina Central University is the first state-supported,
cumulative impact of economic, political and social forces           black liberal arts college in the nation.
upon it since the area began developing. These forces
have influenced land use patterns and the type and quality
of development that exist in the area today. An examina-
tion of the area’s history and existing conditions reveals the
natures of its opportunities and problems, which enables
the development of strategies to seize the opportunities
and address the problems.

THE DEVELOPMENT OF SOUTH
CENTRAL DURHAM
South Central Durham began developing after the Civil
War, but it was about the turn of the 20th century that the
foundations of the community were really established.
Development at that time was occurring in three areas;               They rented space on land owned by prominent whites,
Keene, Few and Hayti. Keene and Few were small rural                 who later sold them land to build churches. Eventually,
villages developed along railroads. Keene had a 1,000 foot           with the help of newly developed, black financial institu-
well that supplied water to fuel the steam engines of trains.        tions, they were able to purchase land for home sites and
Few was first known as Oyama, the name of a Japanese                 businesses. As the neighborhood grew, so did the
city it was given when a railroad station opened there in            community’s needs. The people were very resourceful
1904. After the attack on Pearl Harbor, its name was                 and built businesses and community facilities to meet
changed to honor the first president of Duke University,             current and future needs.
William P. Few.
                                                                     The community had leaders in almost every sphere of life,
Most of South Central Durham’s development occurred in               who collaborated and exerted themselves to make it
Hayti, where blacks settled to work in tobacco factories.            prosper. Chief among them were John Merrick, Dr.
                                                                     Aaron M. Moore, Charles C. Spaulding, Dr. Stanford L.
Hayti developed into one of the most extraordinary black             Warren and Dr. James E. Shepard. The triumvirate of
communities in the South.                                            Merrick, Moore and Spaulding is credited with the estab-
                                                                     lishment of the North Carolina Mutual Insurance Com-
                                                                     pany, now the nation’s largest black-managed business,
                                                                     which at that time acted as the “mother institution in the
                                                                     black community.” The insurance company gave birth to
                                                                     many other businesses and institutions, such as the Me-
                                                                     chanics and Farmers Bank, Mutual Savings and Loan and
                                                                     the Durham Business and Professional Chain.

                                                                     Hayti developed into one of the most extraordinary black
                                                                     communities in the South. Its business development and
                                                                     cultural activities had become widely known and people
                                                                     visited Hayti from all over the country. It was also known
                                                                     for its active night life, which was enjoyed by both blacks
                                                                     and whites.
                                                                 6
                                                                                                       South Central Durham Plan

The Fayetteville Street Public Housing Community was built         plete demolition of neighborhoods and business areas, the
in the demolished area.                                            relocations of hundreds of households, the construction of
                                                                   new public infrastructure and housing and the financing of
                                                                   new commercial development. The redevelopment of a
                                                                   few parcels of land and the completion of a large residen-
                                                                   tial development project remain to be done.

                                                                   Five major redevelopment projects have been undertaken
                                                                   over the last thirty years (see Past Redevelopment Projects
                                                                   Map). Three were part of the Hayti-Elizabeth Street
                                                                   General Renewal Area, which was a vast area on the
                                                                   eastern and southern fringes of Downtown targeted for
                                                                   complete renewal. They included North Carolina Rede-
                                                                   velopment Project #17 (NCR-17), NCR-54 and NCR-88.

                                                                   NCR-17, which was Project Two of this area, was the first
                                                                   urban renewal project carried out in South Central Durham.
                                                                   It razed several blocks of housing and businesses between
Fayetteville Street developed as the “Main Street” of the          Old Fayetteville Street and Grant Street, leaving only the
community. Located on a ridge line, Fayetteville Street            St. Joseph AME Church. The Fayetteville Street Public
sites were relatively expensive and many businesses and            Housing Community was built in the demolished area and
finer residential areas were developed there. Major                several businesses, including the Carolina Times Newspa-
institutions, such as Lincoln Hospital, Stanford L. Warren         per, were relocated into newly constructed temporarily
Library, North Carolina Central University, and large              buildings that became known as “Tin City.” The western
churches, such as White Rock, St. Joseph and Mt. Zion,             part of NCR-17, which included properties to be redevel-
were all on Fayetteville Street. Around the hospital and           oped for commercial use, was later added to NCR-54 for
college developed some of South Central Durham’s up-               completion.
scale neighborhoods, with fine residences for the growing
middle and upper-middle economic class. Many of the                NCR-54 was Project Three and was adopted in 1969. The
homes had stylish architectural features similar to those in       largest of the three urban renewal projects, it included land
other Durham neighborhoods. Development continued to               bounded by Pettigrew Street, Old Fayetteville Street,
move south along Fayetteville Street. New subdivisions             Umstead Street, and Roxboro Street. Of all the urban
such as Emorywood Estates and areas around the former              renewal projects in the City, NCR-54 has the most
Southern High School were started.                                 debilitating physical impact on Durham’s black commu-
                                                                   nity, completely demolishing the Hayti Business District
Older development in Hayti and adjacent neighborhoods              and about 600 homes. For nearly twenty years no
had started to deteriorate rapidly by 1950. Much of the            redevelopment had occurred in the area, greatly upsetting
housing had become overcrowded, and substandard and                those displaced and the black community as a whole. This
crime had increased. Streets had become congested and              reaction led to a new effort to complete the area’s
obsolete for handling increased traffic as more families           redevelopment with greater community involvement and
were able to afford automobiles. Existing lots were not            active community participation in development activities.
capable of supporting new development so little in-fill
development had occurred. The decline of the area had              The Hayti Development Corporation (HDC), a commu-
reached a point where it was necessary for the govern-             nity-based development organization, was formed in 1981
ment to take action to revitalize or renew the area.               with the expressed purpose of promoting redevelopment in
                                                                   NCR-54. The redevelopment plan was amended and
The City started redevelopment and revitalization activi-          several studies were made by consultants to help deter-
ties in South Central Durham in 1959. These activities             mine the nature of new residential and commercial rede-
have had a tremendous impact on the physical character             velopment. HDC won a contract with the City to be the
of the area and have required tens of millions of dollars of       principal agent for marketing the area’s vacant land. To
public investment. Funds have been spent for the com-              date, the efforts of HDC and the City have produced good

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PAST
REDEVELOPMENT
PROJECTS
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  NCR - 17
  NCR - 41                                                           CITY LIMIT LINE                             W                E

  NCR - 54                                                           RTP BOUNDARY                                    S

  NCR - 88
                                                                                                                                                   DURHAM CITY-COUNTY PLANNING
                                                  0                          3000                         6000 Feet                                Durham, North Carolina
  St Theresa                                                                                                                                       December 1994
                                                                                                        South Central Durham Plan

The developments generated from these efforts include Heri-         Project Five of the Hayti-Elizabeth General Renewal
tage Square Shopping Center.                                        Area. However, the demise of the federal urban renewal
                                                                    program prevented the start-up of the proposed Project
                                                                    Five, but the area was still badly in need of treatment. The
                                                                    St. Theresa Redevelopment Plan was prepared in 1981
                                                                    and carried out under the Community Development Block
                                                                    Grant Program (CBDG). It was also a mixed-clearance
                                                                    and neighborhood revitalization program that involved $4
                                                                    million of public funds for redevelopment actions, street
                                                                    and sidewalk improvements and housing rehabilitation,
                                                                    and $4 million in private investment. All of the land that
                                                                    was bought and cleared, have been re-sold and redevel-
                                                                    oped. A total of 180 housing units were rehabilitated and
                                                                    120 new units were built.

                                                                    The City and County have carried other activities that have
                                                                    contributed to the general well-being of the area. They
results within the portion of NCR-54 inside of South
                                                                    were the construction of the Lincoln Community Health
Central Durham, which have led to the development of
                                                                    Center, the expansion of Durham Technical Community
two new shopping centers and 170 planned and built
                                                                    College, the construction of the W. D. Hill and Irwin R.
housing units. These projects have involved $6 million of
                                                                    Holmes Sr. recreation centers and renovation and conver-
public funds and $5 million of private investment. The
                                                                    sion of the St. Joseph AME Church into the Hayti Heritage
developments generated from these efforts include Heri-
                                                                    Center. In addition, the City has undertaken projects to
tage Square Shopping Center, Phoenix Square Shopping
                                                                    attract industrial development to the area, providing needed
Center, the Foxgate housing development and the Rolling
                                                                    job opportunities for residents. These efforts have comple-
Hills residential community. However, much of Rolling
                                                                    mented private industrial developments, like the Research
Hills remains to be completed and new efforts are under-
                                                                    Tricenter, which are adding a new industrial/employment
way to get more housing constructed.
                                                                    focus to the community.
The third redevelopment project was NCR-88 or Project
Four. It was started in 1973 and was the smallest of all five       EXISTING CONDITIONS
projects. Like Projects Two and Three, Project Four was
an urban renewal total clearance project and the land lay           The initial step of this small area planning process involves
vacant for many years. In 1980, the Durham Housing                  a comprehensive inventory and analysis of an area’s
Authority built Forest Hills Heights, a 55-unit elderly             existing conditions. Perhaps the most important step in the
housing development, on the area’s largest parcel. The              overall process, it provides a sound basis from which to
redevelopment plan was amended in 1984 to promote
better use of the remaining vacant land. All of the land has        The St. Theresa Redevelopment Plan was a mixed-clearance
been sold and developed with office and commercial uses.            and revitalization program.

Perhaps one of the most successful and least conspicuous
urban renewal projects in the planning area was NCR-41
or the North Carolina College Project. It was started in
1964 and was not a total clearance project. Blighted
portions of the neighborhood south of the college were
removed and a new layout for the land, infrastructure and
sites for Shepard Middle School and the expansion of
NCCU were provided. Improvements to major thorough-
fares, like NC-55 and Fayetteville Street, were also made.

The latest redevelopment project, St. Theresa, addressed
an area that was once targeted for urban renewal as

                                                                9
South Central Durham Plan

fashion policies, programs and improvements needed to                Street Public Housing Community. Information for that
address the area’s conditions. The information collected             census tract shows that over one half of the families is
includes population, the environment, land use, transporta-          below the poverty level and about forty six percent of the
tion, community facilities and services, economic condi-             households is headed by a female with children. On top of
tions and housing.                                                   that, the unemployment rate is over sixteen percent.
                                                                     Obviously, these statistics indicate a strong need for many
Demographic Characteristics                                          social services, affordable daycare, youth programs, edu-
                                                                     cation and job training and good paying jobs for these
U.S. Census of Population and Housing information was                residents.
used to examine and describe the population in South
Central Durham. Some of the information is displayed in              Environmental Characteristics
Table 2, Key Population Indicators, for easy reference.
Almost thirteen percent of Durham’s population lived in              The environmental characteristics of an area helps deter-
South Central Durham in 1990. The most unique charac-                mine, in part, the type, form and density of development.
teristic is the high percentage of black residents, which is         New development can incorporate elements of the natural
the highest for all of Durham’s planning areas. Generally,           environment into their development plans. Natural fea-
black and white residents live in segregated areas with              tures, such as creeks, might limit the amount of buildable
most of the white residents living in outlying areas adjacent        land, but could also enhance an area aesthetically by
to Research Triangle Park.                                           providing open space and recreational opportunities. When
                                                                     incorporated into the overall design scheme as an amenity,
A relatively high proportion of the population is under              creeks and other natural features enhance land value and
eighteen years of age and the percentage of female                   marketability. Conversely, development that disregards a
household heads with children was nearly twice the                   site’s natural features and other physical characteristics
percentage for the City. In addition, the average family             may be unnecessarily expensive to a developer, in terms
income was sixty percent of the City’s average family                of hidden development costs, and to the environment, in
income and the unemployment rate was almost double that              terms of damage to natural ecosystems.
for the City. The preponderance of these conditions is
closely associated with the large amount of low income               Water Resources
public housing in the planning area. For example, census
tract 12.02 is almost entirely comprised of the Fayetteville         South Central Durham contains both intermittent and
                                                                     perennial streams. The largest stream is Third Fork
Table 2: Key Population Indicators                                   Creek, which enters the planning area west of the
                                                                     Cornwallis Road and Fayetteville Street intersection. This
                                                                     stream discharges into B. Everett Jordan Reservoir.
                                                                     Other creeks in the area include Northeast Creek, which
                                                                     flows along NC-55 near Cornwallis Road and northwest
                                                                     of RTP, and Rocky Creek which flows across Fayetteville
                                                                     Street and NC-55. Rocky Creek is also a tributary of Third
                                                                     Fork Creek. All of these creeks are subject to flooding.

                                                                     Floodplain

                                                                     Flooding along Rocky Creek does occur and on occasions
                                                                     has caused the portion of Fayetteville Street between
                                                                     Cornwallis Road and Pilot Street to be closed to vehicular
                                                                     traffic. Even though there are several houses in the
                                                                     floodplain, to date minimal property damage has occurred.
                                                                     Land uses in the 100 year floodplain are regulated by city
                                                                     and federal agencies to protect property and preserve
                                                                     natural drainage systems. The National Flood Insurance



                                                                10
                                                                                                          South Central Durham Plan

Large amounts of trash and debris in streams can exacerbate          responsible for developing and operating the storm water
the threat of flooding.                                              management program. The utility is also authorized to
                                                                     raise revenue to operate the program through storm water
                                                                     service charges that are collected through water bills. All
                                                                     developed land in the City, whether public or private, are
                                                                     subject to these service charges, which are based on the
                                                                     amount of impervious surfaces on the property.

                                                                     The Durham Zoning Ordinance also has storm water
                                                                     quality provisions. The ordinance establishes stream
                                                                     buffer areas that permit the infiltration and filtering of
                                                                     pollutants from adequate quantities of storm water runoff,
                                                                     help reduce stream bed erosion, decrease downstream
                                                                     reservoir sedimentation, and improve water quality. For
                                                                     controlling storm water, a 50-foot undisturbed buffer is
Program provides property insurance for areas with high              required adjacent to both sides of the primary channel of
risk of flooding. To qualify for this program, the City is           streams with drainage basins of at least one square mile
required to regulate building in areas designated on the             (major streams). A 25-foot undisturbed buffer is required
Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) flood                     adjacent to minor streams that have a drainage basin
boundary and floodway maps. Within the 100-year                      greater than 50 acres, but less than one square mile.
floodway, the Durham Zoning Ordinance defines a flood-               Wetlands
way area where structures or filling are strictly prohibited.
Development in the remaining portion of the 100-year                 Wetlands play a unique and critical role in the aquatic and
floodplain, the floodway fringe, is subject to floodproofing         marine ecology. They are land areas that are sufficiently
requirements. Floodplain areas in South Central Durham               saturated by surface water or groundwater as to be
are shown on the Special Areas Map.                                  generally able to support vegetation or aquatic life for at
                                                                     least part of the year. Wetlands appear as marshes,
South Central Durham has about 300 acres of land in the              swamps, bogs, slough, and other areas characterized by
designated floodplain, which is about seven percent of the           soil that is either waterlogged or covered with stagnant or
total land area. However, some of the floodplain has been            slow-moving water. By their nature, wetlands tend to exist
developed. The amount of land in the designated flood-               in low-lying areas, e.g., shallow lakes and ponds, along
plain and the flood-level elevations for many areas are              river banks, and in coastal areas. Because they are
expected to be increased when the update of FEMA flood               composed of porous soil and other material, wetlands tend
maps is completed this year. The increase in flood-level             to function as storage of storm water helping to avert flood
elevations and the broadening of floodplain are due to               damage, and the recharging of groundwater by holding
better data collection for determining flood level elevations        runoff until it can percolate downward.
and increased run-off into streams from new develop-
ment. The increase could also place additional existing              Development in wetlands areas is regulated by the U.S.
structures into the designated floodplain. Large amounts             Army Corps of Engineers (Corps) under authority of the
of trash and debris in streams can exacerbate the threat of          Federal Rivers and Harbors Act and the Clean Water Act.
flooding to structures in the floodplain.                            The latter prohibits discharge of fill material into waters of
                                                                     the United States without a permit. Portions of the
Storm Water Management                                               floodplain along Northeast, Rocky and Third Fork Creeks
                                                                     appear to contain wetland areas. Since, however, the
Storm water poses a serious threat to the public health,             Corps retains sole authority to designate wetlands, and
safety and welfare because it erodes watercourses and                because this authority is exercised only upon property
channels, and pollutes streams and rivers. The federal               owner request, many wetlands in South Central Durham
government has mandated that cities control the quality of           remain unidentified and unmapped.
storm water discharged to the waters of the United States.
In response to this mandate, the City Council has adopted            Open Space Preservation
an ordinance creating a Storm Water Utility, which is
                                                                     Open space lands include streams, forests, agricultural
                                                                11
                                 SOUTH CENTRAL DURHAM




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SPECIAL AREAS
                                                                                                                     N
  FLOODPLAIN
  STREAM BUFFERS                                                   CITY LIMIT LINE                               W               E

                                                                   RTP BOUNDARY
  GREENWAYS                                                                                                          S

                                                                                                                                                  DURHAM CITY-COUNTY PLANNING
  SIDEWALK TRAILS
                                                0                          3000                            6000 Feet                              Durham, North Carolina
  RAILROAD TRAIL                                                                                                                                  December 1994
                                                                                                        South Central Durham Plan

lands, parks or other publicly owned recreational areas.             standard more than once per year. The Raleigh-Durham
This space has environmental benefits for wildlife, air and          area was designated a moderate nonattainment area for
water quality, recreational and education opportunities and          ozone and carbon monoxide. The moderate classes had
adds to the aesthetics attractiveness of the community. All          levels ranging from 0.138 to 0.16 ppm for ozone and 9.1 to
types are not open to the public such as farmland, wood-             12.7 ppm for carbon monoxide. The Clean Air Act
lands or private recreational areas.                                 Amendments (CAAA) of 1990 require nonattainment
                                                                     areas to reach attainment standards for carbon monoxide
The City has adopted a standard for providing open space             by 1995 and ozone by 1996.
land for passive recreation. Using the standard from the
State Outdoor Recreation Plan, the City wants to provide             A vehicle emissions maintenance and inspection program
five acres for every 1,000 persons. It proposes to provide           was implemented in July, 1992 as part of the annual vehicle
this land through the Urban Trails and Greenway Plan,                inspection program administered by the N. C. Department
which has designated three trail corridors in the planning           of Transportation, Division of Motor Vehicles. This
area (see the Special Areas Map). The total length of the            program coupled with a cleaner burning vehicle fleet is
trail corridors is about 9 miles and over 39 acres are needed        projected to reduce vehicle emissions significantly.
for them. According to the City standard, this land could
serve about 8,000 people. Some of these corridors are in             Noise
floodplain along creeks. Establishing them will provide
more passive recreational space, but will not significantly          The U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Develop-
increase the overall amount of open space in the planning            ment (HUD) has developed noise criteria for acceptable
area.                                                                sites for housing and other noise sensitive uses. HUD
                                                                     considers a day-night average of 64 dB(A) or less to be
Natural Areas and Ecology                                            acceptable, 66 dB(A) to 75 dB(A) to be normally unac-
                                                                     ceptable, and above 75 dB(A) to be unacceptable. Nor-
Small areas of South Central Durham consists of hard-                mally unacceptable sites can be used if noise attenuation
wood, mixed hardwood and pine woodlands, with some                   is included in the site design and construction specifica-
areas of pasture and farmland. Nearly all of the woodland            tions. The major noise sources for South Central Durham
is secondary growth in cut over forests or farmland. These           is the Durham Freeway and railroads, but no recent studies
areas provide good habitat for the gray squirrel, cottontail         have been done to indicate how much noise is being
rabbit, bobwhite quail, whitetail deer, pigeon, morning              generated.
dove, raccoon, opossum and smaller mammals such as
field mice, shrew, rats and bats. Large wooded tracks and            Hazardous Material
open fields in South Central Durham also provide good
habitat for many species of songbirds. This abundant                 Public awareness of and concern over the serious harm
variety of small mammals attracts birds of prey, mostly              that the general public might suffer as a result of the use,
members of the hawk and owl families, many of which                  storage, transportation and disposal of hazardous materi-
nest in the mature woodlands. Continuing development in              Some of these corridors are in floodplain along creeks.
the area will reduce this habitat, and among these species,
only the more urban adaptable ones will persist.

Air Quality

Automobile and truck emissions represent the largest
potential source of pollution to South Central Durham’s air,
followed by emissions from heating equipment. The
Environmental Protection Agency promulgated a final rule
in the November 6, 1991 Federal Register identifying and
classifying areas exceeding National Ambient Air Quality
standards that were identified in the Clean Air Act
Amendments of 1990. These areas, which are called
nonattainment areas, have exceeded the maximum one-
hour average of 0.12 parts per million (ppm) ozone
                                                                13
South Central Durham Plan

als has increased in recent years. Although South Central             The worst incident was the Southchem fire in 1986.
Durham does not have industry whose primary business is
storage and handling of hazardous materials, there are
such industrial uses located just north of the area. Several
incidents involving the spillage of hazardous materials and
fires have impacted residential areas in the planning area.
The worst incident was the Southchem fire in 1986, which
forced the evacuation of over 600 families. Many of these
families lived in South Central Durham neighborhoods just
south of the Southchem property. Other minor incidents
have involved chemical spills into nearby creeks and
drainage ditches that run through South Central Durham.

The Durham City-County Emergency Management De-
partment has prepared a Comprehensive Response Plan
that for East Durham that covers parts of South Central
Durham. This plan explicitly communicates emergency                   One district includes twelve buildings on the campus of
procedures to designated individuals, and enables coordi-             North Carolina Central University, which is the first state-
nation of transportation and sheltering facilities for resi-          supported, black liberal arts college in the nation. The
dents that need to be evacuated.                                      district is adjacent to Fayetteville Street and crosses it to
                                                                      include the former residence of the school’s president.
Urban Design                                                          Historically, the institution has always reflected positively
                                                                      on the character of surrounding residential areas.
The image or aesthetic character of an area is largely a
function of visual perception. As such, the appearance of             The other district includes remnants of the Durham Cotton
buildings, upkeep of properties and vegetation greatly                Mill Village, which once housed workers for Durham’s
influences how an area is perceived. This perception is               first textile mill. The mill was originally constructed in
also a matter of pride for residents.                                 1894, but is now occupied by Southchem. However, the
                                                                      mill and the village were separated by construction of the
South Central Durham has many public facilities and                   Durham Freeway.
institutions that contribute positively to the area’s image.
Recent developments and more established institutions                 The village once comprised about twenty structures in the
have enhanced their appearance with landscaping and                   600 blocks of Middle and Reservoir Streets. This area is
regular maintenance. In addition, the City has provided               quite isolated, sandwiched between Durham Tech and the
landscaping in many locations and regularly plants flowers            freeway, and Bowen Street is the only entrance and exit
at points along the Durham Freeway and at the intersec-               to it. Since it was designated a historic district, many of the
tion of Roxboro Street and Lakewood Avenue. Numerous                  original structures have been replaced by quadruplexes
other locations are suitable for landscaping projects and             and duplexes that have diminished the “mill village charac-
the removal of trash and debris from vacant lots, commer-             ter.” In addition, nearly all of the remaining structures
cial areas and streams would improve the area’s appear-               have one owner and are deteriorated. Substandard streets
ance and image.                                                       add to these worsening conditions. Further decline of the
Cultural Resources                                                    area might destroy the historical significance altogether.

Preservation of historically significant places and proper-           The three National Register Historic Properties include
ties helps to enhance an area’s cultural framework and                the St. Joseph AME Church, the Stanford L. Warren
pride. South Central Durham has many existing remnants                Library and the Scarborough House, all of which are
of its rich history, which are still sources of pride for area        located along Fayetteville Street. As has been mentioned
residents and citizens of the City as a whole. These include          earlier, St. Joseph AME Church was renovated and is now
two National Register Historic Districts and three proper-            the Hayti Heritage Center. The other sites could be
ties on the National Register of Historic Places (see                 adversely impacted if Fayetteville Street is widened to a
Historic Inventory Map).                                              multi-lane facility.

                                                                 14
                                                                                                           South Central Durham Plan

Many public facilities and institutions contribute positively to        Historic Places.
the area’s image.
                                                                        Individual properties on both inventories are eligible for
                                                                        designation as Durham County Historic Landmarks in
                                                                        accordance with the Durham Historic Preservation Com-
                                                                        mission Ordinance. A historic landmark is eligible for a
                                                                        fifty percent reduction of local tax rates levied for all
                                                                        purposes upon real and tangible property. This designation
                                                                        could also be sought for properties in the Durham Cotton
                                                                        Mill Village and could be good incentive to get owners to
                                                                        upgrade their properties. But since most of the properties
                                                                        are under single ownership, financial assistance for hous-
                                                                        ing rehabilitation might also be needed.

                                                                        Land Use Characteristics

                                                                        Local government generally use zoning as a primary tool
In addition to the district and properties on the National              for directing and controlling the location, type, arrange-
Register of Historic Places, South Central Durham has                   ment, and intensity of land uses. Localities obtain the
properties listed in the Durham Architectural and Historic              authority to zone through a lawful delegation of police
Inventory and in the Durham County Historic Inventory.                  powers from the state legislature. Proper use of zoning
The locations of these properties are indicated on the                  generally reduces the likelihood that conflicting land uses
Historic Inventory Map and listed in the Appendix.                      will occur too close to one another. Thus, by allocating
                                                                        adequate space for the full range of needed land use
The Durham Architectural and Historic Inventory was                     activity and regulating land use intensity levels, advance
prepared by consultants in 1980 and 1981, with assistance               planning attempts to influence the direction of new growth,
from the Historic Preservation Society of Durham and the                while protecting existing neighborhoods and sensitive
North Carolina Division of Archives. The purpose of the                 environmental areas.
inventory was to record all of the existing structures
erected before 1940 in the current city limits and analyze              The Durham City-County Planning Department con-
Durham’s physical development through an examination                    ducted a survey of current land uses in South Central
of the information gathered in the field work and historical            Durham in 1990. The results appear in Table 3 and on the
research. The forty-four properties listed in the publica-              Existing Land Use Map. Also during this time, existing
tion were selected on the basis of historical or architectural          zoning categories and recent zoning activity were studied.
significance or their value as representative of buildings in           The results of the zoning study appear in Table 4 and on the
the neighborhood. Most of the buildings are scattered                   Existing Zoning Map. This existing land use and zoning
throughout the area, but there are significant concentra-               New duplexes have diminished the “mill village character.”
tions along Fayetteville Street and near NCCU. Although
these concentrations of buildings did not meet criteria for
designation as National Register Historic Districts, they
might meet criteria for local historic district designation.

Eleven properties are listed in the Durham County Historic
Inventory. The inventory represents several years of
work by citizens of the Durham County, the Durham
Historic Preservation Commission and its staff, and tech-
nical consultants to compile a comprehensive list of histori-
cally significant properties. One of these properties, the
Gus Godwin Farm on Alston Avenue, has been placed on
the “study list” by the State of North Carolina and is
potentially eligible for listing on the National Register of

                                                                   15
                                SOUTH CENTRAL DURHAM




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HISTORIC
INVENTORY
    NATIONAL REGISTER OF
    HISTORIC DISTRICTS
      A NCCU
      B MILL VILLAGE
    NATIONAL REGISTER OF
    HISTORIC PROPERTIES                                                                                                           N
      C ST JOSEPHS AME CHURCH
      D S L WARREN LIBRARY                                             CITY LIMIT LINE                                      W                E
      E SCARBOROUGH HOUSE
                                                                       RTP BOUNDARY
    DURHAM ARCHITECTURAL
#
S
                                                                                                                                  S
    AND HISTORIC INVENTORY                                                                                                                                    DURHAM CITY-COUNTY PLANNING
T
$   DURHAM COUNTY
    HISTORIC INVENTORY
                                               0                               3000                               6000 Feet                                   Durham, North Carolina
                                                                                                                                                              December 1994
                                                                                                       South Central Durham Plan

The Scarborough House is a National Register Historic Prop-        of some rural residential areas.
erty.
                                                                   Commercial Land Use

                                                                   There are only sixty-two acres of commercial uses in
                                                                   South Central Durham, which is a very small amount
                                                                   relative to the vast amount of residential uses. These uses
                                                                   are in small clusters at the intersections of major road-
                                                                   ways, scattered throughout the planning area. The most
                                                                   significant cluster is at the Fayetteville Street interchange
                                                                   with the Durham Freeway, which includes a shopping
                                                                   center and other neighborhood commercial uses. The
                                                                   planning area has few general commercial uses and some
                                                                   heavy commercial uses are located at the intersection of
                                                                   NC-55 and Riddle Road, adjacent to low density residen-
                                                                   tial. A total of three and one half percent of the planning
information was last updated in December, 1993.                    area is zoned for commercial. Much of the land in these
                                                                   zoning districts are developed with residential and institu-
The character of South Central Durham is predominantly             tional uses.
residential and three quarters of the area is zoned for
residential use. There are substantial amounts of undevel-         Office and Institutional Land Use
oped land having the potential to be developed for more
intense uses. This potential is highest for those tracts of        Office land uses occupy less than one percent of the total
land adjacent to RTP.                                              land acreage or about fourteen acres. The existing Office-
                                                                   Institutional districts situated along Fayetteville Street
Residential Land Use                                               north of Moline Street and along Merrick Street north of
                                                                   Linwood Avenue are developed with a mix of residential
South Central Durham’s residential component is mostly             and office uses. The Office-Institutional district along
well-established neighborhoods and communities. Resi-              NC-55 and So-Hi Drive is currently undeveloped, and the
dential development accounts for one third of the planning         district along Alston Avenue south of So-Hi Drive contains
area’s 4,094 acres of land, or about one half of all
developed land. Low density residential uses (1-4 dwelling         Table 3: Existing Land Use
units per acre) are scattered throughout the planning area,
but most are in the southern part in neighborhoods like                                             Percent of   Percent
Elmira, Emorywood Estates, Oakmont and Delchester                  Land Use           Acres           Total     Developed
Court. Medium density residential uses (4-8 units per              Residential           1,289             31.5        48.0
acre) are located in the central and northern parts of the          Low                       572           14.0           21.3

planning area. Single family dwellings are the predominant          Medium                    424           10.4           15.8

housing type in this category. High density residential             High                      293            7.1           10.9
uses, which is greater than eight units per acre, consist          Rural                     295             7.2          11.0
mostly of apartment complexes, quadruplexes and single              Residential               122            3.0             4.6
family dwellings in R-3 and R-5 zoning districts. High              Agricultural              173            4.2             6.4
density residential uses are mostly assisted housing devel-        Commercial                 62            1.5            2.3
opments.
                                                                   Office                      9            0.2            0.3
                                                                   Institutional             424           10.4           15.8
Rural Land Use
                                                                   Industrial                283            6.9           10.6
There are about 300 acres of rural land use in South               Recreation/               321            7.8           12.0
Central Durham which allows for less than one unit per             Floodplain/
                                                                   Open Space
acre and agricultural related uses. These uses are located
                                                                   Undeveloped             1,412           34.5            0.0
near RTP and are under increasing pressure for industrial
                                                                   Total                   4,095          100.0          100.0
development. Buffering can help to maintain the integrity
                                                              17
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             COMMERCIAL

             OFFICE

             INSTITUTIONAL

             INDUSTRIAL

             RECREATION / OPEN SPACE / FLOODPLAIN

             AGRICULTURAL

             UTILITIES
                                                                                                                                      N
             UNDEVELOPED
                                                                                   CITY LIMIT LINE                              W                E
Note: Existing Land Use information has been                                       RTP BOUNDARY                                       S
derived from tax assessment data and may not
reflect actual conditions (August 2003). The                                                                                                                       DURHAM CITY-COUNTY PLANNING
City-County Planning Department makes no
claims or gaurantees as to the accuracy of this                0                        3000                          6000 Feet                                    Durham, North Carolina
information.                                                                                                                                                       December 1994
                                                                                                        South Central Durham Plan

Table 4: Existing Zoning                                            Recreation/Floodplain/Open Space
                                           Percent of
Zone                    Acreage              Total                  Almost eight percent of the land in South Central Durham
                                                                    is used for Recreation/Floodplain/Open Space. Land in
Total Residential             2,873                70.2
                                                                    this category is comprised almost entirely of floodplain and
 Low                                952                23.3
                                                                    recreational parks. The majority is floodplain, but there is
 Medium                           1,252                30.6
                                                                    considerable overlap between the two types. Several
 High                               668                16.3
                                                                    parks and recreational facilities listed in Table 8 are built
Commercial                         142                 3.5          partially within the floodplain.
Office                             114                 2.8
Industrial                         955                23.3          Undeveloped Land
Research                             10                0.2
Total                            4,094               100.0          Slightly more than one-third of the planning area’s total
only single family residential uses.                                land area is undeveloped. This is approximately 1,406
                                                                    acres. Significant amounts of this land are within approved
Institutional uses occupy about 424 acres or almost ten             or partially-constructed development projects, such as
percent of the total acreage. They are dispersed through-           Expressway Commerce Center along Briggs Avenue,
out the planning area and consist of North Carolina Central         Teer Park along Alston Avenue and Chesapeake along
University, Durham Technical Community College, Lin-                NC-55. In addition, many scattered small tracts of land of
coln Community Health Center, public schools, public                various sizes are located in built-up areas. However,
library, numerous churches, day-care facilities, and the            developing many of these parcels might require the exten-
Glenview Cemetery. These uses are permitted in most                 sion of streets or building of culverts across streams, which
zoning districts.                                                   generally could make their development cost-prohibitive.

Industrial Land Use                                                 Transportation Characteristics

Industrial uses take up almost seven percent of the total           Circulation patterns are closely tied to land use and are
land area. This amount represents nearly eleven percent             major determinants of the overall livability of a community.
of the developed land in South Central Durham. Most of              Streets, sidewalks and local transit routes are established
these uses are light industrial, which is also the predomi-         and changed to reflect a community’s needs and to provide
nate industrial zoning in the planning area. There is also a        access to nearby land uses.
limited amount of I-3, Heavy Industrial zoning. Uses
developed in this zone could have substantial adverse               An efficient transportation network provides for the safe
impacts on adjacent residential uses.                               and timely movement of people and goods between
                                                                    residential areas, job centers, schools, parks, and shopping
The pattern of industrial zoning forms a wedge between              South Central Durham’s residential component is mostly well-
medium density residential areas in the central part of             established neighborhoods and communities.
South Central Durham and the more rural and low density
residential areas adjacent to RTP. Within this pattern is
the Collier Estates subdivision, which is zoned I-2(D).
Industrial zoning is expected to reach RTP as land is
rezoned and developed for industry. In addition to being
next to RTP, the attractiveness of land in this area for
industrial development is being increased by the construc-
tion of several major road improvements, including the
new Ellis Road interchange on the Durham Freeway, the
Briggs Avenue Extension, the Northeast Creek Parkway
and the East End Connector linking U.S. 70 with the
Durham Freeway.



                                                               19
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           RM-8                           OI-1
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           RM-20                          I-3
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OVERLAY ZONING DISTRICTS
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           HISTORIC DISTRICT OVERLAY
           ZONING DISTRICT WITH                                                              CITY LIMIT LINE                                            W                   E
           DEVELOPMENT PLAN                                                                  RTP BOUNDARY                                                        S

                                                                                                                                                                                               DURHAM CITY-COUNTY PLANNING
The Zoning Information is taken from                                0                               3000                                       6000 Feet                                       Durham, North Carolina
the current Zoning Atlas (8/03)                                                                                                                                                                December 1994
                                                                                                            South Central Durham Plan

Office land uses occupy less than one percent of the total land        fringes of the planning area. This roadway is also the route
acreage.                                                               of choice for traffic moving to points between Durham,
                                                                       Raleigh and beyond. It has five interchanges with roads
                                                                       in the planning area, including a new interchange at Ellis
                                                                       Road providing direct access to Glaxo, Reichold Chemi-
                                                                       cals and other industrial development in that area.

                                                                       Most major thoroughfares run north and south through the
                                                                       planning area. They include Roxboro Street, Fayetteville
                                                                       Street, Alston Avenue, NC-55, Briggs Avenue and Ellis
                                                                       Road. East-west traffic movement through South Central
                                                                       Durham is more difficult and disjointed, and limited to
                                                                       thoroughfares forming the northern and southern bound-
                                                                       aries, like Lakewood Avenue and Cornwallis Road. Within
                                                                       the planning area, Lawson Street carries east-west traffic
                                                                       between Roxboro Street and Briggs Avenue, serving
centers. Various types of local access streets and thor-               NCCU and Durham Tech.
oughfares form a transportation network. Street size and
layout tend to have direct impacts upon present and future
land use patterns. For example, most nonresidential                    Industrial uses take up almost seven percent of the total land
                                                                       area.
development is generally best suited for sites with good
visibility and access points from nearby thoroughfares.

Thoroughfares

South Central Durham is most directly affected by its
proximity to downtown and the Research Triangle Park
(RTP), the largest employment center in the Raleigh-
Durham-Chapel Hill area. Thoroughfares in and around
South Central Durham are heavily traveled by vehicles
carrying workers to and from their places of employment
inside and outside of the planning area and to the area’s
major community facilities. The most heavily traveled
routes are the Durham Freeway (NC-147), NC-55 and
Fayetteville Street. Much of the traffic is on the Durham
Freeway, which carries traffic along the north and east                Table 5 lists major roadways in South Central Durham and
Institutional uses occupy almost ten percent of the total              provides information about their capacity to handle current
acreage.                                                               and future traffic. Average daily counts for 1992 indicate
                                                                       that only a few roads are currently carrying traffic vol-
                                                                       umes near or over their capacities. As shown on the
                                                                       Thoroughfares & Traffic Concerns Map, congestion is
                                                                       located along Fayetteville Street between Umstead Street
                                                                       and Nelson Street, Alston Avenue/NC-55 between the
                                                                       Durham Freeway and Lawson Street and Cornwallis
                                                                       Road east of Alston Avenue.

                                                                       Congestion on Fayetteville Street helps to create hazard-
                                                                       ous conditions at its intersections with Linwood Avenue,
                                                                       Lawson Street and Pekoe Avenue. There is on-street
                                                                       parking for area businesses near the Linwood Avenue
                                                                       intersection and no left-turn lanes. During peak hours,

                                                                  21
South Central Durham Plan

traffic is often backed-up through the Umstead Street                through Friday, between the hours of 8:00 am and 5:00 pm.
intersection. Congestion at the Lawson Street intersection           Violators are subject to a fifty dollar fine.
involves substantial amounts of pedestrian traffic in addi-
tion to vehicular traffic. NCCU students cross Lawson                Proposed Thoroughfare Improvements
Street to get to classes and to parking areas. Also, Lawson
Street has no left-turn lanes, which only allows a few cars          The Local 1994-2000 Transportation Improvement Pro-
to pass through the intersection with each signal change.            gram (TIP) and the Durham County portion of the Durham-
Pekoe Avenue forms an offset intersection with NCCU’s                Chapel Hill-Carrboro Urban Area Thoroughfare Plan
Campus Drive. This intersection also has substantial                 (Approved by the City of Durham Nov. 1991 and the State
pedestrian traffic. The offset intersection is made more             Jan. 1992) identify improvements to several thoroughfares
hazardous by a bus stop located right at the entrance to             in South Central Durham. These improvements are
Campus Drive and Fire Station No. 4 across Fayetteville              designed to increase the operational efficiency and carry-
Street.                                                              ing capacity of local thoroughfares and to facilitate intra-
                                                                     city and inter-regional vehicular movement. They are also
Congestion on Alston Avenue/NC-55 often results in                   designed to promote and facilitate new development that
many traffic accidents. The intersections at Lawson                  is expected to occur adjacent to Research Triangle Park.
Street, Linwood Avenue and the Durham Freeway are on                 Major thoroughfare improvements recommended in the
the City’s high accident intersections list. Many of these           foregoing documents are described below and shown on
accidents are related to merging traffic for the Durham
Freeway during peak hours. To address this problem,                  Slightly more than one-third of the planning area’s total land
improvements to the NC-55 interchange should be consid-              area is undeveloped.
ered for construction with the widening of Alston Avenue
from the Durham Freeway to Holloway Street.

Internal Circulation

Vehicular circulation in South Central Durham is facili-
tated by a collector and residential street network. The
traffic patterns within the interior are significantly influ-
enced by the traffic conditions on major thoroughfares and
the layout of the local street network that provides access
to abutting properties. The local street network located
around and within the boundaries of Roxboro Street,
Cornwallis Road, NC 55 and the Durham Freeway is laid
out in a grid pattern that provides for simplicity of traffic
movement, convenient access, and efficient distribution of
traffic flows throughout the neighborhood. In some areas             the Thoroughfares and Traffic Concerns Map.
the grid pattern is interrupted by unopened streets, due to
creeks and undeveloped land. The street design in newer              Briggs Avenue Extension This improvement will
subdivisions in outlying areas use more cul-de-sacs, pro-            complete the extension of Briggs Avenue from the Durham
moting exclusive use by residents of these areas.                    Freeway southward to Research Triangle Park providing
                                                                     good access for future industrial development. It involves
Access to residences in areas adjacent to NCCU was                   constructing two lanes on a multi-lane right of way and
severely impacted by students parking their vehicles                 consists of two projects. A portion of Briggs Avenue
legally and illegally on public streets. This prompted the           between the Durham Freeway and Riddle Road will be
City Council to adopt an ordinance in 1993 to control                constructed by the City of Durham as a Capital Improve-
parking in these residential areas, which was designated             ment Project. It will cost $356,000 and is scheduled for
by the ordinance as “Area A.” The general boundaries are             construction in 1994. Efforts are being made to minimize
Dunbar Street on the north, Concord Street on the west               adverse impacts on the Collier Estates subdivision. The
and Burlington Avenue on the south and NC-55 on the                  remaining segment from Riddle Road south to the pro-
east. The ordinance makes it unlawful for any person to              posed Northeast Creek Parkway will be constructed by
park on public streets exceeding two hours, Monday
                                                                22
                                                                                                        South Central Durham Plan

the state as part of the Northeast Creek Parkway.                    is scheduled for construction in 1994.

Northeast Creek Parkway This is a new facility from                  Martin Luther King, Jr. Parkway This improvement
Cornwallis Road to the Durham Freeway. It will serve                 includes the construction of an interchange with NC-55. It
new industrial development adjacent to the Research                  will connect the parkway with Cornwallis Road east of
Triangle Park, including Glaxo and Research Tricenter,               Alston Avenue and relieve traffic congestion in that area.
and provide a northern route around the RTP to U.S. 70.              This improvement will cost approximately $21,075,000
The state has allocated $5,750,000 for its construction in           and a construction date has not been identified in the State
1995. There is also significant private participation in its         Transportation Improvement Program 1994-2000.
construction.
                                                                     Fayetteville Street This proposed improvement would
East End Connector This improvement will be a four-                  widen the existing two-lane roadway to multi-lane facility
lane divided facility linking U.S. 70 to the Durham Free-            from Umstead Street to Nelson Street. It would improve
way. It will provide direct access to U.S. 70 for industry           traffic movement and circulation near NCCU, but would
in South Central Durham and the Research Triangle Park.              cause the removal of many residences and businesses and
The state has allocated over $48 million for its construc-           adversely alter the character of the area. Public facilities
tion, which is scheduled to begin in 1998.                           and institutions, such as W.D. Hill Recreation Center and
                                                                     the Stanford Warren Library could also be adversely
NC-55/Alston Avenue - Lawson Street This project                     impacted. In addition, it could affect historic properties,
will realign Lawson Street to eliminate the offset intersec-         such as the Scarborough House and buildings in the
tion and revise the traffic signal. It will cost $218,000 and

Table 5: Major Road Capacity Analysis (Average Daily Traffic, Projections and Current Capacities)




                                                                23
                                           SOUTH CENTRAL DURHAM




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THOROUGHFARES                                                                                                   Y




& TRAFFIC
CONCERNS
    EXISTING ROAD DEFICIENCIES
    ROAD DEFICIENCIES (BY 2010)
    PROPOSED NEW THOROUGHFARES

#
Y   PROPOSED INTERCHANGE                                                                                                           N


Z
$   PROPOSED GRADE SEPARATION                                                CITY LIMIT LINE                                  W            E


'
W   PROBLEM INTERSECTION                                                     RTP BOUNDARY                                          S

                                                                                                                                                              DURHAM CITY-COUNTY PLANNING
    AMERICAN TOBACCO TRAIL
                                                       0                              3000                           6000 Feet                                Durham, North Carolina
    BIKEWAY IMPROVEMENT                                                                                                                                       December 1994
                                                                                                         South Central Durham Plan

Congestion on Fayetteville Street helps to create hazardous         traffic hazards for students walking to C.C. Spaulding
conditions.                                                         Elementary School. Smaller projects leading to the future
                                                                    construction of this improvement have been made with
                                                                    CDBG funds. In the St. Theresa Redevelopment Project,
                                                                    Roxboro Street was widened to a width of 39 feet and re-
                                                                    aligned to remove a jog at the intersection with Umstead
                                                                    Street. Right of way was also acquired for the multi-lane
                                                                    facility from Lakewood Avenue to Umstead Street. Right
                                                                    of way was acquired and new culvert was built for the
                                                                    Third Fork Creek crossing in the early years of the CDBG
                                                                    program.

                                                                    The need for this improvement might be increased when
                                                                    the extension of Roxboro Street to the Martin Luther King,
                                                                    Jr. Parkway is constructed. At that time Roxboro Street
                                                                    will become the only street running completely through the
NCCU historic district. The City has requested the North            City from north to south and a more preferred route of
Carolina Department of Transportation to do a feasibility           travel. Several alignments for the extension are being
study, but the state has not agreed to add the study to its         considered by the City Council and one alignment will
transportation improvement projects. When the study is              require the removal of a convenient store in the planning
done, it should examine less disruptive alternatives to the         area that is at the intersection of Roxboro Street and
widening, like providing turning lanes and off-street park-         Cornwallis Road.
ing.
                                                                    Public Transit
Riddle Road - Lynn Connector This improvement calls
for the construction of two new extensions of Riddle Road           South Central Durham is well-served by public transit,
that will eventually connect Cornwallis Road with Lynn              which includes both local and regional service. Local
Road. The first extension runs from the intersection of             transit services provided by the Durham Area Transit
Fayetteville Street and Cornwallis Road and connects to             Authority (DATA) include five routes. Some have the
the existing roadway east of Ancroft Avenue. The second             highest ridership in the City.
extension is from the intersection of Riddle Road and Ellis
Road east to Glover Road. This improvement will provide             Route 5 provides service from downtown to NCCU and
better east-west movement of traffic in the southern part           South Square Mall. It had the highest total ridership for all
of the planning area, giving motorists better access to U.S.        of DATA's routes in 1993 (372,000 boardings). In the
70 and an alternate route to RTP. Moreover, it will reduce
traffic congestion on Fayetteville Street, which will be            Access to residences in areas adjacent to NCCU was severely
increased by the new Hillside High School. Much of the              impacted by students parking their vehicles on public streets.
right of way for this project has been dedicated and the
remainder has been reserved through the school’s prop-
erty. Only one house will need to be purchased at the
proposed intersection with Cornwallis Road and Fayetteville
Street.

Roxboro Street This proposed improvement would
widen the street to multi-lanes from Lakewood Avenue to
Summit Street. It has not been programmed, but has been
identified by the City as a possible future need. This
improvement would assist the flow of traffic into and out
of the downtown area and would decrease the need to
widen other streets, such as University Drive and
Fayetteville Street. Constructing this improvement would
require the removal of many residences and increase
                                                               25
South Central Durham Plan

Riddle Road will eventually connect Cornwallis Road with            Avenue.
Lynn Road.
                                                                    Regional transit service is provided by the Triangle Transit
                                                                    Authority. Currently only one route, the Red Line, runs
                                                                    through South Central Durham. The Red Line provides
                                                                    express bus service between Moore Square in downtown
                                                                    Raleigh and the VA Hospital in Durham. Important stops
                                                                    along the route include NCCU, Glaxo, RTP and RDU
                                                                    International Airport. Riders can transfer to other regional
                                                                    routes at the terminal in RTP.

                                                                    Trails and Greenways

                                                                    The Durham Urban Trails and Greenways Master Plan
                                                                    calls for an extensive network of greenways and paths for
                                                                    bicycles and pedestrians. The network offers scenic and
planning area, it runs primarily down Fayetteville Street           safe routes for transportation and recreation and consists
and Cornwallis Road.                                                of approximately 118 miles of planned trails in Durham’s
                                                                    Urban Growth Area. About eight miles of trails and eight
Route 7 provides service to downtown for the western part           bikeways in this network are in the planning area ( see
of the planning area. It serves the Forest Hills Heights and        Table 6 and the Special Area Map).
Cornwallis Road Public Housing Communities and Hill-
side High School.                                                   Construction of some trails has already begun. A segment
                                                                    of the Rocky Creek Trail between Shepard Middle School,
Route 8 provides service primarily between downtown                 Elmira Park and Fayetteville Elementary School has
and Durham Tech. In 1993, it had the second highest total           already been built. This segment will connect to the
ridership (362,000 boardings). Other important locations            American Tobacco Trail, which will use 23 miles of the
along this route include the Fayetteville Street and                inactive Norfolk and Southern Railroad between Durham
McDougald Terrace Public Housing Communities, Lin-                  and Bonsal, North Carolina. The first phase of the
coln Community Health Center and the Irwin R. Holmes,               American Tobacco Trail, from Willard Street to Otis
Sr. Recreation Center.                                              Street, will cost $295,000 and is scheduled for construction
                                                                    in 1994. A feasibility study is also underway for Phase II,
Route 12 connects downtown with Triangle Shopping                   which will extend the trail south to Cornwallis Road
Center and parts of RTP. It runs down NC-55, Riddle                 providing additional pedestrian access to the new Hillside
Road and Cornwallis Road. Service is provided mainly to             High School.
persons employed at the businesses along the route and
shopping centers at the intersection of NC-54 and NC-55.            There are some major modifications to the Urban Trails
                                                                    and Greenways network, which will affect trails in South
Route 13, the Eastside Crosstown, was started in January,           Central Durham. The alignments of many trails have been
1994 to provide service between NCCU and Holloway                   altered due to various obstacles and the need to establish
Street to the Lynn Road intersection. It is the City’s first        better connections between trail segments. For example,
crosstown route, which does not go into downtown. Other             it is not possible to connect the Third Fork Creek Trail to
important locations along this route are McDougald Ter-             the Rocky Creek Trail along the creeks between Cornwallis
race, Durham Tech, the East Durham Business District on             Road and Fayetteville Street. Therefore, alternative
Driver Street and the Village Shopping Center.                      connections using sidewalks along Fayetteville Street and
                                                                    Cornwallis Road are being pursued. In addition, several
Even with such high levels of service and high ridership,           segments of the trails in South Central Durham have been
improvements to transit services are still needed to accom-         grouped to form the North-South Trail, which will run
modate current and future riders. Many routes lack                  through the City. These segments include the American
amenities, such as shelters and benches, and routes                 Tobacco Trail and the Third Fork Creek Trail. Because
changes might be needed to serve the new Hillside High              of this grouping, the NCCU Trail and Burton Park Trail
School and new industrial development along Briggs                  might not be built.
                                                               26
                                                                                                          South Central Durham Plan

Sidewalks                                                              also have positive impacts on the development of new
                                                                       housing, maintenance of existing housing and general
South Central Durham has a good network of sidewalks                   economic well-being. Poor quality streets and street
that was developed many years ago. Most serve public                   systems, on the other hand, tend to have the opposite
places, like schools, recreation centers and commercial                effect.
areas, and are located along some of the major roads.
Although the current network is good, there are numerous               Most of the streets in South Central Durham comply with
roads needing sidewalks to provide safer pedestrian move-              City standards, but over three miles of streets in South
ment and to serve new public facilities.                               Central Durham do not meet them (see Appendix). These
                                                                       streets or street segments are dirt or do not have asphalt
The City’s Sidewalk Construction Program, adopted by                   pavement and curbs and gutters. The majority of these dirt
the City Council in March 1989, lists 125 sidewalk loca-               streets are located east of Alston Avenue and south of
tions throughout the City. Twenty-six or over one-fifth of             Riddle Road where homeownership is high. These streets
them are in South Central Durham. They total over 8 miles              can be improved through the City’s petition process, which
and are estimated to cost at least $613,000. The lengths               assesses owners of abutting property for the cost of the
of these sidewalks range from about the length of a football           improvement.
field to over one mile. Sidewalks in this program have been
ranked according to several criteria and many have high                South Central Durham has several areas having a high
rankings. Table 7 lists South Central Durham sidewalks in              concentration of unopened streets. Some of these areas
this program. It is hoped that in addition to the ranking              are old subdivisions where individual lots have been platted
criteria used for this program, that consideration be given            and sold, but the streets were not built giving owners
to how each sidewalk connects with the existing network                access to their lots. These lots are not likely to be
and to how each is related to other proposed improve-                  developed without the property owners petitioning the City
ments.                                                                 to build the streets or someone consolidating ownership of
                                                                       the properties and building a new development. Several of
The construction of new public facilities in the area has              these properties have been acquired by the City from
generated the need for new sidewalks to serve them.                    owners in lieu of delinquent property taxes. The City might
These facilities include the new Hillside High School, the             consider developing one of these areas like the Bright
Irwin R. Holmes, Sr. Recreation Center and the new Law
                                                                       Table 6: Trails and Greenways
School and Gymnasium at NCCU. Sidewalks serving
these facilities might require higher priorities to be built                                    Length in
than for many of the ones listed in the table.                         Routes         Type*       Miles       Schedule
                                                                                    American Tobacco Trail
Community Facilities and Services                                      Phase I      Greenway            1.2      1994
                                                                                                             construction
Community facilities and services are essential to a healthy           Phase II     Greenway            1.8 1994 feasibility
                                                                                                                study
living environment. Facilities such as streets, water,
                                                                                        Third Fork Creek
sewer, parks and schools play an important role in creating
                                                                       Rocky Creek Greenway             1.2 Unscheduled
a healthy and livable environment, but are often taken for
                                                                       Trail
granted. Community services such as police and fire
                                                                       Third Fork   Greenway            0.8 Unscheduled
protection, garbage collection, water and sewer service,               Creek Trail
are generally publicly owned and operated. Adequate                    NCCU Trail Greenway              1.0 Unscheduled
provision of public facilities and services support, strengthen
                                                                       Burton Park Greenway             0.8      1994
and enhance orderly growth and development by address-                 Trail
ing daily needs for its residents.                                                      Northeast Creek
                                                                       Northeast    Greenway            1.0 Unscheduled
Streets                                                                Creek Trail
                                                                       Northeast    Greenway            0.3 Unscheduled
Streets are important physical features necessary to                   Creek
support healthy and stable community environments. Good                Tributary
quality streets and street systems help establish effective            * Some connecting portions of the trails consist of
vehicular movement and traffic circulation patterns. They              sidewalks (See Special Areas Map).
                                                                  27
South Central Durham Plan

Subdivision Housing Bond Project in North Durham.                     South Central Durham has a good network of sidewalks.

Water and Sewer

There are about 75 miles of water lines in South Central
Durham. No known problems exist with the system at this
time, except for the existence of about 1,400 linear feet of
substandard two-inch water lines. Current minimum City
standards call for six-inch lines. Most of the two-inch lines
are located in the northern part of the planning area in older
residential areas. The City has an ongoing program to
replace these lines and the cost is the responsibility of the
City.

Water service in the planning area and the southeastern
part of the City was enhanced when a two million gallon
water tank was brought on-line in 1990. Located on Ellis              Parks and Recreation
Road and the Durham Freeway, the water tank is 140 feet
in height and has a diameter of 100 feet. It was designed             Recreational services in South Central Durham are among
to increase the volume of water and water pressure for this           the highest in the City. The Parks and Recreation
area of the City.                                                     Department currently operates nine facilities on a total of
                                                                      85 acres in the planning area (see Table 8). These facilities
The majority of the properties in South Central Durham                range from a tot-lot to two district parks. Also, the Parks
has sewer services. There are almost 100 miles of sewer               and Recreation Department offers various programs at
lines in the area, which carry wastewater to two treatment            four public housing communities in the planning area,
plants. Wastewater from the area north of Riddle Road is              which are managed by the Durham Housing Authority and
treated at the South Durham Water Reclamation Plant on                staffed by the Parks and Recreation Department. In
Farrington Road. The area south of Riddle Road is served              addition to the facilities and programs located in South
by the Triangle Wastewater Treatment Plant on NC-55                   Central Durham, there are several other major City
near the Wake County Line. Many of the sewer lines are                recreation facilities within a one and a half mile radius of
made of vitrified clay and have normal problems with roots            the area, which can be easily reached by area residents.
infiltrating. About one third of the lines has been updated
to plastic, PVC material (polyvinyl chloride). Routine                Residents of South Central Durham are fortunate to have
maintenance on a yearly basis and emergency situations                two district parks in their area. The Campus Hills district
keep the system in normal working condition.                          park has over thirty acres and a fishing lake. It also has the
                                                                      Irwin R. Holmes, Senior Recreation Center, which in-
The first phase of the American Tobacco Trail is from Willard         cludes an indoor pool and other major recreational facilities
Street to Otis Street.                                                and programs. The other district park is Hillside Park,
                                                                      which is adjacent to the W.D. Hill Recreation Center.
                                                                      Because of break-ins and vandalism to cars parked at
                                                                      recreation centers, residents have been concerned about
                                                                      lighting and property surveillance systems at these facili-
                                                                      ties. It has been noted that little of the parking lots at these
                                                                      centers can be adequately watched from the buildings.

                                                                      Police and Fire Service

                                                                      South Central Durham is located within Police Patrol
                                                                      District # 4 and police services are dispatched from the
                                                                      district station near the intersection of NC-55 and Riddle
                                                                      Road and the downtown main office on Chapel Hill Street.

                                                                 28
                                                                                                       South Central Durham Plan

Table 7: City Sidewalk Construction Program (South Central Durham Sidewalks by Rank)




A police substation is also located at the W.D. Hill                Road near the Durham Freeway NC-147 is served by
Recreation Center. The small portion of the planning area           Bethesda Volunteer Fire Department on Miami Boule-
outside of the City Limits is served by the Durham County           vard.
Sheriff’s Department from the South Satellite Station
located at 4716 Page Road.                                          Street Lights

South Central Durham had over ten percent of the City’s             Street lights in South Central Durham area are provided
Part I Offenses in 1993. These crimes include arson,                and maintained by the Duke Power Company in coopera-
larceny, burglary, vehicle theft, aggravated assault, rob-          tion with the City of Durham. Existing street lights along
bery, rape and murder. There have also been areas where             residential streets and thoroughfares in the planning area
drugs were frequently sold. The Police Department                   meet City standards. The City’s residential street lighting
provides many services and programs to meet the needs               policy requires lights at intersections, at intervals of not
of residents and businesses in the area, including Commu-           more than 600 feet, and at the end of cul-de-sacs longer
nity Watch Programs and crime prevention educational                than 300 feet. Most residential street lights are 7,500
programs.                                                           lumen mercury vapor. In 1992 the City selected Fayetteville
                                                                    Street for upgrading to Illuminating Engineering Society
Fire protection for South Central Durham is provided by             (IES) standard lighting levels. Fayetteville Street was
the Durham City Fire Department from Station # 4 at 2010            selected to demonstrate the effect of higher levels of
Fayetteville Street and Station # 3 at 101 S. Driver Street.        lighting in areas of significant nighttime activity. Thor-
The county portion of South Central Durham east of Ellis            oughfare lighting standard is 9500 lumen high pressure
                                                               29
South Central Durham Plan

sodium lamps and the City pays a monthly fee for each unit          Water service was enhanced with a two million gallon water
as established by the State Utilities Commission, with all          tank.
capital and maintenance cost borne by Duke Power
Company. Residences would like for more of the area’s
street lighting to be upgraded to the higher IES standards.

Schools

Students in South Central Durham attend fourteen schools
operated by the Durham Public Schools. These schools
are listed in Table 9. Seven of these schools are located
in the planning area. A new Hillside High School is being
constructed on Fayetteville Street near the intersection of
Cook Road and is scheduled to open in 1995. How the old
high school building and grounds will be re-used is impor-
tant to the surrounding residential neighborhood. For
residential neighborhoods near the new high school, in-             business, industrial and engineering technologies, public
creased traffic congestion and the lack of sidewalks are            service, health technologies and general education.
major concerns.
                                                                    Another institution in the area is the Lincoln Community
Other Community Facilities                                          Health Center, which began operating in the area in 1971.
                                                                    It replaced Lincoln Hospital as the area’s primary care
Many other community facilities are located in South                facility. Today it offers a wide range of health services,
Central Durham that provide services addressing daily and           including adult medicine, pediatrics, dental, social work/
special needs of residents and the citizens of Durham               mental health, family care, nursing and outreach. Annual
County. Several have become institutions providing nu-              patient encounters for both clinic and home visits exceeds
merous social, economic and cultural benefits and attract           100,000.
thousands of people to the area. Foremost among them
are the educational facilities of higher learning, which are        The Stanford L. Warren Branch of the Durham Public
North Carolina Central University and Durham Technical              Library is a major institution in the planning area that
Community College. NCCU is part of the 16-campus                    preserves the cultural heritage of the community and
University of North Carolina System, offering a liberal arts        contributes to the community’s cultural growth. The
education and various graduate programs. Durham Tech                current facility, which is on the National Register of
offers a wide range of quality educational programs at low          Historic Places, was built in 1940. The library was merged
costs. It is a charter member of the North Carolina                 with the Durham County Library System in 1965 and has
Community College System and its programs include                   recently undergone extensive renovations.
Over three miles of streets do not meet City standards.
                                                                    More recent facilities have sought to address special
                                                                    needs and problems, improve the economic well being of
                                                                    residents, as well as enrich the culture of the area. They
                                                                    are both public and private agencies and include Operation
                                                                    Breakthrough, Inc., the Hayti Heritage Center, the Durham
                                                                    Training Center, the North Carolina Employment and
                                                                    Security Commission and the Durham County Drug Reha-
                                                                    bilitation Substance Abuse Services Office.

                                                                    Economic Characteristics

                                                                    This section provides information on the existing economic
                                                                    conditions in the planning area. It discusses the occupa-
                                                                    tions of its residents, the commercial services offered in

                                                               30
                                                                                                        South Central Durham Plan

The Parks and Recreation Department currently operates nine          Central Durham was almost evenly divided between white
facilities in the planning area.                                     collar and blue collar positions.

                                                                     Commercial Activity

                                                                     Commercial activity is very limited in South Central
                                                                     Durham. The levels and types of goods and services
                                                                     available in the planning area do not address most of the
                                                                     needs of residents. This activity consists mainly of
                                                                     convenient goods and services in small establishments
                                                                     located at the intersections of major roads. Residents must
                                                                     travel outside of South Central Durham for most of their
                                                                     shopping.

                                                                     Most of South Central Durham’s commercial activity is in
                                                                     various locations along Fayetteville Street. The largest
                                                                     area is next to the Durham Freeway and Fayetteville
the area, the types of industrial activity, and the amount of        Street interchange and was built through urban redevelop-
non-residential investment made into the community. By               ment programs. The largest facility in this area is the ten-
examining South Central Durham’s economic climate,                   acre Heritage Square Shopping Center, which has a Winn-
effective policies and actions can be developed for im-              Dixie supermarket, a Revco drug store, Pic & Pay Shoes,
proving and enhancing its viability as a place to work and           a Subway restaurant, the Durham Training Center and
shop.                                                                other small shops. This shopping center was financed with
                                                                     a $450,000 Urban Development Action Grant (UDAG).
Occupations
                                                                     The second shopping facility in the area is Phoenix Square,
Census data for 1990 show that 7,915 persons in South                which is comprised of two buildings. The buildings contain
Central Durham were employed. The number of em-                      flexible space for many small shops and a restaurant.
ployed persons represented eleven percent of Durham’s                Since it was also part of an urban renewal project, the City
work force. Data on the percentages of all civilian                  provided financing for site improvements and construc-
workers employed in various occupational categories for              tion. Also, since many of the businesses in Phoenix Square
the City and South Central Durham are shown in Table 10.             were from temporary relocation situations as a result of
The information indicates that the work force in South               urban renewal, the City established a loan fund to help


Table 8: Parks and Recreational Facilities in South Central Durham




                                                                31
South Central Durham Plan

South Central Durham is located within Police Patrol District        Table 9: Public Schools Serving South Central Durham
# 4.




these businesses to locate in the shopping center.

A new shopping center on a 4.5 acre site across Fay-
etteville Street from Phoenix Square has been approved
for construction. The center is called Phoenix Crossing
and will contain three buildings, an out-parcel for a bank or
fast-food restaurant and flexible space for small shops and
offices. Because the site is also part of the NCR-54
redevelopment project, the City is providing a $300,000
grant from CDBG funds for site improvements and a
$500,000 loan from the General Fund for construction.

Other significant commercial nodes on Fayetteville Street
are at its intersections with Burlington Avenue, Pilot Street
and Cook Road. The Pilot Street area contains the old
College Plaza Shopping Center, which is mostly vacant
and dilapidated. Once it contained an A&P supermarket,
but after it was closed, the space was converted to a
Learning Center for the now defunct Durham College.                  homes are built in the area.
This space has not been used for over fifteen years. The
shopping center currently has a beauty shop and tavern               Alston Avenue/NC-55 also has commercial nodes at the
and is surrounded by convenient stores, a restaurant, a dry          intersections of major roads. They contain the same types
cleaners, barber and beauty shops and offices. Much                  of goods and services found on Fayetteville Street. How-
concern has been expressed about the area’s blighted                 ever, there is a heavy commercial area containing a
conditions, which are highlighted by the old shopping                trucking firm and other convenient stores at the Riddle
center and an old burnt and condemned dormitory building             Road intersection. Moreover, south of this intersection is
that was once part of Durham College. These conditions               a 20-acre planned shopping center in the Chesapeake
have helped to drive new commercial development to                   Development. However, none of this development has
areas further south near Cook Road. Recent develop-                  been constructed since it was approved for construction
ments there have included a new branch of the Mutual                 nearly ten years ago.
Community Savings Bank, a small shopping center with a
convenient store, dry cleaners and car wash, and other               Industrial Activity
renovated commercial buildings. The shopping center also
has undeveloped parcels, which are likely to be developed            Industrial activity is increasing in South Central Durham
after the new Hillside High School is opened and as more             and is concentrated into three general locations. The
                                                                     largest concentration is along Ellis Road in the eastern part
                                                                32
                                                                                                         South Central Durham Plan

How the old high school building will be re-used is important         Center on Briggs Avenue. Development of the Express-
to the surrounding neighborhood.                                      way Commerce Center was assisted by the City in 1984
                                                                      with a $280,000 federal grant that was used to construct
                                                                      the portion of Briggs Avenue from Lawson Street to
                                                                      Cooper Street. Future extensions of Briggs Avenue by the
                                                                      City are aimed at encouraging more industrial develop-
                                                                      ment in the area.

                                                                      Non-Residential Investment

                                                                      Investment in the construction, repair and alteration of
                                                                      non-residential structures has enhanced the quality of life
                                                                      in South Central Durham by expanding and improving
                                                                      complementary facilities and by providing new employ-
                                                                      ment. Since 1989, over $40 million have been invested, but
                                                                      the amounts invested annually have been decreasing
of the planning area. Developments there consist of old               dramatically. Table 11 shows that the amount of annual
and new warehouses used mainly for storing tobacco                    investment dropped from a high of $20,262,185 to a low of
products and other goods. The old warehouses storing                  $1,334,685 in 1993. The relatively large investment in 1989
tobacco once depended heavily upon the freight train for              was for major developments like the Research Tricenter
transportation and are adjacent the Durham & Southern                 and the Irwin Holmes, Sr. Recreation Center. Smaller
Railroad. The new ones rely on trucking and have good                 investments in more recent years have involved construc-
access to the Durham Freeway. Not far from this area is               tion of the new Brame facility on Riddle Road, two
the second concentration of industry, which is located                buildings in Expressway Commerce Center and a new
along Lawson Street. This area has mostly light manufac-              warehouse for N.C. Mutual Drugs on Ellis Road. The total
turing activities. A major facility in this area is the Durham        amount invested in South Central Durham during the five-
Exchange Club Industries. These concentrations could                  year period was slightly less than seven percent of the
grow together to form one huge area, because the land                 City’s total non-residential investment for that period. The
between them is already zoned industrial.                             number of permits issued each year during that period has
                                                                      also declined, but not as sharply as the amount of annual
The third area is a new distribution/manufacturing park               investment.
started in 1986. It is called the Research Tricenter. This
development is adjacent to RTP and is located at the                  Housing Characteristics
intersection of Alston Avenue and Cornwallis Road. The
Research Tricenter is one of the largest and most success-            Housing is one of the most significant elements of a
ful industrial parks in the Triangle Area and has two
phases. The Tricenter North is north of Cornwallis Road               The Lincoln Community Health Center began operating in
and the Tricenter South is south of Cornwallis Road and               1971.
outside of the planning area. The Tricenter North has
about 200 acres and over one million square feet of flex-
space in four buildings. One building is huge, containing
nearly one half of this space. All of the buildings enjoy
100% occupancy and an additional 100,000 square feet
space is planned for future construction. Many major
companies in RTP, like IBM, Northern Telecom and
Glaxo, have additional operations in the Tricenter that
support their research facilities in RTP.

Other significant new industrial developments in the area
include Teer Development Park on Alston Avenue north
of the Research Tricenter and Expressway Commerce

                                                                 33
South Central Durham Plan

community, representing the major economic, social, and            Most of South Central Durham’s commercial activity is along
psychological investment of residents and property own-            Fayetteville Street.
ers. Thus, key factors, such as housing supply, housing
tenure (occupancy), and housing conditions are important
indicators of a community’s viability and well-being.

Number and Types of Dwelling Units

South Central Durham had 7,207 housing units in 1990,
which represented nearly twelve percent of the City’s
housing stock. Table 12 shows that over one half of the
units was single family, which is higher than the percent-
age for the City. However, South Central Durham had
higher percentages of duplex and quadruplex units and a
significantly lower percentage of multi-family units. High
percentages of duplex, quadruplex and multi-family units
are indicative of the amount of rental housing in an area.
                                                                   Several large single family houses adjacent to NCCU have
                                                                   been converted illegally to rooming houses for students.
Housing Tenure and Occupancy
                                                                   These conversions can destabilize residential areas and
                                                                   lead to neighborhood decline. Many of these houses were
Nearly forty percent of the housing in the planning area
                                                                   previously owned by heirs and were sold to new owners
was owner-occupied in 1990. This amount was ten
                                                                   who converted them. Systematic zoning enforcement and
percentage points lower than the percentage of owner-
                                                                   programs to promote homeownership can address this
occupied units for the City as a whole. High percentages
                                                                   problem.
of owner occupied housing are indicative of an area’s
stability.
                                                                   Almost ten percent of South Central Durham's housing
                                                                   was vacant compared to seven percent for the City. The
                                                                   decline of some areas is also exacerbated by high percent-
                                                                   ages of vacant housing, which increases the potential for
Table 10: Occupation of the Civilian Work Force (Percent of
Total)                                                             vandalism, arson and other types of criminal activity.

                                                                   Housing Conditions

                                                                   A recent review of the existing conditions of housing in
                                                                   South Central Durham has shown that residential struc-
                                                                   tures are generally in sound condition, but there are several
                                                                   small concentrations of moderately deteriorated housing.
                                                                   These areas include a few blocks in the Southside neigh-
                                                                   borhood between Roxboro and South Streets, areas adja-
                                                                   cent to Burton Elementary School, the Durham Cotton Mill
                                                                   Village, the area between Chautauqua Avenue and Con-
                                                                   cord Street and several properties on Heartside Drive and
                                                                   Barton Avenue.

                                                                   Housing deterioration in these areas is clear and some
                                                                   residential units might require more than normal repairs to
                                                                   be upgraded to sound condition. Systematic code enforce-
                                                                   ment would be effective to arrest decline and promote
                                                                   rehabilitation which would occur primarily through private
                                                                   investment of the owners. Limited public financial assis-
                                                                   tance would be helpful to encourage more investment and

                                                              34
                                                                                                       South Central Durham Plan

possibly preserve the character of the residential areas.            and for lead-base paint abatement in McDougald Terrace.
                                                                     The entire Cornwallis Road community is undergoing a
Assisted Housing                                                     complete modernization, which also includes both interior
                                                                     and exterior renovations, landscaping and recreation im-
Assisted housing is built principally for persons with low           provements. The cost of the modernization program is
and moderate incomes with financial assistance from the              $5.2 million. In addition, $500,000 has been allocated for
federal, state and local governments. Table 13 shows the             lead-base paint abatement, kitchen renovations and re-
names, amounts and types of assisted housing in South                placement of doors and windows in the Fayetteville Street
Central Durham. Dwellings in these developments ac-                  community.
count for fifteen percent of the area’s total housing units.
Rental units in these developments represent one quarter             Housing assistance to low and moderate income families
of the planning area's total rental housing. Seventy percent         and individuals is also available through a federal rent
of the area's multi-family housing units is assisted housing.        subsidy program known as Section 8 Existing Housing/
                                                                     Vouchers or Certificates, which is administered by the
The predominant type of assisted housing in South Central            Durham Housing Authority’s Leased Housing Programs.
Durham is low income public housing. The area's 815 units            These subsidies are tied to the low-income tenant rather
is forty percent (40 %) of all of Durham's low income                than a housing unit and could apply to any type of housing
public housing. No other Durham Planning Area has a                  meeting program guidelines.
comparable amount of this type of public housing.
McDougald Terrace is the largest and oldest public hous-             The Housing Authority has over 1,500 households in the
ing community in South Central Durham with 360 units.                leased housing program. Nearly 300 or about nineteen
Adjacent to McDougald Terrace is Lincoln Apartments.                 percent are located in South Central Durham. A substan-
Together they form the largest concentration of assisted             tial number of these households form clusters occupying
housing in the City (510 units).                                     several blocks along streets near low income public
                                                                     housing. This increases significantly the concentration of
The Durham Housing Authority is in the process of                    assisted housing in such areas.
upgrading the conditions of it’s communities in South
Central Durham. Substantial funds have already been                  In recent years, the City has taken a leading role in
spent to replace the siding on units in Forest Hills Heights         providing affordable housing and financing the construc-
                                                                     tion of new assisted housing. Through its 1990 Housing
                                                                     Bond Program, Durham provides forgivable loans, first
                                                                     and second mortgages for new construction, second

The Research Tricenter is one of the largest and most successful industrial parks in the Triangle Area.




                                                                35
South Central Durham Plan

mortgages for existing homes and the rehabilitation of               Table 11: South Central Durham Non-residential Investment
substandard housing and down payment assistance.                     (1989-1993)
Through this program, a new development has been                                                      South Central
approved for South Central Durham on Fayetteville Street,                             City              Durham
north of the Cornwallis Road intersection. The $1.264                Year     Permits    Amount     Permits Amount
million development is called Mutual Manor and will have             1989           690 124,312,281       36 20,262,185
18 elderly units. The City has provided $877,000 in first
                                                                     1990           700 89,259,489        48 9,655,063
mortgage assistance and the project has received income
                                                                     1991           584 69,188,784        25 3,991,724
tax credits from the state. Construction is expected to be
                                                                     1992           618 174,147,517       22 4,858,411
completed in 1995.
                                                                     1993           648 125,296,182       22 1,334,685
South Central Durham has just below one half of the City's           Total        3,240 582,204,253     153 40,102,068
public housing while there are zero units for many areas of           Source:City-County building permit records.
Durham. Some of South Central Durham's residents are
greatly concerned about the future amounts of assisted               planning staff.
housing in their area. They are worried that the construc-
tion of more assisted housing units in the planning area will        1. South Central Durham has a rich heritage as a
lower property values, increase crime and accelerate                    prosperous African-American community. Much of
neighborhood decline.                                                   this heritage was destroyed by urban renewal. Some
                                                                        of the remaining historic and architecturally significant
Housing Investment                                                      resources are being threaten by new development.

The overall quality of housing in South Central Durham is            2. For decades, considerable amounts of public funds
reflected in both the willingness of owners to maintain their           have been invested in the area to carry out programs
property and the willingness of developers to construct                 designed to eliminate blight, revitalize declining neigh-
new housing in the area. Reinvestment in the general                    borhoods, rehabilitate and build new housing for low
upkeep and improvement of the planning area’s housing                   and moderate income people, encourage commercial
stock is crucial for maintaining the neighborhood’s stabil-             development and promote job opportunities. Today,
ity, and new in-fill housing helps to revitalize and upgrade            public funds are still important to promoting major new
deteriorated and run down areas. While maintenance of                   development in the area.
existing housing should remain a priority for South Central
Durham, efforts should also be made to provide better                3. Some urban renewal projects have not yet been
housing opportunities for planning area residents.                      completed.

Table 14 shows that 527 building permits were issued in              4. South Central Durham has numerous high quality
South Central Durham for new housing construction and                   community facilities and services that contribute sig-
home improvement between 1989 and 1993. The total                       nificantly to the quality of life of its residents and the
amount of these permits was over $15 million. Table 15                  character of the area.
shows that slightly more than one half of this investment
was for new construction, which produced 149 units.                  5. The area lacks adequate commercial activity to pro-
Most of these new units were built in Collier Heights and               vide for the needs of residents.
surrounding residential areas. The highest annual invest-
ment during the five-year period was in 1992. Most of this           6. Large tracts of land suitable for industrial develop-
investment was for the complete renovation of many units                ment are available near Research Triangle Park.
in the Cornwallis Road Public Housing Community.                        Some established residential areas near RTP could be
                                                                        adversely impacted by new industrial development.
Summary of Issues
                                                                     7. Transit services in South Central Durham are among
This section describes and summaries different concerns,                the best in the City. However, amenities for riders are
trends, and issues raised by the South Central Durham                   needed and routes will need to be extended to serve
planning process, based on the perceptions of the PAC,                  developing areas.
other concerned citizens, as well as public agencies and
                                                                36
                                                                                                         South Central Durham Plan

Housing is one of the most significant elements of a commu-               increasing.
nity.
                                                                      12. Some proposed thoroughfare improvements can ad-
                                                                          versely impact the character of neighborhoods. But
                                                                          some improvements are needed to serve new devel-
                                                                          opment and handle future traffic.

                                                                      13. The existing network of sidewalks is better than in
                                                                          most areas of the City, but improvements are needed
                                                                          to provide safer access to schools and recreation
                                                                          facilities. The network of greenway trails will further
                                                                          enhance pedestrian movement throughout the area.

                                                                      14. The new Hillside High School will have a major impact
                                                                          on traffic and development in the area. Reuse of the
                                                                          old school building is a strong concern of residents
8. South Central Durham has several large public hous-                South Central Durham had higher percentages of duplex and
   ing communities and the largest concentration of                   quadruplex units.
   assisted housing in the City. New assisted housing is
   still being built in the area, enlarging this concentration
   and causing great concern.

9. The health and safety of residents in some areas have
   been threatened by accidents involving the use, stor-
   age and transportation of hazardous materials in
   adjacent areas.

10. The aesthetics of the area, as well as the health and
    safety of residents, are being diminished by trash and
    debris discarded into streams and on private property.

11. Concern about crime in South Central Durham is
                                                                          living near it.
Table 12: Number and Types of Dwelling Units (Percent of
Total)
                                                                      15. Unemployment in the area is almost doubled the City’s
                                                                          rate. The City and County have located numerous job
                                                                          training agencies in the Heritage Square Shopping
                                                                          Center.

                                                                      16. The involvement and participation of local community
                                                                          development organizations, political action groups,
                                                                          civic organizations and residents have been vital to the
                                                                          success of many development projects and programs
                                                                          in South Central Durham. All should continue to play
                                                                          integral roles in the future.




                                                                 37
                                   SOUTH CENTRAL DURHAM




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ASSISTED
HOUSING
DEVELOPMENTS
  LOW INCOME
  PUBLIC HOUSING
    1 McDOUGALD TERRACE
    2 CORNWALLIS ROAD
    3 FAYETTEVILLE STREET                                                                                                      N
    4 FOREST HILLS HEIGHTS
  PRIVATELY OWNED                                                     CITY LIMIT LINE                                    W                E
  ASSISTED HOUSING (BMIR)                                             RTP BOUNDARY
    5 LINCOLN APARTMENTS                                                                                                       S

    6 UNITY VILLAGE                                                                                                                                        DURHAM CITY-COUNTY PLANNING
  HOUSING BOND PROGRAM                            0                        3000                                6000 Feet                                   Durham, North Carolina
    7 MUTUAL MANOR                                                                                                                                         December 1994
                                                                                                  South Central Durham Plan

Table 13: Federally Assisted Housing Developments                Table 15: South Central Durham Housing Investment (1989-
                                                                 1993)
                  Public Housing
                                Date Number of                                                    Alterations and
Community                    Occupied Units                                 New Construction           Repairs
McDougald Terrace               1953-59        360               Year    Permits Units Amounts Permits Amount
Cornwallis Road                    1966        200               1989          43   47 2,219,438      108 1,170,162
Fayetteville Street                1967        200               1990          21   22 1,319,799        54 604,699
Forest Hills Heights*              1980         55               1991          33   38 2,716,843        51 568,446
                                   Total       815               1992          21   21 1,606,657      117 3,969,882
                      Private                                    1993          21   21 840,282          47 423,833
Lincoln Apartments                 1967        150               Total        139 149 8,703,019       377 6,737,022
Unity Village                   1970-71        117               Source: City-County building permit records.
                                   Total       267
                             * Elderly Housing
                     Source:City of Durham
                             Housing Authority.



Table 14: Housing Investment (1989-1993)
                                     South Central
                   City                Durham
Year       Permits    Amount      Permits Amount
1989          1,797 110,629,478        151 3,389,600
1990          1,384 94,857,194           75 1,924,498
1991          1,194 76,454,887           88 3,285,289
1992          1,395 91,204,678         145 5,576,539
1993          1,148 84,367,732           68 1,264,115
Total         6,918 457,513,969        527 15,440,041
 Source:City-County building permit records.




The entire Cornwallis Road community is undergoing a com-
plete modernization.




                                                            39
South Central Durham Plan




                                               THE PLAN
The quality of life in South Central Durham has been                 need to be designated and protected. Beautification and
greatly impacted by urban redevelopment activities and               maintenance of property will need to be encouraged.
the construction of new public facilities in the area. These         Support services enabling residents to seize opportunities
impacts have been both positive and negative. Redevel-               will need to be provided and extended. Safety for residents
opment activities, which are nearing completion, have                and businesses will need to be increased and the avenues
removed blight areas of the community and provided new               for participation in community affairs will need to be
infrastructure to accommodate future growth. But at the              broadened.
same time, they have devastated much of the business
climate in Hayti and provided limited opportunities for              This vision characterizes the challenges faced by the
businesses to re-settle in the area. New housing and public          South Central Durham planning process and the growth
facilities addressing the needs of residents are making              management and neighborhood revitalization theme upon
living in South Central Durham more desirable. This trend            which it is based. This section of the South Central
toward a higher quality of life needs to be continued.               Durham Plan is divided into two components, the Compre-
                                                                     hensive Element and the Strategic Element. The Compre-
Industrial growth is expected to increase in the near future,        hensive Element addresses issues and policies generally
providing new employment and investment opportunities                broader and longer-term in scope, while the Strategic
for residents. This new industrial growth will also generate         Element deals more with specific, short-term concerns.
the need for new housing located close to jobs and on
undeveloped land throughout the planning area. In addi-              THE COMPREHENSIVE ELEMENT
tion, more commercial will be needed to serve the needs
of both the new industry and new residents. The impact               This Comprehensive Element contains the goals of the
of this growth will be felt on traffic patterns, creating the        plan and policies that have general relevance to South
need for thoroughfare improvements and changes to                    Central Durham and are related to policies contained in the
public transit routes to get people safely to their destina-         Durham 2005 Comprehensive Plan. The goals define a
tions. Current residents will need to be vigilant to guard           forward looking vision for the area. The policies provide
against adverse impacts of this new growth and derive the            a framework for addressing situations that give rise to
benefits for themselves and the community.                           current problems and concerns, as well as those that could
                                                                     become problems and concerns in the future. They also
While this new growth is occurring, historic landmarks will          insure conformity and compatibility between other City
Historic landmarks will need to be designated and protected.         plans and generally are expected to have a long term
                                                                     applicability of up to twenty years.

                                                                     The Environment

                                                                     GOAL

                                                                     Protection and preservation of the rural, scenic, historic,
                                                                     and cultural attributes of South Central Durham, in such a
                                                                     way as to minimize the potential negative impacts and
                                                                     threats to the health and safety of area residents, air and
                                                                     water quality, and natural habitats brought on by increasing
                                                                     growth pressures.

                                                                     POLICIES

                                                                40
                                                                                                    South Central Durham Plan

                                                                  Strip development along major thoroughfares should be dis-
" Development in environmentally sensitive areas should           couraged.
  be appropriately restricted.

" Updating and enforcing sedimentation and erosion
  control measures should continue.

" Attractive and efficient design of the built environ-
  ment should be encouraged through incentives and
  appropriate review of development plans.

Land Use

GOAL

Development of a pattern of land use for South Central
Durham that respects neighborhood integrity, protects                 and encouraged.
environmentally sensitive areas, provides appropriate ar-
eas for new development, and supports the delivery of             " Innovative, attractive, and efficient residential devel-
efficient community services.                                       opment design should be promoted through the use of
                                                                    planned unit developments such as the “Planned
POLICIES                                                            Density Residential” provisions in the Zoning Ordi-
                                                                    nance, to effectively integrate innovative develop-
" Rezoning and development proposals should be com-                 ments into existing neighborhoods.
  patible with existing and planned land uses. A pro-
  posed development should not establish an undesir-              " Efforts to enhance neighborhood identity and the
  able precedent in the area.                                       capabilities of neighborhood groups to serve their
                                                                    needs and interests should be encouraged.
" Development of higher density housing on appropriate
  locations in all general areas in Durham should be              " Clustering of commercial land uses at activity centers
  encouraged.                                                       near the intersections of major thoroughfares as
                                                                    identified on the Future Land Use Map should be
" Residential and related commercial development on                 encouraged.
  vacant property currently served by sewer, water and
  transportation systems, especially those vacant prop-           " Office or high density residential development sur-
  erties in the City’s central area should be promoted              rounding the commercial core of the activity centers
                                                                    as a buffer to low density residential areas should be
Development of higher density housing on appropriate loca-
                                                                    encouraged. Office and high density residential uses
tions should be encouraged.
                                                                    should be considered to be interchangeable for this
                                                                    purpose, as long as developed in a compatible manner
                                                                    with surrounding areas.

                                                                  " Strip development along major thoroughfares should
                                                                    be discouraged to reduce traffic congestion and im-
                                                                    prove the efficiency of land use.

                                                                  Transportation

                                                                  GOAL

                                                                  Development and maintenance of a transportation system
                                                                  for South Central Durham that provides for the efficient

                                                             41
South Central Durham Plan

and safe movement of people and goods throughout the                  Community Facilities and Services
area.
                                                                      GOAL
POLICIES
                                                                      To achieve an efficient and cost effective system of
" Improvements to existing thoroughfares and the addi-                community facilities and services that provides for the
  tion of new ones should be planned and constructed to               needs of the area.
  support existing and future land use patterns recom-
  mended in both the 2005 Comprehensive Plan and in                   POLICIES
  small area plans.
                                                                      " Public facility needs should be identified and potential
" Careful evaluation of rezoning petitions and site plans               sites located to encourage and facilitate the advance
  should preserve their traffic carrying capacities by                  acquisition of land necessary for future community
  carefully controlling driveway access and land use                    facilities, such as parks, police and fire stations, water
  patterns along major roads.                                           treatment plants, schools, libraries, etc.

" Right-of-ways should be identified and preserved                    " Improvements to the public infrastructure should be
  through advance reservation, dedication and acquisi-                  made in order to insure the preservation of attractive,
  tion, as needed to address current and future transpor-               healthy and well-maintained neighborhood environ-
  tation needs.                                                         ments and to promote orderly growth and develop-
                                                                        ment.
" Ride sharing should be encouraged to reduce the
  amount of single occupancy auto travel.                             " Recreational needs should be addressed, in part,
                                                                        through a voluntary joint-use program that permits the
" Strong and accessible connections between modes of                    general public to use private, quasi-public and school
  travel to facilitate intermodal travel should be encour-              recreational facilities.
  aged.
                                                                      Economic Development
" Long term potential for light rail transit services to
  connect Durham’s major activity centers, and to serve               GOAL
  the region’s areas should be investigated.
                                                                      Developing South Central Durham’s ability to generate an
" To facilitate efficient movement between outlying                   economic base through provision of local employment
  employment centers and residential areas circumfer-                 opportunities for area residents and the development of
  ential or loop thoroughfares should be utilized.                    local commercial outlets.

                                                                      POLICIES
Community facilities and services provide for the needs of the
area.
                                                                      " Public incentives for industrial development should be
                                                                        targeted toward central city areas as a first priority.

                                                                      " Efforts by key community groups to implement the
                                                                        Economic Development Strategy should be supported.

                                                                      " An aggressive campaign to assemble and/or extend
                                                                        utilities to land appropriate for industrial development
                                                                        should be the first priority given to areas inside the City
                                                                        limits.

                                                                      " Development and revitalization of neighborhood com-
                                                                        mercial districts should be encouraged.

                                                                 42
                                                                                                        South Central Durham Plan

Development and revitalization of neighborhood commercial           Concern #1 - Preserving Historic Places.
districts should be encouraged.
                                                                    Incompatible in-fill development, deteriorating conditions
                                                                    of existing structures and proposed thoroughfare improve-
                                                                    ments are diminishing the character of sites on the Na-
                                                                    tional Register of Historic Places and threatening their
                                                                    integrity and historical significance.

                                                                    Historic Preservation Policy

                                                                    The integrity of districts and structures on the National
                                                                    Register of Historic Places and other structures with
                                                                    historic significance should be reinforced.

                                                                    Preservation and restoration of historic properties can
                                                                    enhance the appearance, identity and pride of the commu-
                                                                    nity, reinforce the existing character of the area and
Housing                                                             provide sound housing for residents. Sometimes the
                                                                    significance of structures and districts are diminished by
GOAL                                                                neglect, the character of adjacent new development and
                                                                    the impacts of improvements to thoroughfares and roads.
The availability of a broad range of housing opportunities          This policy encourages actions to strengthen and protect
for those seeking to live in South Central Durham.                  South Central Durham’s historic resources from the
                                                                    adverse impacts of these influences.
POLICIES
                                                                    Implementation Measures:
" The development of high density and other housing
  opportunities in and near commercial and employment               1. Conduct a study and prepare a plan to designate the
  centers should be encouraged as a means of reducing                  Durham Cotton Mill Village a local historic district.
  housing and transportation costs.
                                                                        A consultant might be needed to conduct the study.
THE STRATEGIC ELEMENT                                                   The State Historic Preservation Office provides match-
                                                                        ing grants through its Certified Local Government
The Strategic Element of the South Central Durham Plan                  Program that could be used to fund the study. Once
addresses the key issues that were identified at the                    the study is complete, the Durham Historic Preserva-
beginning of the planning process by the South Central                  tion Commission shall consider recommending the
Durham Planning Advisory Committee (PAC). These                         preparation of a plan by the Planning Department.
issues address specific situations identified by the PAC
and planning staff as being important for the continued             2. Study the potential local historic district designation for
viability and positive growth of the area. Each strategic              the Fayetteville Street between Umstead Street and
policy statement is followed by a discussion of its applica-           George Street and residential areas adjacent to NCCU.
bility, the underlying rationale, objective, recommended
implementation measures, as well as the participants                    The planning staff shall work with the PAC, property
involved and their roles in the implementation process.                 owners and neighborhood representatives to carry out
                                                                        the study. Once the study is complete, the Durham
Environmental Issue                                                     Historic Preservation Commission shall consider rec-
                                                                        ommending the preparation of a plan by the Planning
Historic and cultural resources, environmentally sensitive              Department.
areas and the health and safety of residents are being
threatened by new development, proposed thoroughfare                3. Encourage the designation of eligible properties as
improvements and hazardous materials.                                  Local Historic Landmarks.

                                                               43
South Central Durham Plan

    Property owners may request designation of their               Encourage the designation of eligible properties as Local
    properties as local historic landmarks by applying to          Historic Landmarks.
    the Planning Department. Applications are reviewed
    by the Durham Historic Preservation Commission,
    which recommends to local governing bodies that
    structures, sites, area or objects be designated by
    ordinance as an historic landmark.

4. Study the impacts of the proposed widening of
   Fayetteville Street on National Register properties,
   such as the Stanford L. Warren Library, Scarborough
   House and buildings in NCCU Historic District.

    The Durham Department of Transportation (DDOT)
    has requested that the North Carolina Transportation
    Department (NCDOT) to do a feasibility study, but
    the state has not yet agreed to add the study to the           remove these hazards. In addition, it encourages residents
    Transportation Improvement Program.                            to have pride in their community and to carry out their own
                                                                   efforts to keep their community clean and safe. Also, this
Concern #2 - Unkempt Property.                                     policy would help reduce property damage and the incon-
                                                                   venience that is associated with flooding along streams. It
Junk and debris in streams produce health and safety               encourages cooperation among residents, property own-
hazards and increase flooding. Vacant lots littered with           ers, and the City to promote the clean-up and improve-
debris and trash are unsightly and detract from the area’s         ments to stream channels, drainage facilities and vacant
image.                                                             lots.

Property Maintenance Policy                                        Implementation Measures:

Streams and property should be cleared of abandoned                1. Coordinate enforcement of ordinances for the re-
vehicles, junk and other debris to eliminate hazards to               moval of undergrowth, debris and abandoned vehicles
health and safety of residents.                                       with community clean-up days to maximize results.

This policy is concerned with eliminating health and safety        2. Promote neighborhood pride with educational pro-
hazards that unmaintained properties create for the area.             grams and support of neighborhood clean up efforts.
The policy encourages regular enforcement of City codes
and ordinances to keep properties maintained and to                    Neighborhood organizations, homeowners and resi-
Designate the Durham Cotton Mill Village a local historic              dents should initiate and encourage both these efforts,
district.                                                              along with staffs from the City Sanitation Department,
                                                                       Police Department and the Planning Department.

                                                                   Concern #3 - Unattractive Appearance.

                                                                   Areas along major roadways and near activity centers are
                                                                   aesthetically unappealing and unattractive.

                                                                   Beautification Policy

                                                                   The appearance of areas along major thoroughfares,
                                                                   activity centers and entryways to Downtown and South
                                                                   Central Durham should be improved and beautified.


                                                              44
                                                                                                       South Central Durham Plan

Study the impacts of the proposed widening of Fayetteville          Concern #4 - Dangers from Hazardous Materials.
Street.
                                                                    As more industrial development occurs in and adjacent to
                                                                    South Central Durham, increased attention needs to be
                                                                    given to the use of hazardous materials and the health and
                                                                    safety of residents and their property.

                                                                    Hazardous Materials Policy

                                                                    Cooperation among residents, businesses and the City
                                                                    should be promoted to prevent and manage public emer-
                                                                    gencies that occur from the use, storage, and transporta-
                                                                    tion of hazardous materials.

                                                                    Hazardous materials emergencies in Durham have shown
                                                                    that everyone who is threatened by them needs to play a
The objective of this policy is to make highly visible areas        role in preventing and properly responding to future emer-
more attractive and aesthetically pleasing. Beautifying             gencies. These emergencies also have shown that a great
these areas could enhance South Central Durham’s image              deal of cooperation and coordination from all parties
and increase neighborhood pride.                                    involved must be achieved to minimize the number of
                                                                    incidents, harm to residents and property damage.
Implementation Measures:
                                                                    Implementation Measures:
1. The City should consider the following areas for the
   construction and maintenance of beautification and               1. Maintain and expand local involvement in the Com-
   landscaping projects:                                               prehensive Response Plan for East Durham. Specific
                                                                       activities should include:
    a. At the intersection of Lakewood Avenue and
       South Street;                                                    a. Educate the residents that are located near high
    b. Roxboro Street from Lakewood Avenue to                              risk areas.
       Umstead Street;                                                  b. Inform residents on how to monitor industrial
    c. Along Fayetteville Street near the Durham Free-                     activity in their area and to report all incidents of
       way;                                                                leaks and spills.
    d. Near Briggs Avenue and the Durham Freeway;                       c. Prepare a list of persons to contact in the event of
    e. Entrances to City parks and other public facilities;                emergencies to help with evacuation.
    f. The traffic island at the intersection of Alston                 d. Participate in the local emergency planning pro-
       Avenue/NC-55 and Cecil Street;                                      cess.
    g. The intersection of Fayetteville Street and
       Burlington Avenue; and                                           The Durham City-County Emergency Management
    h. Along the Durham Freeway to screen residential                   Department and neighborhood organizations should
       areas.                                                           work together to help South Central Durham residents
                                                                        learn about evacuation plans, to develop ways to
2. Support resident and business efforts to beautify their              monitor their areas for emergency situations, and to
   areas.                                                               prepare a list of persons to contact in emergencies.
                                                                        This list of contact persons should be prepared within
    The Park and Recreation Department staff should                     the first year of plan adoption, and the Department
    assist the Durham Tree Committee and the residents,                 should also seek local business participation in the
    businesses, churches and civic groups of South Cen-                 emergency response process.
    tral Durham in planning and paying for the improve-
    ments. Together they should develop a planting and              2. Rezone all remaining I-3, heavy industrial, districts to
    phasing program.                                                   I-2, light industrial.

                                                               45
South Central Durham Plan

The Planning Department and the PAC should jointly                   can be destabilized by increased industrial development.
initiate recommended zoning changes. These and other
recommended rezonings are shown on the Proposed City-                Preservation of Existing Residential Character
Initiated Zoning Changes Map.                                        Policy

Land Use Issue                                                       The character of viable residential areas in South Central
                                                                     Durham should be protected and preserved.
New intense land uses, resulting from in-fill development
on vacant lots and redevelopment of built-up areas can               The objective of this policy is to maintain the stability and
diminish the character of older established residential              viability of residential areas through appropriate zoning
areas of South Central Durham. In undeveloped areas                  that will allow for compatible new in-fill development.
near the Research Triangle Park, the prospects for more              Also, it seeks to resolve inconsistencies that exist between
intense industrial development signal a tremendous change            current zoning patterns and residential land use density.
in their character. In both cases viable residential areas
need protection from potential adverse impacts of new                Implementation Measures:
development.
                                                                     1. Rezone the OI-2 district south of So-Hi Drive, west of
Concern # 1 - Types, Amount and Location of                             Alston Avenue, and east of Durham & Southern
Future Land Uses.                                                       Railroad, to R-20.

There needs to be a detailed Future Land Use Map                     2. Rezone the R-3 and RM-12 districts located on the
(FLUM) for South Central Durham that is designed to                     west side of Fayetteville Street between Nelson
reflect the land use policies contained in this Plan.                   Street, Columbia Avenue and Otis Street to R-5.

Future Land Use Policy                                               3. Rezone to R-5 the part of the Collier Estates subdivi-
                                                                        sion that is zoned I-2(D).
The Future Land Use Map (FLUM) of the adopted South
Central Durham Plan should generally be followed in                  4. Rezone to R-5 all lots used for residential in the NC
making land use decisions for South Central Durham. In                  district located on both sides of Alston Avenue be-
cases where application of the Plan’s FLUM and written                  tween Nixon Street and Capps Street.
policies would give conflicting results, the written land use
policies of this Plan should generally supersede the general         5. Rezone all lots in the NC district at the intersection of
guidance of the Plan’s FLUM.                                            Roxboro Street and Dunstan Avenue to R-3, except
                                                                        lots used for commercial on the northeast corner of the
The FLUM depicts generally-preferred locations for land                 intersection.
uses in South Central Durham. The amount of land                     Table 16: Future Land Use
allocated to each category of land uses on the FLUM is
shown in Table 16. These allocations are compared with                                                             Percent of
existing land use as shown in Figure 1. The Plan’s written           Land Use                        Acres           Total
policies discuss specific goals, objectives and recommen-            Residential                             2,013        49.3
dations for accommodating the desired distribution, loca-             Low                                      535           13.1
tion and amount of land use activity.                                 Medium                                   987           24.2
                                                                      High                                     491           12.0
Concern #2 - Destabilization of Neighborhood and
                                                                     Commercial                                 89           2.2
Residential Areas.
                                                                     Office                                     89           2.2
Existing residential areas can be adversely impacted or              Institutional                             350           8.6
destabilized by incompatible high density residential and            Industrial                              1,031          25.3
general and heavy commercial uses that can be developed              Recreation/Floodplain/                    355           8.7
under existing zoning designations. In addition, rural and           Open Space
low density residential areas near Research Triangle Park            Mixed Use                                 153           3.7
                                                                     Total                                   4,080         100.0

                                                                46
                                                                                                    South Central Durham Plan

                                                                 General and heavy commercial uses which could nega-
6. Rezone the parcels used for duplexes on the following         tively impact adjacent residential areas should be located
   streets from RM-12 to R-3: Alston Avenue; Chestnut            in areas of similar nonresidential development.
   Street; Enterprise Street; Hillside Avenue; Nelson
   Street; Piedmont Avenue; Roxboro Street; Scout                The objective of this policy is to minimize adverse impacts
   Drive; and South Street.                                      of commercial activity on neighborhood residential areas
                                                                 and less intensive commercial uses. It seeks to reduce or
7. Rezone the part of the NC district on the east side of        eliminate potential land use conflicts between residential
   Alston Avenue, south of the Durham Freeway, to R-             uses and incompatible commercial uses in CT and GC
   3.                                                            zoning districts, in which uses can adversely impact and
                                                                 threaten the stability of adjacent residential areas.
8. Rezone to OI-2 the part of the NC district on the east
   side of Fayetteville Street between Umstead Street            Implementation Measures:
   and the existing OI-2 district.
                                                                 1. Rezone the portion of CT district on the northwest
9. Carry out a coordinated effort of zoning enforcement             corner of NC-55 and Riddle Road to NC and the
   near NCCU to prevent property owners from illegally              portion on the southeast corner covering the Glenview
   converting single family residences to boarding or               Cemetery to R-5.
   rooming houses.
                                                                 2. Rezone the GC district located at the intersection of
    The Planning Department and the PAC should jointly              Fayetteville Street and Burlington Avenue to NC,
    initiate recommended zoning changes (see the Pro-               except for the St. Joseph AME Church property,
    posed City-Initiated Zoning Changes Map).                       which should be rezoned to R-5.

Commercial Compatibility Policy                                      The Planning Department and the PAC should jointly
                                                                     initiate recommended zoning changes.


Figure 1: Existing And Future Land Use




                                                            47
                                 SOUTH CENTRAL DURHAM




                                            L
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FUTURE
LAND USE
  LOW DENSITY RESIDENTIAL
  MEDIUM DENSITY RESIDENTIAL
  HIGH DENSITY RESIDENTIAL
  COMMERCIAL
  OFFICE
  INSTITUTIONAL                                                                                                    N


  INDUSTRIAL                                                        CITY LIMIT LINE                          W         E

  RECREATION/OPEN SPACE/FLOODPLAIN                                  RTP BOUNDARY                                   S           DURHAM CITY-COUNTY PLANNING
  MIXED USE                                                                                                                    Durham, North Carolina
                                                0                        3000                      6000 Feet                   December 1994
  PROPOSED THOROUGHFARES                                                                                                       Amended: September 2002
                                                                                                           South Central Durham Plan

Viable residential areas need protection from potential ad-          4. Encourage and support rezoning of existing industrial
verse impacts of new development.                                       districts west of NC-55 to commercial and deny any
                                                                        new rezoning requests for industrial west of NC-55.

                                                                         The Planning Department and the PAC should jointly
                                                                         initiate recommended zoning changes.

                                                                     Concern #3 - Land Use Support for Future Transit
                                                                     Services.

                                                                     Some areas need to be developed at greater intensities to
                                                                     support improved transit services and future mass transit.

                                                                     Transit Development Policy

                                                                     Where feasible, land use development in portions of South
                                                                     Central Durham should support mass transit alternatives
                                                                     to the automobile.
Industrial and Mixed Use Development Policy
                                                                     This policy is designed to encourage the development of
An adequate supply of appropriate land should be provided            residential land use patterns at the density levels needed to
for the orderly expansion of industrial uses in South Central        support a regional transit system. Implementation of this
Durham, with protection for adjacent residential areas and           policy could decrease the need to widen and build more
opportunities for mixed use development. However, new                roads.
industrial development should not occur west of NC-55.
                                                                     Implementation Measures:
This policy encourages the development of more industrial
land uses in South Central Durham in areas most suited for           1. Identify locations in South Central Durham suitable
such use. Existing residential areas should be protected                for land development at intensity levels that will
from adverse impacts and the potential for mixed use                    support a transit system, (e.g. along NC-147 and NC-
development, offering employment, shopping and resi-                    55).
dences in a single setting, should be encourage for land
north of Research Triangle Park. Also, it seeks to reduce                The Planning Department and the Durham Depart-
the opportunities for new heavy industrial uses to move                  ment of Transportation (DDOT) should identify loca-
into this area.                                                          tions with input and support from the South Central
                                                                         Durham PAC.
Implementation Measures:                                             Prevent illegal conversion of single family residences to board-
                                                                     ing houses.
1. Rezone all remaining I-3, heavy industrial, districts to
   I-2, light industrial and deny new zoning requests for
   I-3.

2. Minimize potential adverse impacts of new industrial
   developments through buffering and good site plan-
   ning.

3. Encourage the development of a mix of industrial,
   commercial, office and medium density residential
   uses in area northwest of the Durham Freeway and
   Ellis Road interchange (see Future Land Use Map).


                                                                49
                           SOUTH CENTRAL DURHAM




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                                            NC to R-3                 AVE                            FR
                                                                                                       EE
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                                                                                                           Y


                                          LAWSON ST
                                                                                                           I-3 to I-2
                      ST
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                                                       R-3 and




                                                                                              BACON ST
                 XBO




                                                        RM-12
              SRO




                                                        to R-5
                                            ST




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                                                                             55




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                                                                                              RR
                                                                                   & W ESTERN
                                                                           NORFOLK                                                                 I-3 to I-2




                                                                                                                                                                                           DURHAM FREEWAY
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PROPOSED
CITY-INITIATED                                                                                                   N


ZONING                                                     CITY LIMIT LINE                                 W                E

                                                           RTP BOUNDARY
CHANGES                                                                                                          S

                                                                                                                                             DURHAM CITY-COUNTY PLANNING
                                          0                         3000                                 6000 Feet                           Durham, North Carolina
   AREAS OF CHANGE                                                                                                                           December 1994
                                                                                                          South Central Durham Plan

Minimize potential adverse impacts of new industrial develop-        and safety problems within the interior of the planning
ments.                                                               area. Moreover, some of the proposed thoroughfare
                                                                     improvements that will address these problems could have
                                                                     severe adverse impacts on residential areas.

                                                                     Concern #1 - Traffic Safety and Congestion.

                                                                     Congestion on Fayetteville Street and Alston Avenue, the
                                                                     area’s two major north-south routes, is not being ad-
                                                                     dressed. Each has problem intersections that are becom-
                                                                     ing unsafe to both motorists and pedestrians. New
                                                                     development in the area will greatly increase traffic
                                                                     congestion and safety concerns.

                                                                     Thoroughfare Improvements Policy A

                                                                     Safe vehicular movement in South Central Durham should
                                                                     be provided by making thoroughfare improvements to
2. Study amending the Durham zoning and subdivision                  provide alternative routes of travel, reduce traffic conges-
   ordinances to establish a regulatory structure that               tion and eliminate safety hazards.
   encourages “transit friendly” development patterns.
                                                                     The objective of this policy is to encourage the scheduling
    The Planning Department, with input and support                  and construction of thoroughfare improvements according
    from the South Central Durham PAC, should study                  to their overall impacts on traffic conditions and the needs
    this issue and jointly initiate recommended zoning               of future development. Improvements having the greatest
    ordinance changes.                                               impact on adverse traffic conditions should be given the
                                                                     highest priority for construction and their design should
3. Encourage the establishment of transit oriented devel-            promote optimum safety and flow of traffic.
   opment nodes along designated transit corridors that
   integrate a complementary range of medium-to-high                 Implementation Measures:
   intensity land uses, e.g., residential, commercial and
   office type activity.                                             1. Improve traffic safety at the following intersections in
                                                                        priority order:
    The Planning Department and the DDOT should
    identify locations with input from and support from the              a. Fayetteville Street and Linwood Avenue;
    South Central Durham PAC.                                            b. Fayetteville Street and Lawson Street;
                                                                         c. Alston Avenue and the Durham Freeway; and
4. Study the desirability of amending the Durham Zoning              Improve traffic safety at intersections.
   Ordinance to establish a Transit Overlay District to
   encourage high density development to make transit
   more feasible.
   The Planning Department, with input and support
   from the South Central Durham PAC, should study
   this issue and jointly initiate recommended zoning
   ordinance changes.

Transportation Issue

Several improvements to major thoroughfares serving
South Central Durham are scheduled for construction in
the near future, but none will address traffic congestion


                                                                51
South Central Durham Plan

    d. Fayetteville Street and Pekoe Avenue.                      Conduct feasibility studies for the widening of Fayetteville
                                                                  Street and Roxboro Street.
2. Give high priority to the construction of thoroughfare
   improvements in South Central Durham, which are
   not yet funded or scheduled for construction. Projects
   are listed below by priority (in the following order):

    a. Cornwallis Road/Riddle Road Connector; and
    b. Riddle Road/Glover Road Connector.

3. Conduct feasibility studies for the widening of
   Fayetteville Street and Roxboro Street.

    The Durham Department of Transportation (DDOT)
    and the Planning Department shall work with the N.
    C. Department of Transportation and neighborhood
    representatives to implement these recommenda-
                                                                      impacts of increased traffic and control cut-through
    tions. Sources of funding for these improvements
                                                                      traffic on adjacent residential areas and streets. In-
    should include local, state and federal revenues.
                                                                      stead of having McLaurin Avenue intersect with the
                                                                      connector, support constructing a cul-de-sac on
Concern #2 - Adverse Impacts of Proposed Thor-
                                                                      McLaurin Avenue or closing a portion of the street.
oughfare Improvements.
                                                                      Also consider building an extension of Hobbs Street
                                                                      that will intersect with the proposed connector to
Some proposed thoroughfare improvements can ruin ex-
                                                                      provide better access to the new Hillside High School
isting neighborhoods by removing buildings and increasing
                                                                      and Cornwallis Road for residents in the Elmira
traffic.
                                                                      neighborhood area.
Thoroughfare Improvements Policy B
                                                                  2. Fayetteville Street Widening: Minimize the impacts to
                                                                     the surrounding neighborhoods, the NCCU historic
Disruptive influences and adverse impacts that improve-
                                                                     district and other historic properties.
ments to existing thoroughfares will have on adjacent
residential areas should be minimized.
                                                                  3. South Roxboro Street Widening: Minimize the im-
                                                                     pacts to the surrounding neighborhood and C. C.
The traffic circulation needs of the city are of vital
                                                                     Spaulding Elementary School.
importance to economic functions, and the overall quality
of life in the city and in the neighborhoods through which
                                                                      The Durham Department of Transportation (DDOT)
traffic flows. Sometimes, however, thoroughfare im-
                                                                      and the Planning Department shall work with the N.
provements may have negative impacts on the neighbor-
                                                                      C. Department of Transportation and neighborhood
hoods in which the improvements are made. The displace-
                                                                      representatives to implement these recommenda-
ment of homes and businesses, increased traffic volumes,
                                                                      tions. Sources of funding for these improvements
and resulting pressures for land use change, might disrupt
                                                                      should include local, state and federal revenues.
neighborhood residential and commercial areas. From
time to time studies need to be made to assess the impacts
                                                                  Concern #2 - Improved Transit Service.
improvements have on existing traffic patterns and the
safety of pedestrians and motorists travelling along thor-
                                                                  Transit services in South Central Durham are among the
oughfares and adjacent streets. This policy encourages an
                                                                  best in the City. However, amenities for riders need to be
evaluation of proposed thoroughfare plan improvements to
                                                                  provided and maintained, and routes will need to be
minimize negative impacts.
                                                                  extended to serve developing areas.
Implementation Measures:
                                                                  Public Transit Policy
1. Cornwallis Road/Riddle Road Connector: Minimize
                                                             52
                                                                                                         South Central Durham Plan

Greater emphasis should be placed on extending public bus
service to employment areas and community facilities in             Pedestrian Circulation Policy
South Central Durham and to providing amenities and
support services to increase ridership.                             The pedestrian circulation system in South Central Durham
                                                                    should be improved and extended to provide safer access
The effectiveness of public transit is measured by how              to existing and new public facilities and accommodate
conveniently and cheaply it get riders to their desired             recreational needs.
destinations. In this regard, better service is not only
needed for those dependent on public transit, but it is also        South Central Durham has many community facilities that
needed to attract new riders and lure motorists from their          are within walking distances for residents. However,
cars. In addition, amenities that protect riders from the           where no sidewalks are available, walking to these facili-
weather and shorten travel times and distances, can                 ties is hazardous and thereby discouraged. In addition,
increase the effectiveness of public transit and ridership.         sidewalks are necessary for students to reach school
                                                                    safely without walking in the streets and private yards.
Implementation Measures:
                                                                    Implementation Measures:
1. Consider extending DATA’s bus routes and estab-
   lishing transit stops at or near the following:                  1. Give high priorities to constructing sidewalks along the
                                                                       following streets serving public facilities in the area, in
    a. The new Hillside High School; and                               priority order:
    b. New employment areas along Briggs Avenue and
       in Research Triangle Park.                                       a. Capps Street from Bacon Street to Alston Av-
                                                                           enue to serve R.N. Harris Elementary School and
2. Construct facilities within public right of ways, along                 the Irwin R. Holmes, Sr. Recreation Center;
   designated transit routes, to encourage and assist                   b. Bacon Street from Lawson Street to Capps Street
   transit use, including transit shelters, bicycle racks,                 to serve R.N. Harris Elementary School;
   pedestrian connections to bus stops, as well as transit              c. Elmira Avenue from Curtis Street west to existing
   oriented improvements to roadways and intersec-                         sidewalk to serve Shepard Middle School and
   tions.                                                                  Elmira Park;
                                                                        d. Fayetteville Street (both sides) from Cornwallis
    The DDOT should work with the NCDOT and                                Road to Riddle Road to serve the new Hillside
    neighborhoods to implement the foregoing recom-                        High School;
    mendations. Sources of funding for facility improve-                e. Riddle Road from Alston Avenue to Fayetteville
    ments should include local, state and federal funds.                   Street to serve the new Hillside High School;
                                                                        f. Alston Avenue from Cecil Street to Capps Street
3. Amend local development regulations to contain stan-                    to serve the Irwin R. Holmes, Sr. Recreation
   dards for requiring private and public development to                   Center (This improvement might require curbs
   accommodate transit use along designated transit                        and gutters to be built on Alston Avenue.);
   routes. The resulting standard should be used in                     g. NC-55 on the west side from Lawson Street to
   scrutinizing subdivision and other site plan proposals to               Cecil Street to serve NCCU and from Dakota
   determine the need for transit stops/shelters.                          Street to Riddle Road to serve the new Hillside
                                                                           High School;
    The Planning Department should investigate and pre-                 h. Lawson Street on the north side from Bacon
    pare the amendments for consideration by local gov-                    Street to Briggs Avenue to serve Durham Tech.
    erning officials.                                                   i. Lakewood Avenue on both sides from Roxboro
                                                                           Street to Fayetteville Street to serve Heritage
Concern #3 - Safer Pedestrian Access.                                      Square Shopping Center; and
                                                                        j. Briggs Avenue on the east side from Lawson
Sidewalks are needed to provide safer pedestrian access                    Street to serve the North Carolina Employment
to schools and recreation facilities. The proposed urban                   and Security Commission.
trails and greenways can enhance the existing sidewalk
network.
                                                               53
South Central Durham Plan

2. Support the construction of sidewalks in the City’s               Safety and Security Policy
   Sidewalk Construction Program.
                                                                     Improvements in matters of community safety and secu-
3. Put greater emphasis on maintaining and repairing                 rity should be promoted among residents of South Central
   existing sidewalks.                                               Durham.

4. Continue efforts to complete the system of urban trails           This policy addresses crime which is often an indication of
   and greenways.                                                    economic and social problems in an area. Neighborhood
                                                                     watch and other crime prevention programs require good
5. Explore the possible future use of the Norfolk &                  working relationships among residents and with the law
   Southern Railroad running along Riddle Road and the               enforcement community.
   Durham & Southern Railroad running along Alston
   Avenue as rail trails or bikeways.                                Implementation Measures:

    The Planning Department, DDOT and Durham Open                    1. Encourage greater participation in community and
    Space and Trails Commission will assist with the                    neighborhood watch program.
    planning of these facilities. Funding for these trails,
    greenways and sidewalks shall come from various                  2. Support workshops on crime, especially drug related
    sources, including bond funds, city revenues, federal               crimes for residents, sponsored by law enforcement
    and state transportation funds and private contribu-                officials.
    tions.
                                                                     3. Encourage more police protection and surveillance of
Community Facilities and Services Issue                                 special problem areas.

South Central Durham has numerous high quality commu-                4. Study street lighting standards and make improve-
nity facilities and services to address the daily and special           ments where needed.
needs of residents. However, the use and enjoyment of
these facilities and services are being reduced by increas-              The PAC and residents should work with the Police
ing crime.                                                               Department to carry out the recommendations. These
                                                                         groups and the Police Department should work with
Concern - Increasing Crime.                                              the Durham Department of Transportation to exam-
                                                                         ine street lighting conditions.
Concern about crime in South Central Durham is increas-
ing.                                                                 Economic Development Issue

                                                                     South Central Durham residents need more and better
Continue efforts to complete the system of urban trails and          paying job opportunities to reduce the area’s high unem-
greenways.                                                           ployment rate. Increase industrial development in the
                                                                     planning area can provide new job opportunities.

                                                                     Concern #1 - Improved Economic Advancement
                                                                     Opportunities.

                                                                     Residents need to be able to get better and higher paying
                                                                     jobs.

                                                                     Economic Opportunities Policy

                                                                     Residents of South Central Durham should be encouraged
                                                                     and assisted in taking advantage of economic opportunities
                                                                     that would improve their standard of living.

                                                                54
                                                                                                       South Central Durham Plan

                                                                    A high priority should be placed on developing industrially
The objective of this policy is to effectively market               zoned land.
available resources such as counseling, education, job
training and skills development programs to residents. In
addition, it will improve resident opportunities to overcome
personal situations that prevent them from achieving
career objectives and other goals.

Implementation Measures:

1. Develop and target job training and job internship
   programs to specific groups.

2. Support and promote the development and use of
   counseling services and programs to address juvenile
   delinquency, drugs and alcohol abuse, teenage preg-
   nancy, school dropouts, and other social problems.               zoned land makes it an ideal area to promote new industrial
                                                                    development as well as locating other industrial uses that
3. Support and promote the development of affordable                would provide jobs for residents of the area. This policy
   daycare programs, particularly those that emphasize              seeks to encourage industrial development by providing
   employer participation.                                          needed amenities and assistance.

4. Encourage and support adult literacy programs and                Implementation Measures:
   continuing education programs.
                                                                    1. Develop a marketing program to encourage develop-
    The City Department of Employment and Training                     ment of available land.
    should take the lead in contacting the PAC and area
    residents and other public agencies involved with               2. Provide job development and job training programs as
    these matters. The agencies include Durham County                  incentives for new industry.
    Department of Social Services, Durham Technical
    Community College, the Durham Public Schools, and               3. Provide outreach assistance to the surrounding com-
    other public service agencies. Also, the City might                munity to insure a trained and available work force.
    consider funding for local public service programs to
    provide services in the planning area.                              The planning staff at the direction of the City Man-
                                                                        ager, shall work with the Durham Economic Develop-
Concern #2 - Promotion of New Industrial Develop-                       ment Commission, the Chamber of Commerce, the
ment.                                                                   Durham Business and Professional Chain, the Durham
                                                                        Training Center, PAC and property owners to develop
South Central Durham has some of the best sites for new                 the marketing strategy and jobs programs for area
industrial development in the City and County. However,                 residents.
there is strong competition for attracting new industry in
the Triangle region. These sites need to be promoted and            Housing Issue
made more competitive to attract new industry, offering
employment opportunities for residents.                             A variety of housing types exist in South Central Durham.
                                                                    Most notable is that forty percent of Durham’s low income
Industrial Development Policy                                       public housing is located in the area. The mix of public
                                                                    housing and other housing opportunities provides shelter
A high priority should be placed on developing industrially         for a wide range of residents. But, deterioration and
zoned land in South Central Durham to provide increased             decline of some areas need to be addressed. Safe, sound
employment opportunities of residents of the area.                  and affordable housing is desirable for all of South Central
                                                                    Durham’s residents.
South Central Durham’s large amount of industrially
                                                               55
South Central Durham Plan

                                                                     No new public housing communities should be built in or
Concern #1 - The Large Amount of Public Housing.                     adjacent to South Central Durham.

South Central Durham has 815 low income public housing
units.

Concentration of Assisted Housing Policy

The development of new assisted housing in South Central
Durham should be limited and the locations of these
developments should be restricted.

This policy seeks to prevent further concentration of
assisted housing in South Central Durham, and especially,
new assisted, multi-family housing near the existing public
housing developments. When concentrated near existing
public housing, these developments give the area a nega-                     assisted development. The quality of these rental
tive image and it usually suffers from high crime and other                  developments, with respect to appearance, should
social problems. Too much of these developments can                          be attractive, functional and compatible with de-
destabilize adjacent residential areas and exacerbate neigh-                 velopment in the surrounding area.
borhood decline.
                                                                     3. Solicit the comments of residents and property owners
Implementation Measures:                                                on proposed new assisted housing developments.

1. No new public housing communities should be built in                  The planning staff routinely assists the federal govern-
   or adjacent to South Central Durham.                                  ment in evaluating assisted housing development pro-
                                                                         posals for funding. The staff also solicits and evalu-
2. New assisted housing developments should not be                       ates proposals for financing with City and County
   built unless they address special housing needs, pro-                 housing boards. The above criteria and measures
   mote homeownership and meet the following criteria:                   shall be used by staff with other evaluation criteria for
                                                                         assisted housing development proposals for South
    a. Owner-occupied developments should not be                         Central Durham.
       larger than 30 units on a site or within one half mile
       radius of another assisted development.                       Concern #2 - Deteriorated Housing.
    b. Rental developments should not be larger than 20
       units on a site or within a one half mile radius of an        Housing conditions in the area are generally good, but
Deterioration and decline of some areas need to be addressed.        there are several pockets of deteriorated housing.

                                                                     Housing Improvement Policy

                                                                     The maintenance and rehabilitation of existing housing and
                                                                     the safe disposition of abandoned housing should be
                                                                     encouraged and promoted.

                                                                     The objective of this policy is to upgrade the physical
                                                                     condition of housing and the overall physical appearance
                                                                     of residential areas in South Central Durham. Rehabilita-
                                                                     tion and maintenance of the area’s housing stock is crucial
                                                                     for maintaining neighborhood stability and preserving the
                                                                     integrity of the area.

                                                                     Implementation Measures:
                                                                56
                                                                                                       South Central Durham Plan


1. Use more effective regulatory measures to improve                Housing Opportunities Policy
   occupied units and to remove abandoned and closed
   units.                                                           An adequate supply of affordable housing opportunities
                                                                    for all income levels should be developed and maintained
2. Provide financial assistance to carry out emergency              to address the housing needs of South Central Durham
   repair of owner occupied units.                                  residents, as well as those with special requirements, i.e.,
                                                                    elderly and handicapped.
3. Encourage, assist and support the development and
   implementation of measures to convert heir and rental            The objective of this policy is the provision and mainte-
   properties to homeownership as part of a neighbor-               nance of housing to meet the various needs of residents.
   hood revitalization program.                                     Housing the poor and elderly requires the use of innovative
                                                                    and unconventional financing means and methods to
4. Consider the development and implementation of                   construct new developments and rehabilitate existing
   neighborhood revitalization programs for the following           housing. The City’s Housing Strategy identifies incen-
   areas:                                                           tives, like subsidies and regulation changes, to help reduce
                                                                    housing costs and attract developers.
    a. The Durham Cotton Mill Village;
    b. The potential local historic district along Fay-             Implementation Measures:
       etteville Street;
    c. Residential areas adjacent to NCCU;                          1. Encourage creative and affordable housing in South
    d. Neighborhoods adjacent to the Burton Street                     Central Durham.
       Elementary School, and
    e. The Southside neighborhood.                                  2. Continue the financing of new construction and reno-
                                                                       vation with the City and nonprofit groups, such as
    The Planning Department shall work with the PAC                    Habitat for Humanity, United Durham, Inc., North
    and residents to identify a project area and the devel-            Carolina Land Trustees, Inc. and South Durham
    opment of revitalization programs. The revitalization              Development Corporation.
    effort shall encompass historic preservation and emer-
    gency repair efforts as well. Possible sources of               3. Consider carrying out a single family, homeownership
    funding include Community Development Block Grant                  project in the Hobbs Street area, similar to the Brighton
    and City housing bonds programs.                                   Road Project in North Durham.

Concern #3 - Increased Housing Opportunities.                           The planning staff shall work with the PAC and
                                                                        residents to carry out these recommendations. An old,
A broad range of housing opportunities needs to be                      undeveloped subdivision near Elmira Park should be
available for those seeking to live in South Central Durham.            considered for the single family, homeownership
Housing conditions in the area are generally good.                      project. The acquisition of lots in these subdivisions
                                                                        should be done through voluntary fee simple purchase.
                                                                        Existing property owners might also have the option of
                                                                        developing their own parcels and paying their share of
                                                                        the costs for installing infrastructure.




                                                               57
South Central Durham Plan

Affordable housing opportunities for all income levels should
be developed.




                                                                58
                                                                                                       South Central Durham Plan




                                  IMPLEMENTATION
Guidance offered in the South Central Durham Plan                   Private citizens and PAC members have a very important role.
should be referred to during relevant decision-making
processes about the area. To the extent that this Plan
charts a course for South Central Durham’s future,
policies in the Plan should be followed and related imple-
mentation measures should be carried out. Implementa-
tion measures contained in this Plan will be carried out by
numerous groups, including Planning Staff. The South
Central Durham Planning Advisory Committee (PAC) is
viewed as playing a key role in all implementation efforts.
This section discusses mechanisms that may be used
towards that end.

PLAN ADOPTION
The PAC is viewed as playing an important role in moving
a draft Plan that they can support through the public review        reflect a community consensus on how, when and where
process to adoption, with a minimum of delays and serious           Durham should encourage, discourage or otherwise man-
changes. After the South Central Durham Plan is adopted             age development in South Central Durham. Frequent
by the Durham City Council, it will become an official              utilization of the Plan during decision-making processes
detailed guide for managing South Central Durham’s                  and following through on the Plan’s implementation mea-
future development. It will provide the most detailed               sures can best insure that many of the needs and long-term
guidance of any City or County Plan on planning and                 goals of the communities described in this Plan will be
development issues within this area. The Plan is viewed             addressed and achieved.
as generally compatible and supportive of other adopted
plans, particularly the Durham 2005 Comprehensive Plan.             PLAN UTILIZATION
Active citizen input was involved in the Plan’s formulation,        The true measure of a Plan’s acceptance may best be
review and adoption and has resulted in a Plan that tries to        described in terms of the degree to which it is used and
The Plan should be carried out.                                     supported during relevant decision-making processes.
                                                                    The Durham City Council, developers, private citizens,
                                                                    and the City Administration each have important roles in
                                                                    this phase of the implementation process.

                                                                    The City Council demonstrates its support for the Plan by
                                                                    actively adhering to Plan policies in making relevant
                                                                    decisions and by actively supporting the Plan’s implemen-
                                                                    tation measures. Developers demonstrate their support by
                                                                    consulting the Plan, referring to its provisions, and by
                                                                    making good faith efforts to adhere to the same. Private
                                                                    citizens and PAC members have a very important role in
                                                                    participating in and monitoring the use of the Plan’s
                                                                    provisions. The value of many private citizens keeping a
                                                                    plan in the forefront of the decision-making process should

                                                               59
South Central Durham Plan

not be underestimated. Where it is solely a matter of                   Some recommendations will require the PAC, residents, prop-
adhering to the policies established by this Plan, the role of          erty owners, and/or business operators to take leading roles.
private citizens and PAC members will be fairly simple. In
cases where implementation requires overt action, espe-
cially that of a public or quasi-public body, this role requires
more time and involvement. In those cases, e.g., rezoning
activity, environmental studies, public improvement projects,
etc., private citizens may find their interests best served by
going directly to the decision-makers for the desired
action. They should establish good working rapport with
agencies and individuals, public and private, who have
implementation roles and/or authority. Finally, the City
Administration plays an important role in overseeing imple-
mentation responsibilities assigned to various departments.
Setting timetables, revising strategies and even seeking
more resources at a later date may all be necessary to
follow through on implementation of the Plan. The City
Manager, Budget staff, and Planning staff would also have               development and preservation needs in South Central
coordinating roles in theses matters.                                   Durham, the tasks involved in addressing them, the various
                                                                        parties who should perform these tasks, and the level of
PLAN IMPLEMENTATION                                                     participation sought from these parties. Meetings be-
                                                                        tween Planning staff and the South Central Durham
After adoption of the Plan by the Durham City Council,                  Planning Advisory Committee have served as an active
implementation of the recommendations should be sched-                  forum in which to address relevant concerns. The PAC
uled and initiated. The Plan’s implementation will require              should continue to function as planning advocates for
participation, support, and commitment of the City, resi-               themselves, their communities, and for the Plan. The
dents, property owners, business operators, and the PAC.                ultimate success of the South Central Durham planning
All of these major actors will need to work in tandem to                effort will be determined, in large part, by the collective
effectively fulfill their related roles. Implementation of              efforts of this group, along with local governmental agen-
some recommendations will require the PAC, residents,                   cies, elected officials, and concerned citizens in general.
property owners, and/or business operators to take leading
roles. The role of local governmental agencies in imple-
menting policy recommendations should be to coordinate
and help initiate them. Planning staff resources for
implementation are very limited, and direct assistance is
generally pledged to the South Central Durham commu-
nity for a period of up to one year immediately following
Plan adoption. At the end of this period, progress toward
plan implementation should be reviewed and the advisabil-
ity or remaining implementation strategies should be ana-
lyzed. The Plan should be updated when appropriate to
reflect changing community goals and concerns.

An Action Plan which summarizes recommended actions
and lead implementing groups follows this narrative. This
Action Plan should be the key reference point on how the
status of implementation is proceeding.

CONCLUSION
The South Central Durham Plan identifies the overall
                                                                   60
                                                                                                       South Central Durham Plan




                                      Action Plan
Introduction                                                          designed to eliminate blight, revitalize declining neigh-
                                                                      borhoods, rehabilitate and build new housing for low
                                                                      and moderate income people, encourage commercial
This Action Plan is a summary of the South Central
                                                                      development and promote job opportunities. Today,
Durham Plan. It was prepared to give South Central
                                                                      public funds are still important to promoting major new
Durham residents and the general public an understanding
                                                                      development in the area.
of the issues raised and the policies developed to address
them during the planning process. This summary is
                                                                  3. Some urban renewal projects have not yet been
designed to be part of the Appendix of the South Central
                                                                     completed.
Durham Plan and as a "stand alone" document.
                                                                  4. South Central Durham has numerous high quality
Recommendations in the Action Plan are grouped into
                                                                     community facilities and services that contribute sig-
four categories, Regulations, Expendures and Revenues,
                                                                     nificantly to the quality of life of its residents and the
Programs and Studies. Regulations are rezonings, enforc-
                                                                     character of the area.
ing City and County ordinances, text admendments to
zoning and subdivision ordinances. Expendures and Rev-
                                                                  5. The area lacks adequate commercial activity to pro-
enues require the allocation of public funds for new
                                                                     vide for the needs of residents.
purposes. Programs involve modification of existing
programs or new services by public and private agencies.
                                                                  6. Large tracts of land suitable for industrial develop-
Studies identify items that need further clarification to
                                                                     ment are available near Research Triangle Park.
determine the appropriate courses of action.
                                                                     Some established residential areas near RTP could be
                                                                     adversely impacted by new industrial development.
The Action Plan contains 64 implementation measures.
Each measure has a page reference for the South Central
                                                                  7. Transit services in South Central Durham are among
Durham Plan and identifies those primarily repsonsible for
                                                                     the best in the City. However, amenities for riders are
implementing each action.
                                                                     needed and routes will need to be extended to serve
                                                                     developing areas.
Summary of Issues
                                                                  8. South Central Durham has several large public hous-
This section describes and summaries different concerns,             ing communities and the largest concentration of
trends, and issues raised by the South Central Durham                assisted housing in the City. New assisted housing is
planning process, based on the perceptions of the PAC,               still being built in the area, enlarging this concentration
other concerned citizens, as well as public agencies and             and causing great concern.
planning staff.
                                                                  9. The health and safety of residents in some areas have
1. South Central Durham has a rich heritage as a                     been threatened by accidents involving the use, stor-
   prosperous African-American community. Much of                    age and transportation of hazardous materials in
   this heritage was destroyed by urban renewal. Some                adjacent areas.
   of the remaining historic and architecturally signifi-
   cant resources are being threaten by new develop-              10. The aesthetics of the area, as well as the health and
   ment.                                                              safety of residents, are being diminished by trash and
                                                                      debris discarded into streams and on private property.
2. For decades, considerable amounts of public funds
   have been invested in the area to carry out programs           11. Concern about crime in South Central Durham is
                                                                      increasing.
                                                             61
South Central Durham Plan


12. Some proposed thoroughfare improvements can ad-
    versely impact the character of neighborhoods. But
    some improvements are needed to serve new devel-
    opment.

13. The existing network of sidewalks is better than in
    most areas of the City, but improvements are needed
    to provide safer access to schools and recreation
    facilities. The network of greenway trails will further
    enhance pedestrian movement throughout the area.

14. The new Hillside High School will have a major impact
    on traffic and development in the area. Reuse of the
    old school building is a strong concern of residents
    living near it.

15. Unemployment in the area is almost doubled the City’s
    rate. The City and County have located numerous job
    training agencies in the Heritage Square Shopping
    Center.

16. The involvement and participation of local community
    development organizations, political action groups,
    civic organizations and residents have been vital to the
    success of many development projects and programs
    in South Central Durham. All should continue to play
    integral roles in the future.




                                                               62
                                                                                 South Central Durham Plan

                Implementation Measure                                   Page   Lead Actor(s)
Regulations
1. Rezone all I-3 districts to I-2.                                       49          Staff
2. Rezone the OI-2 district south of So-Hi Drive to R-20.                 50          Staff
3. Rezone the R-3 and RM-12 districts on the west side of                 50          Staff
    Fayetteville Street near Columbia Avenue to R-5.
4. Rezone to R-5 the part of the Collier Estates that is zoned I-2(D).    50          Staff
5. Rezone to R-5 all residential lots in the NC district on Alston
    Avenue near Nixon Street.                                             50          Staff
6. Rezone all residential lots in the NC district at Roxboro Street
    and Dunstan Avenue to R-3.                                            50          Staff
7. Rezone parcels used for duplexes from RM-12 to R-3.
8. Rezone the eastern part of the NC district on Alston Avenue            50          Staff
    south of the Durham Freeway to R-3.                                   50          Staff
9. Rezone to OI-2 the eastern part of the NC district on Fayetteville
    Street south of Umstead Street.                                       50          Staff
10. Carry out a coordinated effort of zoning enforcement near
    NCCU.                                                                 50          Staff
11. Rezone the CT district at NC-55 and Riddle Road to NC and R-
    5.                                                                    52          Staff
12. Rezone the GC district at Fayetteville Street and Burlington
    Avenue to NC and R-5.                                                 52          Staff
13. Deny new zoning requests for I-3.
14. Minimize potential adverse impacts of new industrial develop-         52          Staff
    ments.                                                                52          Staff
15. Encourage mixed use development at the Durham Freeway and
    Ellis Road interchange.                                               54          Staff
16. Deny new industrial rezoning west of NC-55.
17. Amend regulations to require private and public development to        54          Staff
    accommodate transit use.                                              56          Staff
18. Use more effective regulatory measures to improve housing
    conditions.                                                           60          Staff

Expenditures and Revenues
1. Improve traffic safety at four intersections on Fayetteville Street
   and Alston Avenue.                                                     55         DDOT
2. Give high priority to construction of the Cornwallis Road/Riddle
   Road and Riddle Road/Glover Road Connectors.                           55         DDOT
3. Construct facilities to encourage and assist transit use.
4. Give high priorities to constructing ten sidewalks to serve public     56         DDOT
   facilities in the area.                                                57         DDOT
5. Provide financial assistance to carry out emergency repair of
   owner occupied units.                                                  60          Staff
Programs
1. Encourage the designation of Local Historic Landmarks.
2. Coordinate enforcement of ordinances with community clean-up           47          Staff
   days.                                                                  47     Residents, Staff
3. Promote neighborhood pride with educational programs and                       and Sanitation
   support of neighborhood clean up efforts.                              48        Residents
4. Consider eight areas for beautification and landscaping projects.              and Sanitation

                                                         63
South Central Durham Plan

                 Implementation Measure                                Page     Lead Actor(s)
5. Support resident and business efforts to beautify their areas.       48        Parks and Rec.
6. Maintain and expand local involvement in the Comprehensive
    Response Plan for East Durham.                                      48        Parks and Rec.
7. Encourage the establishment of transit oriented development          49       Emergency Mgmt.
    nodes.
8. Minimize impacts of Cornwallis Road/Riddle Road Connector.           54             Staff
9. Minimize the impacts of Fayetteville Street Widening.
10. Minimize the impacts of South Roxboro Street Widening.              56            DDOT
11. Consider extending DATA’s bus routes to the new Hillside High
    Schoo,along Briggs Avenue and in RTP.                               56         DDOT
12. Support the construction of sidewalks in the City’s Sidewalk        56         DDOT
    Construction Program.                                               56      DDOT and DATA
13. Put greater emphasis on maintaining and repairing existing
    sidewalks.                                                          57            DDOT
14. Complete the system of urban trails and greenways.
15. Explore the future use of railroads as rail trails or bikeways.     57    DDOT and Engineering
16. Encourage greater participation in neighborhood watch program.
17. Support workshops on crime sponsored by law enforcement             57             Staff
    officials.                                                          57       DDOT and Staff
18. Encourage more police protection and surveillance of special        58      Residents and Police
    problem areas.
19. Develop and target job training and job internship programs.        58      Residents and Police
20. Support and promote the development and use of counseling
    services and programs to address social problems.                   58             Police
21. Support and promote the development of affordable daycare
    programs.                                                           58    Employment and Training
22. Encourage and support adult literacy programs and continuing
    education programs.                                                 58        Social Services
23. Develop a marketing program to encourage development of
    available land.                                                     59        Social Services
24. Provide job development and job training programs as incentives
    for new industry.                                                   59            DTCC
25. Provide outreach assistance to insure a trained and available
    work force.                                                         59             Staff
26. No new public housing communities should be built in or adjacent
    to South Central Durham.                                            59             Staff
27. New assisted housing should address special housing needs,
    promote homeownership and meets certain criteria.                   59             Staff
28. Solicit the comments of residents and property owners on
    proposed new assisted housing developments.                         60        Staff and DHA
29. Convert heir and rental properties to homeownership as part of a
    neighborhood revitalization program.                                60             Staff
30. Consider the development and implementation of neighborhood
    revitalization programs in five areas.                              60             Staff
31. Encourage creative and affordable housing.
32. Continue the financing of new construction and renovation with      61             Staff
    the City and nonprofit groups.
33. Consider carrying out a single family, homeownership project.       61             Staff
Studies
                                                                        61             Staff

                                                       64
                                                                                  South Central Durham Plan

                Implementation Measure                                   Page   Lead Actor(s)
1. Designate the Durham Cotton Mill Village a local historic district.    61           Staff
2. Study the local historic district designation for the Fayetteville
   Street and residential areas adjacent to NCCU.                         61           Staff
3. Study the impacts of the proposed widening of Fayetteville Street
   on National Register properties.
4. Identify locations suitable for transit oriented development along     46    Staff and Consultant
   NC-147 and NC-55.
5. Study amending the Durham zoning and subdivision ordinances to         47           Staff
   encourage “transit friendly” development patterns.
6. Study the desirability of amending the Zoning Ordinance to             47    DDOT and NCDOT
   establish a Transit Overlay District.
7. Conduct feasibility studies for the widening of Fayetteville Street    54     Staff and DDOT
   and Roxboro Street.
8. Study street lighting standards and make improvements where            54           Staff
   needed.

                                                                          54           Staff

                                                                          55    DDOT and NCDOT




                                                         65
South Central Durham Plan




                                  Appendix
                            Dirt Streets in South Central Durham




                                             66
                                              South Central Durham Plan


Durham Architectural and Historic Inventory
        in South Central Durham




                    67
South Central Durham Plan

                            Durham County Historic Inventory
                                in South Central Durham




                                           68
Acknowledgements

             Planning Process
           Nazeeh Abdul-Hakeem
             H. Clay Shepherd




      Report Layout and Photography
              T.E. Austin, II




Front Cover Design, Maps and Data Collection
               Alex Waddell
Durham City-County Planning Department

                                          Paul Norby, Director
                                            Jack Rupplin, Special Projects




        Administrative Services                                           Land Development Services
 Phyllis A. Brown, Management Assistant                                       Jerry Kelley, Assistant Director
       Brenda Daniel, Executive Secretary                                            Design Review
    Abdullah Muhammad, Administrative Clerk                                     Bill Roberts, Principal Planner
      Margaret Young, Executive Secretary                                          Steve Medlin, Planner II
      Temperance Truitt-Tobe, Secretary II                                        Clay Shepherd, Planner II
           Kaye Plair, Senior Secretary                                              Teri Zack, Planner II
                                                                                         Land Use
                                                                             Sheila Stains-Ramp, Principal Planner
                                                                                   Neil Heinberg, Planner II
            Housing Services                                                        Harold Smith, Planner II
                                                                                   Betty Johnson, Planner I
       Paul Joyner, Assistant Director
                                                                              Gail Sherron, Planning Technician
           Gloria James, Fiscal Officer
                                                                                  Zoning Enforcement
            Federal Programs
                                                                     Henry Faucette, Chief Zoning Enforcement Officer
Michael A. Pullum, Federal Programs Administrator
                                                                     Walter Meekins, Jr., Zoning Enforcement Officer
   Ora G. Thomas, Compliance Administrator
                                                                       Jimmy Newman, Zoning Enforcement Officer
      Ginger Newton, Project Administrator
                                                                         Landy Void, Zoning Enforcement Officer
         Housing Bond Program
 Kendall Abernathy, Housing Bond Administrator
    John Downing, Housing Finance Analyst
 Sandra J. Wortham, Housing Finance Technician
  Housing Rehabilitation/Inspections                                             Policy Development
  Lucy Stokes, Housing Services Administrator                                Bonnie Estes, Assistant Director
      Leroy Whitmore, Rehab/Inspector II                                            Scott Spiker, Planner II
      Richard Williams, Rehab/Inspector II                                   Sharon DeShazo, Planning Technician
       Nixon Alexander, Rehab/Inspector I                                    Alice C. Wilson, Planning Technician
         George Carter, Rehab/Inspector I
        Claude Daniels, Rehab/Inspector I
         Bennie Fields, Rehab/Inspector I
          Rick Hester, Rehab/Inspector I
        Andrew Lawson, Rehab/Inspector I                                          Strategic Planning
         Martin Rudin, Rehab/Inspector I                                      Dick Hails, Assistant Director
        James Streeter, Rehab/Inspector I                            Housing and Economic Development
      Ralph Underwood, Rehab/Inspector I
                                                                             Dwight Yarborough, Principal Planner
       Richard Valzonis, Rehab/Inspector I
                                                                                 John Edwards, Jr., Planner II
 Carolyn S. Hughley, Property Records Examiner
                                                                                  Phyllis Toppin, Planner II
       Jackie Thomas, Executive Secretary
        Rosemary Davis, Senior Secretary                             Physical and Environmental Planning
             Marie Hobbs, Secretary I                                           Keith Luck, Principal Planner
             June Marks, Secretary I                                             Stephen Cruse, Planner II
                                                                                  Vonda Frantz, Planner II
            Marketing/Finance
                                                                                   Jane Korest, Planner II
 Juanita Massenburg, Senior Rehab Loan Specialist
                                                                                Vacant, Planning Technician
     Grace Dzidzienyo, Rehab/Loan Specialist
        Ava Hinton, Rehab/Loan Specialist                                        Small Area Planning
    Angela Henderson, Rehab/Loan Specialist                              Nazeeh Abdul-Hakeem, Principal Planner
                                                                                T.E. Austin, II, Planner II
                                                                                Alden Jackson, Planner II
                                                                           Alex Waddell, Planning Technician

								
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