Woodrow Wilson history by LegionZ411


									Woodrow Wilson                                                                                                                                            4/13/09 1:52 PM

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  Florida               Presidents, 1856-1924
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  Oregon                Woodrow Wilson was born in Staunton, Virginia, the son of a respected
  Washington            Presbyterian minister whose Calvinist values helped to shape the future president.
                        The elder Wilson relocated his family to Augusta, Georgia, where he pastored
                        another congregation and served as a chaplain to Confederate troops. One of young
  Read and Post         Wilson’s early memories was of witnessing Jefferson Davis in chains being taken
  Comments              through the streets of Augusta on his way to prison. Answering other ministerial
                        calls, the Wilson family moved to Columbia, South Carolina and later to
                        Wilmington, North Carolina. Despite the rigors of war and Reconstruction, the
                        Wilsons managed to maintain a comfortable existence throughout. Young Woodrow           www.UrbanOutfitters.com   Ads by Google
                        had difficulty as a student and some later observers have speculated that he may
                        have been dyslexic; his father's patient attentions helped him with his studies.        Top 10 Most Viewed Pages
                        Wilson was admitted to Davidson College in North                                        1. The Progressive Movement
                        Carolina, where he hoped to prepare for the ministry.
                        In 1875 he enrolled at the College of New Jersey                                        2. Eastern Woodland Culture
                        (later Princeton) and gained a reputation as an
                        excellent debater, but only an average student.                                         3. First Continental Congress
                        However, during these years he gave up on plans for
                        the ministry and developed an interest in history. In                                   4. Roaring Twenties
                        1879 he entered the law school at the University of
                        Virginia, but ill health forced a premature end to his                                  5. Quartering Act
                        formal studies. Wilson returned home and undertook
                                                                                                                6. Historical Eras
                        a self-directed study of law; his health improved and
                        he opened a law practice in Atlanta in 1882. The
                                                                                                                7. Stamp Act
                        venture, however, was not very successful and he
                        returned to school at Johns Hopkins University in 1883 in the hope of becoming a        8. Proclamation of 1763
                        university professor. He rapidly blossomed into a talented scholar and published his
                        doctoral dissertation, Congressional Government (1885), in which he examined the        9. Jacques Cartier
                        role of Congressional committees, a topic poorly understood by the public at that
                        time.                                                                                   10. The Temperance Movement

                        An appointment to the faculty at Bryn Mawr College in 1885 ushered in an unhappy
                        experience; Wilson was not comfortable in a women’s institution and three years
                        later he secured a position at Wesleyan University in Connecticut. He became a
                        popular faculty member, prepared another book, (The State), and coached a winning
                        football team.

                        In 1890 Wilson was appointed professor of jurisprudence and economics at
                        Princeton. These were busy years for the popular teacher, who also devoted his
                        energies to the publication of Division and Reunion (1893) and History of the
                        American People (1902), as well as public lecturing and writing for popular
                        magazines. A frequent theme that emerged at Princeton was his belief in the wisdom
                        of having a strong executive at the helm of the nation. In 1902 he was unanimously
                        elected president of Princeton, the first layman to hold that position.

                        As a college president, Wilson was an innovator and reformer whose stands
                        eventually wore out his welcome. He was dedicated to the goal of making Princeton
                        an institution of the first rank and fostered instructional reform through the use of
                        “preceptors” — young academics who were assigned to live with the students and to
                        hold discussion sessions related to the class work. Wilson also was successful in

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Woodrow Wilson                                                                                                    4/13/09 1:52 PM

                        updating the university’s curriculum. However, he ran into strong resistance on two
                        other issues. He failed in an effort to eliminate the exclusive eating clubs that had
                        long been a part of campus life. Wilson wanted to replace that institution with more
                        democratic dining facilities in the dormitories, but wealthy alumni rebelled and
                        threatened to cut off donations if the clubs were ended. Wilson also lost a battle
                        over the location of a new graduate school. He wanted the new facility to be located
                        in the heart of the campus, but the enterprising dean — perhaps wanting increased
                        independence — gathered donor backing for an off-campus location. Wilson’s
                        victories and defeats were widely reported in the New Jersey press, making him a
                        popular figure.

                        Tiring of butting heads over academic issues, and capitalizing on recent publicity,
                        Wilson accepted the Democratic nomination for governor of New Jersey in the
                        summer of 1910. James “Sugar Jim” Smith held the reins of the state machine and
                        thought the college president would lend an aura of reform to his tarnished party.
                        Wilson won an overwhelming victory in the fall and then quickly divested Smith of
                        any notion that he would be easily manipulated. Smith had anticipated a Senate seat
                        for helping Wilson, but the new governor spearheaded a movement on behalf of
                        another candidate — and won.

                        Wilson aligned himself with legislative progressives and managed to record major
                        accomplishments in short order. Laws were passed providing for regulation of public
                        utilities, school reform, workmen’s compensation, direct primaries, and later, state
                        antitrust legislation for the formerly permissive New Jersey. These successes made
                        Wilson a national political figure. During this period, Wilson developed a close
                        political relationship with “Colonel” Edward M. House of Texas, who would later
                        engineer Wilson’s nomination for president and then served as one of his closest

                        Wilson’s triumph in the Democratic convention of 1912 was not assured, but in the
                        end owed much to former nominee William Jennings Bryan. The main challenge in
                        the campaign came from Theodore Roosevelt, the Bull Moose candidate, who
                        trumpeted his progressive message as the “New Nationalism.” Wilson responded
                        with a vigorous campaign of his own and dubbed his more restrained form of
                        progressivism as the “New Freedom.” Both reform candidates recognized that the
                        main issue of the day was the relationship between big business and government.
                        Wilson’s whopping electoral victory was somewhat misleading; he received only
                        about 42 percent of the popular vote, but that was sufficient to become the first
                        Democratic president in 20 years.

                        Wilson experienced great early success by fulfilling his New Freedom pledges of
                        reform in tariff revision, banking and currency matters, and antitrust modification. In
                        foreign affairs, Bryan was rewarded with an appointment as secretary of state and
                        devoted sincere efforts to negotiating a series of arbitration treaties as a means of
                        preventing war; efforts were made to establish order in the western hemisphere and
                        yielded mixed results.

                        Tragically for Wilson, World War I broke out the same week that his first wife died.
                        He sought vainly to maintain the neutrality of the American people and gain
                        recognition for the nation’s trading rights as neutrals on the seas, but a series of
                        crises made the public increasingly sympathetic to the Allied cause.

                        Wilson was easily renominated in 1916, but faced a stiff challenge from his
                        Republican opponent, Supreme Court Associate Justice Charles Evans Hughes. The
                        president reluctantly downplayed his domestic accomplishments and adopted the
                        campaign slogan, “He kept us out of war.”

                        Following a pledge not to sink passenger vessels in May 1916, Germany resumed
                        unrestricted submarine warfare on February 1, 1917, provoking American entrance
                        into the conflict. Wilson asked for a declaration of war on April 2; Congress
                        complied four days later. The president quickly emerged as a skilled wartime leader
                        by molding public opinion with such optimistic phrases as “a war to make the world
                        safe for democracy” and “a war to end all wars.”

                        In January 1918, Wilson laid out his vision of the structure of a lasting peace in his
                        Fourteen Points, a statement whose essential fairness played a role in lessening the
                        German people’s enthusiasm for the war.

                        After the armistice in November 1918, Wilson decided to head the American peace
                        delegation personally, hoping to assure the implementation of his conception of the
                        postwar world. Despite being received with great adulation by the public in Europe,

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Woodrow Wilson                                                                                                  4/13/09 1:52 PM

                        the president was soon confronted by Allied leaders who preferred that the peace
                        process be a means to incapacitate the German war machine for generations to
                        come. Dubbed derisively as “the drum major of civilization,” the idealistic president
                        was forced in the end to approve compromises in order to achieve his top priority,
                        the League of Nations, included in the Treaty of Versailles.

                        An exhausted Wilson returned to the United States, where opposition to the treaty
                        and League was gaining strength. In typical fashion, he took his appeal directly to
                        the public on a railroad speaking tour through the Midwest and West. In late
                        September Wilson collapsed and was taken back to Washington, where he suffered
                        a stroke on October 2. He was partially paralyzed and was incapable of
                        spearheading the fight for the League; the Senate defeated proposals late in 1919
                        and again in the spring of 1920.

                        Rather than accept compromise, Wilson chose to take the treaty to the electorate by
                        publishing entreaties on its behalf, believing that a Democratic triumph in the
                        Election of 1920 would force the Senate to see things his way. His call for a
                        “solemn referendum” was not heeded by the voters, who handed Warren Harding
                        and the Republicans a smashing victory.

                        Wilson was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize in late 1920 for his services in the
                        previous year. However, his brief retirement in Washington was unhappy; the ill and
                        embittered former president lived out his days in virtual seclusion.

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                         Woodrow Wilson - History Celebrities
                         (Born Thomas Woodrow Wilson) Ancestry: Scotch-Irish Marriage: First Marriage:
                         Savannah, Georgia, June 24, 1885 to Ellen Louise Axson, who was born in
                         Savannah, Georgia, May 15, 1860. Ellen died in Washington, D.C. (White House)
                         August 6Woodrow Wilson) Ancestry: Scotch-Irish Marriage: First Marriage:
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                         US Presidents - Woodrow Wilson
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                         PATRIOTISM Woodrow Wilson Presidential Number: 28th Years he was
                         President: 1913-1921 State Represented: New Jersey Party Affiliation: Democrat
                         Fact(s): He was a good studeWoodrow Wilson Presidential Number: 28th Years he
                         was President: 1913-1921 State Represented: New Jersey Party Affiliation:
                         Democrat Fact(s): He was a good student in college.

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