Vitamins by chenshu

VIEWS: 5 PAGES: 56

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MEGA BOOST VITAMIN INFORMATION

Index


Herb/Vitamin              Page

Spirulina                 2

Vitamin C                 4

Brewers Yeast             6

Beta-Carotene             7

Garlic                    8

Ginco                     14

Lecithin                  19

Vitamin B3                20

Depanthenic Acid          25

Vitamin B6                25

Vitamin B12               25

Zinc                      26

Echinacea                 27

Elderberry                30

Propolis                  34

Golden Seal               38

Parsley                   38

Valerian                  40
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Spirulina


Be aware that the U.S. Food and Drug Administration does not strictly
regulate herbs and dietary supplements. There is no guarantee of strength,
purity or safety of products containing or claiming to contain spirulina.
Decisions to use herbs or supplements should be carefully considered.
Individuals using prescription drugs should discuss taking herbs or
supplements with their pharmacist or health care provider before starting.

Evidence
Unproven Uses
Potential Dangers
Interactions
Dosing
Summary
Resources

Evidence
The term spirulina refers to a large number of cyanobacteria, or blue-green
algae. Scientists have studied spirulina for the following health problems:
High cholesterol
Several studies suggest that taking spirulina by mouth may lower blood
cholesterol. However, these studies have been small, low quality and not
fully convincing. Better studies are needed before spirulina can be
recommended.
Diabetes
One study found that spirulina lowers blood sugar levels in people with
diabetes. However, this study was small and had flaws. More research is
needed before spirulina can be recommended to lower blood sugar levels.
Weight loss
One study evaluated spirulina for weight loss. However, spirulina did not
appear to have any additional weight loss benefits over placebo (sugar pill).
At this time, there is no evidence to support the use of spirulina for losing
weight.
Mouth cancer (oral leukoplakia)
Spirulina has been studied as a treatment for lesions in the mouth that may
turn into cancer. Although evidence from one study suggests that spirulina
may produce a remission of existing mouth lesions, this study had flaws and
was conducted for a short time. Further studies are needed before spirulina
can be recommended as a treatment for mouth cancer.
Chronic viral hepatitis
Preliminary study of spirulina for chronic viral hepatitis shows negative
results.
Malnutrition
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Spirulina has been studied as a food supplement in infant malnutrition.
Spirulina does not seem to give added benefit over traditional renutritions,
is more costly, and is not recommended.

Unproven Uses
Spirulina has been suggested for many other uses, based on tradition or on
scientific theories. However, these uses have not been thoroughly studied in
humans, and there is limited scientific evidence about safety or
effectiveness. Some of these suggested uses are for conditions that are
potentially very serious and even life-threatening. You should consult with a
health care provider before using spirulina for any unproven use.

                             Heart disease
Allergies
                             Herpes
Anaphylaxis
                             High blood pressure
Anemia
                             HIV
Antacid
                             Immune enhancement
Antibacterial
                             Infectious diseases
Antifungal
                             Influenza
Anti-inflammatory
                             Iron deficiency
Antioxidant
                             Kidney disease
Antiviral
                             Lead-induced organ damage
Anxiety
                             Leukemia
Atherosclerosis (clogged
                             Liver disease
arteries)
                             Measles
Attention deficit
                             Memory enhancement
hyperactivity disorder
                             Mood stimulant
Autoimmune disorders
                             Mumps
Bowel health
                             Obstetric problems
Brain damage
                             Pneumonia
Cancer
                             Premenstrual syndrome
Colitis
                             Radiation sickness
Cytomegalovirus
                             Radiation-induced damage
Depression
                             Selenium deficiency
Digestion
                             Skin disorders
Energy stimulant
                             Sodium oxalate-induced
Fatigue
                             nephroxicity (kidney damage)
Fibromyalgia
                             Stomach ulcers
Gynecologic disorders
                             Vitamin or nutrient depletion
Hair loss
                             Wound healing



Potential Dangers
Allergies
People with allergies to spirulina, blue-green algae or any of their
constituents should avoid products containing spirulina.
Side Effects
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Few side effects have been reported from spirulina if used at recommended
doses. The most common complaints include headache, muscle pain,
flushing and sweating. Skin reactions have been reported. In theory,
spirulina may contain phenylalanine. It is best for individuals diagnosed with
phenylketonuria to avoid spirulina. Contamination of blue-green algae with
heavy metals is possible, especially in species that are often harvested in
uncontrolled settings (for example, Anabaena, Aphanizomenon and
Microcystis species).
Pregnancy And Breast-Feeding
Spirulina cannot be recommended during pregnancy or breast-feeding
because scientific information is limited in this area.

Interactions
Interactions with drugs, herbs and other supplements have not been
thoroughly studied. The interactions listed below have been reported in
scientific publications. If you are taking prescription drugs, speak with your
health care provider or pharmacist before using herbs or dietary
supplements.
Interactions With Drugs
There have been no reliable studies to evaluate spirulina's interactions with
prescription drugs.
Interactions With Herbs And Dietary Supplements
In theory, spirulina may increase blood calcium to unsafe levels if calcium
supplements are also used. Blue-green algae may contain high levels of
vitamin B-12 or vitamin E. Spirulina may increase levels of protein, iron,
gamma-linolenic fatty acid, carotenoids, and vitamins B1 and B2.

Dosing
The doses listed below are based on scientific research, publications or
traditional use. Because most herbs and supplements have not been
thoroughly studied or monitored, safety and effectiveness may not be
proven. Brands may be made differently, with variable ingredients even
within the same brand. Combination products often contain small amounts
of each ingredient and may not be effective. Appropriate dosing should be
discussed with a health care provider before starting therapy; always read
the recommendations on a product's label. The dosing for unproven uses
should be approached cautiously, because scientific information is limited in
these areas.
For High Cholesterol
Adults (Aged 18 Or Older)
Capsules/tablets: A dose of 1.4 grams taken three times daily with meals by
mouth has been used.
Children (Younger Than 18)
The dosing and safety of spirulina have not been studied in children, and
this supplement is not recommended for any use.
For Diabetes
Adults (Aged 18 Or Older)
Capsules/tablets: A dose of one gram twice daily with meals has been taken
by mouth.
For Weight Loss
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Adults (Aged 18 Or Older)
Capsules/tablets: A dose of 200 milligrams has been taken three times daily
by mouth just before meals.
For Mouth Cancer
Adults (Aged 18 Or Older)
Capsules/tablets: A dose of one gram has been taken daily by mouth.

Summary
Although spirulina has been suggested for many conditions, there is not
enough evidence to support its use for treatment of any medical condition.
It should be avoided in pregnant or breast-feeding women and in children.
Spirulina is also best avoided by those with phenylketonuria. Spirulina
appears to be well tolerated with few adverse effects when used at
recommended doses. Spirulina may have additive effects when taken with
certain vitamins. Consult your health care provider immediately if you
experience side effects.




Vitamin C Powder


Vitamin C, or ascorbic acid, is a white, crystalline, water-soluble substance
found in citrus fruits and green vegetables. As an antioxidant, vitamin C
scavenges free radicals in the body and protects tissues from oxidative
stress.15-18 Vitamin C also promotes the absorption of iron, while
preventing its oxidation.19-21 Vitamin C is a vital cofactor to the formation
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of collagen, the connective tissue that supports arterial walls, skin, bones,
and teeth.22-24*
More vitamin C is contained in the adrenal glands than any other organ in
the body and is required at higher levels during times of stress.25-28
Physical stresses on the body such as ingestion of heavy metals,29-34
cigarette smoking,35-38 infections,39-43 extreme temperatures,44-48 and
chronic use of certain medications such as aspirin also signal the need for
increased intake of vitamin C.49
Along with ascorbic acid, vitamin C also comes in at least two other forms:
chemically bonded to minerals as ascorbates, and as the fat-soluble ascorbyl
palmitate. Both of these forms are non-acidic.

Supplement Facts

Serving Size 1 rounded teaspoon
Amount Per Serving
Vitamin C                                    4000 mg
 as ascorbic acid (Roche)
This product contains NO sugar, yeast, wheat, gluten,
corn, soy or dairy. Contains NO artificial color,
sweeteners, flavors or preservatives.

Dosage and Use

One rounded teaspoon daily with meals, or as directed by a healthcare
professional.
A prophylactic dosage of 2.5 to 6 grams of various forms of vitamin C daily is
recommended.
Up to 15 grams daily may be taken under physician supervision.
Large doses of ascorbic acid or ascorbates and any dose of ascorbyl
palmitate should be consumed with meals.
All vitamin C products should be stored away from heat, light, and moisture
although this is most important for pure ascorbic acid and ascorbyl
palmitate powders.

Caution
Ascorbic acid is the acidic form of vitamin C, and even when encapsulated
can cause gastric upset or diarrhea for some people. This can often be
alleviated by consuming it with meals. Start with a low dose then gradually
increase.
If you have a stomach ulcer, use of an antacid, buffering agent, or a
buffered form of vitamin C. Calcium carbonate and magnesium oxide are
effective antacids. Unbuffered ascorbic acid in the mouth may be harmful
to tooth enamel.
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Warnings
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Brewers Yeast


Overview:
Brewer’s yeast is non-leavening with a slightly bitter taste, however if
added to food possessing a strong taste it is more tolerable. It is an
excellent source of B vitamins, protein and minerals and is an excellent,
low-cost food supplement for aging adults and growing developing children.
B vitamins, DNA and RNA, and chromium are found in Brewer’s Yeast.
How This Supplement Works in Your Body:
Supplies B vitamins, protein and minerals
Offers bulk to prevent constipation
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Good source of enzyme-producing vitamins
Chromium in brewer’s yeast helps regulate sugar metabolism
May reduce risk of high cholesterol in blood
Possible treatment for contact dermatitis
May boost energy level
May reduce risk of prostate cancer
Cautions:
Don’t take if you have:
Intestinal disease
Consult your doctor if you:
Experience severe intestinal upset
Take any medicinal drugs or herbs including aspirin, laxatives, cold and
cough remedies, antacids, vitamins, minerals, amino acids, supplements,
other prescription or nonprescription drugs
Are diagnosed with osteoporosis
Pregnancy:
It is advised that no more than 1 to 2 tablespoons be taken per day
Breastfeeding:
It is advised that no more than 1 to 2 tablespoons be taken per day
Infants and Children:
It is hazardous to treat infants and children under 2 with any supplement.
Storage:
Keep in a cool and dry location away from direct light, but do not freeze.
Keep safely away from children.
Do not keep in bathroom medicine cabinet. Heat and dampness may alter
the action of the supplement.

Toxicity:
Comparative-toxicity rating is not available from standard references.
Side Effects:
Signs and symptoms: What to do:
Diarrhea : Discontinue use. Call doctor promptly.
Nausea : Discontinue use. Call doctor promptly.
Description


Beta Carotene


Beta Carotene is a Pro-vitamin of Vitamin A, found in green and yellow
vegetables and carrots.

Vitamins A & D are fat soluble vitamins whichare stored by the body,
transported by lipids and utilized by the body when the physiological need is
present.

Vitamin A occurs naturally in two forms, preformed vitamin A and pro
vitamin A or Beta Carotene.
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It enhances immunity, prevents night blindness and is useful in skin
disorders, such as acne. Vitamin A is important in the formation of bones
and teeth, aids in fat storage and protects against colds and infections.
Vitamin A acts as an anti-oxidant which helps against free radical damage
and other diseases. Carotenoids, e.g. beta-carotene are a class of
compounds related to vitamin A and act as anti-oxidants. Beta-carotene is
converted to vitamin A in the liver.




   Garlic (Allium sativum)


       Evidence
      Unproven Uses
      Potential Dangers
      Interactions
      Dosing
      Summary
      Resources


Evidence
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Scientists have studied garlic for the following health problems:
 High cholesterol
A number of studies in humans have examined the effects of
garlic on cholesterol levels. Most of these studies have been
brief and have included few people. Overall, this research
suggests that garlic lowers cholesterol levels a small amount.
It is not clear how long its effects may last or what the long-
term effects on health may be. In the future, longer studies
with more people may provide stronger evidence. It should
be noted that research using prescription drugs to lower
blood cholesterol levels has shown better results than
research using garlic.
High blood pressure
There are a few studies showing that garlic lowers blood
pressure. However, these studies have been small, low
quality and not fully convincing. Better studies need to be
done before garlic can be recommended to treat high blood
pressure.
Cardiovascular health
Garlic may have positive effects on health problems that
may lead to cardiovascular diseases, such as heart attack or
stroke. For example, garlic may lower blood pressure, mildly
"thin" the blood (anticoagulate) and reduce cholesterol
levels. Laboratory and animal studies report that garlic may
prevent atherosclerosis (cholesterol buildup in the arteries).
However, there are no high-quality studies showing that
garlic promotes cardiovascular health.
Cancer prevention
Several studies suggest that garlic may reduce the risk of
developing cancer of the stomach or colon. However, these
are only early results, and there are no definitive answers at
this time. Studies are being done (many of them in China) to
further investigate the use of garlic for cancer. Other
cancers under examination include breast, head and neck,
lung, prostate and urinary tract cancers.
Infections (bacterial, viral, fungal, other)
In laboratory experiments, garlic has been shown to be
effective against bacteria, mycobacteria, viruses and fungi.
Small studies have been conducted using garlic for acute
viral respiratory infections in children. Other studies have
shown that garlic may have some effect on athlete's foot and
cryptococcal meningitis. However, few high-quality studies
have been done in humans. Therefore, there is not enough
information to recommend garlic to treat or prevent
infections at this time.
Antiplatelet effects (blood thinning)
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The effects of garlic on platelet aggregation have been
assessed in several trials in humans. Although these studies
have, overall, been of low quality, garlic does appear to
possess some platelet-inhibiting properties. Dosing, safety,
comparison to other agents, duration of effects, and clinical
outcomes are not known, and the potential benefits of using
garlic for this purpose are not clear. Because garlic has been
associated with several cases of bleeding, therapy should be
applied with caution (particularly in patients using other
agents that may precipitate bleeding).
Peripheral vascular disease (blocked arteries in the legs),
claudication, circulation
Garlic trials suggest modest short-term reductions in total
cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein levels with oral
garlic supplements. Long-term effects on lipids and
atherosclerosis are not clear. There is limited evidence
regarding the effects of garlic in patients with peripheral
vascular disease or claudication. A small number of studies
have explored this issue and reported favorable results,
including increased walking distances. However, these
studies have, overall, been poorly designed. There is
currently insufficient evidence demonstrating effects of
garlic on peripheral vascular disease, and further study is
needed in this area.
Tick repellant
In early study, self-reports of tick bites were significantly
less in people receiving garlic over a sugar pill.
Upper respiratory tract infection
Garlic has a long history of use in the treatment of various
infectious agents, including bacteria, fungi, and viruses.
Garlic has shown some effectiveness in laboratory
experiments. However, there is limited available evidence in
humans.
Diabetes
Early study results in animals and humans are mixed. Further
research is needed before a conclusion can be drawn.
Stomach ulcers
Several case studies in humans have examined the effects of
garlic on Helicobacter pylori infection, which can cause
stomach ulcers, and found a lack of benefit.

Unproven Uses
Garlic has been suggested for many other uses, based on tradition or on
scientific theories. However, these uses have not been thoroughly studied
in humans, and there is limited scientific evidence about safety or
effectiveness. Some of these suggested uses are for conditions that are
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potentially very serious and even life-threatening. You should consult a
health care professional before taking garlic for any unproven use.
Abnormal heart rhythms          Hormonal effects
Abortion                        Immune system
Age-related memory              enhancement
problems                        Improved digestion
AIDS                            Induction of vomiting
Allergies                       Inflammation
Amoeba infections               Inflammatory bowel
Antibacterial                   disease
Antioxidant                     Influenza
Antitoxin                       Kidney damage from
Antiviral                       antibiotics
Anxiety                         Kidney problems
Aphrodisiac                     Leukemia
Arthritis                       Liver cancer
Ascaridiasis (worms in the      Liver disease
gut or liver)                   Liver health
Asthma                          Lung disease
Athlete's foot                  Malaria
Atrophic gastritis              Mucous thinning
Benign breast disease           Muscle spasms
Bile secretion problems         Nephrotic syndrome
Bladder cancer                  Obesity
Bloody urine                    Parasites and worms
Breast fibromatosis             Peptic ulcer disease
Bronchitis                      Perspiration
Cholera                         Pneumonia
Colds                           Poor circulation
Coughs                          Premenstrual syndrome
Cryptococcal meningitis         Prostate cancer
Cytomegalovirus infection       Psoriasis
Dental pain                     Raynaud's disease
Diabetes                        Ringworm (Tinea corpori,
Diarrhea                        Tinea cruris)
Digestive aid                   Sedative
Diphtheria                      Sinus decongestant
Diuretic                        Snake venom protection
Dysentery                       Spermicide
Dysmenorrhea (painful           Stomach ache
menstruation)                   Stomach acid reduction
Earache                         Stomach lining protection
Expectorant                     Stress
Fatigue                         Stroke
Fever                           Thrush
Gallstones                      Toothache
Gastric cancer                  Traveler's diarrhea
Hair growth                     Tuberculosis
Heartburn                       Typhus
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Heart rhythm disorders           Urinary tract infections
Hemorrhoids                      Vaginal infection
Hepatopulmonary syndrome         Warts
HIV                              Well-being
                                 Whooping cough
                                 Yeast infections

Potential Dangers
Allergies
People with allergies to plants in the Liliaceae family should avoid garlic.
There have been multiple cases of asthmatic reactions and allergic skin
rashes related to garlic therapy. A severe allergic reaction to garlic was
reported in a 23-year-old woman after taking young garlic.
Side Effects
Bleeding has been reported with garlic use; therefore, it is very important
that you speak with a health care professional before taking garlic in
amounts greater than the amounts normally found in foods. You may need
to stop taking garlic supplements before some surgeries; discuss this with a
health care professional.
Multiple cases of allergic reactions and skin rashes (dermatitis) have been
reported. Asthma has been noted in garlic harvesters and has been
attributed to garlic allergies in many cases. Swollen sinuses (rhinitis) have
also occurred in people taking garlic. Some reactions may be caused by
infestation of garlic with mites. Impurities in garlic products may also cause
side effects. Skin contact with garlic has led to hand eczema in adults and
severe burns in infants, children and adults. Bad breath, body odor, stomach
ache, gastrointestinal irritation and diarrhea may also occur while taking
garlic. Other reported side effects include dizziness, increased sweating,
headache, itching, fever, chills, and runny nose. Garlic and pycnogenol have
been shown to increase human growth hormone secretion in laboratory
experiments. Thyroid levels, blood sugar, cholesterol and blood pressure
may be lowered.
Pregnancy And Breast-Feeding
Garlic is likely safe to use during pregnancy and breast-feeding in the
amounts commonly found in food. Pregnant women should avoid large
amounts of garlic because of the increased risk of bleeding. In addition, an
animal study and a laboratory study reported that garlic stimulates the
uterus (although another study in rats showed no negative effects). Eating
large amounts of garlic while breast-feeding may increase nursing time, milk
odor and milk intake by the infant.
Be aware that many tinctures contain high levels of alcohol and should be
avoided during pregnancy.

Interactions
Interactions with drugs, supplements and other herbs have not been
thoroughly studied. The interactions listed below have been reported in
scientific publications. If you are taking prescription drugs, speak with a
health care professional or pharmacist before using herbs or dietary
supplements.
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Interactions With Drugs
Garlic may increase the risk of bleeding when taken with anticoagulant
drugs, such as warfarin (Coumadin), or antiplatelet drugs, such as
clopidogrel (Plavix). Your blood may need to be monitored carefully if you
take these together. There are reports of patients taking warfarin who
experienced an increased tendency to bleed (measured by laboratory tests)
after starting garlic supplements. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs,
such as ibuprofen (Advil), should also be used cautiously with garlic. Garlic
use should be stopped before some surgeries; discuss this with a health care
professional.
Patients taking saquinavir (Fortovase) for HIV or AIDS should consult a health
care professional or pharmacist because garlic may significantly lower
saquinavir levels and effects. Levels of other antivirals may also be
affected.
Garlic may lower blood pressure. Patients taking blood pressure drugs
should be monitored closely by a health care professional while using garlic.
Dosing adjustments may be necessary.
Garlic may alter blood sugar levels. Patients taking oral drugs for diabetes
or using insulin should be monitored closely by a health care professional
while using garlic. Dosing adjustments may be necessary.
Garlic may lower cholesterol. Taking garlic with cholesterol-lowering drugs
may further decrease cholesterol levels.
Garlic may alter levels of certain drugs metabolized by the liver's CYP450
enzyme system. Check with your doctor and pharmacist to check for
potential interactions.
Be aware that many tinctures contain high levels of alcohol and may cause
nausea or vomiting when taken with metronidazole (Flagyl) or disulfiram
(Antabuse).
Garlic may alter levels of various anticancer drugs. Check with your
oncologist and pharmacist before taking garlic.
Interactions With Herbs And Dietary Supplements
Garlic may increase the risk of bleeding caused by anticoagulant or
antiplatelet herbs or supplements such as ginkgo or horse chestnut seed
extract. One study showed that coleus forskolin taken with garlic can
increase antiplatelet effects, possibly increasing the risk of bleeding. You
should speak with a health care professional before taking garlic with other
herbs or supplements. Always read product labels carefully.
EPA (eicosapentaenoic acid), which is found in fish oils, may increase the
risk of bleeding when taken with garlic. EPA may also lower cholesterol. One
study showed that taking EPA with garlic could lower cholesterol even
further.
Garlic may lower blood pressure. People considering garlic that are taking
other herbs or supplements that may lower blood pressure, such as black
cohosh (Cimicifuga racemosa) or hawthorn (Crataegus oxyacantha) should
discuss therapy options with a health care professional.
Garlic may alter blood sugar levels. Patients taking other herbs or
supplements that may affect blood sugar levels, such as bitter melon
(Momordica charantia), should be monitored closely by a health care
professional while taking garlic.
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Garlic may lower cholesterol. Taking garlic with cholesterol-lowering agents
may decrease cholesterol levels further.
Vitamin E may have positive effects on cardiovascular disease and
atherosclerosis. Taking garlic with vitamin E may increase these effects.
Garlic may interact with herbals and dietary supplements that are
metabolized by the liver's YP450 enzyme system. Speak with your doctor
and pharmacist about potential interactions.
Garlic and pycnogenol have been shown to increase human growth hormone
secretion in laboratory experiments.

Dosing
The doses listed below are based on scientific research, publications or
traditional use. Because most herbs and supplements have not been
thoroughly studied or monitored, safety and effectiveness may not be
proven. Brands may be made differently, with variable ingredients even
within the same brand. Combination products often contain small amounts
of each ingredient and may not be effective. Appropriate dosing should be
discussed with a health care professional before starting therapy; always
read the recommendations on a product's label. The dosing for unproven
uses should be approached cautiously, because scientific information is
limited in these areas.
Adults (Aged 18 Or Older)
Raw garlic cloves: A dose of one-half to two raw garlic cloves (two to six
grams) up to four times per day has been taken by mouth.
Garlic pills: A dose of 600 to 900 milligrams per day, divided into three
doses, has been taken by mouth. The European Scientific Cooperative on
Phytotherapy (ESCOP) recommends three to five milligrams of allicin daily
(one clove or 0.5 to one gram of dried powder) for prevention of
atherosclerosis. The World Health Organization (WHO) recommends two to
five grams of fresh garlic, 0.4 to 1.2 grams of dried powder, two to five
milligrams of oil, 300 to 1000 milligrams of extract, or other formulations
that are equal to two to five milligrams of allicin daily.
Garlic powder: A dose of 0.4 to 1.2 grams per day, divided into three doses,
has been taken by mouth.
Oil extract of garlic: A dose of one or two capsules or 0.3 to 0.12 milliliters
three times per day has been taken by mouth. Some sources report that
steam-distilled oils, oil from crushed garlic, and aged garlic in alcohol may
be less effective for some uses, particularly as a blood thinner.
Garlic juice: A dose of two to four milliliters three times per day has been
taken by mouth.
Garlic syrup: A dose of two to eight milliliters three times per day has been
taken by mouth.
Tincture: A dose of two to four milliliters of a tincture (1:5; 45 percent
alcohol) three times per day has been taken by mouth.
Children (Younger Than 18)
There is not enough scientific evidence to recommend garlic supplements
for children at this time. The amounts of garlic found in foods are thought
to be safe.

Summary
                                                                 Page 17 of 56


Although garlic has been suggested for many conditions, it has been most
studied for high cholesterol, cardiovascular health, high blood pressure,
cancer prevention and infections. Scientific research suggests that garlic
may lower cholesterol levels a small amount. Garlic has not been proven for
any other health condition.
The amount of garlic found in foods is considered safe. When used in larger
amounts, you must be careful because of the risk of bleeding. Garlic may
also lower blood pressure or blood sugar levels. If you are taking
anticoagulants, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, blood pressure drugs,
insulin or other diabetic drugs or if you are pregnant, you should speak with
a health care professional or pharmacist before taking garlic supplements.
Consult a health care professional immediately if you experience side
effects.




Ginco


       Evidence
       Unproven Uses
       Potential Dangers
       Interactions
       Dosing
       Summary
       Resources


Evidence
Scientists have studied ginkgo for the following health problems:
 Peripheral vascular disease, claudication
Intermittent claudication is a painful condition caused by
clogged arteries in the legs. When people walk, not enough
blood gets to muscles, and this can cause cramps or pain.
Multiple studies suggest that taking ginkgo by mouth may
reduce pain and increase the distance that patients with
intermittent claudication can walk without pain. However,
conflicting data also exist.
Dementia
                                                                 Page 18 of 56


Some studies have found that taking ginkgo may slow the
progress of Alzheimer's disease or dementia associated with
multiple strokes. Many of these studies have had flaws with
their design. More studies are needed to determine which
patients may benefit the most from ginkgo and what dose of
ginkgo provides the best effects.
Cerebral insufficiency
Cerebral insufficiency is a term often used in Europe to
describe people with decreased blood flow to the brain
caused by clogged arteries. Early evidence suggests that
ginkgo may improve short-term memory and concentration
and reduce dizziness, headaches and mood disturbances in
people with cerebral insufficiency.
Ischemic stroke
Several studies suggest that taking ginkgo by mouth may
improve recovery from strokes that result from decreased
blood flow to certain areas of the brain. Different studies,
however, have produced results that do not agree with each
other. Better studies are needed to provide more definitive
answers in the future.
Tinnitus (ringing in the ears)
Multiple small, poor-quality studies report reduced ringing in
the ears after treatment with ginkgo in people with chronic
tinnitus. However, recent well-designed studies found no
improvements with ginkgo. It remains unclear if ginkgo is
helpful for this condition.
Upper digestive tract malignant tumors
Ginkgo biloba exocarp polysaccharides (GBEP) capsule
preparation has been studied for upper digestive tract
malignant tumors of middle and late stage with positive
results. However, further research is needed before a
recommendation can be made.
Acute mountain sickness
Ginkgo biloba has been studied for acute mountain sickness
and has not shown definitive benefit over a prescription
drug.
Mood and cognition in postmenopausal women
Based on early study of chronic administration, Gincosan
appeared to have no beneficial effects on mood, anxiety, or
sleepiness in postmenopausal women.
Vertigo
Early study results show that ginkgo may help vertigo.
Further research is needed to confirm these results.
Acute hemorrhoidal attacks
                                                                 Page 19 of 56


In early study, gingko was shown to be effective in the
treatment of patients with acute hemorrhoidal attacks.
Further research is needed to confirm these results.
Sexual dysfunction due to antidepressant drugs
Based on early study, ginkgo does not seem to help sexual
dysfunction due to antidepressant drugs.
Other
Ginkgo has been studied in humans for many other
conditions, including acute cochlear deafness, acute
hemorrhoidal attack, acute mountain sickness, age-related
memory impairment, allergic contact dermatitis, arteritis,
asphyxia, asthenic disorders, asthma, circulatory
encephalopathy, color vision, coronary heart disease,
cognitive performance, depression, decreased sex drive,
dizziness, erectile dysfunction, fibromyalgia, glaucoma,
macular degeneration, multiple sclerosis, pancreatic cancer,
premenstrual syndrome, sexual function, sudden hearing
loss, unilateral idiopathic sudden sensorineural hearing loss,
vaginal dryness, vascular vestibular disorders, and
vertiginous syndrome. In addition, it has been studied in
humans to determine if it reduces the side effects associated
with chemotherapy. However, there is not enough evidence
to make a recommendation for using ginkgo for any of these
purposes.

Early research suggests that ginkgo may improve memory,
but studies have been small with flaws in their designs, and
results have disagreed with each other.

Unproven Uses
Ginkgo has been suggested for many other uses, based on tradition or on
scientific theories. However, these uses have not been thoroughly studied
in humans, and there is limited scientific evidence about safety or
effectiveness. Some of these suggested uses are for conditions that are
potentially very serious and even life-threatening. You should consult with
a health care professional before taking ginkgo for any unproven use.
 Acute cerebral infarction     Enhancement of learning
 Age-related macular           Enhancement of memory
 disease                       Erectile dysfunction
 Aging                         Fatigue
 Alcohol intoxication          Freckle removal
 Allergies                     Gastric cancer
 Alzheimer's disease           Glaucoma
 Anti-aging                    Headache
 Antibacterial                 Heart disease
 Antidepressant-induced        Hepatitis B
 sexual dysfunction            Hypoxia
                                                                Page 20 of 56


Antifungal                     Immunomodulator
Antioxidant                    Insomnia
Antiparasitic                  Irregular heart beats
Antirheumatic                  Labor induction
Antitumor                      Mental functioning
Autoimmune disorders           Mild cognitive impairment
Bladder problems               Mood disturbances
Blood clots                    Nerve pain
Bronchial asthma               Normal tension glaucoma
Bronchitis                     Oxidative stress
Cancer                         Postmenopausal symptoms
Cataract                       Postphlebitic syndrome
Cellulite                      Primary chronic venous
Chest pain                     insufficiency
Cocaine dependence             Raynaud's disease
Cochleovestibular              Respiratory (lung) illnesses
impairment                     Scabies
Colorectal cancer              Schizophrenia
Congestive heart failure       Seasonal affective disorder
Coronary heart disease         Seizures
Cough                          Skin irritation
Deafness                       Spermicidal
Diabetes                       Stress
Diabetic peripheral            Trophic lesions
neuropathy                     Varicose veins
Diarrhea                       Vestibular organ peripheral
Digestion                      lesion syndrome
Eczema                         Vitiligo
Edema
Enhancement of female
sexual function

Potential Dangers
Allergies
People with allergies to plants in the Ginkgoaceae family or to urushiols
(mango rind, sumac, poison ivy, poison oak) may be more likely to have
allergic reactions to ginkgo. One case of a severe, blistering, peeling rash
(Stevens-Johnson syndrome) associated with a product that contained
ginkgo has been reported. Ginkgo fruit or pulp may cause allergies if applied
to the skin. Ginkgo injections have caused severe reactions and are not
recommended.
Side Effects
Few side effects have been reported from ginkgo at recommended doses.
The most common complaints include stomach discomfort, nausea,
headaches, dizziness or restlessness. Adverse effects such as skin irritation
and itching have also occurred but are likely caused by ginkgo allergies.
Rarely, heart palpitations (rapid, pounding heartbeats) have been reported.
Commonly used doses of Ginkgo biloba do not seem to have any immediate
                                                                  Page 21 of 56


or short-term effects on blood pressure, heart rate, or elecrocardiographic
(ECG) variables.
One serious concern with ginkgo is the possible increased risk of bleeding.
There are several cases of people bleeding inside their heads while taking
ginkgo, which may occur more frequently in people also taking drugs that
affect bleeding, such as aspirin or warfarin. Nosebleeds may also occur with
ginkgo use. You may need to stop taking ginkgo before some surgeries
because of the risk of bleeding; discuss this with a health care professional.
It has also been reported that ginkgo may interfere with fertility in both
men and women and may cause a decrease in muscle strength. These
effects have not been widely studied in humans.
It is possible that ginkgo may cause seizures, especially in people with a
history of seizure disorders or taking other medications that increase the
chance of having a seizure. Ginkgo may affect the outcome of
electroconsulvie therapy. Adverse effects on the eyes have been reported.
Pregnancy And Breast-Feeding
Ginkgo cannot be recommended during pregnancy or breast-feeding. There
are reports of seizures in children who have taken ginkgo.

Interactions
Interactions with drugs, supplements and other herbs have not been
thoroughly studied. The interactions listed below have been reported in
scientific publications. If you are taking prescription drugs, speak with a
health care professional or pharmacist before using herbs or dietary
supplements.
Interactions With Drugs
Ginkgo may increase the risk of bleeding when used with anticoagulants
(blood thinners) or antiplatelet drugs. Examples include warfarin
(Coumadin), heparin and clopidogrel (Plavix). Some pain relievers may also
increase the risk of bleeding if used with ginkgo. Examples include aspirin,
ibuprofen (Motrin, Advil) and naproxen (Naprosyn, Aleve, Anaprox). It has
been suggested that ginkgo may increase the risk of bleeding if taken with
acetaminophen (Tylenol), pentoxifylline (Trental) and vitamin E, although
there is not a lot of information in this area.
Individuals with a history of diabetes should be careful when taking ginkgo.
In theory, ginkgo may lower blood sugar levels. Caution is advised if you are
also taking drugs that may lower blood sugar levels. Patients taking oral
drugs for diabetes or using insulin should be monitored closely by a health
care professional while using ginkgo. Dosing adjustments may be necessary.
It is possible that ginkgo may cause seizures, especially in people with a
history of seizure disorders. You should avoid taking other drugs that
increase the risk of seizures if you are taking ginkgo.
Many other possible drug interactions could, in theory, lead to adverse
effects. Examples include increased side effects if used with
antidepressants, such as fluoxetine (Prozac); cholinesterase inhibitors, such
as donepezil (Aricept); or drugs used to treat high blood pressure. Possible
beneficial drug interactions that may, in theory, occur with the use of
ginkgo are less toxicity associated with chemotherapy, improvements in
erectile function when used with papaverine, and fewer adverse effects
                                                                 Page 22 of 56


when used with antipsychotic drugs. Many of these drug interactions have
not been widely studied in humans.
Gingko may alter the way the liver breaks down certain drugs.
Interactions With Herbs And Dietary Supplements
Very few interactions between ginkgo and herbs or supplements have been
reported, but some are considered possible. For example, side effects such
as muscle stiffness, rapid heartbeats, fever, restlessness and sweating may
occur if gingko is used with St. John's wort. In theory, ginkgo may increase
the risk of bleeding when also taken with other products that are believed
to increase the risk of bleeding, such as garlic (Allium sativum). Vitamin E
and ginkgo taken together may also increase the risk of bleeding. It is also
possible that ginkgo may lower blood sugar levels. People using other herbs
or supplements that may alter blood sugar levels, such as bitter melon
(Momordica charantia), should be monitored closely by a health care
professional while using ginkgo. Dosing adjustments may be necessary.
Although not widely studied, ginkgo may lower blood pressure levels and
should be used cautiously with other herbs or supplements that may affect
blood pressure levels, such as hawthorn (Crataegus oxyacantha). Gingko
may alter the way the liver breaks down herbs and supplements.

Dosing
The doses listed below are based on scientific research, publications or
traditional use. Because most herbs and supplements have not been
thoroughly studied or monitored, safety and effectiveness may not be
proven. Brands may be made differently, with variable ingredients even
within the same brand. Combination products often contain small amounts
of each ingredient and may not be effective. Appropriate dosing should be
discussed with a health care professional before starting therapy; always
read the recommendations on a product's label. The dosing for unproven
uses should be approached cautiously, because scientific information is
limited in these areas.
Some natural medicine experts recommend ginkgo products that contain 24
percent flavoglycosides and 6 percent terpenes. Beneficial effects may not
be seen for four to six weeks.
Adults (Aged 18 Or Older)
Capsules/tablets: Doses of 80 to 240 milligrams daily of a 50:1 standardized
leaf extract, divided into two or three doses, have been taken by mouth.
There is evidence that 240 milligrams daily is most beneficial for
intermittent claudication. For patients diagnosed with unilateral idiopathic
sudden sensorineural hearing loss, an oral dose of 120 milligrams EGb 761
twice daily has been used.
Liquid/fluid: Doses of three to six milliliters daily of an extract
concentrated to 40 milligrams per milliliter, divided into two or three doses,
have been taken by mouth. There is evidence that six milliliters daily is
most effective for intermittent claudication.
Tea: A preparation of 40 milligrams of ginkgo extract in a teabag has been
used, but there are no reliable data to recommend a specific tea dose.
Children (Younger Than 18)
                                                                 Page 23 of 56


The dosing and safety of ginkgo have not been studied thoroughly in
children, and use of this herb is not recommended. Seizures have been
reported in children.

Summary
Although ginkgo has been suggested for many conditions, it has been most
studied as a treatment for peripheral vascular disease, dementia and
cerebrovascular insufficiency. Ginkgo has not been proven for any other
health condition. It should be avoided in pregnant or breast-feeding women
and in children. If you are considering using ginkgo but have diabetes or
seizures or are prone to bleeding disorders, you should discuss this with a
health care professional. Beneficial effects may not be seen until ginkgo is
used for four to six weeks. Consult a health care professional immediately if
you experience side effects.




Lecithin


Description

Lecithin contains several essential phospholipids required by every living
cell in the human body. These phospholipids include Phosphatidylserine,
Phosphatidylcholine, Phosphatidylinositol, Phosphatidylethanolamine,
Phosphatidylglycerol, Phosphatidic Acid and others. Lecithin breaks down
cholesterol and fats in the blood, allowing them to be effectively utilized by
the cells of the body. Lecithin aids in the absorption of the fat soluble
Vitamins A, D, E and K, and improves the health of the nervous system.
                                                              Page 24 of 56




Vitamin B1


      Also known as thiamin, B1 helps fuel your body by converting blood
       sugar into energy!
      Vitamin B1 keeps your mucous membranes healthy and is essential for
       nervous system, cardiovascular and muscular function!
                                                                  Page 25 of 56




Vitamin B2


Vitamin B2, or Riboflavin, plays a role in the metabolism of protein, fats and
carbohydrates. Some of the benefits are improved vision, skin, teeth, nails
and hair. Riboflavin is also instrumental in the formation of red blood cells
and antibodies, and in the building and maintenance of body tissue.
Deficiency symptoms include retarded growth, weakness, dizziness, cracks
and sores in corner of mouth, sore tongue, digestive disturbances,
dermatitis, nervous instability and burning eyes. Riboflavin is found in
avocado, brewers yeast, liver, kidney, milk, eggs, whole grains, leafy dark
green vegetables, meat, sesame, sunflower, chestnut, legumes and rice
bran; Riboflavin is depleted by alcohol, tobacco, sugar, caffeine and copper
toxicity.

The B-Compound vitamins are probably the single most important set of
factors needed for proper maintenance of the nervous system, proper
functioning of the cell and its energy metabolism. Any kind of mental or
physical stress as well as poor eating habits greatly increase the body's need
for B Vitamins. Since B Vitamins are water soluble, meaning any excess is
not stored but excreted or lost through perspiration - thus, the B Vitamins
must be supplied as the body needs them, on a regular basis.
                                                                    Page 26 of 56




Vitamin B3


       Evidence
       Unproven Uses
       Potential Dangers
       Interactions
       Dosing
       Summary
       Resources


Evidence
Vitamin B-3 is composed of niacin (nicotinic acid) and is a source of
niacinamide. Scientists have studied niacin for the following health
problems:
High cholesterol
Niacin has been observed to have substantial benefits in
lowering high cholesterol levels. It is particularly effective in
raising levels of high-density lipoprotein (HDL or "good
cholesterol") levels, but it is less effective at lowering low-
density lipoprotein (LDL or "bad cholesterol") levels than
some other cholesterol-lowering drugs. Niacin is currently
used as one of the first-line treatments of high cholesterol
either alone or in combination with other cholesterol-
lowering drugs. Niacinamide, which is also present in vitamin
B-3, does not have the same effects as niacin on cholesterol
levels. Some studies show that niacin can raise homocysteine
levels, which may increase the risk of cardiovascular
disease.
Pellagra (niacin deficiency)
Pellagra is a disease caused by niacin deficiency. Symptoms
of pellagra include skin irritation, diarrhea, dementia or
depression. The disease may affect chronic abusers of
alcohol. However, diabetes, liver disease, pregnancy and
                                                                 Page 27 of 56


some drugs may also cause niacin deficiency. Both niacin and
niacinamide are approved by the U.S. Food and Drug
Administration for treating niacin deficiency.
Atherosclerosis (clogged arteries), prevention of heart
disease
Niacin has been shown to lower cholesterol levels. Lower
cholesterol has been associated with slowing the progression
of clogged arteries, and unclogged arteries lessen the risk of
heart disease. However, niacin has also been shown to
increase the levels of homocysteine, a compound in the
blood that increases the risk of clogged arteries.

Scientific evidence from studies in humans supports the use
of niacin in combination with other drugs to reduce the risk
of clogged arteries in people with high cholesterol. However,
more research is needed to determine whether niacin can
reduce clogged arteries and prevent heart disease and death
when it is used alone.
Diabetes
Niacinamide, a chemical in vitamin B-3, has been proposed
as a possible therapy to prevent diabetes or delay the need
for insulin. Animal studies of niacinamide use in diabetes
have suggested that it may increase the time that oral drug
treatment is effective and delay the need for insulin
injections. Research in humans has shown mixed results with
niacinamide, and most studies had flaws in their designs.
More research is needed to determine if niacinamide
provides any advantages in delaying or preventing the onset
of insulin dependence in individuals with diabetes.

The use of niacin for the treatment of dyslipidemia
associated with type 2 diabetes has been controversial
because of the possibility of worsening glycemic control.
However, a recent randomized, controlled, multicenter trial
showed that of 148 patients in the study, only four
discontinued because of inadequate glucose control. These
researchers reported doses of 1,000 to 1,500 milligrams per
day (in a controlled-release formulation) to be a treatment
option for type 2 diabetics with dyslipidemia. Check with
your physician and pharmacist before starting niacin.
Osteoarthritis
Results from one study suggest that niacinamide, a chemical
in vitamin B-3, may help to improve flexibility, reduce
inflammation and lessen the need for drugs that are
commonly used for pain in people with osteoarthritis. The
study was small, and more research is needed to determine
if niacinamide provides benefits for this condition.
                                                                Page 28 of 56


Alzheimer's disease, cognitive decline
Dementia can be caused by severe niacin insufficiency, but
it is unknown whether variation in intake of niacin in the
usual diet is linked to neurodegenerative decline. One large,
prospective study examined whether dietary intake of niacin
was associated with incident Alzheimer's disease and
cognitive decline. The authors concluded that dietary niacin
may protect against Alzheimer's disease and age-related
cognitive decline. Further research is needed to confirm
these results.

Unproven Uses
Niacin has been suggested for many other uses, based on tradition or on
scientific theories. However, these uses have not been thoroughly studied
in humans, and there is limited scientific evidence about safety or
effectiveness. Some of these suggested uses are for conditions that are
potentially very serious and even life-threatening. You should consult a
health care professional before taking niacin for any unproven use.
 Acne                     Memory loss
 Age-related macular      Ménière's syndrome
 degeneration             Menstrual cramps
 Alcohol dependence       Migraine headaches
 Anti-aging               Motion sickness
 Anxiety                  Multiple sclerosis
 Arthritis                Non-ST-segment elevation acute
 Bell's palsy             coronary syndromes
 Brain disorders          Orgasm enhancement
 Cancer prevention        Peripheral vascular disease
 Cataract prevention      Photosensitivity
 Chemotherapy side        Pregnancy
 effects                  Premenstrual syndrome
 Circulation              Psoriasis
 Deafness                 Raynaud's phenomenon
 Depression               Ringing in the ears
 Diarrhea                 Schizophrenia
 Digestion                Scleroderma
 Dizziness                Sedative
 Drug-induced             Seizures
 hallucinations           Skin disorders
 Edema                    Smoking cessation
 High blood pressure      Tardive dyskinesia
 HIV treatment and        Taste disturbance
 prevention               (diminished/distorted sense of
 Hyperactivity            taste)
 Insomnia                 Thyroid disease
 Intermittent             Tuberculosis
 claudication             Tumor detection
 Ischemic injury          Ulcers
                                                                  Page 29 of 56


prevention                Vascular spasm
Leprosy
Low blood sugar
levels

Potential Dangers
Allergies
People should avoid niacin/vitamin B-3 if they have a known allergy to
niacin or niacinamide. Anaphylactic shock (a severe allergic reaction) has
occurred. Signs of allergy may include rash, itching or shortness of breath.
Side Effects
Niacin has been associated with many minor side effects. Some people may
experience flushing, itching and stomach discomfort, including
stomachache, nausea, vomiting and diarrhea. Niacin may also aggravate
peptic ulcer disease. Most stomach-related side effects usually go away over
time. Taking niacin with food may prevent stomach discomfort.
Flushing or a warm sensation, especially on the face, neck and ears, occurs
in almost all patients using niacin for the first time or at higher doses. This
side effect usually goes away on its own after one or two weeks. Using
aspirin or other nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs such as ibuprofen can
reduce the tingling, itching, flushing and warmth associated with niacin.
Slow-release niacin formulations may have a lower incidence of flushing but
may also be more likely to cause stomach upset and liver abnormalities.
Other possible side effects include headache, dizziness, panic attacks,
anxiety, difficulty breathing, irregular heartbeats and dental pain. Macular
edema and blurred vision have also been reported. Niacin may also damage
the liver. Periodic monitoring of liver function by a qualified health care
professional is recommended. If you develop yellow skin or eyes or have
pain in your abdomen, it is a good idea to contact a health care
professional.
Niacin increases blood sugar levels, which can be a concern for patients
with diabetes and dyslipidemia. Theoretically, this could cause decreased
glycemic control. However, a recent randomized, controlled, multicenter
trial showed that of 148 patients in the study, only four discontinued
because of inadequate glucose control. Doses of 1,000 to 1,500 milligrams
per day (in a controlled-release formulation) were shown to be a treatment
option for type 2 diabetics in this study. If you take drugs by mouth or use
insulin to control your blood sugar levels and are considering using niacin,
increased monitoring is necessary because doses of diabetic drugs may need
to be adjusted. Ketones and sugar may be detected in the urine. Uric acid in
the blood is increased and can aggravate or cause gouty attacks. Thyroid
function may also be impaired while taking niacin. Periodic monitoring of
thyroid function is recommended. If you take drugs to treat thyroid disease
and are considering using niacin, discuss this with a health care
professional.
Other rare side effects reported in people using niacin are alterations in
some blood cell counts, muscle pain and degeneration and metabolic
abnormalities such as metabolic acidosis. Niacin may also increase the risk
of bleeding. If you use anticoagulants (blood thinners) or antiplatelet drugs
                                                                  Page 30 of 56


and are considering using niacin, discuss this with a health care
professional. You may be advised to stop using niacin before some surgeries.
Anaphylactic shock (a severe allergic reaction) from severe niacin allergies
may also occur.
Pregnancy And Breast-Feeding
Niacin cannot be recommended during pregnancy and breast-feeding
because of a lack of information.

Interactions
Interactions with drugs, herbs and other supplements have not necessarily
been thoroughly studied. The interactions listed below have been reported
in scientific publications. If you are taking prescription drugs, speak with a
health care professional or pharmacist before using herbs or dietary
supplements.
Interactions With Drugs
When niacin is used with other cholesterol-lowering drugs, such as
clofibrate, probucol, gemfibrozil (Lopid), cholestyramine (Questran),
colestipol (Colestid) and lovastatin (Mevacor), the combination of drugs may
result in greater lowering of cholesterol. However, when niacin is used with
cholestyramine or colestipol, the drug may prevent niacin from being
maximally effective, and when niacin is used with drugs such as lovastatin
or gemfibrozil, there may be an increased risk of muscle degeneration.
Combining neomycin with niacin may lower cholesterol levels more than
niacin alone. Using niacin and nicotine together may increase some side
effects such as flushing and dizziness. It is possible that birth control pills
may enhance the activities of niacin, and lower niacin doses may be
needed.
Some drugs may reduce the effectiveness of niacin. Examples include
antibiotics, isoniazid and pantothenic acid. Niacin may increase the effects
and toxicity of some drugs such as diazepam (Valium), carbamazepine
(Tegretol), valproate (Depakote, Depakene), griseofulvin, estrogens,
progestins, testosterone and atracurium. Some of these possible drug
interactions have been studied only in laboratory settings, and the
significance in humans is not known.
Niacin has been shown to increase blood sugar levels. Dosing adjustments
may be needed for insulin or oral diabetes drugs. Niacin may also alter
thyroid hormone levels, requiring larger doses of thyroid drugs. Vitamin B-6
(pyridoxine) and zinc sulfate may alter the metabolism of niacin, but the
significance is unclear. Niacin may increase the risk of bleeding when used
with anticoagulants (blood thinners) or antiplatelet drugs. Examples include
warfarin (Coumadin), heparin and clopidogrel (Plavix). Some pain relievers
may also increase the risk of bleeding if used with niacin. Examples include
aspirin, ibuprofen (Motrin, Advil) and naproxen (Naprosyn, Aleve, Anaprox).
Interactions With Herbs And Dietary Supplements
Use of niacin with chromium polynicotinate, sitosterols and grape seed
proanthocyanidin may cause greater cholesterol-lowering effects than any
of the agents used alone. However, some research suggests that the use of
niacin with antioxidants may slightly decrease the cardiovascular benefits of
niacin. More studies are needed in this area. Because niacin alters thyroid
                                                                  Page 31 of 56


hormone levels, it should be used carefully with other supplements that
affect thyroid hormone levels, such as bladderwrack.
In theory, niacin may increase the risk of bleeding when taken with other
products that are also believed to increase the risk of bleeding. Examples
include Ginkgo biloba and garlic (Allium sativum). When niacin is used with
herbs such as borage, chaparral, valerian or uva ursi, there may be an
increased risk of liver toxicity. Niacin has been shown to increase blood
sugar levels and may decrease the blood sugar-lowering properties of herbs
such as bitter melon. Combining niacin with vitamin A and vitamin E may
lower cholesterol levels more than niacin alone.

Dosing
The doses listed below are based on scientific research, publications or
traditional use. Because most herbs and supplements have not been
thoroughly studied or monitored, safety and effectiveness may not be
proven. Brands may be made differently, with variable ingredients even
within the same brand. Combination products often contain small amounts
of each ingredient and may not be effective. Appropriate dosing should be
discussed with a health care professional before starting therapy; always
read the recommendations on a product's label. The dosing for unproven
uses should be approached cautiously, because scientific information is
limited in these areas.
The recommended daily dietary intake of niacin ranges from 16 to 35
milligrams. Taking niacin supplements with food may reduce the likelihood
of stomach upset. Doses are usually started low and increased slowly to
minimize flushing, although aspirin or ibuprofen may reduce the flushing
adverse effect.
Adults (Aged 18 Or Older)
By mouth: Doses used in studies for treating high cholesterol range from 300
to 3,000 milligrams of immediate-release (crystalline) niacin daily (divided
into two or three doses) or from 500 to 2,000 milligrams of sustained-
release niacin. Doses are usually started lower and increased gradually.
When treating pellagra (niacin deficiency), doses between 50 and 1,000
milligrams daily have been used. Studies have used one to four grams of
niacin daily for treating clogged arteries or heart disease or 200 to 3,000
milligrams of niacinamide daily to delay insulin dependence in diabetes.
Children (Younger Than 18)
There are not enough scientific data to recommend niacin for use in
children, and niacin is not recommended because of potential side effects.
Note that there are concerns about the lack of evidence regarding
treatment of childhood lipid disorders, including the long-term psychological
and metabolic effects. At this time, diet alteration is acceptable first-line
treatment, without the use of lipid-lowing drugs, until adulthood is reached.

Summary
Vitamin B-3 is composed of niacin (nicotinic acid) and is a source of
niacinamide. Niacin and niacinamide have been suggested as treatments for
many conditions. There is scientific support for the use of niacin in lowering
total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein (LDL or "bad cholesterol")
levels and in raising levels of high-density lipoprotein (HDL or "good
                                                                  Page 32 of 56


cholesterol"). Niacin is also a well-established treatment for pellagra (niacin
deficiency). There is some evidence that niacin may provide benefits for
clogged arteries and may prevent heart disease. There is not enough
scientific evidence to support the use of niacin or niacinamide for any other
medical condition.
Niacin may cause many adverse effects, including flushing, headache,
dizziness and itching. Niacin may also raise blood sugar levels, alter thyroid
hormone levels, increase uric acid levels and cause liver damage. Therefore,
niacin should be used carefully in people with diabetes, thyroid disease,
gout and liver disease. It should also be avoided in pregnant or breast-
feeding women and in children. Niacin may increase the risk of bleeding.
Consult a health care professional immediately if you have any side effects.
                                                                   Page 33 of 56




Depantothenic Acid



Pantothenic Acid is important for the metabolism of protein, fats and
carbohydrates. It aids in premature aging and wrinkling, and in the synthesis
of cholesterol fatty acids and steroids. It plays a vital role in growth and the
maintenance of a healthy digestive tract.

The B-Compound vitamins are probably the single most important set of
factors needed for proper maintenance of the nervous system, proper
functioning of the cell and its energy metabolism. Any kind of mental or
physical stress as well as poor eating habits greatly increase the body's need
for B Vitamins. Since B Vitamins are water soluble, meaning any excess is
not stored but excreted or lost through perspiration - thus, the B Vitamins
must be supplied as the body needs them, on a regular basis.
                                                               Page 34 of 56


Vitamin B6


Vitamin B-6 is one of the more popular members of the B-vitamin family and
is found in fresh vegetables. Clinical studies have shown that B-6 plays an
important role in regulating homocysteine levels in the body. Homocysteine
is produced as a by-product of the demethylation of methionine and can be
toxic in elevated amounts.




Vitamin B12
                                                                  Page 35 of 56




Cyanocobalamin, or Vitamin B12, plays a role in the metabolism of nerve
tissue, protein fats and carbohydrates and the production of DNA/RNA.
Vitamin B12 is also needed for the formation of red blood cells and the
maintenance of the spinal cord.

The B-Compound vitamins are probably the single most important set of
factors needed for proper maintenance of the nervous system, proper
functioning of the cell and its energy metabolism. Any kind of mental or
physical stress as well as poor eating habits greatly increase the body's need
for B Vitamins. Since B Vitamins are water soluble, meaning any excess is
not stored but excreted or lost through perspiration - thus, the B Vitamins
must be supplied as the body needs them, on a regular basis.




Zinc
                                                                Page 36 of 56


Zinc is one of the 21 essential minerals that MUST be supplied through diet.
Zinc plays a role in the proper growth and function of reproductive organs.
It helps the body heal wounds and burns faster. Zinc also plays a role in
carbohydrates, protein, digestive and phosphorous metabolism. Zinc is
necessary to break down alcohol and is a component of insulin.

Minerals are more difficult to absorb across the cell membrane than other
nutrients. Modern research has shown that HVP Chelated minerals are
necessary for proper utilization by some people.




Echinacea


      Evidence
      Unproven Uses
                                                                Page 37 of 56


       Potential Dangers
       Interactions
       Dosing
       Summary
       Resources


Evidence
Scientists have studied Echinacea for the following health problems:
 Common cold treatment
Although multiple low-quality studies have previously
suggested that taking Echinacea orally when cold symptoms
first begin may reduce the length and severity of the
symptoms, a clinical trial reported in July 2005 did not
demonstrate any clinical benefit. The sum of the evidence
cannot support Echinacea as a treatment for the common
cold.
Common cold prevention
Studies have found that taking Echinacea is not helpful for
preventing the common cold. Most experts do not
recommend chronic use of Echinacea for preventing the
common cold.
Respiratory tract infections
Study results of Echinacea for preventing or treating
respiratory tract infections are mixed. Further research is
needed before a conclusion can be drawn.
Other
Echinacea has also been studied as a treatment for the toxic
effects of cancer X-ray therapy (radiation-induced
leukopenia), for skin wound healing and for genital herpes,
but there are no clear answers in these areas. Early evidence
suggests that when Echinacea is used at the same time as
the prescription cream econazole nitrate (Spectazole),
vaginal yeast infections (Candida) may occur less frequently.

Unproven Uses
Echinacea has been suggested for many other uses, based on tradition or on
scientific theories. However, these uses have not been thoroughly studied
in humans, and there is limited scientific evidence about safety or
effectiveness. Some of these suggested uses are for conditions that are
potentially very serious and even life-threatening. You should consult a
health care professional before taking Echinacea for any unproven use.
 Abscesses                 Pain
 Bacterial infections      Psoriasis
 Bee stings                Rheumatism
 Boils                     Skin ulcers
                                                                  Page 38 of 56


Burns                      Snakebites
Cancer                     Stomachaches
Diphtheria                 Syphilis
Dizziness                  Tonsillitis
Eczema                     Typhoid
Hemorrhoids                Urinary disorders
HIV/AIDS                   Urinary tract infections
Malaria                    Whooping cough (pertussis)
Migraine headache

Potential Dangers
Allergies
People with allergies to plants in the Asteraceae or Compositae family
(ragweed, chrysanthemums, marigolds, daisies) are more likely to have
allergic reactions to Echinacea. Multiple cases of anaphylactic shock (severe
allergic reaction) and allergic rashes have been reported; these problems
may occur more commonly in people with asthma or other allergies.
Echinacea injections have caused severe reactions and are not
recommended.
Side Effects
Few side effects have been reported from Echinacea at the recommended
doses. The most common complaints include stomach discomfort and
nausea, although these are unusual. Rarely, skin rash, drowsiness,
headaches, dizziness or muscle aches may occur. There have been several
cases of hepatitis (liver inflammation) in people taking echinacea, although
it is not clear that echinacea was the cause.
Some natural medicine experts discourage the use of Echinacea by people
with conditions affecting the immune system, such as AIDS or HIV, some
types of cancer, multiple sclerosis, tuberculosis and rheumatologic diseases
(rheumatoid arthritis, lupus, etc.). However, there are no specific studies or
reports in this area, and the risks of Echinacea use with these conditions are
not clear.
Long-term use of Echinacea may cause low white blood cell counts
(leucopenia).
Pregnancy And Breast-Feeding
Echinacea cannot be recommended during pregnancy or breast-feeding.
Many experts believe that oral Echinacea is safe, but currently there is not
enough information. Pregnant women should absolutely avoid tinctures
because of the high alcohol content (15 percent to 90 percent).

Interactions
Interactions with drugs, supplements and other herbs have not been
thoroughly studied. The interactions listed below have been reported in
scientific publications. If you are taking prescription drugs, speak with a
health care professional or pharmacist before using herbs or dietary
supplements.
Interactions With Drugs
People taking amoxicillin may want to avoid Echinacea based on one
published case of a life-threatening reaction, although the details of this
                                                                  Page 39 of 56


case are not very clear. The high alcohol content in some echinacea
tinctures may lead to vomiting if used with the drugs disulfiram (Antabuse)
or metronidazole (Flagyl). Because Echinacea is believed to affect the
immune system, people taking immunosuppressants, such as corticosteroids,
drugs for rheumatologic diseases (rheumatoid arthritis, lupus, etc.) or drugs
to prevent rejection of transplanted organs, should consult a health care
professional or pharmacist before using Echinacea. Examples of such drugs
are azathioprine, cyclosporine and prednisone. People should use caution
when taking Echinacea with acetaminophen (Tylenol) because liver and
kidney damage may occur.
Echinacea may affect the way that certain drugs are broken down by the
liver.
Interactions With Herbs And Dietary Supplements
Very few interactions between Echinacea and herbs and supplements have
been reported. Echinacea is sometimes sold in combination with goldenseal
(Hydrastis canadensis), and goldenseal may reduce the body's ability to
absorb vitamin B. Echinacea may affect the way that certain herbs and
supplements are broken down by the liver.

Dosing
The doses listed below are based on scientific research, publications or
traditional use. Because most herbs and supplements have not been
thoroughly studied or monitored, safety and effectiveness may not be
proven. Brands may be made differently, with variable ingredients even
within the same brand. Combination products often contain small amounts
of each ingredient, and may not be effective. The appropriate dosing
should be discussed with a health care professional before starting therapy;
always read the recommendations on a product's label. The dosing for
unproven uses should be approached cautiously, because scientific
information is limited in these areas.
In general, experts suggest using Echinacea for no longer than eight weeks.
There is limited scientific information about use for longer periods of time.
For The Common Cold
Adults (Aged 18 Or Older)
Capsules (of powdered herb): A dose of 500 to 1,000 milligrams three times
per day for five to seven days has been taken by mouth.
Expressed juice: A dose of six to nine milliliters per day, divided into two or
three doses, for five to seven days has been taken by mouth.
Tincture: A dose of 0.75 to 1.5 milliliters (1:5) has been gargled and
swallowed two to five times per day for five to seven days.
Tea: A tea made by simmering two teaspoons of coarsely powdered herb
(four grams of Echinacea) in one cup of boiling water for 10 minutes has
been consumed daily for five to seven days.
Children (Younger Than 18)
The dosing and safety of Echinacea have not been studied thoroughly in
children. Discuss doses with a health care professional before your child
starts therapy. Some natural medicine practitioners recommend basing
children's doses on weight; take the child's weight in pounds, divide by 150,
then multiply that number by the recommended adult dose (that will give
                                                                  Page 40 of 56


the child's dose). However, there is no scientific support or safety data for
this formula.
For Other Conditions
Echinacea is also available in preparations for the skin (called topical
preparations), but no specific doses have been shown to be safe or
effective.

Summary
Although Echinacea has been suggested for many conditions, it has been
most studied as a treatment for the common cold. Study results of
Echinacea for reducing the length and severity of symptoms if taken at the
first sign of a cold are mixed. Echinacea has not been proven effective for
any other health conditions. It should be avoided by pregnant women and by
individuals taking amoxicillin. Remember that tinctures can contain large
amounts of alcohol and may cause nausea or vomiting if taken with the
drugs disulfiram (Antabuse) or metronidazole (Flagyl). Echinacea should be
used in recommended doses for no longer than eight weeks. Consult a
health care professional immediately if you experience side effects.




Elderberry


       Evidence
       Unproven Uses
       Potential Dangers
       Interactions
       Dosing
       Summary
       Resources
                                                                   Page 41 of 56



Evidence
Scientists have studied elder for the following health problems:
 Bacterial sinusitis
Elder has been observed to reduce excessive sinus mucus
secretion in laboratory studies. There is only limited
research specifically using elder to treat sinusitis in humans.
Combination products containing elder and other herbs (such
as Sinupret) have been reported to have beneficial effects
when used with antibiotics to treat sinus infections, although
the majority of this evidence is not high quality and requires
confirmation with better research. Some studies suggest that
herbal preparations containing elder result in less swelling of
mucus membranes, better drainage, milder headache and
decreased nasal congestion. Although early evidence
supports the use of elder in combination with other herbs for
treating sinusitis, there is no evidence regarding the effects
of elder when used alone for treatment of this condition.
Influenza (flu)
Some laboratory studies suggest that elder may reduce
mucus production and have anti-inflammatory and antiviral
effects. Human study suggests elderberry juice may improve
flu symptoms, such as fever, fatigue, headache, sore throat,
cough and aches, in less than half the time that it normally
takes to get over the flu. It should be noted that berries
must be cooked to prevent nausea or cyanide toxicity.
However, study designs are weak; therefore, it is unclear
whether there is any benefit from elder for this condition.
Additional research is needed to reach a firm conclusion.
Elder should not be used in place of other more proven
therapies, and patients are advised to discuss influenza
vaccination with their primary health care provider.
Bronchitis
There is a small amount of research of the combination
herbal product Sinupret in patients with bronchitis. This
formula contains elder flowers (Sambucus nigra), as well as
gentian root, verbena, cowslip flower and sorrel. Although
benefits have been suggested, because of study design
problems, no clear conclusion can be drawn for either
Sinupret or elder in the management of bronchitis.
High cholesterol
There is no reliable human evidence evaluating elder alone
as a treatment for high cholesterol. Early study reports that
elderberry juice may decrease serum cholesterol
concentrations and increase low-density lipoprotein
stability. However, this study was a pilot design of a small
sample population. It remains unclear whether there is any
                                                                 Page 42 of 56


benefit from elder for this condition. Additional research is
needed before a firm conclusion can be reached. Elder
should not be used in place of other more proven therapies,
and patients should talk to their primary health care
provider before using elderberry for treatment of high
cholesterol.

Unproven Uses
Elder has been suggested for many other uses, based on tradition or on
scientific theories. However, these uses have not been thoroughly studied
in humans, and there is limited scientific evidence about safety or
effectiveness. Some of these suggested uses are for conditions that are
potentially very serious and even life-threatening. You should consult a
health care provider before taking elder for any unproven use.
 Alzheimer's disease                Herpes
 Antioxidant                        HIV
 Antispasmodic                      Immune stimulant
 Asthma                             Increased sweating
 Astringent                         Inflammation
 Blood vessel disorders             Insomnia
 Burns                              Joint swelling
 Cancer                             Kidney disease
 Chafing                            Laryngitis
 Circulatory stimulant              Laxative
 Cold sores                         Liver disease
 Colds                              Measles
 Cough suppressant                  Migraines
 Dermatophytic infections           Mosquito repellant
 Diabetes                           Nerve pain
 Diuresis (urine production)        Osteoporosis
 Edema                              Perfumes
 Epilepsy                           Psoriasis
 Fever                              Respiratory distress
 Flavoring                          Sedative
 Gastrointestinal disorders         Stress reduction
 Gout                               Syphilis
 Hair dye                           Toothache
 Hay fever                          Ulcerative colitis
 Headache                           Vomiting
 Helicobacter pylori                Weight loss

Potential Dangers
Allergies
Avoid elder if you have a known allergy to plants in the Caprifoliaceae
family (honeysuckle family). There are some reports of allergies in children
playing with toys made from fresh elder stems. Symptoms of allergies
include skin irritation, rash and difficulty breathing.
Side Effects
                                                                   Page 43 of 56


Elderberry products should be used under the direction of a qualified health
care provider because of the possible risk of cyanide toxicity, especially
from elder bark, root or leaves. Berries must be cooked to prevent nausea
or cyanide toxicity. Some people have experienced stomach discomfort,
including diarrhea, vomiting, abdominal cramps and weakness, after
drinking elderberry juice made from crushed leaves, stems and uncooked
elderberries. Allergies are possible from fresh elder stems and include rash,
skin irritation or difficulty breathing. In theory, high doses or long-term use
of elder flowers may have diuretic (urine-producing) effects. People taking
diuretics or drugs that interact with diuretics should be especially careful
when taking products containing elder. Additional blood tests may be
necessary. Dizziness, headache, convulsions and rapid heart rate have been
reported.
Pregnancy And Breast-Feeding
Elder cannot be recommended during pregnancy or breast-feeding because
of the risk of birth defects or spontaneous abortion.

Interactions
Interactions with drugs, supplements and other herbs have not been
thoroughly studied. The interactions listed below have been reported in
scientific publications. If you are taking prescription drugs, speak with your
health care provider or pharmacist before using herbs or dietary
supplements.
Interactions With Drugs
Based on preliminary research, increased benefits may be seen when elder
is used in combination with antibiotics; decongestants, such as
oxymetazoline (Afrin); or antioxidants, such as vitamin C. Animal studies
suggest that elder may increase the effects and possible adverse effects of
some cancer chemotherapies. Other animal studies have suggested that
elder flowers may possess anti-inflammatory properties and may have
additional effects when used with some drugs that decrease inflammation.
Elder may possess diuretic (urine-producing) effects or laxative effects,
which may increase when taken with other diuretics or laxative
medications. Based on laboratory studies, elder may lower blood sugar
levels. Caution is advised if you are using insulin or taking diabetes drugs by
mouth. Blood sugar levels should be monitored closely, and dosing
adjustments may be necessary. Caffeine and theophylline levels may be
affected by the flavonoid quercitin, which is a component of elder.
Interactions With Herbs And Dietary Supplements
Elder may possess diuretic (urine-producing) effects and laxative effects.
Effects may be additive when elder is taken with other herbs and
supplements with similar effects, such as horsetail or dandelion, Based on
laboratory studies, elder may lower blood sugar levels and may have
additive effects with herbs and supplements such as aloe, fenugreek and
milk thistle. Increased effects may be seen when elder is taken with other
antioxidants, including vitamin C or flavonoids such as quercitin. Taking
sucrose and elder together may decrease elimination of the anthocyanin
component of elder.

Dosing
                                                                Page 44 of 56


The doses listed below are based on scientific research, publications or
traditional use. Because most herbs and supplements have not been
thoroughly studied or monitored, safety and effectiveness may not be
proven. Brands may be made differently, with variable ingredients even
within the same brand. Combination products often contain small amounts
of each ingredient and may not be effective. Appropriate dosing should be
discussed with a health care provider before starting therapy; always read
the recommendations on a product's label. The dosing for unproven uses
should be approached cautiously, because scientific information is limited
in these areas.
There are no standard or well-studied doses of elder, and many different
doses are used traditionally. Elder berries must be cooked to prevent nausea
or cyanide toxicity. Dried elderflower may be standardized to contain at
least 0.8 percent total flavonoids, calculated as isoquercitin. The dried
flower may contain at least 25 percent water-soluble extract.
Adults (Aged 18 Or Older)
Tea: A dose of three to five grams of dried elder flowers steeped in one cup
of boiling water for 10 to 15 minutes and taken by mouth three times daily
has been used. Be aware of possible toxicity.
Sinupret tablets: For bacterial sinusitis, a dose of two tablets of Sinupret
taken by mouth three times daily with antibiotics has been used. Sinupret
contains elder and several other herbs.
Extract: For treating influenza or flu-like symptoms, a dose of four
tablespoons of elderberry extract taken daily by mouth for three days has
been used.
Syrup: A dose of 15 milliliters of elderberry syrup has been taken four times
a day for five days for influenza symptoms.
Capsules/juice: Patients were given 400 milligrams of spray-dried powder
capsules containing 10 percent anthocyanes three times a day, equivalent to
five milliliters of elderberry juice for two weeks, in one study of high
cholesterol.
Hand cream: Cream has been prepared by taking several handfuls of fresh
elder flowers, mixing in liquefied petroleum jelly, simmering for 40
minutes, heating, filtering and allowing to solidify. Apply to hands at
bedtime.
Children (Younger Than 18)
There are no standard or well-studied doses of elder, and many different
doses are used traditionally. For influenza or flu-like symptoms, a dose of
one teaspoon of elderberry juice containing extract syrup taken twice daily
has been suggested. However, there is not enough scientific information
available to recommend the safe use of elder in children. Be aware of
possible toxicity.

Summary
Elder has been suggested as a treatment for many conditions. There is some
research supporting the use of elder as a decongestant and as a treatment
for symptoms of the flu, although it is not clear what dose is safe and
effective. The use of elder as a treatment for high cholesterol has not been
proven. There is not enough scientific evidence to support the use of elder
for any other medical condition. Elder may cause stomach upset, and some
                                                                 Page 45 of 56


parts of the elder plant have the potential to cause cyanide toxicity. Elder
should be avoided in pregnant or breast-feeding women and used very
cautiously in children. Consult your health care provider immediately if you
have any side effects.




Propolis


      Evidence
      Unproven Uses
      Potential Dangers
      Interactions
      Dosing
      Summary
      Resources


Evidence
Scientists have studied propolis for the following health problems:
 Inflammation of the cervix (cervicitis)
Several studies suggest that using propolis topically (as a
cream or ointment) may aid in healing an inflamed cervix,
the narrow passage at the lower end of the uterus. These
studies, however, have been small, low quality and not fully
convincing. Better studies are needed.
                                                                Page 46 of 56


Dental health
Early studies suggest that using a mouthwash of propolis may
reduce plaque formation, reduce bacteria in the mouth,
relieve dental pain and gum inflammation (periodontitis), be
useful as a sealant after root canal surgery, and aid in the
healing of dental wounds. Preliminary study using a gel
prepared with propolis and caffeic acid phenetyl ester
(CAPE) applied to the gums found that the gel provided
comfort and was accepted by the volunteers. Although there
has been promising research, particularly in the area of
plaque reduction, most studies have been small, low quality
and not fully convincing. Better studies are needed before a
recommendation can be made.
Genital herpes
Propolis has been studied as a treatment for genital herpes.
Although early evidence suggests that healing or crusting of
open lesions may be faster when propolis ointment is
applied, there are no clear answers in these areas. Studies
have been small, with flaws in their design. More studies are
needed before a recommendation can be made.
Rheumatic diseases
One study has suggested that using propolis with
iontophoresis (electrical current) may reduce inflammation
in people with rheumatic diseases. This study, however, was
small, low quality and not fully convincing. A laboratory
study shows that propolis may have anti-inflammatory
effects and beneficial effects on the immune system. Better
studies are needed before recommendations can be made.
Infections
Although laboratory results suggest that propolis may possess
some antibacterial or antiparasitic properties, these effects
in humans are less clear. One laboratory study found that
Bulgarian propolis may be beneficial in the prevention or
treatment of Helicobacter pylori bacteria, which can cause
gastrointestinal ulcers. More studies are needed in these
areas.
Legg-Calvé-Perthes disease
Propolis has been studied as a treatment for Legg-Calvé-
Perthes disease. This disease is characterized by
inflammation of the top of the thighbone, loss of blood
supply and death of the outer layer of the thighbone. Early
evidence suggests that injections of propolis given directly
into affected joints after hip replacement surgery may
improve the outcome of the surgery. However, this research
has design flaws. Currently, propolis cannot be
recommended for this use.
                                                                Page 47 of 56


Corneal herpes
One study found that using propolis films in the eyelids for
treating corneal damage after herpes infections in the eyes
might improve healing and increase vision. However, this
study was small, low quality and not fully convincing. Better
studies are needed before a recommendation can be made.
Cold symptoms
Propolis nasal sprays have been suggested as a treatment for
runny nose, congestion and fever in children with nose or
throat infections. Currently, there is not enough evidence to
support this use of propolis.
Burns
Propolis may have a beneficial effect on the healing of
partial-thickness burn wounds. A small, poorly designed
study done to compare skin cream made of propolis with
silver sulfadiazine cream for treating minor burns did not
show any significant difference in bacteria colonization
between wounds treated with either cream. However, the
propolis skin cream appeared to have a beneficial effect on
the healing of minor burns. Better studies are needed before
a conclusion can be drawn.

Unproven Uses
Propolis has been suggested for many other uses, based on tradition or on
scientific theories. However, these uses have not been thoroughly studied
in humans, and there is limited scientific evidence about safety or
effectiveness. Some of these suggested uses are for conditions that are
potentially very serious and even life-threatening. You should consult a
health care provider before using propolis for any unproven use.
 Acne
                                  Itching
 Antibacterial
                                  Leukemia
 Antifungal
                                  Liver protection
 Antihyperglycemic
                                  Low blood pressure
 Anti-inflammatory
                                  Osteoporosis
 Antioxidant
                                  Periodontal disease
 Antispasmodic
                                  Prostate cancer
 Blood clots
                                  Psoriasis
 Bowel diseases
                                  Respiratory tract
 Cancer
                                  infection
 Crohn's disease
                                  Skin inflammation
 Dilation of veins
                                  Skin rejuvenation
 (vasorelaxant)
                                  Thyroid disease
 Eczema
                                  Tuberculosis
 Eye infections
                                  Ulcerative colitis
 HIV
                                  Viral infections
 Immune stimulant
                                  Wound healing
 Immunoregulatory agent
                                                                 Page 48 of 56



Potential Dangers
Allergies
People with allergies to propolis, black poplar (Populas nigra), poplar bud,
bee stings, bee products, honey and Balsam of Peru may be more likely to
have allergic reactions to propolis. There are several reports of allergic
reactions when propolis was used on the skin. Allergic contact stomatitis has
been associated with the therapeutic use of propolis. Laryngeal edema and
anaphylactic shock have been associated with topical use of propolis when
used for the treatment of acute pharyngitis.
Side Effects
Few side effects, other than allergic reactions, have been reported with
propolis. Allergic reactions may cause swelling, redness, eczema or fever.
Propolis may irritate the skin, causing burning, peeling lips, irritation,
lesions, itching, swelling, psoriasis or eczema. When used in the mouth,
propolis may irritate the mucus membranes.
Pregnancy And Breast-Feeding
Propolis cannot be recommended during pregnancy or breast-feeding
because there is not enough information in this area. Pregnant women
should avoid tinctures because of the high alcohol content (15 percent to 90
percent).

Interactions
Interactions with drugs, supplements and other herbs have not been
thoroughly studied. The interactions listed below have been reported in
scientific publications. If you are taking prescription drugs, speak with your
health care provider or pharmacist before using herbs or dietary
supplements.
Interactions With Drugs
The high alcohol content in some propolis tinctures may lead to vomiting if
used with the drugs disulfiram (Antabuse) or metronidazole (Flagyl).
Propolis may produce additive effects when taken with antimicrobial drugs,
according to laboratory studies.

Dosing
The doses listed below are based on scientific research, publications or
traditional use. Because most herbs and supplements have not been
thoroughly studied or monitored, safety and effectiveness may not be
proven. Brands may be made differently, with variable ingredients even
within the same brand. Combination products often contain small amounts
of each ingredient and may not be effective. Appropriate dosing should be
discussed with a health care provider before starting therapy; always read
the recommendations on a product's label. The dosing for unproven uses
should be approached cautiously, because scientific information is limited
in these areas.
For Inflammation Of The Cervix (Cervicitis)
Adults (Aged 18 Or Older)
Cream/ointment: A dose of 5 percent cream or ointment applied as a
vaginal dressing daily for 10 days has been used.
For Dental Plaques
                                                                  Page 49 of 56


Adults (Aged 18 Or Older)
Mouthwash: A dose that has been used once or twice per day is the swishing
of two teaspoons of 0.2 percent to 10 percent propolis ethanol extract in
the mouth for 60 to 90 seconds, then spitting it out.
For Genital Herpes
Adults (Aged 18 Or Older)
Ointment: A dose of 3 percent propolis ointment applied to the skin four
times daily for 10 days has been used. For vaginal and cervical lesions, a
regimen that has been used is the application of the same amount of
ointment to a tampon and inserting vaginally four times per day for 10 days.
As An Antibacterial
Adults (Aged 18 Or Older)
Capsules: A dose of 500 milligrams three times daily for three days taken by
mouth has been used.
For Respiratory Tract Infection
Adults (Aged 18 Or Older)
Administration of an herbal preparation (Chizukit) containing 50 milligrams
per milliliter (mg/mL) of echinacea, 50 mg/mL of propolis, and 10 mg/mL of
vitamin C, or placebo (5 milliliters and 7.5 milliliters twice daily for ages 1
to 3 years and 4 to 5 years, respectively) has been studied for 12 weeks.
Currently there is not enough scientific evidence to support using propolis
for respiratory tract infections.
For Legg-Calvé-Perthes Disease
Children (Younger Than 18)
Injection: There is limited evidence in this area, and this treatment should
be considered only under the supervision of a qualified health care provider.
For Coldlike Symptoms
Children (Younger Than 18)
Nasal spray: For treating nose or throat symptoms, a dose of 0.5 milliliters
sprayed into the nostrils once per week for up to five months has been used.

Summary
Although propolis has been suggested for many conditions, it has not been
proven for any health problem. There is promising early evidence for using
propolis mouthwash to reduce dental plaque, but further research is
necessary in this area before a recommendation can be made. Propolis
should be avoided in pregnant or breast-feeding women. Remember that
tinctures can contain large amounts of alcohol and may cause nausea or
vomiting if taken with the drugs disulfiram or metronidazole. Consult your
health care provider if you experience side effects.
                                                               Page 50 of 56




Golden Seal


Category: Immune System

Symptom: Colds/Flu, Respiratory Problems, Fever, Congestion, Liver
Problems, Ulcers, Poor Digestion, Constipation, Bladder

Golden Seal is a root that is native to North America and has been used for
centuries in herbal medicine. Golden Seal contains calcium, iron,
manganese, vitamin A, vitamin C, vitamin E, B-complex, and other nutrients
and minerals. Considered to be a broad-spectrum herb, Golden Seal is
extremely popular and very much in demand.

Golden Seal's numerous uses are attributed to its antibiotic, anti-
inflammatory and astringent properties. It soothes irritated mucus
membranes aiding the eyes, ears, nose and throat. Taken at the first signs
of respiratory problems, colds or flu, Golden Seal may help prevent further
symptoms from developing. It may be used to help reduce fevers, and relive
congestion and excess mucous.

Golden Seal cleanses and promotes healthy glandular functions by increasing
bile flow and digestive enzymes, therefore, regulating healthy liver and
spleen functions. It also eases inflamed peptic ulcers, aids digestion and
relieves constipation. Golden Seal may be used to treat infections of the
bladder and intestines as well.

(Golden Seal should not be used for extended periods, by individuals with
hypoglycemia, or by women who are pregnant.)
                                                                  Page 51 of 56




Parsley


Parsley Leaf, also known as Rock Selinen, Rock Parsley, and Garden Parsley,
is found throughout the world. It is most often associated with the garnish
on your plate in restaurants. But Parsley Leaf is more than just another
pretty face. Parsley Leaf has been used medicinally for millennia. The
ancients used Parsley Leaf to treat gastrointestinal disorders such as
flatulence. Parsley Leaf was also used for kidney infections, kidney stones,
and gallstones. Parsley Leaf has also been used to stimulate menstruation. It
has been shown to be a natural diuretic and helps to prevent the absorption
of salt.

Parsley Leaf contains a larger amount of Vitamin C per volume than citrus
fruits. It also contains essential oils, glycoside, magnesium, calcium, beta-
carotene, flavonoids, and Vitamin K. In addition, Parsley Leaf contains
chlorophyll, which has been shown to be essential to healthy digestion.
Parsley Leaf is also reported to be a mild aphrodisiac, and is believed by
some to have anti-cancer properties. Parsley Seed and Parsley Root also
cover a wide range of ailments.
                                                                Page 52 of 56




Valerian (Valeriana officinalis)
Be aware that the U. S. Food and Drug Administration does not strictly
regulate herbs and dietary supplements. There is no guarantee of strength,
purity or safety of products containing or claiming to contain valerian.
Decisions to use herbs or supplements should be carefully considered.
Individuals using prescription drugs should discuss taking herbs or
supplements with their pharmacists or health care providers before
starting.


      Evidence
      Unproven Uses
      Potential Dangers
      Interactions
      Dosing
      Summary
      Resources


Evidence
Scientists have studied valerian for the following health problems:
 Insomnia
Several studies suggest that taking valerian by mouth may
reduce the time it takes for people to fall asleep and may
improve sleep quality, especially in those who routinely
suffer from insomnia or sleep difficulties. One study
conducted in children with intellectual difficulties reports
that valerian may be useful in the long-term treatment of
sleep disruption. Valerian does not appear to cause a
"hangover" effect the morning after use. Preliminary findings
suggest that effects may be better with repeat use, rather
than single-dose use. One study suggests a positive effect in
insomniacs who are experiencing withdrawal symptoms from
benzodiazepine. Another study showed that valerian extract
may be comparable to the effects of the prescription
benzodiazepine drug oxazepam (Serax) for insomnia. Further
research is necessary to confirm these results.
                                                                   Page 53 of 56


Sedative
A few low-quality studies suggest that valerian does not
possess significant sedative properties. A small double-blind,
randomized, crossover, placebo-controlled study was
performed in healthy elderly people to assess the effects of
temazepam (Restoril), diphenhydramine (Benedryl) and
valerian. The results confimed that valerian was not
different from placebo (sugar pill) on any measure of
drowsiness (psychomotor function) or sedation.
Anxiety
Although early evidence suggests that valerian may possess
some anti-anxiety properties, there are no clear answers in
this area. Some of these studies have been done using
combination products containing more than one herb. More
research is needed before valerian can be recommended as a
treatment for anxiety and related disorders.
Depression
A multicenter clinical trial was performed to assess the
effectiveness of valerian extract and St. John's wort in
depression with comorbid anxiety. The studied determined
that symptoms of depression and anxiety improved faster
with valerian than with St. John's wort alone. Valerian alone
has not been proven to aid in depression or anxiety. More
research is necessary before this therapy can be
recommended.
Menopausal symptoms
Valerian has been studied along with other herbs to help
with sleep disturbances and hot flashes present during peri-
and postmenopause. Further research is needed to make a
recommendation.
Stress
Valerian may be beneficial to health by reducing the
physical reactions during stressful situations. A clinical trial
studied the effects of valerian or kava on psychological
stress induced in a laboratory. The study found that valerian
or kava may reduce the physical reactions of stress and may
therefore be beneficial to health. More studies are needed
before any conclusions can be made.

Unproven Uses
Valerian has been suggested for many other uses, based on tradition or on
scientific theories. However, these uses have not been thoroughly studied
in humans, and there is limited scientific evidence about safety or
effectiveness. Some of these suggested uses are for conditions that are
potentially very serious and even life-threatening. You should consult a
health care provider before using valerian for any unproven use.
                                                                 Page 54 of 56


Absence of menstrual
                               Heart disease
period
                               Heartburn
Aches
                               High blood pressure
Acne
                               HIV
Anorexia
                               Hypochondria
Antiperspirant
                               Irritable bowel syndrome
Antispasmotic
                               Liver disease
Antiviral
                               Measles
Arthritis
                               Memory
Asthma
                               Menstrual cramps
Bloating
                               Menstrual period stimulant
Chest pain
                               Mood enhancement
Colic
                               Muscle tension
Congestive heart failure
                               Nausea
Constipation
                               Nerve pain
Coughs
                               Seizures
Cramps
                               Skin disorders
Cyanosis
                               Urinary tract disorders
Digestion problems
                               Vaginal yeast infections
Diuretic
                               Vertigo
Epilepsy
                               Viral gastroenteritis
Fatigue
                               Vision enhancement
Fever
                               Withdrawal from
Gas
                               tranquilizers
Hangover

Potential Dangers
Allergies
People with allergies to plants in the Valerianaceae family may be allergic
to valerian.
Side Effects
Few side effects have been reported when valerian is used at recommended
doses. Rare problems may include headaches, excitability, decreased ability
to concentrate, inability to sleep, uneasiness, dizziness, shakiness, unsteady
walking, lower-than-normal body temperature (hypothermia), stomach
discomfort, nausea or vomiting. It is not clear if valerian causes drowsiness
or sedation, although early studies suggest that this may not be a major
problem. Nonetheless, you should avoid driving or operating heavy
machinery, especially within a few hours of each dose.
Although not extensively studied, it is possible that valerian may cause
adverse effects on the liver or heart, especially if high doses are used for
long periods of time. If you have been diagnosed with a heart or liver
disorder and are considering taking valerian, discuss this with your health
care provider.
Pregnancy And Breast-Feeding
Valerian cannot be recommended during pregnancy or breast-feeding
because there is not enough information available. In theory, valerian may
cause birth defects. Pregnant women should avoid ethanol (alcohol)
extracts.
                                                                 Page 55 of 56



Interactions
Interactions with drugs, supplements and other herbs have not been
thoroughly studied. The interactions listed below have been reported in
scientific publications. If you are taking prescription drugs, speak with your
health care provider or pharmacist before using herbs or dietary
supplements.
Interactions With Drugs
In theory, valerian may increase the side effects, including the amount of
drowsiness, caused by sedative drugs. Examples include benzodiazepines,
such as lorazepam (Ativan); barbiturates, such as phenobarbital; narcotics,
such as codeine; antidepressants, such as fluoxetine (Prozac);
antihistamines, such as diphenhydramine (Benadryl); alcohol; and possibly
some antiseizure or antidiarrheal drugs. Caution is advised while driving or
operating machinery. The alcohol content in some valerian extracts may
lead to vomiting if used with the drug disulfiram (Antabuse) or
metronidazole (Flagyl).
Interactions With Herbs And Dietary Supplements
Very few interactions between valerian and herbs or supplements have been
reported. Valerian may increase the side effects or the amount of
drowsiness caused by some herbs or supplements, such as St. John's wort or
melatonin. Caution is advised while driving or operating machinery. Valerian
may have effects that counteract stimultation caused by caffeine.

Dosing
The doses listed below are based on scientific research, publications or
traditional use. Because most herbs and supplements have not been
thoroughly studied or monitored, safety and effectiveness may not be
proven. Brands may be made differently, with variable ingredients even
within the same brand. Combination products often contain small amounts
of each ingredient and may not be effective. Appropriate dosing should be
discussed with a health care provider before starting therapy; always read
the recommendations on a product's label. The dosing for unproven uses
should be approached cautiously, because scientific information is limited
in these areas.
Valerian has only been studied for four to six weeks of use. It should not be
used for longer without the supervision of a health care provider.
For Mild Insomnia
Adults (Aged 18 Or Older)
Capsules: A dose of 300 to 1,800 milligrams of valerian has been taken my
mouth.
Aqueous or aqueous-ethanol extract: A dose of 1.5 to three grams of herb
has been taken by mouth 30 to 60 minutes before going to bed.
Tea: A dose of 1.5 to three grams of valerian root steeped in 150 milliliters
of boiling water for five to 10 minutes has been taken by mouth 30 to 60
minutes before going to bed.
Children (Younger Than 18)
The dosing and safety of valerian have not been studied thoroughly in
children, and valerian is therefore not recommended.
For Sedation Or Stress Reduction
                                                                 Page 56 of 56


Aqueous or aqueous-ethanol extract: A dose of 100 to 600 milligrams taken
by mouth before or after stressful events has been used.
Tea: A dose of 1.5 to three grams of valerian root steeped in 150 milliliters
of boiling water has been taken by mouth five to 10 minutes before or after
stressful events.

Summary
Valerian has been suggested for several conditions but has been most
studied as a treatment for insomnia. Valerian may reduce the length of time
it takes to fall asleep and may improve sleep quality with fewer adverse
effects than commonly used prescription drugs. Valerian is not
recommended in pregnant or breast-feeding women or in children. Alcoholic
extracts should always be avoided in pregnant women. Remember that
alcohol in some liquid preparations or tinctures may cause nausea or
vomiting if taken with the drugs disulfiram or metronidazole. Valerian has
been studied for only four to six weeks, and safety has not been established
for longer-term use. Consult your health care provider immediately if you
experience side effects.

								
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