Psychology 2 Guided Notes

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					Psychology 2 Guided Notes      1/24

               Unit 5: Therapy and Social Psychology
Module 24: Therapies
A. Historical background

  1. Psychotherapy definition:

        a. Verbal interaction between therapist and clients

        b. Development of a supportive relationship

        c. Analysis of experiences and/or suggestions for ways
           to deal or overcome problems

  2. Early treatments

  3. Reform movement and Moral therapy

  4. Phenothiazines

  5. Deinstitutionalization

  6. Homeless

  7. Community mental health centers

B. Questions about psychotherapy
   1. Do I need help?

  2. Different types of therapists

        a. Psychiatrists

        b. Clinical psychologists

        c. Counseling psychologists

  3. Different approaches

        a. Insight therapy

        b. Cognitive-behavior therapy
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        c. Eclectic approach

        d. Medical therapy

  4. How effective is psychotherapy?

C. Insight therapies
   1. Psychoanalysis:

        a. Unconscious conflicts

        b. Three techniques

              i. Free association

              ii. Dream interpretation

             iii. Freudian slips

        c. Transference

        d. Neurosis:

        e. Resistance

        f. Short-term dynamic psychotherapy

        g. Evaluation:

  2. Client centered therapy

        a. Therapists traits:

        b. Effectiveness

  3. Cognitive therapy

        a. Overgeneralization

        b. Polarized thinking

        c. Selective attention
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        d. Techniques:

        e. Effectiveness

D. Behavior Therapy
   4. Definition: principles of classical and operant conditioning
      are used to change disruptive behaviors and improve
      human functioning

  5. Systematic desensitization

  6. Relaxation

  7. Stimulus hierarchy

  8. Exposure

  9. Cognitive-behavioral therapy: combines cognitive
     therapy technique of changing
     negative/unhealthy/distorted thought patterns with
     behavioral techniques.

  10.     Useful for: insomnia, conditioned nausea,
     noncompliance in children, autistic children,
     psychosomatic problems, abusive parents, stress
     management, phobias

  11.      Effectiveness

H. Application: Cognitive-behavior techniques
   1. Thought stopping program

        a. Intrusive thoughts

        b. Self monitoring

        c. Thought stopping

  2. Thought substitution
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Module 25: Social Psychology
A. Perceiving others
   1. Person perception

        a. Physical appearance

        b. Need to explain

        c. Influence on behavior

        d. Effects on race

  2. Stereotypes

        a. Development

              i. Prejudice

              ii. Discrimination

        b. Functions

              i. Source of information

              ii. Thought saving device

  3. Schemas

        a. Person

        b. Role

        c. Event

        d. Self

B. Attributions
   1. Internal vs. external
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  2. Kelley’s Model of Covariation

        a. Consensus

        b. Consistency

        c. Distinctiveness

  3. Cognitive miser model

  4. Fundamental attribution error

  5. Actor-observer effect

  6. Self serving bias

D. Attitudes
   1. Definition: belief or opinion that includes an evaluation
      along a continuum from negative to positive and
      predisposes us to act in a certain way

        a. Evaluative

        b. Targeted

        c. Predisposes

  2. Components

        a. Cognitive

        b. Affective

        c. Behavioral

E. Social & group influences

F. Aggression
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  Unit 6: Sensation, Perception, Consciousness, Sleep, Dreams,
                       Hypnosis, and Drugs
Module 5: Sensation
   1. Transduction
  2. Adaptation
  3. Sensations versus perceptions

A. Eye: vision
   1. Light waves
  2. Structure and function
        a. Image reversed
        b. Light waves
        c. Cornea
        d. Pupil
        e. Iris
        f. Lens
        g. Retina
  3. Color vision
        a. Trichromatic theory
        b. Opponent-process theory
        c. Color blindness

B. Ear: audition
   1. Sound waves
        a. Loudness
        b. Frequency and pitch
        c. Decibel
  2. Calculating direction
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C. Vestibular system: balance
   1. Position and balance
  2. Motion sickness
  3. Meniere’s disease
  4. Vertigo

D. Chemical senses
   1. Taste
        a. Basic taste areas: sweet, salty, sour, bitter
        b. Taste buds
        c. Taste and smell
  2. Smell

E. Touch
   1. Receptors in the skin

H. Pain: unpleasant sensory and emotional experience that
may result from tissue damage, one’s thought or beliefs, or
environmental stressors
   1. Gate control theory
  2. Endorphins
  3. Acupuncture

Module 6: Perception
A. Perceptual thresholds
   1. Threshold

  2. Absolute threshold

  3. Subliminal stimulus

  4. Weber’s law and the JND
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B. Sensation versus perception
   1. Sensations
  2. Perceptions
  3. Changing sensations into perceptions (personalized)

C. Rules of organization
   1. Structuralists
  2. Gestalt psychologists

        a. Figure ground

        b. Similarity

        c. Closure

        d. Proximity

        e. Simplicity

        f. Continuity

D. Perceptual constancy
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  1. Size constancy
  2. Shape constancy
  3. Brightness constancy
  4. Color constancy

E. Depth perception
   1. Binocular depth cues
        a. Convergence
        b. Retinal disparity
  2. Monocular depth cues
        a. Linear perspective
        b. Relative size
        c. Interposition
        d. Light and shadow
        e. Texture gradient
        f. Atmospheric perspective
        g. Motion parallax

F. Illusions
    1. Strange perceptions
  2. Moon illusion
  3. Ames room
  4. Ponzo illusion
  5. Muller-Lyer illusion

G. Subliminal perception

H. Cultural diversity: influence on perception
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  1. Perceptual sets: learned expectations that are based on
     our personal, social, or cultural experiences that add
     information, meaning, or feelings to our perceptions
  2. Perception of photos
  3. Perception of beauty

    1. Ganszfeld procedure
    2. Status of ESP

Module 7: Consciousness, Sleep, & Dreams
A. Continuum of consciousness
   1. Consciousness
  2. Controlled processes
  3. Automatic processes
  4. Daydreaming
  5. Altered states
  6. Sleep and dreams
  7. Unconscious and implicit memory
  8. Unconsciousness

B. Rhythms of sleeping & waking
   1. Biological clocks
  2. Circadian rhythms
        a. Car accidents
        b. Jet lag
        c. Resetting the clock
              i. Light therapy
             ii. Melatonin

C. World of sleep
   1. Stages of sleep
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  2. REM sleep
  3. Process of sleep

E. Questions about sleep
   1. How much sleep do I need?
  2. Why do I sleep?
        a. Repair theory
        b. Adaptive theory
  3. What if I miss sleep?
        a. Effects on brain
        b. Effects on body
  4. What causes sleep?

G. World of dreams
  1. Theories of dream interpretation

        a. Freud’s theory

        b. Extensions of waking life

        c. Activation-synthesis theory

        d. Entering the spiritual world

  2. Typical dreams
       a. Several characters
       b. Motion
       c. More likely indoors
       d. Visual, not taste, smell or pain
       e. Bizarre
       f. Recurrent
       g. Emotions involved: anxiety/fear
       h. Rarely sexual
       i. Uncontrolled
       j. Blind from birth = non-visual
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H. Sleep problems and treatments
   1. Insomnia
  2. Sleep apnea
  3. Narcolepsy
  4. Night terrors
  5. Nightmares
  6. Sleepwalking

Module 8: Hypnosis and Drugs
A. Hypnosis
   1. Who can be hypnotized?
  2. Who is susceptible
  3. How is someone hypnotized?
  4. Theories of how it works:
        a. Altered state
        b. Sociocognitive
  5. Behaviors
        a. Hypnotic analgesia
        b. Posthypnotic suggestion
        c. Posthypnotic amnesia
        d. Age regression
        e. Imagined perception
  6. Medical/therapeutic applications

B. Drugs: overview
   1. Reasons for use
  2. Addiction
  3. Tolerance
  4. Dependency
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  5. Withdrawal symptoms
  6. Use of drugs

C. Stimulants
   1. Amphetamines
   2. Cocaine
   3. Caffeine
   4. Nicotine

D. Opiates
   1. Opium
   2. Morphine
   3. Heroin

E. Hallucinogens
   1. LSD
   2. Psilocybin
   3. Mescaline
   4. Designer drugs

F. Alcohol
   1. Risk factors
        a. Environmental/psychological
        b. Genetic
  2. Problems with alcohol

H. Marijuana

J. Treatment for drug abuse
    1. Developing a problem
  2. Treatment:
        a. Admit the problem
        b. Enter a program
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        c. Get therapy
              i. Cognitive-behavioral
             ii. Motivational therapy
             iii. 12 step
        d. Stay sober

                  Unit 7: Motivation and Emotion
Module 15: Motivation
A. Theories of motivation
   1. Instinct theory
        a. Fixed action pattern
  2. Drive reduction
  3. Incentive
  4. Cognitive
        a. Intrinsic motivation
        b. Extrinsic motivation

B. Biological & social needs
   1. Biological needs
  2. Social needs
  3. Maslow’s Hierarchy of needs
        a. Level 1: Physiological needs
        b. Level 2: Safety needs
        c. Level 3: Love and belonging
        d. Level 4: Esteem needs
        e. Level 5: Self Actualization

C. Hunger
   1. Optimal weight
  2. Over weight
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  3. Three hunger factors
          a. Biological
               i. Peripheral cues: stomach, liver, intestines, fat
               ii. Central cues: hypothalamus, falanin
          b. Psychosocial
               i. Learned associations
               ii. Social-cultural influences
               iii. Personality traits
          c. Genetic
               i. Fat cells
               ii. Metabolic rate
               iii. Set point
              iv. Weight regulating genes

D. Sexual behavior
   1. Gender identity
  2. Gender roles
  3. Sexual orientation
  4. Gender differences
          a. Social role theory
          b. Double standard
          c. Evolutionary theory
          d. Homosexuality

F. Achievement
   1. Kinds of Achievement
     a.     Social needs
     b.     Achievement needs
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  2. Measuring need for achievement
  3. Fear of failure
  4. Underachievement
  5. Success
     a.    Need for achievement
     b.    Fear of failure
     c.    Psychological factors: enjoyment of work
  6. Cognitive influences
     a.    Intrinsic motivation
     b.    Extrinsic motivation

H. Application: eating problems and treatments
   1. Anorexia nervosa

  2. Bulimia nervosa

  3. Cutting

Module 16: Emotion
A. Peripheral theories
   1. James-Lange Theory

  2. Facial feedback theory

B. Cognitive Appraisal Theory
   1. Schacter-Singer experiment

  2. Cognitive appraisal theory

  3. Affective-primacy theory

C. Universal facial expressions
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D. Functions of emotions
   1. Send social signals

  2. Adapt and survive (psychoevolutionary)

  3. Arouse and motivate (Yerkes-Dodson Law)

E. Happiness
   1. Adaptation level theory
  2. Long-term happiness
        a. Genetic factors
        b. Personal/environmental factors

H. Lie Detection
   1. Polygraph tests
  2. Galvanic skin response
  3. Control question technique
  4. Accuracy

                     Unit 8: Developmental
Module 17: Infancy & Childhood
A. Prenatal influences
   1. Nature and nurture

  2. Prenatal period

  3. Fetal stage

  4. Drugs and prenatal development

        a. Drug/cocaine use

              i. Short term effects

             ii. Long term effects
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        b. Alcohol

              i. FAS

             ii. Moderate drinking

B. Newborns’ abilities
   1. Genetic developmental program
  2. Sensory development
        a. Faces
        b. Hearing
        c. Touch
        d. Smell and taste
        e. Depth perception (visual cliff)
  3. Motor development
        a. Proximodistal principle
        b. Cephalocaudal principle
        c. Maturation
        d. Developmental norms
        e. Environmental stimulation

C. Emotional development
   1. Types of temperament
        a. Easy babies
        b. Slow to warm up babies
        c. Difficult babies
        d. No single category babies
        e. Long-lasting
  2. Attachment
        a. Separation anxiety
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        b. Secure attachment
        c. Insecure attachment

E. Cognitive development
   1. Piaget’s Theory

        a. Assimilation

        b. Accommodation

  2. Piaget’s stages

        a. Sensorimotor

              i. Hidden objects

             ii. Object permanence

        b. Preoperational

              i. Conservation

             ii. Egocentric thinking

        c. Concrete

              i. Conservation

             ii. Classification

             iii. New abilities

        d. Formal

F. Social development
    1. Freud’s psychosexual stages

        a. Oral stage

        b. Anal stage
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        c. Phallic stage

        d. Latency stage

        e. Genital stage

  2. Erikson’s psychosocial stages

        a. #1 Trust vs. Mistrust

        b. #2 Autonomy vs. Shame/doubt

        c. #3 Initiative vs. Guilt

        d. #4 Industry vs. Inferiority

        e. #5 Identity vs. Role Confusion

  3. Bandura’s social cognitive theory

  4. Resiliency and vulnerability

  5. Learning gender differences

        a. Social role theory

        b. Cognitive developmental theory

              i. Gender schemas

H. Child abuse
   1. Kinds of abuse

  2. Who abuses?

  3. Principle of bidirectionality

  4. Problems abused children have

  5. How to help abusive parents
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Module 18: Adolescence & Adulthood
A. Puberty & sexual behavior

  1. Girls during puberty

  2. Boys during puberty

  3. Early vs. late maturing

B. Cognitive & emotional changes
   1. Piaget’s stages con’t

        a. Stage 4: Formal Operations

  2. Brain development

        a. Risk taking behavior

        b. Moody and impulsive behaviors

  3. Kohlberg’s moral reasoning

        a. Preconventional level

        b. Conventional level

        c. Postconventional level

  4. Other moral ideas

        a. Care orientation

        b. Justice orientation

  5. Parenting styles and effects

        a. Authoritarian parents

        b. Authoritative parents

        c. Permissive parents
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  6. Beyond adolescence

        a. Changes in cognitive speed

              i. Processing speed

             ii. Perceptual speed

             iii. Reaction time

        b. Changes in memory

C. Personality & social changes
   1. Personal identity

  2. Self esteem

        a. High

        b. Low

        c. Reversal level

  3. Adulthood: Erikson’s psychosocial stages

        a. Stage 5: Identity vs. Role Confusion

        b. Stage 6: Intimacy vs. Isolation

        c. Stage 7: Generativity vs. Stagnation

        d. Stage 8: Integrity vs. Despair

  4. Personality change
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  D. Gender roles, love & relationships
  1. Triangular theory of love

        a. Commitment

        b. Intimacy

        c. Passion

  2. Other love:

        a. Infatuated love

        b. Hollywood love

        c. Companionate love

        d. Romantic love

  3. Choosing a partner

  4. Long-term relationships

        a. Unhappy

        b. Happy

        c. Happiness graph

E. Happy marriages
   1. Unsuccessful relationships

        a. Criticisms

        b. Defensive

        c. Contempt

        d. Stonewalling

  2. Successful relationships
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G. Physical changes: aging
   1. Kinds of aging
        a. Normal aging
        b. Pathological aging
  2. Reasons
        a. Aging by chance
        b. Aging by design

H. Suicide
   1. Teenage suicide

  2. Problems related to teenage suicide

        a. Problems and symptoms

        b. Precipitators

  3. Preventing teenage suicide

        a. Identify risk factors

        b. Crisis management

        c. Hot-line services

  4. Elderly suicide

        a. Risk factors

        b. Assisted suicide

        c. Legal suicide

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